• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Official series description
 Description of major mapping...
 Physical and chemical properti...
 Management of Blanton soils
 Other research on Blanton...
 Estimated yields
 Literature cited






Group Title: Department of Soils mimeograph report
Title: Benchmark soils
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00091526/00001
 Material Information
Title: Benchmark soils Blanton soils of Florida
Alternate Title: Blanton soils of Florida
Department of Soils mimeograph report 65-4 ; University of Florida
Physical Description: 37 leaves : map ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Thompson, L. G ( Leonard Garnett ), 1903-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Soils
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Leighty, R. G.
Carlisle, V. W.
Caldwell, R. E.
Publisher: Department of Soils, Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: July 1965
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Analysis -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Soil management -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by L.G. Thompson, Jr. ... et al..
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaves 35-37).
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "July, 1965."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00091526
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 311083119

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 2a
    Official series description
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Description of major mapping units
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Physical and chemical properties
        Page 14
        Page 14a
    Management of Blanton soils
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Other research on Blanton soils
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Estimated yields
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Literature cited
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
Full Text





DEC 2 1966

I.F.A.S. Univ. of Florida
.--. I UEUiFM T F-


SOILS MIMEOGRAPH REPORT 65-4


July, 1965


EE1CHMARK SOILS: Blanton Soils of Florida

by


L.G. Thompson, Jr.,
V.W. Carlisle, and


R.G. Leighty,
R.E. CaIdwell


.Department of Soils
Agricultural Experiment Stations
University of Florida
Gainesville







CONTENTS


Page

Introduction .. ...... ........... ..... ................. ........... 1
General Characteristics of the Series.......................... 1
Geology and Physiography ........................................ 1
Climate........ ..................... ......................... 1
Figure 1....Location.of Maor Areas of Blanton and Associated
Soils ................................................ a

Official Series Description ......................................... 3

Description of Ma or Mapping Units....................5.............
Alachua County................ ................................. 5
Collier County...........................a.. ........ 5a
Gadsden County .......*..... ..... .......................... ...... 6
Hillsborough County...................... ..................... 7
Manatee County................... .... .... ........... .. **** 8
Orange County.................................................... 8
Sarasota County................................................ 10
Suwannee County .................................. ..... .... 11
Washington County .................................... .......... 13

Physical and Chemical Properties..................................... 14
Table 1. Physical Properties of Blanton Fine Sand, Alachua
County.... .... ....... .... ........ .......... .... 1a
Table 2. Chemical Properties of Blanton Fine Sand, Alachua
County....................... .. .. **.*............. 1ta

Management of Blanton Soils .............. .......................****
Fertility Experiments on Blanton Soils.. ..................... 17
Corn................................... .......... .......... 17
Lupine......... ....................... ......... .........*. 18
Clovers....................... .................*.********** 18
Bermudagrass.............................. .........*** .... 19
Sorghum.. ...................... ......... ............. .. 20
Sedangrass ... .......... ..... ...... .................... .**** ****** 20
Millet*.............. .................. ................... 21
Turnips ......... ................. ... ................... 21
Cabbage ........ .. .............. ........................ 21
Tobacco... .. ...... ............. ... ... . ........... 21
Watermelons ... .............aa................ .... ......... 23
Citrus.. ............. ............................. ....... 23
Pecans ............. ........ ........... ......... ..... ... 24
Tung.................. .......... .... ..................... 25
Oats............... ............................... ......... 25

.:0-ROther Research"on Slant6n Soils............... .... .......... 25
Levels of Boron....... ........... ................ ....... 25
Calcium and Magnesium...................................... 26
Clays ...................... .............................. 26
Buffer Capacity.........................*......... ......... 27
Phosphates....... ...... ........................ ........ 27
Aluminum ... ................ ........ ............. ......... 27
Manganese...... ......... ......... ........... .... ...... 28
2?4
?.'







CONTENTS (con't)

Page

Gamma Radiation................... ................... 28
Nitrate Production.......... ..... ..................... .... 28

Estimated Yields................. ........... ....................... 28
Table 3. Estimated yields in Alachua County.................... 29
Table 4. Estimated Yields in Gadsden County................... 30
Table 5. Estimated Yields in Hillsborough County............... 31
Table 6. Estimated Yields in Manatee County.................... 31
Table 7. Estimated Yields in Orange County................*.. .. 32
Table 8. Estimated Yields in Suwannee County.................. 3
Table 9. Estimated Yields in Sarasota County .................. 34
Table 10. Estimated Yields in Washington County ................. 34

Literature Cited................................................... 35







INTRODUCTION


General Characteristics of the Series

Blanton soils have developed from moderately thick beds of unconsoli-

dated acid sands and loamy sands. They are characterized by having very

pale brown, pale yellow, or light gray colors to depths greater than 30

inches and may have splotches or streaks of these colors or yellowish-brown

below this depth. They occur on the high sandy ridges and on the low

ridges or knolls within, or bordering the flatwood areas throughout Florida.

They are more abundant in the central and northern portions of the State,

but also occur in the southern portions. These soils are dominantly well-

drained with a fluctuating water table level commonly below the 40-inch

depth. Sometimes the water table may rise in some areas to a level of 30

inches for a few days. The natural vegetation includes bluejack, turkey,

and live oaks; slash and longleaf pines, runner oak, wiregrass and a few

palmettos. Where cleared, these soils are used for corn, oats, soybeans,

watermelons, improved pasture, pecans, and other trees. Where climatic

conditions are favorable, citrus trees are grown on these soils.

Geology and Physiography

Blanton soils have developed from moderately thick beds of marine

sands, which are low in silt and clay. They are moderately well-drained

to well-drained. They occur in high sandy ridges and also low ridges

bordering or within the flatwood areas. These soils are strongly acid,

low in natural fertility and low in organic matter.

Climate

The climate of the Blanton soil areas in Florida is characterized by

long, warm summers and mild winters, and abundant rainfall throughout the

year. The seasonal distribution of rainfall is good, but there are some

months, usually in the spring or fall, in which soil moisture is inadequate






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for maximum crop growth.

The Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico account for the mild, moist

climate. During June, July, and August, the daily maximum temperature

averages almost 91oF and the daily minimum averages about 70(. The tem-

perature reaches 1000 or higher only once or twice a year. Freezing

temperatures occur about 15 times a year in Suwannee County and tempera-

tures of 200 or lower can be expected to occur about one-third of the years.

The temperature varies greatly in winter; the daily maximum usually varies

from 55$ to 750 and the daily minimum, from 350 to 550. A temperature of

320 or lower has not occurred after March 29 or before October 31 since

weather records were initiated at Lake City, Florida.

The precipitation varies greatly for any one month from year to year.

On the average, nearly half of the annual total rainfall occurs during

June, July, August, and September. Rather high rainfall usually occurs in

March and early April. November is the driest month, but in some years,

the last 2 weeks in April and all of May are drought. The total rainfall

for October and November has been less than 2.5 inches about 25 percent of

the years for which reliable records are available. Periods of 30 days

without rainfall have been noted in October and November. Droughts inthe

spring do not usually last as long; but, because of the high temperature,

they can be as serious as those in the fall.


















































Figure 1 Location of Major Areas of Blanton
and Associated Soils.






-3 -


OFFICIAL SERIES DESCRIPTION

Blanton Series

The Blanton series consists of Regosols formed from thick beds of
marine sands. These soils are commonly associated with series such as
the Lakeland, St. Lucie, Pomello, Kershaw, Klej, and Plummer soils. They
are lighter-colored than the Kershaw and Lakeland soils and contain less
coarse and medium sand, but more very fine sand that gives them a smoother
feel. They are less loose and a little less white than the St. Lucie and
Pomello soils. They have much better natural drainage than the Plummer or
Leon soils and lack the organic layer that characterizes the Leon and Im-
mokalee soils. A high phase and a low phase of the Blanton are distin-
guished chiefly on a difference in water relationships. Although the low
phase overlaps the Klej series in drainage range, it is lighter-colored
throughout and lacks the distinct or prominent mottling characteristic of
the latter. The Blanton series is widely distributed and has a large
total acreage. It is agriculturally important in the citrus belt of Flor-
ida and in other parts of Florida and in southeastern Georgia.

Soil Profile: Blanton fine sand

Al 0- 2" Gray (N 4/), fine sand; loose; structureless; strongly acid;
abrupt smooth boundary. 2 to 8 inches thick.

As 2-18" Light brownish-gray (2.5Y 6/2) fine sand with a few faint
medium splotches of light gray (5Y 7/1), pale yellow (5Y
8/3), and light yellowish-brown (2.$Y 6/4); structureless;
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. 12 to 24 inches
thick.

Cl 18-24" Light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; structureless; loose; a
few medium faint splotches of white (SY 8/2); strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary. 4 to 12 inches thick.

Ci1 24-40" Light gray (2.5Y 7/2) fine sand; structureless; loose; a
few splotches of white (2.5Y 8/2) and pale yellow (2.5Y
7/4); strongly acid; diffuse wavy boundary. 12 to 24
inches thick.

Cs 40-48" Light gray (2.5Y 7/2) fine sand; structureless; loose; a
few coarse faint splotches of white (2.5Y 8/2) and pale
yellow (2.$Y 7/4); strongly acid; diffuse wavy boundary.
6 to 12 inches thick.

C, 48-84" White (2.5Y 8/2) fine sand; structureless; loose; very few
medium faint splotches of pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4); strongly
acid; diffuse wavy boundary. 24 to 40 inches thick.

D 84" Strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) heavy fine sandy loam; structureless;
sticky, friable, slightly hard; common medium distinct mottles
of white (2.5Y 8/2) and pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4); strongly acid.






- 4-


Range in Characteristics: The principal type is fine sand though there
are a few areas of sand or loamy fine sand. In the ortho profile, the
average depth to finer textured material is 42 inches or more. A shallow
phase is recognized where the finer textured material is encountered at
30 to 42 inches. Two distinct phases, high and low, are used in classi-
fying Blanton soils. The profile described above represents the high phase.
Profile differences between the two phases are not always evident, but in
general, the high phase has more area of white in the profile and exhibits
less mottling or splotching in the subsurface layers. It occupies a higher
position and is typically more variable in relief. The low phase occupies
broad level or very gently sloping areas in lower positions, and the water
table is generally higher. The high phase is commonly associated with
drought soils like St. Lucie, Kershaw, and Lakeland; while the low phase
is associated more closely with Klej, Plummer, Pomello, Immokalee, and
Leon soils. The high phase supports a very sparse growth of turkey and
post oak with an occasional longleaf pine, while the low phase commonly
supports a thicker stand of longleaf, slash, or loblolly pines and post oak.
Color of surface soil may range from dark gray (N 4/0) to light gray
(10YR 7/1). The subsurface color may range from light gray (SY 7/1) to
pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) or pale brown (1OYR 6/3). Mottling or splotching of
the C horizon may range from only slight in the high phase to distinct in
some of the lower areas of the low phase. The low phase is much more exten-
sive than the high phase. Colors given above are for moist conditions.
When soils are dry, values are one or two units higher.

Topography: The high phase of Blanton ranges from level to sloping or
moderately steep, while the low phase ranges from level to gently sloping.

Drainage and Permeability: The high phase is well-drained to somewhat
excessively drained; the low phase, moderately well-drained. The slower
drainage in the low phase is due to the relatively high water table.
Permeability is rapid.

Vegetation: Turkey and post oaks with an occasional longleaf pine are the
vegetation- on the high phase. Timber growth is more vigorous and thicker
on the low phase and consists of thin stands of longleaf, slash, or lob-
lolly pines, with spots of post oak and widely scattered hickory and other
hardwood trees. In lower places, some gallberry, wax myrtle, scattered
palmetto, and a fairly heavy growth of wiregrass are characteristic.

Use: Chiefly cut-over forest, citrus fruits, watermelons, corn, cotton,
tobacco, crotolaria, peanuts, velvet beans, and pasture.

Distribution: Chiefly Florida and southeast Georgia; small acreages in
Alabama, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina.

Type Location: Lake County, Florida, on Florida State Highway 46, between
Sorrento and Cassia Station.


Series Established: Lowndes County, Georgia, 1917.










DESCRIPTION OF MAJOR MAPPING UNITS

The following profile descriptions, approximate acreage and propor-

tionate extent of correlated Blanton soils in counties appear in current

soil survey reports.

Alachua County

A profile description of Blanton fine sand occurring in Alachua County

(32) is as follows:

0 to 3 inches, light grayish-brown loose fine sand containing a small
quantity of organic matter.
3 to 20 inches, grayish-yellow or light gray loose fine sand.
20 to 50 inches, light gray or grayish-yellow loose fine sand with
splotches of white fine sand.
50 inches +, mottled light gray and yellow friable fine sandy loam
or fine sandy clay loam.

In the southeastern portion of the county, the Blanton soils are com-

monly of medium sand. A few small areas of Lakeland fine sand are included

in some areas.

Blanton fine sand, shallow phase, differs from the Blanton fine sand

in having a layer of fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam beginning at depths

between 30- and 40- inches.

The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Blanton soils in

Alachua County are as follows:

Blanton fine sand 20,649. acres- 3.6%
Blanton fUe .sand, shallow phase 2,571 acres .4%

Collier County

A profile description of Blanton fine sand occurring in Collier County

(21) is as follows:

0 to 3 inches, gray loose fine sand of salt- and pepper appearance.
3 to 7 inches, light gray to light brownish-gray loose fine sand.
7 to 20 inches, light gray to white loose fine sand with a few pale
yellow mottles.
20 to 60 inches +, pale yellow loose fine sand splotched or streaked
with light gray, white and yellow.






-6-


This soil occurs chiefly north and southeast of Naples and northwest

and southeast of Immokalee. Near Immokalee and north 6Sb~Naples, .a few small

areas have a brown stained layer beginning at 45- to 60-inch depths.

The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Blanton fine sand

in this county is 3,180 acres or 0.2 percent.

Gadsden County

A profile description of Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes,

occurring in Gadsden County (33) is as follows:

0 to 4 inches, dark gray loose fine sand; medium amount of organic matter.
4 to 6 inches, grayish-brown loose fine sand.
6 to 9 inches, gray loose fine sand.
9 to 35 inches, light gray loose fine sand with a few, fine distinct
yellow mottles.
35 to 50 inches, white loose fine sand with a few medium, distinct
yellow mottles.
50 to 64 inches +, white loose fine sand.

The surface layer ranges in color from dark gray to gray and in thick-

ness from 2 to 6 inches. The subsurface layer is gray, grayish-brown, or

light brownish-gray and is 2 to 3 inches thick. The lower layers vary

from light gray, very pale brown, pale yellow, and light brownish-gray to

gray. They have varied amounts wihi.taan yneMkwnmo&tetes.

Blanton fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, is similar to Blanton fine

sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, but it differs in occurring on stronger grad-

ients 5 to 8 percent slopes.

Blanton coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, is similar in color and

thickness to Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, but it differs in

being coarser textured.

A profile description of Blanton fine sand, terrace, 0 to 5 percent

slopes, is as follows:










0 to 2 inches, gray loose fine sand.
2 to 5 inches, light gray loose fine sand.
5 to 14 inches, light brownish-gray loose fine sand.
14 to 20 inches, light brownish-gray loose fine sand with common,
medium, faint light gray mottles.
20 to 40 inches, very pale brown loose fine sand with common, medium,
faint white mottles.
40 to 46 inches, very pale brown loose fine sand with common, coarse
distinct white mottles, and a few, fine, distinct reddish-
yellow mottles.
46 to 50 inches, white loose fine sand with common, medium, distinct
very pale brown and a few, fine, distinct yellow mottles.
j 50 to 58 inches +, mottled strong brown, white, very pale brown, and
yellow loamy fine sand.

Approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Blanton soils in

Gadsden County are as follows:

Blanton fine sand
0 to 5 percent slopes 7,635 acres 2.3%
5 to 8 percent slopes 2,745 acres 0.8%
Terrace, 0 to 5 percent 1,835 acres 0.6%

Blanton coarse sand
0 to 5 percent slopes 666 acres 0.2%

Hillsborough County

A profile description of Blanton fine sand, level phase, occurring in

Hillsborough County (20) is as follows:
0 to 6 inches, dark gray or gray nearly loose fine sand.
6 to 18 inches, grayish-brown to light brownish-gray loose fine sand.
18 to 42 inches +, very pale brown or light gray loose fine sand,
splotched with pale yellow or yellow.
In
In some places., the surface layer is grayish-brown and in other places

it is very dark gray. It ranges from 4 to 8 inches in thickness.
Blanton fine sand, gently undulating phase, differs from the level

phase in occuppying more sloping areas 2 to 5 percent slopes.

Blanton fine sand, undulating phase, occurs on 5 to 12 percent slopes.

Blanton fine sand, brown layer phase, has a 3 to 9 inch thick, brown,

pale brown or dark grayish-brown organic-stained layer beginning at depths of






-8-


8 to 18 inches. Below this layer are typical colors for Blanton soils.

Approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Blanton fine sand in

Hillsborough County are as follows:

Level phase 48,267 acres 7.3%
Undulating phase 537 acres .1%
Gently undulating phase 9,454 acres 1.4%
Brown-layer phase 1,642 acres .2%

Manatee County

A profile description of Blanton fine sand, nearly level phase,

occurring in Manatee County (2) is as follows:

0 to 6 inches, gray to light brownish-gray loose fine sand; contains a
small amount of organic matter.
6 to 42 inches, splotched pale yellow and light gray loose fine sand.

Blanton fine sand, undulating phase, has stronger slopes (2 to 8 percent)

than the nearly level phase.

Blanton fine sand, brown layer phase, is somewhat similar to the

nearly level phase, but has a 3 to 6-inch brown-stained layer beginning about

8- to 14-inch depth.

Approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Blanton soils in

Manatee County are as follows:

Blanton fine sand
Nearly level phase 2,359 acres .5%
Undulating phase 168 acres Less than .1%
Brown layer phase 3,215 acres .7%

Orange County

A profile description of Blanton fine sand, level high phase (0 to 2

percent slope) occurring in Orange County (19) is as follows:

0 to 6 inches, dark gray nearly loose fine sand.
6 to 10 inches, gray nearly loose fine sand.
10 to 48 inches +, light brownish-gray nearly loose fine sand con-
taining a few pale yellow and white splotches in lower
portion of layer.






- 9 -


The surface soil ranges in color from dark gray to grayish-brown and in

thickness from 4 to 8 inches. In places the layers beneath the surface soil

are very pale brown to pale yellow in color. Splotches of light gray, white

or pale yellow occur at depths between 30 6idl48 inches in many places. At

few areas have fine sandy clay loam beginning at depths between 30 and 42 inches.

Blanton fine sand, very gently sloping high phase (8 to 5 percent

slopes), differs from the level phase (0 to 2 percent slopes) by occurring

on stronger slopes 2 to 5 percent gradient.

Blanton fine sand, gently sloping high phase (5 to 8 percent slopes),

is similar to the level phase (0 to 2 percent slopes), but if differs in

occurdfagon stronger slopes 5 to 8 percent gradient. It occurs mainly ad-

jacent to lakes, ponds and sinkholes in the western and northwestern parts-

of Orange County.

Blanton fine sand, sloping high phase (8 to 12 percent slopes), is

similar to the other high phases of Blanton fine sand, but it has stronger

slopes to 12 percent gradient. It occurs near sinkholes and lakes mainly

4 the western and northwestern parts of the county.

Blanton fine sand, level low phase (0 to 2 percent slopes), is similar

to Blanton fine sand, level high phase, but it occurs on low ridges in the

flatwood areas of the county. It is segejal inches to several feet higher

in elevation than the surrounding or adjacent Leon and Pomello soils.

The surface soil is grayish-brown to very dark gray in color. The

lower horizons are light gray to very pale bppwn or are splotched or mottled

with these colors and withppAte yellow and white beginning at depths between

30 and 48 inches.






- 10 -


Some areas have a brown-stained layer, 3 to 9 inches thick, that begins

at depths of 12 to 18 inches. These areas usually occur adjacent to Leon or

Pomello soils.

Blanton fine sand, very gently sloping low phase (2 to 5 percent slopes),

is similar to Blanton fine sand, level low phase, but it occurs on stronger

slopes 2 to 5 percent slopes. A few small areas have 5 to 8 percent slopes.

Blanton fine sand, level, shallow phase, is similar to Blanton fine

sand, level low phase, but it differs in having loamy or clayey material that

begins at depths between 30 to 42 inches. This material is mottled light

gray, pale yellow, and yellowish-brown sandy clay loam or sandy clay. In

some areas the loamy or clayey materials occur at shallower depths.

Approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Blanton fine sand in

Orange County are as follows:

Level high phase 14,369 acres 2.5%
Very gently sloping high phase 18,950 acres 3.2%
Gently sloping high phase 4,326 acres 0.7%
Sloping high phase 2,118 acres 0.4%
Level low phase 16,169 acres 2.5%
Very gently sloping low phase 1,783 acres 0.3%
Level shallow low phase L4.7 acres l.1%

Sarasota County

A profile description of Blanton fine sand, low phase, occurring In

Sarasota County (34) is as follows:

0 to 4 inches, dark gray or very dark gray, loose fine sand, having
a salt- and pepper appearance, strongly acid. This layer ranges
from 3 to 6 inches in thickness.
4 to 9 inches, light gray to gray, loose fine sand; medium acid; ranges
from 4 to 6 inches in thickness.
9 to 20 inches, light brownish-gray or grayish-brown, loose fine sand;
common, medium and fine, faint to distinct gray and rust-colored
mottles; strongly acid; ranges from 8 to 12 inches in thickness.
20 to 50 inches +, light gray, loose fine sand; a few, fine or medium,
faint to distinct, yellow, white, and gray mottles; strongly
acid.







- 11 -


A few areas include soils having a brown or dark grayish-brown organic-

stained layer beginning about 6- to 16-inches beneath the surface. This

layer ranges from 2 to 6 inches in thickness.

Approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Blanton fine sand in

this county is 7h0 acres or 0.2 percent.

Suwannee County

A profile description of Blanton fine sand, high, O to 5 percent slopes,

occurring in Suwannee County (17) is as follows:

0 to 3 inches, gray loose fine sand, low in organic matter content.
3 to 84 inches, light gray to very pale brown fine sand.
84 to 116 inches +, white fine sand mottled with yellow.

The surface soil ranges in color from gray to light gray and in thickness

from 3 to 7 inches. The lower layers vary from pale brown to white and us-

ually are several feet In thickness.

Blanton fine sand, high, 5 to 8 percent slopes, is similar to the soil

on 0 to 5 percent slopes, but occurs on 5 to 8 percent slopes.

Blanton fine sand, high, 8 to 12 percent slopes, is similar to the soil

on 0 to 5 percent slopes, but occurs on 8 to 12 percent slopes.

Blanton fine sand, high, 12 to 35 percent slopes, is similar to the

soil on 0 to 5 percent slopes, but occur on 12 to 35 percent slopes often

adjacent to lakes and sinkholes.

A profile description of Blanton fine sand, high, -.=a esatPly-shallow, O to

5 percent slopes, is as follows:

0 to 7 inches, brownish-gray to light brownish-gray, loose fine sand;
low in organic matter content.
7 to 32 inches, very pale brown loose fine sand, mottled with white and
strong brown.
32 to 51 inches +, strong brown friable, fine sandy loam or fine sandy
clay loam; weak to moderate, angular and subangular blocky
structure.





- 12 -


The surface soil ranges in color from gray to brownish-gray and in

thickness from 3 to 7 inches. The surface soil is underlain by very pale

brown to pale yellow fine sand, 2h to 36 inches thick.

A profile description of Blanton fine sand, low, 0 to 5 percent slopes,

is as follows:

0 to 7 inches, light gray to dark gray, loose fine sand.
7 to 28 inches, light gray to pale brown, loose fine sand.
28 to 59 inches, light gray to white loose fine sand.
59 inches +, yellowish-brown, friable sandy clay loam, mottled with
gray and red; subangular blocky structure.

The surface soil ranges in color from light gray to dark gray and in

thickness from 3 to 7 inches. It is underlain by pale brown to light gray

fine sand more than 36 inches thick.

Blanton fine sand, low, 5 to 8 percent slopes, is similar to Blanton

fine sand, low, 0 to 5 percent slopes, but occurs on 5 to 8 percent slopes.

Blanton fine sand, low, 8 to 12 percent slopes, is similar to the soil

on 0 to 5 percent, but occurs on 8 to 12 percent slopes.

A profile description of Blanton fine sand, low, moderately shallow, 0

to 5 percent slopes, is as follows:

0 to 6 inches, very dark gray to gray loose fine sand.
6 to 38 inches, grayish-brown, pale brown or very pale brown, loose
fine sand.
38 to $5 inches +, yellowish-red fine sandy clay loam, mottled with
brown and light gray.

The surface soil ranges in color from very dark gray to gray and in

thickness from 4 to 7 inches. The subsurface layer is grayish-brown and

grades into pale brown or very pale brown with increase in depth. The

sandy clay loam is encountered at depths between 30 to 42 inches.

Blanton fine sand, low, moderately shallow, 5 to 8 percent slopes, is

similar to Blanton fine sand, low, moderately shallow, O to 5 percent slopes,

except that it occurs on 5 to 8 percent slopes.





- 13 -


Approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Blanton fine sand

in Suwannee County are as follows:

High, 0 to 5 percent slopes 113,879 acres 26.3%
High, 5 to 8 percent slopes 8,883 acres 2.0%
High, 8 to 12 percent slopes 956 acres .2%.
High, 12 to 35 percent slopes 267 acres .1%
High, moderately shallow,
O to 5 percent slopes 553 acres .1%
Low, 0 to 5 percent slopes 98,835 acres 23.0%
Low, 5 to 8 percent slopes 2,947 acres .7%
Low, 8 to 12 percent slopes 176 acres .1%
Low, moderately shallow,
0 to 5 percent slopes 9,950 acres 2.3%
Low, moderately shallow,
5 to 8 percent slopes 853 acres .2%

Washington County

A profile description of Blanton sand, O to 5 percent slopes, occurring

in Washington County (18) is as follows:

0 to 4 inches, very dark gray loose sand.
4 to 15 inches, gray to light brownish-gray loose sand.
15 to 38 inches, light gray loose sand with brownish-yellow mottles.
38 to 48 inches, mottled yellow,.white, and yellowish-brown loose sand.
48 to 76 inches +, white loose sand with very pale brown sand yellowish-
brown mottles.

The surface layer ranges in color from very dark gray to gray and in

thickness from 2 to 4 inches. The lower layers range from light gray through

grayish-brown to pale brown and contain variable amounts of white and yellow

mottles. Below 36-inch depth, this soil is generally white or'light gray, .but

in some areas, it is yellow.

Blanton sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, is similar to Blanton sand, 0 to

5 percent slopes, but it differs in having stronger gradients 5 to 8 per-

cent slopes.

Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, has similar profile colors

as Blanton sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, but it differs in having finer sands

in its profile.






- 1l -


Approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Blanton soils in

Washington County are as follows:

Blanton fine sand
0 to 5 percent slopes 1,584 acres .h%
Blanton sand
0 to 5 percent slopes 6,850 acres 1.8%
Blanton sand
5 to 8 percent slopes 1,501 acres .4%

PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND MINERALOGICAL PROPERTIES

Data on physical and chemical analyses of several Blanton soil profiles

from Alachua and Manatee Counties were reported by Gammon et al. (13).

Particle size distribution of a typical profile is shown in Table 1. In

Alachua County, the dominant particle sizes were fine sand and medium sand,

while in Manatee County fine sand and very fine sand usually were the dominant

sizes. Fine sand varied from 21.1 to 63.9 percent in the surface soil.

Medium sand ranged from; ,i. 7-to236.1, percent, and very'ffne -sandffrQm ~1Q3

to 26.7 percent. The surface layers contained 1.6 to h.O percent silt and

0.9 to 3.1 percent clay. The lower layers contained about the same amount

of silt and clay as the surface horizons.

Table 2 shows the chemical analyses of the same Blanton soil profile.

Reaction for several surface soils varied from pH L.78 to pH 5.33 and the

moisture equivalent ranged from 3.65 to 5.75. The organic matter content

varied from 1.23 to 3.0 percent in the surface soil. Cation exchange

capacity ranged from 1.76 to 7.9 milli-equivalents per 100 grams of soil.

All horizons in the profile were low in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium,

but the surface soil had more of these elements than the subsoil.

MANAGEMENT OF BLANTON SOILS

Blanton soils are low in natural fertility and low in content of organic








Table 1 Physical properties of Blanton fine sand, Alachua County (13).


Very Very
Coarse Coarse Yedium Fine Fine Coarse Fine
Depth Sand Sand Sand Sand Sand Silt Silt Clay
in.

0- 3 0.3 9.5 33.8 40.8 10.3 3.0 0.6 1.7
3- 6 0.3 8.6 29.2 43.3 12.7 3.1 0,8 1.8
6-20 0.4 7.7 29.2 33.1 13.1 2.8 0.8 1.9
20-33 0.4 7.h 28.4 55.4 13.2 2.9 0.6 1.7
33-45 0.5 7.4 25.0 47.4 15.1 3.0 0.2 1.3
45-60 0.2 5.9 22.8 48.8 17.4 3.1 0.2 1.5


Table 2 Chemical properties of Blanton fine sand, Alachua County (13).


. Ca.. .. .. . ......E t xchangeable 1 cases
pH Moisture Solution Organic Total Totalnge K Mg
Depth equivalent loss matter nitrogen phosphorus Capacity
in. % A me/l0 g me/10 g me/l00 g me/lCO g

0- 3 5.29 5.75 3.0 3.0o .080 .022 7.9 1.47 .077 .36
3- 6 5.29 2.88 1.1 .97 .036 .022 3.9 .30 ;Q38 .12
6-20 5.59 2.17 0.5 .50 .021 .013 1.4 .17 #023 .10
20-33 5.51 1.71 0.2 .2t4 .014 .035 2.2 .13 *023 .10
33-45 5.42 0.99 0.1 .05 .012 .025 2.1 .11 .026 .09
45-60 5.39 1.50 0.1 .05 .010 .007 1.1 .11 .013 .08






- 1l -


Approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Blanton soils in

Washington County are as follows:

Blanton fine sand
0 to 5 percent slopes 1,584 acres .h%
Blanton sand
0 to 5 percent slopes 6,850 acres 1.8%
Blanton sand
5 to 8 percent slopes 1,501 acres .4%

PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND MINERALOGICAL PROPERTIES

Data on physical and chemical analyses of several Blanton soil profiles

from Alachua and Manatee Counties were reported by Gammon et al. (13).

Particle size distribution of a typical profile is shown in Table 1. In

Alachua County, the dominant particle sizes were fine sand and medium sand,

while in Manatee County fine sand and very fine sand usually were the dominant

sizes. Fine sand varied from 21.1 to 63.9 percent in the surface soil.

Medium sand ranged from; ,i. 7-to236.1, percent, and very'ffne -sandffrQm ~1Q3

to 26.7 percent. The surface layers contained 1.6 to h.O percent silt and

0.9 to 3.1 percent clay. The lower layers contained about the same amount

of silt and clay as the surface horizons.

Table 2 shows the chemical analyses of the same Blanton soil profile.

Reaction for several surface soils varied from pH L.78 to pH 5.33 and the

moisture equivalent ranged from 3.65 to 5.75. The organic matter content

varied from 1.23 to 3.0 percent in the surface soil. Cation exchange

capacity ranged from 1.76 to 7.9 milli-equivalents per 100 grams of soil.

All horizons in the profile were low in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium,

but the surface soil had more of these elements than the subsoil.

MANAGEMENT OF BLANTON SOILS

Blanton soils are low in natural fertility and low in content of organic






- 15 -


matter. Internal drainage is rapid and the available moisture capacity is

low. The soils have good tilth and are easy to plow a few hours after a heavy

rain. They are well-suited to tobacco, corn, watermelons, and small grains.

If unprotected, cultivated fields are highly susceptible to wind erosion.

Water erosion is not a serious problem except on cultivated slopes of more

than 5 percent.

Management practices that conserve the content of organic matter are

desirable. Organic matter improves the capacity of the soils to hold mois-

ture and plant nutrients added in the fertilizer. The content of organic

matter can be increased by plowing under crop residues and cover crops and

rotating cultivated crops with pasture which has been plowed under after the

soil has been in grass for two or more years. Even with a high level of man-

agement crop residues are not sufficient to increase the supply of organic

matter in the soil. Cover crops should follow row crops, for they protect

the soil from erosion while growing and add organic matter when they are

plowed under. Legumes leave more organic matter in the soil than nonlegumes and

add nitrogen that can be used by the crops which follow. Lupine, indigo, and

southern peas are suitable legumes for these soils. Lupine is grown in winter,

and indigo and southern peas are grown after row crops or seeded in the corn

at the last cultivation. If seeded in the corn, they make most of their

growth in late summer and fall.

Pastures provide forage for cattle, produce large amounts of organic

matter and protect the soils from erosion. Using soils for pasture also

herps control root knot nematodes, which damage tobacco, an important crop on

these soils. Bahiagrass and improved bermudagrasses are used for pastures.

They should be fertilized with nitrogen, phosphate, and potash for satis-

factory growth. With large amounts of fertilizer, bermudagrass produces






- 16 -


the most forage. Both grasses produce about the same with small amounts

of fertilizer. If the soils are limed and well-fertilized, crimson clover

can be grown. Soil tests should be made to determine the amount and fre-

quency of lime and fertilizer application. Grazing should be controlled so

that pasture plants can produce additional forage after being grazed. Thus,

the pasture would produce more forage.

When cultivated, Blanton soils are highly susceptible to wind erosion.

In areas where water concentrates from higher positions and on the cultivated

slopes over 5 percent, water erosion can be a problem. Both wind and water

erosion reduce the amount of organic matter and plant nutrients in the soil.

Leaving crop residues on or just below the surface of the soil and keeping

the soils in vegetation as much of the year as possible can effectively

control both water and wind erosion. Other practices to control erosion

are (A) establishing grasses in areas where water concentrates, (B) contour

cultivation of steeper slopes, and (C) growing small grains or other close

growing crops in strips between clean tilled crops.

Since Blanton soils have a low available moisture capacity, irrigation

is especially profitable for high value crops such as tobacco and truck

crops. Sprinkler irrigation is suitable for these soils. Generally the

water supply is from deep wells, but on soils that have a high water table,

some excavated ponds are used. Ponds constructed by damming drains having

small watersheds may also be used.

Where climatic conditions are favorable as in central and south Florida,

these soils are used for citrus. In Orange County, more than half of the

Blanton soils are planted to citrus. Other counties in central and south

Florida have a large acreage of Blanton soils in citrus.






- 17 -


Fertility'~xperiments on Blanton Soils

Corn: Harris and Gilman (16) conducted corn experiments in pots filled

with Blanton fine sand, level phase, placed both in and outside the greenhouse.

Five Jixie 18 corn seeds were planted and later thinned to three plants. The

corn was harvested when it was about two feet tall. The corn grew very well

both inside and outside the greenhouse. Where phosphorus was not applied, the

plants were smaller with considerable purple on the upper leaves. Where

zinc was not applied, the corn had zinc deficiency which is called white bud.

Nitrogen deficiency was observed in the small yellow plants. The plants

without sulfur, first developed stripes; without sufficient potassium, the

margins of the lower leaves became brown, and the plants were watery and

many bent over near the surface of the soil. Without magnesium, the lower

leaves had purplish-red margins which changed to brown, few stripes developed,

and the plants were about as large as the others up to harvest time. The

elements nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, sulfate, sulfur or zinc

greatly increased the yield of corn grown both inside and outside the green-

house. There was no difference in response to treatments under the two con-

ditions of growth except for copper, calcium, and boron. Calcium signifi-

cantly decreased growth on the inside, while boron significantly decreased

growth on the outside. Copper increased significantly the growth on the in-

side. The yield was only slightly affected by the calcium treatment even

though the soil was low in available calcium. The applications of an element

generally increased the percentage of that element in the plant. Deficiencies

resulting from unbalanced nutrients changed considerably the chemical com-

position of the plants. For instance, a zinc deficiency almost doubled the

percentage of nitrogen in the corn foliage. The amount of an element in the






- 18 -


forage varied greatly for those elements that produced large yield dif-

ferences. The results indicate that unbalanced nutritional conditions,

which may occur in Florida soils, materially affect the chemical composition

of plants. Since the chemical composition affects the quality of the plant

material, the results are of special significance for Florida.

Lupine: Harris and Gilman (16) grew lupines in pots filled with Blanton

fine sand outside the greenhouse using various plant nutrients. They found

that potassium, magnesium, sulfur, and molybdenum greatly increased vegeta-

tive yields, while boron produced a moderate increase. Calcium and phos-

phorus had no noticeable effect on vegetative yields. The weights of

modules on the lupines were increased by potassium, slML tm.axrid :ulfitf while

the percent nitrogen in the nodules was increased by magnesium, potassium,

sulfur and molybdenum. Even though the soil was low in available nutrients,

calcium had little effect on yields. For calcium and phosphorus which did

not materially affect yield, the total amount of these elements in the foliage

tended to be constant. Except for nitrogen, an application of an element

tended to increase the amount of that element in the plant.

At Live Oak, Winsor (36) found that on Blanton fine sand containing

0.04 ppm. of boiling water-extractable boron, sweet yellow lupine made poor

growth except with supplemental boron. Adding boron to a 5-10-20 fertilizer

application seemed to give additional protection from virus. This virus

was extremely detrimental to lupine except where fertilized with nitrogen.

Clovers: Winsor (36) found 0.09 ppm of boron in Blanton fine sand

and 0.11 ppm in Scranton fine sand. Hubam clover produced only about 2/3

as much growth, and seed-set on Blanton as on Scranton soil.

Frits which release a supply of boron, produced significant increases in






- 19 -


the yields of hubam, white, and crimson clovers on Blanton soils.

Lundy and Fiskell (22) found that crimson and Kenland red clover grew

well and reseeded on Blanton fine sands provided proper liming and fertilizer

practices were followed. Calcic and dolomitic limestone may be used. A

0-10-20 or 0-1L-l1 fertilizer containing slowly soluble minor elements is

recommended. Hubam did well the first year, but did not reseed well the

next year. When sown each year, this variety made the highest yield and

gave the least response to minor elements. Even with several droughts in

summer, Nolin's white and ladino clovers were found to live for three years.

These clovers also required proper liming, fertilization and slowly available

minor elements,

Neller (23) found a low content of soluble sulfates in fertilized

Blanton fine sand, which indicated that shallow rooted plants such as white

clover should be fertilized after the period of leaching by summer rainfall.

Deep rooted legumes such as sweet clover might obtain sufficient sulfate from

the superphosphate applied the previous year. Since legumes require about the

same amount of sulfur as phosphorus, they are more likely to need annual

applications of sulfur than grasses. The results indicated that considerable

leaching of sulfate occurred, but it was incomplete below 12 inches. The

largest amount was found at 3 feet, which was the lowest level sampled. The

surface 12 inches were high in phosphate and low in sulfate, indicating that

phosphates tended to increase leaching of sulfates.

Bermudagrass: Neller and Robertson (21) found that 500 pounds per acre

of nitrogen as ammonium nitrate applied at intervals to plots of coastal

bermudagrass on Blanton fine sand produced a highly significant decrease in

pH levels. When pine sawdust at the rate of 40 tons.porpacr.e.was ,plowed-under,






- 20 -


the yield of grass was decreased. Where the most nitrogen had been applied,

the amount of nitrogen uptake was the highest.

Robertson and Neller (31) studied the recovery of nitrogen in coastal

bermudagrass grown on Blanton fine sand and found that the most efficient

rate was 200 pounds of nitrogen per acre. SigniflcabI increases in nitrogen

recovery were obtained for 200 as compared to 100, and 300 as compared to 200

pounds per acre of nitrogen. The recovery of nitrogen was improved by 10

tons per acre of sawdust, but 20 tons per acre was no better than 10, and 40

tons per acre was not as good as the check. Sufficient nitrogen was added to

the sawdust to convert it to organic matter; but even after three years of

cropping, sawdust could still be found in the soil. Organic carbon increased

with rates of sawdust. Mixing 40 tons of sawdust in the surface 6 inches or

the top 15 inches gave the same nitrogen recovery. Newly applied lime re-

acted with ammonium nitrate producing gaseous ammonia, and reduced nitrogen

recovery. The nitrogen recover, regardless of treatment, was only slightly

over 50% of the nitrogen applied. The results compared favorably with those

obtained with bahiagrass on Leon fine sand.

Sorghum: On Blanton fine sand at Leesburg, Peacock (25) found signifi-

cant yield differences among sorghum varieties. The highest yielding

varieties were Hodo, Honey Sorgo (MN Texas), and Sart, which yielded

7.67, 7.59, and 7.45 tons of dry forage per acre, respectively. N.K. 145,

N.K. 135, B3dl and Texas 601 yielded 2,145, 1,535, 1,122 and 1,00 pounds of

grain per acre, respectively. The variety N.K. 145 was not suitable for

haresting with a combine. Samples of the same variety did not differ in

maturity, but differed significantly in yields of both forage and grain.

Sudangrass: In a field test a Leesburg, on Blanton fine sand, Peacock






- 21 -


(25) found significant yield differences among sudangrass varieties. The

highest yielding varieties were Stoneville Syn. 1, Stoneville Selection, and

31-13 Mx X Sweet Sedan which yielded h.13, 4.13, and 3.90 tons per acre of

dry forage, respectively. Samples of the same variety did not differ in

maturity, but differed significantly in yields of forage. Stoneville Syn.

1 and Stoneville Selection were more resistant to bacterial blight than the

other varieties.

Millet: On Blanton fine sand at Leesburg, Peacock (25) found significant.

yield differences among millet varieties The highest yielding varieties

were Gahi-l, Starr Pearl, and Improved Starr Pearl, which yielded 4.66,

4.50, and 4.l3 tons of dry forage per acre, respectively. The German millets

yielded too low to be used for forage in central Florida.

Turnips: In the Perry area, Winsor (37) found that all turnips growing

on Blanton fine sand were deficient in boron. The boron levels in this soil

ranged from 0.05 to 0.10 ppm.

Cabbage; In St. Johns and Flagler Counties, Winsor (37) noted a serious

degree of boron deficiency in cabbage grown on Blanton fine sand. This soil

contained 0.11 to 0.21 ppm of boron.

Tobacco: On Blanton soil, Pritchett and Breland (27) found that liming

the soil had no significant effect on the amount of root rot or root knot

nematode damage. The rates of nitrogen had a significant inverse relationship

on the amount of root rot. Applying 2000 pounds per acre of dolomite increased

the yield by 125 pounds per acre, which was not significant due to soil

varibility in the blocks. Nitrogen up to 90 pounds and potash up to 180

pounds per acre increased yields. The highest yields were obtained with a

total of 180 pounds of potash and 75 pounds of nitrogen per acre. Applying






- 22 -


nitrogen fertilizer increased the nitrogen content of the leaves. On plots

receiving dolomitic lime, the phosphorus content of leaves was higher. Ap-

plying potash increased the potassium content of the leaves. Lime increased

magnesium uptake, but decreased potassium uptake and had little influence

on the content of calcium in the leaves.

On Blanton fine sand, Pritchett and Breland (28) found that l000 pounds

per acre of limestone did not significantly affect the yield or quality of

flue-cured tobacco. Applying more than 30 pounds per acre of soluble MgO

as magnesium sulfate did not increase the yield. The nitrogen content of oven-

dry tobacco leaves averages 1.6 percent The amount of nitrogen in the leaves

increased from the bottom to the top leaves as well as with increasing levels

of lime. Applications of nitrogen or potassium side dressing did not increase

yields in this experiment. Sucker control increased the yield significantly,

with hand-suckered plots averaging 1,683 pounds per acre. When plants were

topped and treated with MH-30 after one week, the yield was 1,844 pounds; when

topped and treated immediately, they yielded 2,064 pounds per acre. Potassium

sr i te-;and two potash fritsy FN $19 and K.CaPaO, produced 2,067, 2,281, and

2,578 pounds of tobacco per acre, respectively.

On the Blanton fine sand, Pritchett and Breland (29) noted that fritted

petash (FN519) applied at rates of 5l0 200, and 250 pounds of KaO per acre

produced yields of 2,205, 2,220, and 2,421 pounds per acre of tobacco, respec-

tively. Applying 200 pounds per acre of K2S04 produced higher yields than

equivalent amounts of fritted potash, which indicated along with leaf analysis

that potassium was not sufficiently available in the fritted materials to

supply the needs of the plant. Nitrogen applications at 60, 90, and 120

pounds per acre produced yields of 2,132, 2,253, and 2,462 pounds per acre,






- 23 -


respectively. The yield and value of tobacco was no higher from organic

sources of nitrogen than from allimineral sources. Except for one minor

element mixture, minor elements used singly and in mixtures did not increase

yields. When the basic dry fertilizers were supplemented with liquid "foliar"

fertilizer, the yields were not increased.

Pritchett and Breland (30) applied liming materials for three successive

years to plots on Blanton fine sand with only slight effects to yield or

quality of Hick's broadleaf variety of tobacco, and without an increase of

physiological or pathological diseases. An application of 650 pounds of Mg

504 increased the yield 229 pounds per acre. Applying K.SO4 at 150, 200,

and 250 pounds of KO per acre produced yields of 2,208, 1,931, and 1,788

pounds per acre, respectively. When potassium frit at 150 pounds of KO

per acrejwas used, yields increased with increasing rates of nitrogen, but

decreased with increasing rates of nitrogen when 250 pounds of KO as frit

was used. Applying one-third of the fertilizer nitrogen as natural organic

or applying mixed minor elements increased the yields of tobacco. It was be-

lieved that the small amounts of minor elements in the natural organic were

sufficient to correct the deficiencies.

Watermelons: On Blanton fine sand, Breland and Fiskell (1) noted that a

higher pH and fertilizer rate may be needed for Texas W-5 than Charleston Grey

watermelons. When the leaves were sampled in June, Texas W-5 was higher in Ca,

Mg, and P, and responded more to increasing rates of superphosphate' than',.bhe

Charleston Grey. The former variety produced a higher early and total yield.

Citrus: In a study of citrus trees, Eno (5) found that the largest

trees were growing on Scranton and Blanton fine sands and the smallest were on

Leon fine sand. Except for the weight of feeder roots, the chemical, physical or






- 24 -


biological measurements made on these soils were not closely related to tree

size. The numbers of microorganisms and the activity of these organisms

generally decreased with increase in depth of the soil horizons sampled.

Pecans: Gammon, Sharp, and Leighty (15) noted that pecans planted on

Blanton fine sand or a similar soil which has 42 inches or more of well-

drained, coarse-textured material in the surface are more drought resistant

than those planted on soils with poor internal drainage. Blanton fine sand,

shallow phase, which has fine-textured materials beginning at a depth of

30 to 40 inches, and which has poor to imperfect internal drainage is not rec-

ommended for pecans, because there may be drought injury in some years. Pecans

are generally deep rooted trees, but on the shallow phase of Blanton soil,

the roots do not penetrate the poorly drained or mottled fine-textured soil

layers. Curtis, Zinc, and Schley shed most of their nuts, but Kennedy which

is extremely drought resistant, had a full crop on this shallow phase soil.

Smaller trees generally had a larger crop in years of low rainfall than the

trees with a greater trunk diameter.

Gammon and Sharpe (14) studied the response of pecans to nitrogen and

potassium on a Rex-Blanton fine sand complex, and found that trees on low

fertility levels showed a significant increased nutrient content in the leaves

the first year after heavy applications of fertilizer were made in winter or

early spring. Nitrogen fertilization gave the largest response. February 1

or earlier was found to be the best time to apply fertilizer on groves of low

fertility. The rate of N should be limited to about 8 pounds per tree preced-

ing a heavy crop to aioid severe limb breakage. From the limited data, it

appears that mature trees planted at the rate of 12 to 17 trees per acre will

need 6 to 8 pounds of N per year per tree from fertilizers and/or cover crops.










Tung: Drosdoff (I) found that in tung fertilization, zinc was the most

widely needed micronuttient. Copper deficiency has been found only on a few

tung orchards on Blanton soils. About one ounce of copper sulfate per acre

is recommended to control copper deficiency on this soil. Manganese deficiency

has been observed on Blanton soils. If the manganese deficiency is slight,

2 to h ounces of manganese sulfate per tree, per year is sufficient; but if

severe, 2 pounds is required for satisfactory growth.

Oats: Pritchett (26) applied four rates each of nitrogen, phosphorus,

and potassium and two rates of each of the important minor elements to a

Blanton soil which was plahiddtto oats. Yield responses to nitrogen, phosphorus,

potassium and sulfur were significant; but zinc, copper, manganese, iron, boron,

and molybdenum failed to increase yields.


Other Research on Blanton Soils

Levels of Boron: In a boron experiment on Blanton fine sand at Live

Oak, Winsor (35) found that Coastal wheat produced 0.21 bushels per acre

without soil supplements, 2.48 bushels with only lime and dolomite,rand i2

bushels with complete soil supplements. In this experiment, the soil boron

levels were 0.03 ppm, 0.06 ppm, and 0.15 ppm, respectively. In the same

test, Gator rye produced h.31, 6.78, and 22 bushels, respectively. Where

all the major elements were added, but no minor elements used, the boiling

water-extractable boron increased from the native 0.03 ppm to about 0.08

ppm, which seemed to be enough for wheat and rye. This shows the difficulty

in maintaining controlled boron levels in field experiments, because of

the amounts of boron that may be present as impurities in fertilizer materials.

Bolomitic lime, calcic lime, gypsum, and 10-10-20 fertilizer, each at 500


- 25 -






- 26 -


pounds per acre were used in this experiment. Borax at 6 pounds per acre

increased the seed yield of sweet yellow lupine about 200 pounds per acre;

but when the amount of borax was doubled, seed yield was decreased, regard-

less of the source of boron used. Borax, Colemanite, and frit were used

in these experiments.

Winsor (38) studied the boron content of Blanton soil from different

parts of Florida and found that in the central St. Johns River Valley,

Blanton, low phase, contained 0.21 ppm. However, near the east coast,

Blanton, which was once cultivated and long abandoned, contained only 0.03

ppm. An adjoining virgin Blanton soil contained 0.12 ppm.

Calcium and Magnesium: Fiskell, et al. (11), noted that Blanton fine

sand had appreciable calcium and magnesium only in the surface few inches of

the soil.

Clays: Fiskell, et al. (12), noted that the parent material was pro-

bably the same for several Blanton profiles in northeast Florida. In the

upper layers, the clays were highly weathered and only at depths of several

feet were crystalline minerals such as vermiculite and kaolinite present.

The profiles were very acid throughout and the reaction in neutral salt

was generally below pH 4.0. There was no correlation of basic cation

saturation with pH measured in water, but a high correlation with the pH

measured in N KCI when the pH values were above 4.5. They postulated that

the increase in clay content with depth was caused by clay movement out

of the upper horizons probably assisted by weathering of the amorphous

colloid. Exchangeable aluminum accounted for nearly all the acidity in

this soil.

Fiskell. et al. (8) noted that fhe clays of Blanton soils from north-






- 27 -


east Florida contain kaolinite crystals when tested by the electron micro-

scope, but there was not sufficient crystallinity present for an x-ray

diffraction pattern for kaolinite to be identified.

Buffer Capacity: Yuan and Fiskell (39) studied the titration curves of

the surface layer of Blanton soils and found that the organic matter had

very little capacity to buffer acidity between pH 9 to 5.5 compared to the

alkalinity required to increase the pH above 5.5. This explained the re-

version of limed soils to the acid state after disappearance of free lime

even though the exchangeable calcium may be much higher than in the virgin

soil. In the finer textured layers, the capacity to buffer acidity was

nearly equivalent to the titration curve with 0.1 N NaOH. The buffering of

acidity below pH 5.5 was attributed to reaction with aluminum and iron hy-

droxides.

Phosphates: Fiskell and Rowland (10) found that Blanton soil in Hernando

County contained both iron and aluminum phosphates. Blanton soils classified

as non-phosphatic were likely derived partially from phosphatic materials for

the clay fraction is phosphatic.

Aluminum: Carlisle and Fiskell (3) reported that in neutral salt sus-

pension, the low pH values obtained were closely related to the cation

saturation in Blanton soil. The low pH partially explained by attributing

most of the acidity to Al which was much higher than H+. In the surface

soil where the exchange capacity was mostly from organic matter, the Al

extracted was only a small fraction of the total acidity. In the finer

textured.layers -the meq#'f 'Ai+ were .9arly equivalent to.the acidity

found by titration to pH 9. using 0.1 N NaOH. Where organic matter was pre-

sent, the pH of this soil was very acid with a low basic cation saturation;







- 28 -


whereas, in the finer textured layers, which were very acid, the basic

cation saturation was much higher varying from 30 to 80 percent.

Manganese: In Blanton soil, Fiskell et al. (9) found that the easily

reducible manganese was low and the exchangeable manganese was about medium.

Gamma Radiation: Using Blanton fine sand, Eno and Popenoe (7) re-

ported that irradiation did not change the amounts of ammonium acetate (pH

4.8) extractable calcium, magnesium, and potassium in the soil. Radiation

increased the amount of nitrogen extracted from the soil by potassium

chloride.

Nitrate Production: In a study of Blanton fine sand, Eno and Ford

(6) found that nitrification was largely in the surface soil, but was

perceptible to a depth of four feet. At a 5 to 10 inch depth, unlimed soil

produced h8% as much nitrate as limed soil. With deep applications of lime,

nitrate production could be of considerable importance to a depth of 30

inches.

ESTIMATED YIELDS

The estimated average acre yields of principal crops grown on Blanton

soils in Alachua County (32), Gadsden County (33), Hillsborough County (20),,

Manatee County (2), Orange County (19), Suwannee County (17), Sarasota

County (31), and Washington County (18) are shown in Tables 3, h, 5, 6, 7,

8, 9, and 10, respectively.












Table 3 Average acre yields of the principal crops on Blanton soils
in AlachL* County,


Soil. ... Peanuts Cowpea Bright Sugarcane Cucu- Sweet Permanen
Soil Corn Nuts Hay Hay Tobacco Syrup mbers Potatoes Okra Pasture
.. lb tons tons lb gal cr bu cr Cow-acre-days*

Blanton fine sand 18 550 .4 .6 800 175 125 60 100 100-200

Shallow phase 20 650 .5 .7 900 200 150 80 100 124-250



S* Cow-acre-days is the number of days a year that one acre will graze a cow without injury to the pasture.
04







- 30 -


Table 4 Estimated acre yields of principal crops
and carrying capacity of pasture under
two levels of management in Gadsden County.


SCorn Oats Pasture
Soil As B A B A B
bu bu bu bu cow-days cow-daysi*-

Blanton fine sand
0 to 5 percent slopes 20 40 20 40 150 250
5 to 8 percent slopes 20 35 20 40 150 250
Terrace, 0 to 5 percent 20 35 15 35 150 250

Blanton coarse sand
0 to 5 percent slopes 15 25 15 25 140 240



* In columns. A are estimated yields of crops and pasture under common manage-
ment; in columns B are those under the highest level of management feasible.

**Number of days a year that one acre of pasture will graze a cow without in-
#ury to the pasture.






- 31 -


Able 5 Estimated average acre yields of principal
crops under two levels of management in
Hillsborough County.


Sweet Water- Citrus
corn melons Corn fruit
Soil A-*- -A---i B- A""-- B
doz doz no no bu bu bu bu
Blanton fine sand
Level phase 350 425 275 400 15 30 330 500
Gently undulating phase 350 425 275 400 15 30 330 5000
Undulating phase 275 400 330 500
Brown layer phase 350 425 275 400 15 30 330 500


* Yields in columns A obtained under common
under more intensive management. Absence
commonly grown.





Table 6 Estimated
crops on
ment in MI


farming practices; those in columns B
of yield figure indicates crop is not


average acre yields of the principal
Blanton soils under prevailing manage-
anatee County, Florida.


.Soil Oranges Grape- Watermelons Permanentt
Soil fruit Pasture
.. boxes boxes carloads cow-acre-days*

Blanton fine sand
nearly level phase 375 525 $ 100-200

undulating phase 375 525 j 100-200

brown layer phase 300 400 1 100-200


* Cow-acre-days is the number of days a year that one acre will graze a oow
without injury to the pasture.








Table 7 Estimated average acre yields of the principal crops under two levels of
management in Orange County.


-o.. ... ranges Gir Sap- Cucum- Water- er ..,nent
Soil fruit beans bers melons improved
pastures
A B A B A B A B A B A B
boxes boxes boxes boxes bu bu bu bu # # cow-days**
Blanton fine sand
Level high phase 375 600 450 700 100 125 290 400 125 230
Very gently sloping high phase 375 600 450 700 100 125 290 400 125 230
Gently sloping high phase 375 600 $50 700 100 125 290 400 125 230
Sloping high phase 375 600 450 700 100 125 290 400 125 230
Level low phase 325 550 400 650 120 150 140 250 290 400 200 275
Very gently sloping low phase 325 550 400 650 120 150 140 250 290 400 200 275
Level shallow low phase 325 550 400 650 120 150 140 250 290 400 200 275
Blanton and Esto fine sand
Gently sloping and sloping phases 350 575 425 675 100 125 275 375 125 230


* Yields in columns A are those to be expected under
expected under good management practices. Absence


common management practices; those in columns B are to be
of yield figure indicates the crop is not commonly grown.


** Number of days a year that one acre will graze a cow without injury to the pasture.










Table 8 Estimated average
pasture under two


acre yields of principal crops and carrying capacity of
levels of management in Suwannee County.


c.-..orn Peanuts aright Water- Pasture
Soil Tobacco melons Grass Small grains
A* B A B A B A B A B A B


Blanton fine sand, high,
0- 5 percent slopes
5- 8 percent slopes
8-12 percent slopes
12-35 percent slopes
Moderately shallow 0-5 percent slopes
low, 0-5 percent slopes
t 5-8 percent slopes
S8-12 percent slopes
Moderately shallow, 0-5 percent slopes
Moderately shallow, 5-8 percent slopes
Blanton-Bowie-Susqueharna complex,
2 5 percent slopes
5 8 percent slopes
Blanton-Chiefland fine sands,
0 5 percent slopes
5 0 percent slopes
Blanton-Kalmia-Leaf Complex,
0 2 percent slopes
2 5 percent slopes


bu bu


30
27

30
145
140

to
t40

145
140

30
27


lb lb lb lb # #


475 900
425 800


175
600
525


900
1600
1400


600 1200
525 1050

600 1200
525 1050

700 19QO
600 1350


1100 1475
1000 1325


1100
1000
900
800
1000
900


1475
2000
1800
1600
2000
1800


250 325
225 300


250
200
175
150
200
175


325
300
275
250
300
275


1000 2000 200 300
900 1800 175 275


1150
1025


1500
1350


250 345
225 310


1 Yspcmnu


* Yields in columns A are expected under common management; those in columns B, under improved
irrigation. Absence of yield figure indicates crop is not commonly grown.

** Number of days year that one acre will graze a cow without injury to the pasture.


cow-days**


150
135
120
80
150
175
150
l140
175
150


lb of geef


275
250
220
200
275
350
315
280
350
315


175 350
150 315

150 275
135 250

175 350
175 350


management excluding


150
135

150
155
135
125
155
135

155
135

150
135







- 3L -


Table 9 Estimated average yields per acre of the principal
crops and two levels of management in Sarasota
County.


weet means Canta- Oranges
Soil corns* loupe fruit
A* B A B A B A B A B
crates bu crates crates crates


Blanton fine sand,
low phase


70 85 95 120


40 65 270 360


* Yields in columns A are to be expected under present management; those in columns
B are to be expected under good management.

* Five dozens ears packed to a crate.




Table 10 .Estimated acre yields of principal crops and carrying
capacityoof pasture under two levels of management in
Washington County.



Corn Water- Coastal Pensacola Small
melons Bermuda Bahia Grain
Soil Pasture Pasture Pasture
Aj B A B A B A B A B
bu bu # # cow-days** cow-days cow-days
Blanton fine sand,
0 to 5% slopes 20 45 200 300 150 500 175 350 60 155
Blanton sand
0 to 5% slopes 15 10 200 300 150 500 175 350 60 155

5 to 8% slopes 10 35 140 260 110 360 155 325 40 110


* In columns A are
in columns B are


estimated yields of csoppsaaddppartinessunder common management,
those under the highest level of management feasible.


w* Number of days a year one acre will graze a cow without injury to the pasture.


275 550








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- 36 -


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- 37 -


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