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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Official series description
 Description of major mapping...
 Mineralogical, chemical, and physical...
 Management of klej soils
 Estimated yields
 Literature cited






Group Title: Department of Soils mimeograph report
Title: Benchmark soils
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00091527/00001
 Material Information
Title: Benchmark soils Klej soils of Florida
Alternate Title: Klej soils of Florida
Department of Soils mimeograph report 65-3 ; University of Florida
Physical Description: 31 leaves : map ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Thompson, L. G ( Leonard Garnett ), 1903-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Soils
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Carlisle, V. W.
Leighty, R. G.
Caldwell, R. E.
Publisher: Department of Soils, Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: June 1965
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Analysis -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Soil management -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by L.G. Thompson, Jr. ... et al..
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaves 29-31).
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "June, 1965."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00091527
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 311081119

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Official series description
        Page 4
    Description of major mapping units
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Mineralogical, chemical, and physical properties
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Management of klej soils
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Estimated yields
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Literature cited
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
Full Text










DEPARTMENT OF SOILS MIMEOGRAPH REPORT 65-3 JUNE, 1965


BENCHMARK SOILS:


KLEJ SOILS OF FLORIDA


L. G. Thompson, Jr., V. W. Carlisle,
R. G. Leighty, and R. E. Caldwell











Department of Soils
Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida
Gainesville











CONTENTS


Page


Introduction ................... .... ......... ... ........ ............ 1
General Characteristics of the Series............................... 1
Geology and Physiography...... .................................. 2
Climate .......... ........... .......... .... .......... .. 2
Figure 1. Location of Major Areas of Klej and
Associated Soils...................................... 3

Official Series Description........................................... 4

Description of the Major Mapping Units..................................

Mineralogical, Chemical, and Physical Properties........................
Table 1. Mineralogical and Chemical Properties of
}Klej Sand, Suwannee County..........................12
Table 2. Chemical Properties of Klej Fine Sand,
Suwannee County ........................ ........... 12
Table 3, Physical Properties of Klej Fine Sand,
Suwannee County........... ..............e......... 12

Management of Klej Soils..................... ........ ................. 13
Fertilitv Experiments on Klej Soils.............................. 17
Peanuts............................. ... ..... .... ... 17
Corn ..................................... ... ... ....... 18
Soybeans.......................................... .... 21
Cover Crops......... ......... .... ........... ... .21
Tobacco .... ..................................... ... .. .... ..... 21
Rye...... ... ....... ..... 0... .. ... .. .... ... 22
Chemical Studies.. ...................... ........... ............ . 22

Estimated Yields .............. .......................... ..........26
Table 4. Estimated Average Acre Yields of Principal
Crops and Carrying Capacity of Pasture Under
Two levels of Management in Suwannee County.... ..... 27


Table 5. Estimated Acre Yields of Principal Crops and
Carrying Capacity of Pasture Under Two Levels
of Management in Gadsden County .............


..., .. .. 27


Table 6. Estimated Average Acre Yields of Principal
Crops Grown in Escambia County...................... 28


Table 7. Estimated Acre Yields of Principal Crops and
Carrying Capacity of Pasture Under Two Levels
of Management in Washington County................


.... 28


Literature Cited ......................... ... ......................... 29










INTRODUCTION


General Characteristics of the Series

The Klej series consists of deep, moderately well-drained, strongly

acid soils formed from thick beds of acid sands and loamy sands that over-

lie sandy clay loam and sandy clay materials. They occur on uplands in

nearly level to sloping areas. These soils have gray to dark gray

coarse sand to loamy sand surface layers, 3 to 13 inches thick. As no B

horizons have developed, the sub-surface layers grade into a yellowish-

brown to yellow C horizon of coarse sands, sands, or loamy sands. The C

horizon usually extends to a depth below L2 inches, but in some areas

where these soils are not as deep as normal a horizon of finer

textured materials occurs at depths of 30 to h2 inches. Faint brown,

yellow, and gray mottles normally begin at depths of 16 to 30 inches.

Mottling usually becomes more distinct with increasing depth.

Klej soils are somewhat poorly to moderately well-drained. Internal

drainage is restricted by a shallow water table and there is little or no

surface runoff. Except for the loamy sand areas, the permeability is very

rapid and the capacity to hold plant nutrients is low. These soils are

low in natural fertility and organic matter, and are too coarse-textured

to have good tilth. Klej soils are commonly associated with Blanton,

Lakeland, Plummer, Goldsboro, and Lynchburg soils. They are not as well-

drained as the Lakeland soils and have mottles at shallower depths. Their

sub-surface layers are similar to those of Blanton soils except they are

more yellow than gray. They are better drained than the Plummer soils

and their coarse-textured materials extend to greater depths than those

of the Goldsboro series.









2 -

The natural vegetation is mainly slash and longleaf pines, myrtle, gall-

berry, various oaks, and wiregrass. Where the profiles are very sandy, most

of the acreage is in native vegetation. However, some areas of sands and

loamy sands have been planted to corn or other cultivated crops and improved

pastures.

Geology and Physiography

Klej soils have developed from thick beds of water-deposited sands and

loamy sands underlain by sandy clay loam and sandy clay. They occur on

uplands in nearly level to sloping areas, and have formed under the influence

of a shallow water table.

Climate

The climate of the Klej soil areas in Florida is temperate and humid.

The summers are long and warm, and the winters are mild. The average summer

temperature is about 800F., but temperatures may reach 1000 or more. The

average winter temperature is about 570, with short cold spells, and tempera-

tures rarely go as low as 150 to 200. Rainfall is abundant and usually is

fairly well-distributed over the year. Excessive rainfall generally occurs

in July, August, and September. The mild climate induces vigorous biological

activity, leaching, and the movement of insoluble materials during the entire

year. This is one of the reasons why the soils are low in organic matter and

soluble plant nutrients. Occasionally there is a short drought late in the

spring that does considerable damage to crops and pastures. The climate

favors growth of oats, wheat, clover, rye, and ryegrass during winter months

and corn, peanuts, soybeans,and tobacco in the summer.









-3-


L.' \>



\ \~
.9i


















Figure 1. Location of Major Areas of Klej and Associated
Soilts in Florida.











OFFICIAL SERIES DESCkIPTIOiN1


The Klej series consists of deep, coarse textured, moderately well and
somewhat poorly drained Regosols derived from marine sediments. These soils
are essentially uniform in texture throughout the profile and are mottled in
the deeper layers. Related soils formed from the same kinds of sandy sedi-
ments are the Galestown, Lakeland, Kershaw, St. Lucie, Lakehurst, Blanton,
Plummer, and Rutlege series. The Galestown, Lakeland, Kershaw, and St. Lucie
soils are better drained and lack the indications of wetness found in Klej
soils. Lakehurst soils are Podzols with distinct A2 horizons and dark reddish-
brown or strong brown B horizons. Blanton soils are paler in color and lack
distinct or prominent mottling in the deeper profile. Plummer and Rutlege
soils are wetter and are grayer in the deeper horizons. Associated soils of
the Woodstown and Lynchburg series have B horizons of clay accumulation and
are finer in texture. Lynchburg soils are also generally less well-drained.
The Klej series is widely distributed, has a large total acreage, and is of
some importance to agriculture.

Soil Profile: Klej loamy sand

Ap 0-7" Dark grayish-brown (2.5Y 1/2) loamy sand; very weak medi-
um crumb structure; very friable; common to many roots;
strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. 7 to 9 inches thick.

AC 7-14" Light brownish-gray (2.5Y 6/2) loamy sand; single grained;
very friable; common roots; strongly acid; gradual irregu-
lar boundary. 6 to 12 inches thick.

C1 1-24" Light yellowish-brown (2.5Y 6/L) loamy sand; single grained;
very friable; few roots; very strongly acid; gradual irregular
boundary. 12 to 21 inches thick.

C2g 24-51" Light yellowish-brown (2.5Y 6/4) loamy sand with common fine
and medium distinct mottles of brown (10YR 5/3) or yellowish-
brown (10YR 5/6); single grained; very friable; very strongly
acid; abrupt smooth boundary. I to 36 inches thick.

Dg 54-60" Light gray(SY 6/1) sandy clay with common medium prominent
strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles; massive; very firm sticky
and plastic; extremely acid.

1The Klej series description has been revised since publication of the soil
survey reports mentioned in this monograph. A new soil name, Chipley
series, has been reserved (7-21-65) for the soils formerly called Klej
in thermic climatic zones (mean temperature more than 590F. at a depth
of 20 inches with 9oF. or more difference between mean summer and mean
winter temperatures).














Range in Characteristics: Loamy sand and fine sand are important types with
loamy fine sand minor. A few pebbles may be present on the surface and through-
out the soil. Undisturbed areas.may have a gray or dark gray Al horizon 3 to
5 inches thick or a thin bleached layer 1 to 3 inches thick immediately below
forest litter. The color of the Ap horizon ranges from dark brown (0OYR 3/3)
through very dark grayish-brown (1OYR 3/2) and very dark gray (1OYR 3/1). The
C horizon may be grayish-brown, pale yellow, brown, or yellowish-brown with or
without mottling about a depth of 30 inches. Mottling may begin at a depth of
15 inches but is generally faint above 30 inches. The AC and C horizons may
be slightly coherent with indications of very weak blocky structure when moist.
Reaction ranges from strongly acid through very strongly acid. Depth to the Dg
horizon is mostly between 3 and 6 feet where it occurs but may be as little as
2-1/2 feet. Colors given are for moist conditions.

Topography: Level to gently sloping with gradients up to 5 percent.

Drainage and Permeability: Moderately well and somewhat poorly drained.
Permeability is rapid to very rapid above the Dg horizon in which it is moder-
ately slow to slow.

Vegetation: Mixed oaks, pines, sweetgums, maples, dogwood, and sassafras.

Use: A large portion is in forest; cleared areas are used for truck crops,
corn, soybeans, tobacco, and pasture.

Distribution: Coastal plains of New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania,
Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi,
and Texas.

Type Location: Caroline County, Maryland; 1 mile west of Opossum Hill.

Series Established: Monmouth County, New Jersey, 19h6.

National Cooperative Soil Survey
USA
Rev. EDM-AJB-RWS
6-27-62


DESCRIPTION OF THE MAJOR MAPPING UNITS

The following profile descriptions, approximate acreage, and proportionate

extent of correlated Klej soils appear in current soil survey reports.










-6-


Escambia County

A profile description of Klej loamy sand, level phase, 0 to 2 percent

slopes, occurring in Escambia County (28) is as follows:

0 to 4 inches, very dark gray loamy sand; very friable; weak fine crumb
structure.
1 to 12 inches, dark grayish-brown loamy sand; very friable; weak fine
crumb structure.
12 to 28 inches, pale yellow loamy sand faintly mottled with a few
medium areas of olive yellow, brownish-yellow, and white very
friable; weak fine crumb structure.

The surface soil ranges in color from dark gray to black and from 3 to 6

inches in thickness. The subsoil varies from brownish-yellow to yellowish-

brown loamy sands and contains various amounts of yellow, yellowish-red, and

strong brown mottles. Included with this soil are some small areas that have

materials of finer texture at depths of 30 to h2 inches. A few small areas of

Klej sand that were too small to map separately are included with this soil.

Klej loamy sand, very gently sloping phase, 2 to 5 percent slopes, differs

from Klej loamy sand, level phase in that it occurs on short slopes adjacent

to the more nearly level Klej soils. The profile description is identical to

Klej loamy sand, level phase.

Klej sand, level phase, 0 to 2 percent slopes, differs from Klej loamy

sand in that it contains a slightly greater proportion of coarse and medium

sand and less fine-textured materials throughout the profile.

Klej sand, very gently sloping phase, 2 to 5 percent slopes, differs

from Klej sand, level phase, in that it has stronger slopes and occurs in

smaller areas. A few areas of loamy sand and some areas with slopes over 5

percent are included with this soil.









-7-


The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Klej soils in this

county are as follows:

Klej sand, level phase----------------------------3,900 acres-------.9%
Klej sand, very gently sloping phase----------------170 acres-------.0%
Klej loamy sand, level phase---------------------60 acres------.2%
Klej loamy sand, very gently sloping phase----------50 acres-------.1%

Gadsden County

A profile description of Klej sand, 0 to 5 percent slope, occurring in

Gadsden County (26) is as follows:

Al 0 to 3 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sand; single grain (structureless); loose;
few fine roots; low content of organic matter; strongly acid;
boundary abrupt and smooth.

A2 3 to 9 inches, gray (O0YR 6/1) sand; common, faint, pale brown (IOYR 6/3)
splotches; single grain (structureless); loose; few fine and medium
roots and root channels; strongly acid; boundary clear and wavy.

C1 9 to 22 inches, yellow (10YR 7/6) sand; few, distinct white (10YR 8/1)
streaks that have penetrated along the root channels from above;
few fine roots and root channels; strongly acid; boundary clear
and wavy.

C2 22 to 36 inches, yellow (10YR 8/6) sand; few, medium, faint, yellow
(10YR 7/8) mottles; single grain (structureless); loose; few
fine to medium root channels; strongly acid; boundary clear and
wavy.

C3 36 to h7 inches, mottled yellow (10YR 7/6) and very pale brown (1OYR 8/3)
sand; few, fine, distinct mottles of reddish-yellow (7.SYR 6/8);
single grain (structureless); loose; few fine to medium root channels;
strongly acid; boundary gradual and irregular.

C4 17 to 56 inches +, yellow (10YR 8/6) sand; common, medium, distinct, white
(10YR 8/2) and common, medium, distinct, reddish-yellow (7.SYR 6/8)
mottles; single grain (structureless); loose; strongly acid.

The surface soil varies from dark gray to gray in color and from 2 to 5

inches in thickness. The subsurface layer varies from gray to light brownish-









8 -

gray in color and from 3 to 6 inches in thickness. The subsoil is yellow to

light yellowish-brown to depths of about 36 inches. Yellow and pale brown

mottles are normally at depths of 22 to 36 inches, but in some small areas they

are at depths of 30 to 36 inches. Very pale brown mottles dominate just below

36 inches, but the intensity of the gray increases with increasing depth.

Klej sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, differs from Klej sand, 0 to 5 percent

slopes, by having more rapid runoff and scattered shallow gullies in a few

areas as the unprotected soil is more susceptible to wind and water erosion.

It normally occurs in rather small areas.

Klej loamy sand, shallow, 2 to 5 percent slopes, differs from Klej sand,

0 to 5 percent slopes, in texture of the surface layer and in having sandy loam

or sandy clay loam beginning at depths between 30 to L2 inches. It is moder-

ately drained and occurs in gently sloping areas on uplands. The natural fert-

ility and content of organic matter are slightly higher than in Klej sand,

O to 5 percent slopes.

Klej loamy sand, shallow, 0 to 2 percent slopes, differs from Klej loamy

sand, shallow, 2 to 5 percent slopes, by having milder slopes, less rapid

runoff, and a slightly shallower water table.

Klej coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, differs from Klej sand, 0 to $

percent slopes, by having a coarser texture that extends to a greater depth.

The natural fertility and organic matter content are lower than in Klej sand,

and it is more of a problem to maintain fertility.

The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Klej soils in this

county are as follows:









9 -
-9-

Klej sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes---------------------8,123 acres----2.5%
Klej sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes------------------ 1,835 acres-----.6%
Klej coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes-------------1,250 acres-----.-
Klej loamy sand, shallow, 0 to 2 percent slopes------ 513 acres--.2%
Klej loamy sand, shallow, 2 to 5 percent slopes------1,064 acres-----.3%
Suwannee County

A profile description of Klej fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes,

occurring in Suwannee County (9) is as follows:

Ap 0 to 7 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; granular structure;
loose; many fine roots; strongly acid; boundary gradual and wavy.

AC 7 to 14 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR h/2) mixed with light yellowish-
brown (O0YR 6/1), fine sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid;
boundary clear and wavy.

C1 lb to 22 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/b) fine sand; single
grained; loose; strongly acid; boundary gradual and smooth.

C2 22 to 36 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/h) fine sand with few, fine,
distinct, reddish-yellow (7.SYR 6/6) and light-gray to gray (1OYR 6/1)
mottles; single grained; loose; strongly acid; boundary gradual
and wavy.

C3 36 to 48 inches +, very pale brown (10YR 7/1) fine sand with common,
medium, distinct, reddish-yellow (7.9YR 6/6), yellowish-red (9YR 5/8),
and brownish-yellow (IOYR 6/6) mottles and common, coarse, distinct,
light-gray to gray (IOYR 6/1) mottles; single grained; loose;
strongly acid.

The surface soil varies from a gray to a very dark gray fine sand and from

3 to 7 inches in thickness. The upper part of the subsurface layer is a light
yellowish-brown to a very pale brown fine sand, 18 to 30 inches thick. The lower

part of the subsurface layer is a very pale brown to brownish-yellow fine sand

mottled with gray and light brown. The fine sand texture generally extends

more than 42 inches deep, but some areas have clayey materials between 30 to

b2 inches. The natural fertility and organic matter content are low and the








10 -

soil is strongly acid. Water moves rapidly through this soil, which causes a

rapid leaching of plant nutrients.

The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Klej fine sand, 0 to 5

percent slopes, in this county is 551 acres or slightly over 0.1 percent.

Washington County

A profile description of Klej sand 0 to 5 percent slopes, occurring in

Washington County (10) is as follows:

0 to 3 inches, loose, very dark gray sand.
3 to 6 inches, loose, dark gray sand.
6 to 16 inches, loose, light yellowish-brown sand.
16 to 32 inches, loose, brownish-yellow sand with strong brown
mottles and streaks of light gray.
32 to 55 inches, loose, mottled brownish-yellow, light gray and
strong brown sand.
55 to 77 inches, loose, light gray sand mottled with very pale brown
and yellowish-brown.
77 to 90 inches +, loose, yellow sand mottled with strong brown and white.

The surface soil ranges from 2 to 5 inches in thickness and from very dark

gray to dark gray in color. The subsurface soil, when present, varies from 3 to 6

inches and ranges from gray to light brownish-gray in color. The surface soil

is usually sand, but some areas have a fine or coarse sand texture. The subsoil

layers range from yellowish-brown to yellow to"a depth of about 30 inches. Pale

brown to strong brown mottles usually occur between depths of lb to 30 inches.

Streaks of gray along root channels occur in many places. The amount of white,

gray, and very pale brown mottles is variable below 30 inches, ranging from very

pale brown in the upper layers to more gray in the lower depths.

Klej sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, differs from Klej sand, 0 to 5 percent

slopes, by having steeper slopes, better surface drainage, and usually a lower

water table. If cultivated, this soil is more susceptible to erosion and








11 -

requires more intensive management. It is better suited for woodland and

improved pastures.

Klej fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, has a finer texture, and a slightly

higher water-holding capacity than Klej sand, O to 5 percent slopes. Since

plant nutrients do not leach as rapidly, this soil is better suited to culti-

vated crops and improved pasture.

Klej sand, shallow, 0 to 5 percent slopes, has a finer textured substratum

and a greater available moisture capacity than Klej sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.

With good management, moderate yields of corn and small grains can be produced.

Improved pastures, woodland, and wildlife habitat are considered to be better

uses than cultivation for this soil.

Klej sand, shallow, 5 to 8 percent slopes, differs from Klej sand, shallow,

0 to 5 percent slopes, in that it has better surface drainage and usually a

lower water table. This soil is more susceptible to erosion and requires more

intensive management if cultivated than Klej sand, shallow, 0 to 5 percent slopes,

It is suited to improved pastures, woodland, and wildlife habitat.

The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Klej soils in this county

are as follows:

Klej fine. sanTd, 0 to 5 percent slopes-------------- 1,839 acres------ .5
Klej sand, O'to 5 percent slopes------------------ 15,711 acres----- .l%
Klej sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes------------------ 1,566 acres------. %
Klej sand, shallow, O to 5 percent slopes---------- 2,022 acres-----.5%
Klej sand, shallow, 5 to 8 percent slopes------------ 174 acres------.05%

MINERALOGICAL,CHEMICAL, AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Fiskell et al. (6) studied the mineralogical and chemical properties of

Klej sand from Suwannee County, Florida. The results are shown in Table 1.









Table 1. Mineralogical and chemical properties of
Klej sand, Suwannee County (6).

Depth Organic X-Ray Cation Exchange Capacity
in Matter Clay Diffraction Moisture me./l00 g.
Inches Percent Percent Patternx- Equivalent pH Total Ca Mg K Al

0-6 1.51 1.L4 Q, ,k 3.88 5.69 2,12 0.07 0.01 0.01 1.31
6-12 0.53 0.5 V,k,g,q 3.36 5.h9 1.23 0.02 0.01 0.01 2.h5
12-18 0.10 0.6 V,k,q 2.31 5.56 1.05 0.02 0.01 0.01 2.78
18-2L 0.01 0.7 V,k,q,g 3.13 5.52 0.97 0.06 0.01 0.01 2.22

*Code for mineralogical composition; Capital letters designate 30a or more abundance, and sequence of listing
indicates decreasing amount from left to right; G = gibbsite, K = kaolinite, V = vermiculite, and Q = quartz.


Table 2. Chemical properties of Klej fine sand, Suwannee County (1).


Depth
in
Inches


Exchange
Capacity
me./l00g.


K20
ppm


iHgAcetate
(pH 4.8) Extractable
Ca P205
ppm ppm


Mg
ppm


Total
Mg
ppm


0-6 1.69 5.1 59 20 13 4 38
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Table 3. Physical properties of Klej fine sand,
Suwannee Counti

yery Very
Depth Coarse Coarse Medium Fine Fine
in Sand Sand Sand Sand Sand Silt Clay
Inches Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent


0.5


10.5


16.8


h6.8


21.4b


0.6


"USDA'SCS Soil Survey Laboratory. Beltsville, Maryland.


0-7









13 -

The reaction in the profile varies from pH 5$.9 to 5.69 and the moisture

equivalent ranged from 2.31 to 3.88. The organic matter content varied from

0.01 to 1.51 percent in the soil profile. The cation exchange capacity ranged

from 0.97 to 2.12 milliequivalents per 100 gram of soil from the different horizons.

All the horizons were very low in calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Blue and

Eno (1) studied the chemical properties of the 0 to 6 inch layer of Klej fine sand

(Table 2) and found 59 ppm. of K20, 20 ppm. of Ca, 13 ppm. of P205, and only

4 ppm. of Mg in the ammonium acetate extract at pH I.8. The total content of

magnesium was 38 ppm. The exchange capacity was only 1.69 me./100g.

The USDA. SCS Soil Survey Laboratory made a study of the physical properties

of Klej fine sand (Table 3) and found h6.8 percent fine sand, 21.1 percent very

fine sand and 16.8 percent medium sand in the surface soil. The clay content

was only 0.6 percent in the surface horizon.

MANAGEMENT OF KLEJ SOILS

Klej soils have slow surface runoff and internal drainage is slow to

medium. This soil absorbs water readily and, because of the moderately shallow

water table, stays nearly saturated during the rainy seasons. Although this soil

is suitable for cultivated crops under intensive management, it is best used

for forest and pasture. If it is drained and cleared, fairly good improved

pastures can be established. Large quantities of plant nutrients are lost by

leaching; therefore, complete fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphate, and

potash must be applied often and in liberal amounts to maintain good pastures.

As this soil is acid throughout, lime must be applied for the successful prod-

uction of most crops. The native cover on most of this soil that remains in









li -

cutover pineland furnishes poor grazing for cattle. Most of the timber has

been cut, but there is some second growth pine grown for pulpwood. Management

practices should include selective cutting of timber and adequate protection

from fire. Where there are not enough seed trees to provide stock for reseeding,

it is desirable to restore the forest by planting pine trees.

Surface runoff is slow and internal drainage is slow to medium because of

the shallow water table. However, only a small amount of moisture is available

above the water table. Water moves rapidly through the root zone and the soil

becomes dry during long dry periods. During the rainy seasons, the water table

fluctuates at a depth of about 30 to L2 inches from the surface. Because of

these poor soil qualities, this soil is not well suited to cultivated crops,

but deep rooted pasture grasses do well. When treated frequently with liberal

amounts of fertilizer and lime, this soil produces fairly good improved pasture.

Under good management about 2 or 3 acres can support one cow.

Most of this soil has a sparse stand of pine, and trees need to be planted

to restore the forest. Improved management would benefit all forested areas.

The crops best suited to this soil are corn, small grains, bahiagrass, and

other drought-resistant, deep-rooted grasses.

Proper management of Klej soils used for cultivated crops, pastures, or

trees is necessary if their productivity is to be maintained.

Klej soils are drouthy and deficient in plant nutrients. Their porous

sand texture permits water to leach plant food, especially nitrogen and potash,

below the root depth of many cultivated crops.

Practices that will increase and maintain soil organic matter will im-

prove the condition of the soil. Such practices are (a) planting and plowing











15 -

under of cover crops; (b) returning of all crop residues to the land; and

(c) rotating the use of land between pasture and cultivated crops so that the

pasture sods are plowed under for cultivated crops after two or more years.

Soil organic matter provides plant nutrients as it decomposes, increases the

moisture-holding capacity of the soil, and reduces the leaching of plant food

in applied fertilizers.

Legumes or non-legumes may be used for cover crops. Legumes provide

residue to maintain organic matter and add more nitrogen to the soil than non-

legumes. Legumes that may be grown are lupine, southern peas, and indigo.

Lupine is grown in winter while southern peas and indigo may be seeded in the

corn at the last cultivation and make most of their growth in late summer and

fall. Small grains are the important non-legumes, but they usually do not

produce as much residue as legumes.

Using land a few years for pasture and then plowing it for cultivated

crops for one or two years also aids in organic matter maintenance. Bahia

or bermudagrass pastures produce large amounts of organic matter and help

reduce root knot nematodes. This practice may be used advantageously when

growing tobacco, an important crop on this soil.

Wind erosion may be a problem on cultivated areas of this soil in the

spring. Organic matter and other fine-textured particles are separated from

the soil. The resulting sand often accumulates in drifts along fences and in

fields. Keeping a cover crop on the land as much of the year as possible and

maintaining plant residues near the surface of the soil are usually effective











16 -

in controlling wind and water erosion.

Other erosion control practices are (a) planting grasses in areas where

there is a heavy flow of water from higher land; (b) growing strips of close

growing crops such as lupine or small grain in cultivated fields; and (c)

contour cultivation on the steeper slopes.

As little nitrogen or potash applied to this soil is retained, there is

little advantage in applying any more than the crop being grown can use.

Phosphate is retained by this soil and accumulates over a period of years,

so that less is needed for good plant growth. By use of soil tests, agricultural

technicians can supply information on the amounts of lime and fertilizers

needed for best production.

As Klej soils have a low available moisture capacity, irrigation of high

value cash crops such as tobacco or truck crops is frequently profitable.

Sprinkler irrigation is generally used. The water supply is usually from

deep wells but in low very poorly drained soils, excavated ponds are sometimes

used. In a few locations, ponds have been constructed in drains having small

watersheds.

Bahiagrass and improved strains of bermudagrass are used for pasture.

Both grasses require nitrogen, phosphate, and potash for satisfactory growth.

When large amounts of fertilizer are applied, improved bermudagrass will

produce more forage than bahiagrass. With lower rates of fertilizer, there

is little difference in the yield of forage. The improved bermudagrass is

better suited for the production of hay.










17 -

Clovers are not well-suited to Klej soils. Hairy indigo is sometimes

seeded with bahiagrass, but it usually persists only one or two years.

Grazing should be regulated so that the pasture plants can recover after

they are grazed. Controlled grazing will allow the plants to produce more

forage and provide more soil protection.

Fertility Experiments on Klej Soils

Peanuts: Robertson and Fiskell (17) obtained data from soil fertility

experiments on Klej fine sand at the Suwannee Valley Experiment Station which

indicated that many of the soils cropped over a period of many years were

too low in calcium to grow peanuts economically. They found that one ton of

coarsely ground high calcic limestone on Klej fine sand increased the yield

of peanuts from 750 to 1300 pounds per acre; and 1,000 pounds of finely ground

marble, in which the calcium was more readily available, increased the yield

of peanuts from 750 to 2,000 pounds per acre.

Robertson (12) found that the chemical analyses of the profile samples

of Klej fine sand showed phosphorus to be high in the profile, varying from

500 pounds per acre of P205 at the 2L-inch depth to 800 pounds per acre of

P205 in the surface soil. These high amounts were not due to the applications

of fertilizer. The soil was very low in exchangeable calcium. With suffi-

cient calcium in the soil, peanuts yielded 1,900 pounds per acre of nuts, but

only 900 pounds of nuts when no calcium was applied. When 15 pounds per acre

of K20 was applied to the soil, the yield of peanuts increased from 1300 to

1800 pounds per acre.

From experiments on Klej fine sand in 1956, Robertson (13) found a pH

difference of only 0.3 of a unit between the limed and unlimed plots.










18 -

Dolomitic lime at the rate of one ton per acre applied to the limed plots

gave a good growth response on peanuts.

Robertson and Fiskell (20) found that dolomitic lime applied to Klej fine

sand increased the yield of peanuts from 500 to 1100 pounds per acre.

Robertson (16) studied the lime requirements of crops on Klej fine sand

and found that when the soil had received a ton per acre of lime, peanuts still

responded to lime. A good substitute for lime was soft rock phosphate. Two

tons per acre of soft rock phosphate were as good as one ton per acre of high

calcic lime or 350 pounds per acre of gypsum applied in the row.

Corn: Robertson and Fiskell (18) conducted corn experiments on Klej

fine sand using subsoiling alone, subsoiling with fertilizer or lime, sub-

soiling with fertilizer plus lime, and subsoiling with fertilizer plus lime

plus minor elements, compared to fertilization of the surface soil at low and

high levels. In early June, they noted a visual response to subsoiling,

especially where fertilizer and lime were applied to the subsoil, and the

root systems were concentrated in the bands of lime and fertilizer.

Robertson (13) found that one year after application 2,000 pounds per

acre of coarsely ground high calcic limestone changed the pH of Klej fine

sand only 0.3 of a unit, so 2,000 pounds per acre of dolomite were applied to

the limed plots. Corn gave a good growth response to this extra lime, but

the growth on the unlimed no-phosphorus plots was very poor. Where the plots

were fertilized with high levels of superphosphate, there was less growth

response from additions of lime. This indicated that the calcium in the

superphosphate was of value. The corn on the unlimed plots showed magnesium










19 -

deficiency symptoms. It was concluded that both calcium and magnesium are

required for high yields of corn on this soil.

In a nitrogen source experiment on Klej fine sand, Robertsoena'id-Fiskell

(19) found that nitrogen should be applied as near as possible to the period

of maximum requirement of corn, for heavy rains leach the nitrogen out of

the soil. They noted that ammonium sources produced higher yields than nitrate

sources. Anhydrous ammonia applied as a side-dressing when the corn was knee

high gave the highest yield.

Robertson and Fiskell (20), on Klej fine sand, found that dolomitic lime

produced a yield increasefor all the crops grown in a 3 year rotation consisting

of lupines, corn, rye, soybeans, and peanuts. Corn yields were increased

from 39 to h6 bushels per acre. Samples of corn ear leaves taken at tas-

selling time indicated that magnesium in the lime was responsible for part of

the yield increase.

From fertilizer studies on Klej fine sand, Robertson (1h) found that

nitrogen and potash were the major elements limiting yields. Corn had not

responded to phosphorus for a 5-year period. Lime was needed to get a yield

increase to the major elements. Since this soil is low in magnesium and

calcium, dolomite was the best source. On plots treated with high calcic lime,

corn leaves at tasselling time showed magnesium deficiency symptoms. The

content of exchangeable magnesium and calcium of the soil was very low.

On Klej fine sand, Robertson (15) found that 200 pounds per acre of

magnesium as MgO from MgSOL.7H20 increased the yield of corn from 25 to hh

bushels per acre. The application of high calcic lime in addition to the










20 -

magnesium increased the yield of corn to 5h bushels per acre. When applied

at planting time, 3 tons of dolomite produced a corn yield of h5 bushels per

acre, which indicated that it was not soluble enough to supply the needed

calcium and magnesium. Corn ear leaf samples taken at tasselling time showed

no difference in the magnesium content of the ear leaf for corn receiving

200 pounds per acre of MgO from MgSOT7H20 and 3 tons per acre of dolomite.

The corn growing on the dolomite plots may have had magnesium deficiency

earlier in the growing season. At tasselling time, the magnesium content in

the soil treated with MgSO.TH20 was no higher than the check, while the soil

treated with dolomite contained a high amount. To correct magnesium deficiency

on corn, dolomite should be applied to this soil at least 6 months before

planting corn. If this is not possible, dolomite should be supplemented with

soluble magnesium.

Chicken manure increased the yield of corn and improved the fertility

of the surface soil. Results indicated that applications of chicken manure

up to 16 tons per acre gave insignificant increases in the C02 above the soil

at corn tasselling time (15, 2Q).

On Klej fine sand with irrigation, Robertson and Fiskell (21) obtained

corn yields up to 130 bushels per acre. To obtain this 130 bushel yield,

Dixie 18 corn was planted to a stand of 18,000 stalks per acre and fertilized

with 8 tons chicken manure, 1,000 pounds 5-10-15, and 300 pounds nitrogen as

a sidedressing when the corn was knee high. When the corn was tasselling,

the soil receiving this fertilizer had a pH of 6.6 and contained 18h pounds

P205, 100 pounds K20, 2,471 pounds CaO, and 186 pounds MgO per acre. The










21 -

corn ear leaves contained 3.h percent nitrogen, 0.33 percent phosphorus, 0.25

percent potassium, 0.20 percent magnesium, and 0.38 percent calcium. They

concluded that the chicken manure supplied the major amount of these nutrients.

On Klej fine sand without irrigation, Robertson and Lundy (23) obtained corn

yields that were rarely over 50 bushels per acre.

Soybeans: Robertson and Fiskell (20) applied dolomitic lime to Klej fine

sand and obtained a yield response for all crops grown in a 3-year rotation

consisting of lupines, corn, rye for grain, soybeans, rye plowed under, and

peanuts. The soybean yields in this rotation were increased from 39 to L6

bushels per acre.

Thornton (27) studied the effect of nitrogen on nodulation and yield

of soybeans on Klej fine sand and found that 3L pounds per acre of nitrogen

applied to uninoculated beans increased the seed yield significantly, while

inoculation without nitrogen gave a highly significant increase in yield.

Nitrogen plus inoculation gave no increase over inoculation alone.

Cover Crops: In a cover crop experiment, Robertson (12) compared lupines,

black rye, crimson clover, Hubam, vetch, and alfalfa and found that rye yielded

more than any of the other crops. The yields of legumes were low, apparently

because of dry weather.

Tobacco: Breland, Pritchett, and Lundy (2) studied the effects of

different liming materials on the yield of flue-cured tobacco and found that

either calcic or dolomitic lime resulted in about the same pH change, which

was 0.2 to 0.3 of a pH unit for each 1,000 pounds per acre of lime applied.

For high calcic lime, one ton per acre gave the highest yield increase which










22 -

was 161 pounds per acre. For dolomitic lime, 1,000 pounds per acre gave the

highest yield increase which was 391 pounds per acre. If soil test results

show that the pH, calcium, and magnesium levels are low, limestone applications

would probably be beneficial on Klej fine sand. Since both calcium and magnesium

increased yields, dolomitic lime would be preferred.

Pritchett, Breland, and Lundy (11) studies the effect of corn cob and shuck

meal soil treatments for tobacco and found that they had little influence on

yield and nitrogen content of Klej fine sand. Inorganic nitrogen up to 135

pounds per acre applied as a sidedressing increased yields at all levels of

application, but the yields were increased significantly only in the year of

rather high rainfall. The potassium and calcium contents were increased as

the levels of nitrogen was increased. The leaf content of calcium was lower

and potassium content higher than in flue-cured tobacco from other areas. Total

nitrogen and nicotine were usually lower than that found in good quality tobacco.

For each 15 pounds per acre of applied nitrogen, the content of nitrogen

increased by 0.09 percent and the content of nicotine by 0.07 percent. As

these experiments were conducted over a rather limited range of growing condi-

tions, the results were considered preliminary.

Rye: Robertson and Fiskell (19) found that lime increased the yield of

Florida black rye from 9.6 bushels to 18.L bushels per acre. Nitrogen and potash

also increased rye yields.

Chemical Studies:

Robertson and Fiskell (19) found a high amount of extractable aluminum

in Klej fine sand. This might be an important factor in plant growth. Applying

dolomite at the rate of 3 tons per acre raised the pH from 5.5 to 6.8, but the










23 -

aluminum extracted by acid ammonium acetate was lowered only slightly below

the amount found in the unlimed soil. Magnesium was increased from 10 ppm

in unlimed soil to 160 ppm in the limed soil. After corn fertility trials,

the pH in the unlimed soils was about 5.0 down to 18 inches; while in the

limed plots the surface 6-inch layer had a pH of 6.3, the next six inches

5.8 and the reaction of the 12 to 18-inch layer was pH 5.2. Fluoride extraction

gave 800 ppm of Al extractable from subsoil compared to 1,500 ppm in the un-

limed surface 6 inches and 870 in the limed surface 6 inches. Fluoride extracted

phosphorus varied from 150 to 200 ppm in the surface six inches but decreased

to about 1l5 ppm at the depth of 12 to 18 inches.

After corn, the A1/P ratio varied from 3.0 to 10.0, being highest where

fertilizer was not applied, and this ratio was not changed by the application

of dolomite. After peanuts, this Al/P ratio averaged over 1b and was not al-

tered by lime applications.

Fiskell et. al. (7) found that the aluminum extracted by acid ammonium

acetate decreased as the amount..of dolomite applied to Klej fine sand was

increased. When acid ammonium fluoride (Prey's strongreagent) was used, the

aluminum extracted increased slightly as the rate of liming increased.

Uith uniform fertilization containing 2 percent magnesium oxide, 1,000

pounds per acre of hydrated lime increased the yield of corn 22 bushels per

acre, but the response to zinc was not significant. Since calcium and magnesium

in the soil were as high as where the yields were several times higher, some

other soil factor must have limited yields. As the acetate extractable aluminum

increased, the yield of corn decreased. Where less than 35 ppm of aluminum










2h -

were present, corn yielded 55 bushels per acre, but at 88 ppm of this element,

the yield was only 8.6 bushels per acre. These results were highly significant.

Very high aluminum and manganese contents were found in soybean leaves

sampled from unlimed plots which had a soil reaction of pH L.7. One ton of

high calcic lime applied three years earlier and an additional ton of dolomite

applied at planting decreased greatly the content of aluminum and manganese.

On limed plots, the leaves were larger and chlorosis was less severe than on

unlimed plots.

The aluminum content of corn ear leaves and peanut plants was decreased

by liming. Where the supply of magnesium in the soil is very low, aluminum

may be taken up in large amounts. Thus, there is a need to keep the aluminum

in balance with the other elements in the soil.

Fiskell (5) found that liming Klej fine sand at the rate of one ton per

acre decreased both exchangeable manganese and easily reducible manganese.

Cobalt added to the extracting solution after removal of the exchangeable

manganese released an additional 1.5 ppm manganese. The same treatment after

removal of the easily reducible manganese released an additional 3.2 ppm manganese,

Fiskell and Winsor (8) found that reseeding crimson clover fertilized with

fritted boron sources yielded 8 tons of hay compared to 2 tons without frit or

with additions of copper, zinc, and molybdenum. Similar reseeding results on

other Ladino clovers were: 7.1 versus I.l tons; Nolin's white 6.1 versus 2.9;

and Dutch Uhite 6.2 versus t.8. On the last three varieties, fair growth

continued for 12 months. When lime is applied to Klej fine sand low in boron

or other minor elements, a complete minor element mixture increases the crop










25 -

response to fertilizer by maintaining an available supply of minor elements

which may be reduced by liming.

Robertson et al. (22) found that unlimed Klej fine sand had practically

no exchangeable calcium. High calcic lime did not increase corn yields as

much as dolomite because this soil was also deficient in magnesium. Lime gave

large increases in the yield of peanuts every year and the average increase in

yield was almost 800 pounds per acre. The need for magnesium is clearly shown

by the corn yields. One ton of high calcic lime did not increase corn yields

significantly; but after an additional ton of dolomite was applied, the in-

crease in corn yields was highly significant. When the lime was coarser and

less available, the yield increase on peanuts was less. High calcic lime gave

a greater increase in the yield of peanuts than dolomite.

Using Klej fine sand samples and corn plant material grown on this soil,

Carver and Robertson (I) compared several methods of calcium and magnesium

determination. The Beckman B flame spectrophotometer using the 622 millimicron

wave length gave results that were low and inconsistent for calcium unless

interfering ions were removed with an anion exchange resin. When this was done,

good correlations were obtained for plant materials from Klej fine sand.

Breland et al. (3) applied various rates of calcic limestone and fertilizer

(6-6-6) to lysimeters containing Klej soil. Analysis of the leachate indicated

the fertilizer had increased the total soluble salts. The amount of calcium

removed in the leachate from Klej soil increased from 369 to ll86 mg when 6,000

pounds per acre of lime was applied with 0 and 3,000 pounds per acre of ferti-

lizer, respectively. As the fertilizer rates were increased, the amount of










26 -

phosphorus in the leachate was also increased. Increasing the rate of lime

applied to the soil decreased the amount of phosphorus in the leachate. The

pH of the soil were 0 to 3,000 pounds per acre of fertilizer was applied was

5.5 and h.9, respectively. With 6,000 pounds per acre of lime applied and the

same fertilizer treatments, the pH values were 6., and 6.3, respectively. The

amounts of phosphorus, potassium, and calcium usually increased as the rates

applied increased. The treatments had very little effect on the amount of mag-

nesium in the soil.

On Klej fine sand, Smith et al. (25) found that 60 pounds per acre of Mag-

nesium applied as magnesium sulfate gave yields of oats and rye which were not

significantly different from plots that received 210 pounds per acre magnesium

as dolomite. Increasing the amount of magnesium in the soil decreased the

uptake of calcium and potassium by plants. The equivalent of l80 pounds of

dolomite had to be applied before magnesium uptake by soybean plants increased

significantly. The application of 60 pounds per acre magnesium as magnesium

sulfate resulted in significantly higher magnesium uptake than b80 pounds per

acre magnesium in the form of dolomite.


ESTIMATED YIELDS

The estimated average acre yields of principal crops grown on Klej fine

sand in Suwannee County (9), Gadsden County (26), Escambia County (28), and

Washington County (10) are shown in Tables t, 5, 6, and 7, respectively.






Table h. Estimated average acre yields of principal crops and carrying capacity
of pasture under two levels of management in Suwannee County.1


Bright Water- P__asture ... G
Soil Corn Peanuts Tobacco melons Grass Small Grain
A B A A B A B A B A B
Bu. Bu. Lb. Lb. Lb. Lb. No. No. Cow- Cow- Lb. of Lb. of
days2 days Beef Beef
Klej fine


20 h5 600 1600


1000 2000 200 300


"Yields in A columns are to be expected under common management- those in B columns, under improved
management excluding irrigation.
2Number of days a year that 1 acre of pasture will graze 1 cow without injury to the pasture.

Table 5. Estimated acre yields of principal crops and carrying capacity of
pasture under two levels of management in Gadsden County.1
Corn Shade Oats Pasture
Soil A B Tobacco A B A B
Bu. Bu. B Bu. Bu. Cow-days2 Cow-days2
Lb.
Klej Icamy sand, shallow,
O to 2 percent slopes ------------- 25 ho 1,100 15 25 150 280
Klej loamy sand, shallow,
2 to 5 percent slopes ------------ 20 h0 1,100 15 25 150 260
Klej sand,
0 to 5 percent slopes ------------- 20 hO -- 20 hO 150 250
Klej sand,
5 to 8 percent slopes ------------ 18 35 -- 20 h0 150 250
Klej coarse sand,
0 to 5 percent slopes ----------- -- 10 20 100 200

'In columns A are estimated yields of crop and pasture under common management; in columns B are those
under the highest level of management feasible. Tobacco is a specialized crop and generally receives
only the highest level of management. Dashed lines indicate that the crop is not generally grown on the
soil.
2Number of days a year that 1 acre will graze a cow without injury to the pasture.


sand







Table 6. Estimated average acre yields of principal crops
grown in Escambia County. 1
Corn Oats
Soil A B A B
Bu. Bu. Bu. Bu.
Klej loamy sand, level phase 10 15 15 20
Klej loamy sand, very gently
sloping phase 10 15 15 20

1Yields in columns A are those to be expected under common management; those in columns
B, under good management. Cotton and soybeans are not commonly grown and the soil is
not physically suitable for them under the management specified.


Table 7. Estimated acre yields of principal crops and carrying
capacity of pasture under two levels of management in
Washington County.1
'" l S "1ll
-~--~---- -711 o,,~~~l; -~mZlp11


Klej fine sand
0 to 5 percent slopes
iKlej sand, 0 to
$ percent slopes
Klej sand, 5 to
8 percent slopes
Klej sand, shallow,
0 to 5 percent slopes
Klej sand, shallow,
$ to 8 percent slopes


Water-
melons
A B
No. No.


- -- -- 150 275

20 L5 600 1600 200 300


Oats
A B
Bu. Bu.


Bermuda
Pasture
A B
Cow-days2


10 20 1255 LOO


1 3 35


15 hO 50 1L40 180 270 10 30


20 45 600 1600 200 300

15 h0 5$0 l1h0 180 270


1O 35

10 30


150 500

135 $450

150 500

135 50o


Bahia
Pasture
A B
Cow-days2


175 360

175 350

155 315

175 350

155 315


Grain
Pastures
A B2
Cow-days

bL5 120

60 155

55 1 40

60 155

55 1 0


Corn
A B
bu. bu.
bu. bu.


Peanuts
A B
Lb. Lb.


1In columns A are estimated yields of crops and pasture under common management; in columns B are those
under the highest level of management feasible. Dashed lines indicate that the crop is not generally
grown on the soil.
-iT-XTr of days a year that 1 acre of pasture will graze a cow without injury to the past-ure.


--


I








- 29 -


LITERATURE CITED

1. Blue, W. G. and C. F. Eno. Magnesium and lime are needed in the Suwannee
Valley Area. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 577. 1956.

2. Breland, H. L., W. L. Pritchett, and H. W. Lundy. Effects of liming on
yield and value of flue-cured tobacco in the Suwannee Valley Area. Soil
and Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc. 19: 409-418. 1959.

3. Breland, H. L., W. L. Pritchett, and F. B. Smith. Methods of deter-
mining extractable nutrients in soils. State Project 1071. Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Annual Report p. 171. 1961.

b. Carver, H. L. and W. K. Robertson. A Study of some laboratory methods for
determining calcium and magnesium. Soil and Crop Sci. Sco. of Fla. Proc.
16: 258-271. 1956.

5. Fiskell, J.G.A. Solubility of Manganese in Florida Soils. Soil Sci. Soc.
of Fla. Proc. lh: 88-95. 1954.

6. Fiskell, J.G.A., N. Gammon, Jr., T.L. Yuan, and 0. Zmeskal. Colloidal
properties of some Florida soils. Soil Sci. Soc. of Amer. Proc. 22: 339-
313. 1958.

7. Fiskell, J.G.A., C.C. Hortenstine, H.L. Carver, and H.W. Lundy. Aluminum
Studies on some north and central Florida soils. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc.
of Fla. Proc. 18: 166-178. 1958.

8. Fiskell, J.G.A. and H.W. Winsor. Fertilization value of minor element
sources having a moderate rate of nutrient release. State Project 792.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report. p. 155. 1960.

9. Huston, T.B., M.W. Hazen, T.C. Mathews, and G.A. Brown. Soil Survey of
Suwannee County, Florida. U.S.D.A. and Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Series 1961.
No. 21. 1965.

10. Huckle, H.F. and HH.H Weeks. Soil survey of Washington County, Florida.
U.S.D.A. and Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Series 1962 No. 2. 1965.

11. Pritchett, W.L., H.L. Breland and H.W. Lundy. Effects of Nitrogen
fertilizer on the yield and composition of flue-cured tobacco. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc. 19: 418-427. 1959.

12. Robertson, W.K. Effects of some fertilizer materials and cropping systems
on the productivity of Suwannee Valley soils. State Project 707. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report. p. 135. 1956.










- 30 -


13. Robertson, W.K. Effects of some fertilizer materials and cropping systems
on the productivity of Suwannee Valley soils. State Project 707. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report. p. 146. 1957.

11. Robertson, W.K. Effects of some fertilizer materials and cropping systems
on the productivity of Suwannee Valley soils. State Project 707. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report. p. 151. 1960.

15. Robertson, W.K. Effects of some fertilizer materials and cropping systems
on the productivity of Suwannee Valley soils. State Project 707. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report. p. 175. 1961.

16. Robertson, W.K. The effect of some fertilizer materials and cropping
systems on the productivity of Suwannee Valley soils. State Project 707.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report. p. 161. 1964.

17. Robertson, W.K., and J.G.A. Fiskell. Effects of some fertilizer materials
and cropping systems on the productivity of Suwannee Valley soils. State
Project 707. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report. p. 152. 1955.

18. Robertson, W.K., and J.G.A. Fiskell. Subsoiling and deep fertilization.
Non-projected studies. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report. p. 15. 1955.

19. Robertson, W.K., and J.G.A. Fiskell. The effects of some fertilizer
materials and cropping systems on the productivity of Suwannee Valley
soils. State Project 707. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report. p. 157. 1958.

20. Robertson, W.K. and J.G.A. Fiskell. The effects of some fertilizer materials
and cropping systems on the productivity of Suwannee Valley soils. State
Project 707. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report. p. 160. 1959.

21. Robertson, W.K. and J.G.A. Fiskell. The effects of some fertilizer materials
and cropping systems on the productivity of Suwannee Valley soils, State
Project 707. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report. p. 157. 1962.

22. Robertson, W.K., C.E. Hutton, H.W. Lundy. L.G. Thompson, and R.W. Lipscomb.
Effect of lime on some north Florida soils. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. of
Fla. Proc. 17: 72-85. 1957.

23. Robertson, W.K. and H.W. Lundy. Factors limiting field crop production
in north central Florida. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc. 20: 306-
316. 1960.

24. Robertson, W.K., V.N. Schroder, H.W. Lundy, and G.M. Prine, Carbon Dioxide,
as it affects corn yields. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc. 21:
229-237. 1961.








31 -

25. Smith, F.B., H.L. Breland, W.L. Pritchett, G.D. Thornton, and G.C. Horn.
Testing soils and limestone. State Project hL6. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Annual Report. p. 139. 1957.

26. Thomas, B.P., H.H. Weeks, and M.W. Hazen, Jr. Soil survey of Gadsden
County, Florida. U.S.D.A. and Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Series 1959, No. 5
1961.

27. Thornton, G.D. The effect of fertilizer nitrogen on nodulation, growth
and nitrogen content of several legumes grown on sandy soils. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc. 16: 146-151. 1956.

28. Walker, J.H., and V.W. Carlisle. Soil survey of Escambia County, Florida.
U.S.D.A. and Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Series 1955. No. 8. 1960




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