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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Official series description
 Description of major mapping...
 Physical and chemical properti...
 Management of tifton soils
 Estimated yields
 Literature cited






Group Title: Department of Soils mimeograph report
Title: Benchmark soils
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00091525/00001
 Material Information
Title: Benchmark soils Tifton soils of Florida
Alternate Title: Tifton soils of Florida
Department of Soils mimeograph report 66-7 ; University of Florida
Physical Description: 20 leaves : map ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Thompson, L. G ( Leonard Garnett ), 1903-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Soils
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Caldwell, R. E.
Carlisle, V. W.
Leighty, R. G.
Publisher: Department of Soils, Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1967
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Analysis -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Soil management -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by L.G. Thompson, Jr. ... et al..
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaf 20).
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "February, 1967."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00091525
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 311083874

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Official series description
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Description of major mapping units
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Physical and chemical properties
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Management of tifton soils
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Estimated yields
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Literature cited
        Page 20
Full Text







DEPARTMENT OF SOILS MIMEOGRAPH REPORT SL 60-, FEBRUARY, 1967


BENCHMARK SOILS; TIFTON SOILS OF FLORIDA







by





L. G. Thompson, Jr., R. E. Caldwell,
V. W. Carlisle, and R. G. Leighty


Department of Soils
Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida
Gainesville


HUME LIBRT-RY

S JUL 3 1967

.F.A.S. Univ. of Florida












CONTENTS

Page
Introduction...............................................................
General Characteristics of the Series................ ............... I
Geology and Physiography................................... ......... 2
Climate............................................................. 2
Figure 1. Location of Major Areas of Tifton and
Associated Soils ...................... ................ 3

Official Series Description..................... ......... ........ 4

Description of Major Mapping Units
Escambia County...............................,.................... 6
Gadsden County...... .................... ........... .... .... 7
Washington County....... ..................*................ 9

Physical and Chemical Properties.............. ......................... 10
Table 1. Physical Properties of Tifton Fine Sandy Loam,
Holmes County...............................................

Management of Tifton Soils.............................................. 12
Fertility Experiments on Tifton Soils.,,,.........,.....*... 15

Estimated Yields....... ....,. .....,.........*..................*......... 16
Table 2. Estimated Yields in Escambia County..,,................... 17
Table 3. Estimated Yields in Gadsden County.. ....,............... 18
Table 4. Estimated Yields in Washington County,.................... 19

Literature Cited...................................................... 20








INTRODUCTION


General Characteristics of the Series

The Tifton series consists of deep well-drained strongly acid soils

formed from beds of unconsolidated sandy clay loams and sandy clays. They

occur on uplands in nearly level areas and have many small brown or gray,

rounded iron concretions on the surface and throughout the profile. Tifton

soils have a dark gray to very dark grayish-brown loamy fine sand surface soil

varying from 4 to 7 inches in thickness. The subsoil varies frem sandy clay

loam to sandy clay. It is brownish-yellow to yellowish-brown in color with

the yellowish-brown increasing with increasing depth. At 30 inches or more,

the parent material is a mottled fine sandy loam or sandy clay. Tifton soils

are associated with Norfolk, Goldsboro, Carnegie, Irvington, and Lynchburg

soils. They differ from Carnegie soils In being more yellow and from the

Norfolk soils by being finer textured. They are better drained than the

Irvington and Goldsboro soils and contain mottled horizons at greater depths.

They differ from Lynchburg in occupying a higher topographic position, in

being better drained, and in containing less mottling at greater depths.

Tifton soils are moderately permeable in the subsoil and are strongly acid

throughout the profile. They are well*aerated and have good tilth. These

soils have a high moisture holding capacity and moderately high natural

fertility. They retain plant nutrients and respond well to fertilizers.

The native vegetation consists of longleaf and loblolly pines, oaks,

dogwood, wiregrass, and a few low shrubs. Tifton soils are well-suited to a

wide variety of crops such as corn, cotton, tobacco, peanuts, soybeans, and

forage crops.









- 2


Geoloqv and PhvsioQraphy

Tifton soils have developed from beds of unconsolidated sandy clay loams

and sandy clays. They are well-developed, well-drained Red-Yellow Podzolic

soils that formed under forest vegetation in a climate that varies from tropical

humid to warm-temperate humid. The parent materials are more or less siliceous

and kaolinite is the dominant clay mineral. These soils occur on uplands in

nearly level to sloping areas.

Climate
The climate of the Tifton soil areas in Florida is warm temperate and

humid. The summers are long and warm, and the winters are mild. In summer

the daily maximum averages 910 and the daily minimum averages 700F.; but

temperatures of 1000 or more may occur once or twice during an average year.

In winter, the daily high temperatures average 660 and the daily low about 43o*

The annual rainfall is abundant and usually Is fairly well-distributed over

the year. Excessive rainfall usually occurs in July, August,and September.

The mild climate and abundant rainfall induces vigorous biological activity,

leaching, and the movement of soluble materials during the entire year. For

this reason, the soils are low in organic matter and soluble plant nutrients,

The climate is favorable for the growth of oats, wheat, clover, rye, and

ryegrass in the winter months and corn, peanuts, soybeans, and tobacco in the

summer. However, occasionally a short drought may occur late in the spring

that restricts the growth of pastures and crops.









-3-


Figure 1. Location of Major Areas of Tifton and Associated Soils in Florida.






S-4-


OFFICIAL SERIES DESCRIPTION

TIFTON SERIES

The Tifton series consists of well-drained Red-Yellow Podzolic soils with
some features of Ground-Water Lateritic soils. These soils are developed over
thick beds of reticulately mottled sandy clay loam and sandy clay marine
deposits. They are associated chiefly with the Carnegie, Sunsweet, Irvington,
Norfolk, Bowie, Marlboro, Faceville, Lakeland, and G oldsboro soils. Small
rounded iron nodules on the surface and throughout the solum are a character-
istic feature of Tifton, Carnegie, Sunsweet, and Irvington soils. The Tifton
soils, however, are less red than the Carnegie soils, have thicker B horizons
than the Sunsweet soilstand are better drained and lack the concretionary
fragipan that Is characteristic of the Irvington soils. Tifton soils have more
iron nodules throughout the solum than the Norfolk, Bowie, Goldsboro, Lakeland,
Marlboro, and Faceville soils. Their B horizons are commonly finer textured
than those of the Norfolk and Goldsboro soils and are much finer than those of
the Lakeland soils, but they are not as red as those of the Faceville soils.
Tifton soils are widely distributed, occur in relatively large bodies, and are
important to agriculture.

Soil Profile: Tifton loamy sand

Ap 0-7" Dark grayish-brown (2.5Y 4/2) loamy sand; weak fine granular
structure; very friable; many small hard Iron nodules 1/8 to
3/4 inches in diameter; many fine roots; strongly acid; abrupt
smooth boundary. 4 to 8 inches thick,

A2 7-10" Light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) loamy sand; weak fine granular
structure; very friable; many iron nodules; some fine roots;
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. 3 to 20 Inches thick.
B1 10-15" Yellowish-brown (IOYR 5/6) sandy clay loam; weak medium sub-
angular blocky structure; slightly hard, friable, slightly
sticky; many iron nodules; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary. 4 to 8 inches thick.

82t 15-28" Yellowish-brown (IOYR 5/8) heavy sandy clay loam with moderate
medium subangular blocky structure; slightly hard, friable,
sticky; many iron nodules; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
12 to 18 inches thick.

B3t 28-38" Yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8) heavy sandy clay loam distinctly
mottled with common medium prominent mottles of red (2.5YR 4/8)
and light olive brown (2.5Y 5/6); moderate medium subangular
blocky structure; hard, firm, sticky; few soft iron nodules;
strongly acid; gradual irregular boundary. 8 to 14 inches
thick.
C 38-50"+ Reticulately mottled yellowish-brown, light gray, dark red, and
strong brown sandy clay; mottles are many, coarse, and prominent;
strong coarse subangular blocky structure; hard, firm, sticky;
strongly acid,






- 5 -


Range In Characteristics: The principal types are loamy sand, loamy fine sand,
loamy coarse send, sandy loam, and fine sandy loam. Iron nodules on the sur-
face and within the profile generally ranges from common to many. The Ap
horizon ranges in color from grayish-brown through very dark grayish-brown
and the A2 horizon from pale brown through brownish-yellow. The 82 horizon
ranges in color from brownish-yellow (10YR 6/8) through strong brown (7.5YR
5/8) and in texture from heavy sandy clay loam to sandy clay, inclusive. The
C horizon may be clay loam or stratified sandy and clayey sediments. Colors
given are for moist soil. When soil is dry, color values are one or two units
higher.

Topography: Level to sloping, with slopes of 2 to 8 percent dominant.

Drainage and Permeability: Well-drained, with medium runoff and medium
internal drainage. Permeability is moderate.

Vegetation: Original cover consisted of an almost pure stand of longleaf pine
with a heavy undergrowth of wiregrass. A few small red and black oaks and
hickory occurred in places. Longleaf and slash pines and hardwoods are now
on cut-over areas,

Use: Extensively used for cotton, corn, peanuts, flue-cured tobacco, soybeans,
cowpeas, sugarcane, vegetables, cabbage, tomatoes, watermelons, pecans, small
grain, and nearly all other crops common to the region. Some sloping and
eroded areas are used for permanent pasture and a small acreage has been
reforested to slash pine.

Distribution: Georgia, Florida, Alabama, and South Carolina.

Type Location: Irwin County, Georgia; 0.9 mile northwest of Mystic, along
Georgia Highway 32; west along county road for 0,2 mile; 200 feet west of
road.

Series Established: Grady County, Georgia, 1908.

Remarks: Soils now classified in the Carnegie, Irvington, and Sunsweet series
were at one time included in the Tifton series.



National Cooperative Soil Survey
USA


Rev. JWC-HJB-ILM-WSL
1-7-63







-6-


DESCRIPTION OF THE MAJOR MAPPING UNITS


The following profile descriptions, approximate acreage, and proportionate

extent of correlated Tifton soils appear in current soil survey reports,

Escambia County

A profile description of Tifton fine sandy loam, level phase, 0 to 2

percent slopes, occurring in Escambia County (8) is as follows:

0 to 4 inches, dark gray fine sandy loam; friable; granular structure.
4 to 10 inches, brownish-yellow heavy fine sandy loam; friable; fine
crumb structure; iron concretions.
10 to 36 inches, brownish-yellow fine sandy clay loam to fine sandy clay;
friable to firm; medium subangular blocky structure; Iron con-
cretions.
36 to 42 inches, brownish-yellow fine sandy clay mottled with strong brown
and reddish yellow; friable to firm; medium subangular blocky
structure.

The surface soil ranges in color from dark gray to very dark grayish-

brown and from 4 to 7 inches in thickness. Generally at depths of 30 inches

or more, the amount of mottling varies considerably, Small, rounded, Iron

concretions nearly cover the surface in places, and in others they are nearly

absent. The quantity ranges from 10 to 25 percent of the soil mass, and the

largest amount is at depths between 6 to 18 inches. Because of the gentle

slope, this soil is not susceptible to erosion. This soil is well-drained

and has moderate internal drainage.

Tifton fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase, 2 to 5 percent slopes

is similar to Tifton fine sandy loam, level phase, except that It occupies

slightly greater slopes and has a few slightly eroded areas,

Tifton fine sandy loam, gently sloping phase, 5 to 8 percent slopes is

similar to Tifton fine sandy loam, level phase, except that







S7 -


it occupies more sloping areas and the subsoil varies somewhat and in some

places may range from brownish-yellow to yellowish-red.

The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Tifton soils in this

county are as follows:

Tifton fine sandy loam, level phase------------.....20,500 acres----- 4.9%
Tifton fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase----6,000 acres----- 1,4%
Tifton fine sandy loam, gently sloping phase-----------950 acres----- .2%

Gadsden County

A profile description of Tifton loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes,

eroded, occurring in Gadsden County (7) is as follows:

Apl 0 to 3 inches, very dark gray (IOYR 3/1) loamy fine sand; weak, fine,
crumb structure; loose; common fine and medium roots; medium
content of organic matter; common, medium, hard concretions
of iron; strongly acid; boundary clear and smooth.

Ap2 3 to 6 inches, very dark grayish-brown (IOYR 3/2) loamy fine sand; few
streaks of very dark gray (IOYR 3/1) material from the Apl
horizon in old root channels or worm borings; moderate, fine,
crumb structure; loose; many, medium, hard, concretions of
iron; strongly acid; common, small, soft, black concretions;
boundary clear and smooth.

A3 6 to 8 inches, dark yellowish-brown (IOYR 4/4) fine sandy loam; moderate,
medium, crumb structure, very friable; many, medium and fine
pores and roots; common, medium, hard, iron concretions;
strongly acid; boundary gradual and wavy.

BI 8 to 13 inches, yellowish-brown (IOYR 5/6) fine sandy clay loam; weak,
medium, subangular blocky structure and moderate, medium,
crumb structure; friable; few, medium, hard iron concretions;
many fine to medium and few large pores; strongly acid;
boundary gradual and wavy.

B2 13 to 40 inches, yellowish-brown (IOYR 5/8) heavy fine sandy clay loam;
moderate, medium subangular blocky and crumb structure; firm
to friable; common medium and fine pores; abundant, medium and
large, hard concretions of iron; few, small to medium,
moderately hard concretions of iron in the lower part; strongly
acid; boundary diffuse and wavy.

831 40 to 60 inches, yellowish-brown (IOYR 5/8) fine sandy clay loam, with
common, medium and coarse, distinct, strong brown (7.5YR 5/6)







-8 -


mottles and few, fine, faint, yellow (IOYR 7/6) mottles;
yellow mottles are in patches on ped surface; moderate, medium,
subangular blocky and crumb structure; friable to slightly
firm; common medium and large hard and slightly hard concre-
tions of iron that have an Irregular surface; few medium and
large, soft, dark reddish-brown concretions; strongly acid;
boundary diffuse and wavy.

832 60 to 72 Inches, brownish-yellow (IOYR 6/8) fine sandy clay loam with
common, medium, distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles and
common, fine prominent, yellowish-red (5YR 5/8) mottles and
common medium, prominent, red (IOR 4/8) round mottles;
material with red round mottles is slightly more brittle and
coarser textured than rest of soil material; weak, medium,
angular structure and few, medium, very weakly formed sub-
angular peds that break readily to weak, fine, angular peds;
slightly brittle and firm to friable; strongly acid.
The surface soil varies in color from very dark gray to dark grayish-

brown and from 3 to 10 inches in thickness. The subsoil is brownish-yellow

to yellowish-brown and varies from fine sandy clay loam to fine sandy clay.

Mottles of yellow and strong brown normally are at depths varying from 34 to

44 inches, but in some places these mottles are at 30 to 34 inches. Most of

the erosion Is sheet erosion and there is little gullying. The surface soil

has a moderate available moisture-holding capacity and that of the subsoil

is high. This soil has a medium content of organic matter and has good

tilth. The cation exchange capacity is moderately high and the soil responds

well to fertilizer.

Tifton loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes has less erosion and

usually a thicker surface soil than Tifton loamy fine sand 2 to 5 percent

slopes, eroded.

Tifton loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes has thicker surface soil

and less erosion than Tifton loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded.

Tifton loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded, has stronger

slopes, more rapid runoff and more erosion than does Tifton loamy fine sand,







-9-


eroded, 2 to 5 percent slopes. In most other characteristics, it is similar

to that soil. Mottles usually occur at depths of 30 to 38 Inches.

The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Tifton soils in

this county are as follows:

Tifton loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes----------- 278 acres--- 0.1%
Tifton loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded ---402 acres--- .1%
Tifton loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded----151 acres--- (I)
(1) Less than 0.1 percent.

Washington County

A profile description of Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes,

occurring in Washington County (3) is as follows:

0 to 6 inches, very friable, dark grayish-brown loamy sand.
6 to 14 inches, very friable, yellowish-brown loamy fine sand.
14 to 33 inches, friable, yellowish-brown heavy fine sandy clay loam
to clay loam.
33 to 61 Inches +, friable to firm, brownish-yellow heavy fine sandy
clay loam mottled with strong brown above 46 Inches and
with strong brown, red and yellowish-brown below 46 inches.

The surface soil ranges from dark gray to dark grayish-brown in color

and from 5 to 7 Inches in thickness. The subsoil varies from yellowish-

brown to brownish-yellow and from heavy sandy clay loam to sandy clay, but is

heavy sandy clay loam in most places. At a depth of 32 to 44 Inches, mottles

of yellow and strong brown normally occur, but they are as near the surface

as 30 inches in some areas. At a depth of 44 to 64 Inches, the material is

highly mottled with brown, yellow, and red. This soil has a moderately high

natural fertility and content of organic matter. It is strongly acid, has

good tilth and a high moisture-holding capacity. Surface drainage and

internal drainage are good. The root zone is deep and well-aerated and the

soil responds well to fertilizers,







- 10 -


Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded, generally has a

thinner surface soil than Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. Sheet

erosion has been moderate, but there has been some gully erosion. The sur-

face soil varies from 4 to 10 inches in thickness, but is usually about 7

inches thick. Mottling normally occurs at 32 to 40 Inches in depth. The

parent material is usually at a depth of 40 to 60 Inches.

Tifton loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded, generally has a thinner

surface soil than Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. Because of ero-

sion, the parent material is usually nearer the surface and occurs at a

depth of 38 to 50 inches. It Is mainly sheet eroded, but some areas have

some deep or shallow gullies. More intensive management is required for high

yields of cultivated crops on this soil than on Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5

percent slopes. With good management and control of erosion, this soil is

suited to most cultivated crops. It is well-suited to improved pasture,

woodland, and wildlife habitat.

Approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Tifton soils in this

county are as follows:

Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes ----..---- 29,961 acres----- 7.8%
Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded-----1,510 acres ---- .4%
Tifton loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded-------234 acres----- .1%


PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Data of physical and spectrographic analyses of several Tifton soil pro-

files from Holmes, Okaloosa, and Walton Counties were reported by Gammon et

al. (2). Physical analyses of a typical profile are shown in Table 1.








Table 1. Physical properties of Tifton fine sandy loam, Holmes County (2)


Mois-
Depth ture Solu- Very Me- Very
in Equlv- tion Coarse Coarse dium Fine Fine Coarse Fine
Inches pH talent Loss Sand Sand Sand Sand Sand Silt Silt Clay
% % % % % % % % % %
0-31 5.45 11.83 3.8 5.4 16.9 21.0 23.2 11.7 10.3 1.5 9.9
31-7 5.45 11.32 2.4 4.8 15.9 19.6 21.7 11.9 10.3 2.4 13.4
7-10 5.38 13.97 1.6 4.0 12.9 17.1 20.5 11.8 9.6 1.6 22.4
10-15 5.37 18.07 0.9 3.7 12.4 14.7 17.1 9.8 9.2 1.0 32.0
15-36 5.07 19.85 0.6 4.0 11.1 13.1 14.3 8.0 8.0 1.0 40.5
36-48 4.98 18.35 0.1 6.9 13.7 13.3 9.4 4.9 9.6 1.3 40.7
48-60 4.95 22.89 0.1 7.8 16.5 17.3 10.3 4.5 5.6 1.2 36.8







- 12 -


MANAGEMENT OF TIFTON SOILS


Tifton soils have a medium surface runoff and moderate internal drainage,

Permeability of the surface soil is moderately rapid and moderately slow in

the subsoil. They are well-aerated and have good tilth. These soils have a

high available moisture-holding capacity and moderately high natural fertil-

ity. They respond well to fertilizer and retain plant nutrients. As they are

some of the better soils in northern Florida, much of them are under cultiva-

tion, These soils hold enough moisture to insure a part of a crop during the

more severe droughts. Good tilth is easy to maintain and plant roots penetrate

the subsoil freely. These soils are well-suited to a wide variety of crops

and pasture. Corn, small grains, soybeans, peanuts, cotton, and tobacco will

grow well and return good yields.

These soils contain a moderate amount of organic matter, but cultivation

reduces the supply and removes plant nutrients from the soil. To protect

and maintain the productivity of the soil, perennial sod and annual cover

crops should be grown between periods of clean cultivation. Sod crops and

cover crops that are plowed under help to maintain the supply of organic

matter. A high content of organic matter helps to retain applied fertilizer

and lime, increases the available moisture capacity, and releases plant

nutrients as the organic matter decomposes.

Fertilizer should be applied to all crops as these soils have a low to

medium content of plant nutrients. Legumes should be fertilized at time of

planting with 25 to 30 pounds of phosphate and 50 to 60 pounds of potash per

acre. Non-legumes need 45 to 60 pounds or more of nitrogen and about the

same amount of phosphate and potash as legumes. Applications of fertilizer







- 13 -


increases yields and the amount of crop residue. By interpreting soil tests,

county agricultural agents can supply information on the amounts of fertilizer

and lime needed for growth of different crops.

If these soils are not protected during the growing of cultivated crops,

the sloping areas are susceptible to erosion, If runoff is slowed down,

erosion is reduced and the water has more time to soak into the soil. Contour

cultivation, terraces, and wide strips of close-growing vegetation are gener-

ally used to control runoff and erosion. The channel type terraces are suited

to Tifton soils that have uniform slopes of not more than 8 percent. The

terrace Is made by digging a broad, shallow channel and using the soil for a

broad based ridge on the lower side. These terraces should be constructed

across the slope and should be nearly level. They control the water running

down the slope and allow it to move slowly from the field. Water from the

terraces should be conducted into areas of dense vegetation or into well-

stabilized waterways. Natural draws well-protected by dense vegetation make

the best waterways. The capacity of the waterways should be determined by

considering the soil characteristics and the amount of water that will be

discharged from the terraces. The furrows are plowed across the slope in

contour cultivation and act as small terraces to slow down the water that

moves down the slope. On the gently sloping Tifton soils, contour cultivation

is usually sufficient to control sheet erosion. When used to supplement the

terraces, the contour furrows are plowed across the slope parallel to the

terraces. When planted at Intervals across the slope, wide strips of close-

growing vegetation intercept and spread the water. These strips supplement

contour cultivation and terraces. They also improve the soil when they

alternate with strips of row crops.







- 14 -


Rainfall is usually sufficient to supply the moisture needs of most

general crops, but the use of supplemental irrigation is increasing for crops

of high value. A high level of management is necessary if irrigation is to

be profitable. This management includes the application of large amounts of

commercial fertilizer and manure, the return of crop residues to the soil,

and the growing of cover crops. Small farm ponds constructed in natural

drains having small watersheds can be used to store water for Irrigation.

Before a site is selected, it Is necessary to know the amount of water avail-

able, the storage capacity of the proposed pond, and the suitability of the

foundation material. Care should be used in the design and construction of

dams and spillways.

Improved strains of bermudagrass and bahiagrass are used for pasture.

For satisfactory growth, both grasses require nitrogen, phosphate, and potash.

When large amounts of fertilizer are used, improved bermudagrass will produce

more forage than bahiagrass. There Is little difference in the yield of

forage when the lower rates of fertilizer are used. The improved bermuda-

grass is better suited for hay production.

Clovers are well-suited to Tifton soils. White clover and crimson clover

are the principal legumes grown on this soil. Either of these clovers grows

well in a mixture of bermudagrass or bahiagrass, but it is more difficult to

maintain a stand of clover with bahiagrass than with bermudagrass. To help

obtain a good growth of clover, the pasture should be clipped early in the

fall and the clippings removed, The amount of forage produced depends to a

large extent on the amount of fertilizer applied. Lime is also needed, but

pastures with clover usually require more lime than those in grass alone.







- 15 -


Soil tests indicate how often and how much fertilizer and lime should be

applied. Grazing should be regulated so that the plants can recover after

they are grazed. Controlled grazing will allow the plants to produce more

forage and provide more soil protection.

Fertility Experiments on Tifton Soils

In west Florida on Tifton fine sandy loam, Neller (5) noted a definite

response to gypsum when a sulfur-free source of phosphorus was applied to

pasture plots of white clover. In the rock phosphate treatments on this

soil, phosphorus as well as sulfur were probably limiting factors,

Ordinary superphosphate is about one-half calcium sulfate, which changes

to hydrated gypsum soon after it is applied to the soil. Gypsum is a good

source of sulfur, but it differs from phosphate in that It leaches from the

soil. If no sulfur is applied to the soil, all crops would soon be retarded

in growth. Since legumes require about as much sulfur as phosphorus, sulfur

deficiency is likely to occur rather quickly. In a grass-clover pasture, a

deficiency of sulfur is much more likely to occur than a deficiency of nitro-

gen since the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen by the legume bacteria causes

a gradual release of nitrogen from the decaying roots.

Gammon et al. (1) established a series of pasture plots in west Florida

in November, 1948, on Tifton fine sandy loam that were planted to dallisgrass

and Inoculated white clover. The forage removed in April and May consisted

almost entirely of clover, while the forage in August and October was almost

entirely dallisgrass. Applications of superphosphate gave the largest response

in yields, but additional responses were obtained from applied potash. An

0-15-10 fertilizer at 600 pounds per acre increased the air-dry forage yield







- 16 -


from 1,576 pounds to 4,003 pounds per acre. When this fertilizer was further

increased to 1,200 pounds per acre, the air-dry forage yield was Increased to

6,516 pounds per acre. Lime at 2,000 pounds per acre increased the yield of

air-dry forage from 2,316 pounds to 4,003 pounds per acre. A further increase

to 4,742 pounds of air-dry forage per acre was obtained with 4,000 pounds per

acre of lime. When 250 pounds of gypsum were added to 500 pounds of calcined

phosphate, the yield of air-dry forage was increased from 3,403 pounds to

4,657 pounds per acre. Since superphosphate is about one-half gypsum, it was

not necessary to add gypsum when superphosphate was applied to this soil.

Smith et al. (6) established a pasture experiment on virgin Tifton soil

and noted that the highest yield of forage was obtained with one ton of

dolomite, 200 pounds of muriate of potash, and 1,000 pounds of superphosphate

per acre. This soil responded well to superphosphate and the yield increases

were in direct proportion to the amount of superphosphate applied. When rock

phosphate or rock phosphate plus gypsum was used instead of superphosphate on

this soil, the growth was unsatisfactory. Calcined phosphate plus gypsum
produced yields equivalent to those produced by the same rate of superphosphate.

When applied at the rate of 1,000 pounds per acre, low grade basic slag pro-

duced more forage than 20 percent superphosphate at 500 pounds per acre. This

slag contained only 0.1 percent sulfur and 4.85 percent phosphorus (4).


ESTIMATED YIELDS

The estimated average acre yields of principal crops grown on Tifton

soils In Escambia County (8), Gadsden County (7), and Washington County (3)

are shown in Tables 2, 3, and 4, respectively.











Table 2. Estimated average acre yields of principal crops grown in Escambia County,


Corn Cotton Soybeans Oats
Soil A B' A B A B A B
Bu. Bu. Bales Bales Bu, Bu, Bu. Bu.

Tifton fine sandy loam,
Level phase 40 55 3/4 1 25 30 35 60
Very gently sloping phase 40 55 3/4 1 25 30 35 60
Gently sloping phase 35 50 1/2 3/4 20 25 35 60


lYields in columns A are those to be expected under common management practices; those in
columns B, under good management practices.












Table 3. Estimated acre yields of principal crops and carrying capacity under two levels of
management in Gadsden County.


Shade Pasture
ornB, Peanuts tobacco Oats A B
Soil A B A B B A B Cow-2 Cow-2
Bu. Bu. lb. lb. lb. Bu. Bu. days days

Tifton loamy fine sand,
O to 2 percent slopes 45 75 1350 1650 1700 40 60 170 320
2 to 5 percent slopes 45 75 1350 1650 1600 40 60 170 320
2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded 40 65 1200 1500 1600 35 55 150 300
5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded 22 45 900 1150 1400 25 45 145 295


Iln columns A are estimated yields of crops and pasture under common management; in columns B are
those under the highest level of management feasible. Estimates for only one level of manage-
ment are listed for shade tobacco because this specialized crop generally receives only the
highest level of management.

2Number of days a year that one acre will graze a cow without injury to the pasture.









Table 4. Estimated acre yields of principal crops and carrying capacity of pasture under two
levels of management in Washington County.


Corn Cotton Peanuts Watermelons
Soil Bu Bu lb. lb. lb. lb. No. No.
A B A B A B A B

Tifton loamy sand
2 to 5 percent slopes 50 75 300 600 650 1600 250 350
2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded 45 75 270 600 585 1600 225 350
5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded 40 65 240 540 535 1400 200 315


Coastal
bermudagrass
pasture
Cow-acre-days
A B


Pensacola
bahiagrass
pasture
Cow-acre-days
A B


Small
grain
pasture
Cow-acre-days2
A B


Tifton loamy sand
2 to 5 percent slopes 30 50 150 475 150 350 90 175
2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded 25 50 150 475 150 350 90 175
5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded 20 45 135 425 135 315 80 155
Inclun A ..... ... are estimated yields... of crops iand


'In columns A are estimated yields of crops and
obtained under the highest level of management

2Number of days a year that one acre will graze


pasture under common
feasible.


management; in columns B are those


a cow without injury to the pasture.


Oats
Bu. Bu.
A B







- 20 -


LITERATURE CITED

1. Gammon, N. Jr., H. W. Lundy, J. R. Neller and R. A. Carrigan. First-year
yields of Louisiana white clover-dallisgrass pasture plots on Carnegie
and Tifton fine sandy loams. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Circular S-19. 1950.

2. Gammon, N. Jr., J. R. Henderson, R. A. Carrigan, R. E. Caldwell, R. G,
Leighty, and F. B. Smith. Physical spectrographic and chemical analyses
of some virgin Florida soils, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 524. 1953.

3. Huckle, H. F. and H. H. Weeks. Soil survey of Washington County, Florida,
U.S.D.A. and Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Series 1962, Number 2. 1965.

4. Neller, J. R. Availability of phosphorus from various phosphates applied
to different soil types. State Project 428. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual
Report. p. 99. 1950.

5. Neller, J. R. Sulfur versus phosphorus for soils in pastures of Florida.
Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla, Proc. 12:123-127. 1952.

6. Smith, F. Bo, N. Gammon, Jr., J. R. Neller, R. A. Carrigan, and G. M.
Volk. Correlation of soil characteristics with pasture crop and animal
response. Bankhead Jones Project 404. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report.
p. 120. 1949.

7. Thomas, B. P., H. H. Weeks and M. W. Hazen, Jr. Soil survey of Gadsden
County, Florida, U.S.D.A. and Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Series 1959, Number 5o
1961.

8. Walker, J. H. and V. W, Carlisle. Soil survey of Escambia County,
Florida. U.S.D.A. and Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta, Series 1955 No. 8. 1960.




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