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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Official series description
 Description of the major mapping...
 Physical and chemical properti...
 Management of Kanapaha soils
 Estimated yields
 Literature cited






Group Title: Department of Soils mimeograph report
Title: Benchmark soils
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00091524/00001
 Material Information
Title: Benchmark soils Kanapaha soils of Florida
Alternate Title: Kanapaha soils of Florida
Department of Soils mimeograph report SL 68-1 ; University of Florida
Physical Description: 19 leaves : map ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Thompson, L. G ( Leonard Garnett ), 1903-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Soils
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Department of Soils, Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: January 1968
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Analysis -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Soil management -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by L.G. Thompson, Jr. ... et al..
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaf 19).
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "January, 1968."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00091524
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 311081270

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Official series description
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Description of the major mapping units
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Physical and chemical properties
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Management of Kanapaha soils
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Estimated yields
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Literature cited
        Page 19
Full Text


Id VW3iill

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DEPARTMENT OF SOILS MIMEOGRAPH REPORT SL 68-1 JANUARY, 1968


BENCHMARK SOILS:


KANAPAHA SOILS OF FLORIDA


L. G. Thompson, Jr., R. E. Caldwell,
V. W. Carlisle, and R. G. Leighty


Department of Soils
Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida
Gainesville


HU3 LIBRARY

JUL 24 1988

I.F.A.S. Univ. of Florida








CONTENTS
Page

Introduct ion*.,*..0..,,......... ............* .. ...,*******a******** 1
General Characteristics of the Series.................... 1
Geology and Physiography.,.................................. 2
Climate..... ....................................*............. 2
Figure 1. Location of Major Areas of Kanapaha and
Associated Soils.............................*.. 3

Official Series Description..,...... ........................** ...** 4

Description of the Major Mapping Units........................... 6
Suwannee County..........................*...****.******.* 6
Hillsborough County................................** 7
Alachua County.......... ............. ..*..o....**........ 7

Physical and Chemical Properties....................... ........** 8
Air and Moisture Regimes................. ** *..*...*****. 9
Table 1. Physical Properties of Kanapaha Fine Sand,
Alachua County...... ..............,......***** 10
Table 2. Chemical Properties of Kanapaha Fine Sand,
Alachua County...... ................******.. 10

Management of Kanapaha Solls....................... .********* 11
Fertility Experiments on Kanapaha Soils.,.........-... .... 12
Corn,.. ........... ............. ......... .....*.. **....* 12
Pearl Millet and Oats........................... .. 14
Snap Beans....., ..... *,,.,. ..... .......***... .......* 14
Potatoes.............,................*.*********........ 15

Estimated Yields.......................... .............***** 16
Table 3. Estimated Yields in Alachua County...,.............. 17
Table 4. Estimated Yields in Hillsborough County.,.,,,..,... 17
Table 5. Estimated Yields in Suwannee County..........O...0Cec 18

Literature Cited............ ........ o... oe.........,..*.** ****** 19








INTRODUCTION


General Characteristics of the Series

Kanapaha series consists of moderately well-drained to somewhat

poorly drained soils formed from marine sands over phosphatic loamy

materials or limestone of the Hawthorn formation. They have gray tu

dark gray fine sandy surface layers varying in thickness from 2 to 7

Inches. They occur on level to sloping topography, with most slopes

less than 5 percent. The subsoil layers are light gray fine sand with

shades of yellow and reddish-yellow mottles. Finer textured materials

occur at a depth of more than 30 Inches and In places may be several feet

deep. In some areas, pebbles of phosphatic materials are scattered over

the surface and mixed throughout the profile, A few chert and rounded

gravel fragments are found on some sloping areas. The subsoil is

moderately permeable, and the water table normally is moderately shallow

(30 to 60 Inch depth) for 2 to 6 months of a year. These soils are

usually associated with the Arredondo, Fellowship, Galnesville, Fort

Meade, Plummer, Blanton, and Bladen soils. They are not as well-drained

as the Gainesville or Arredondo soils but are better drained than the

Plummer or Bladen soils. Kanapaha soils have a grayer colored profile

than Arredondo, Gainesville,and Fort Meade. They are coarser textured

and lighter colored throughout the profile than Fellowship soils.

The natural vegetation consists of oak, loblolly pine, sweetgum,

magnolia, hickory, bay, sedges, a few saw-palmetto, and wiregrass,

Most of the areas are in native forest, but a small portion of the total

area is cultivated, used for pasture, or plantings of slash pine.





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Geology and Physiography

Kanapaha soils have developed from relatively thin to moderately

thick beds of phosphatic sands and clays over limestone. They usually

occur on level to nearly level areas, frequently near lakes and ponds,

Internal drainage ranges from medium to slow through the finer textured

layers with rapid permeability through the sandy horizons. Surface

runoff ranges from none to slight.

Climate

The climate of the Kanapaha soil areas In Florida is characterized

by high relative humidity, long warm summers, and short mild winters.

Although the rainfall is generally abundant throughout the year, crops

are usually subjected to short periods of moisture stress in the spring

and fall. The climate is favorable for corn, peanuts, bright tobacco,

tung trees, a large variety of vegetables, and pasture grasses.

The average annual temperature Is approximately 710F., with

temperatures averaging about 570F. In December and January and about

810F. in July and August; although the temperatures as low as 60F. and

as high as 1030F. have been recorded by the United States Weather

Bureau station at Gainesville, Florida (12).

The annual rainfall of about 50 Inches is fairly well-distributed,

with larger amounts of precipitation usually occurring from June to

September,









































Figure 1. Location of Major Areas of Kanapaha and Associated Soils.




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OFFICIAL SERIES DESCRIPTION

KANAPAHA SERIES

The Kanapaha series consists of moderately well-drained Regosols
of central Florida. These soils are formed chiefly from marine sands
over finer textured materials or limestone of the Hawthorne and Ocala
formations. They are commonly associated with the Fellowship, Blichton,
Gainesville, Arredondo, Fort Meade, Hague, Zuber, Chiefland, and Jonesville
soils and to some extent with others. The Kanapaha soils are sandy to
a greater depth over finer textured materials than the Fellowship,
Blichton, Hague, and Zuber soils. They are less well-drained and are
paler in the subsurface layers than the Gainesville, Arredondo, Fort Meade,
and Jonesville soils. They are not as drought as the Chiefland soils.
They are rather widely distributed in central Florida but the total
acreage is small,

Soil Profile: Kanapaha fine sand

Ap 0-7" Dark gray (IOYR 4/1) fine sand; structureless; loose;
very little organic matter and very few roots; strongly
acid; gradual smooth boundary.

Cl 7-16' Gray (IOYR 5/1) fine sand; structureless; loose; very
little organic matter and only a few fine grass roots;
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. 6 to 12 inches.

C12 16-30" Gray (IOYR 5/1) fine sand with a few streaks of darker
color and a few streaks of pale yellow (5Y 7/3);
structureless; loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary. 10 to 24 inches thick.

C13 30-35" Light gray (IOYR 7/2) fine sand; structureless; loose;
a few sandy phosphatic pebbles up to 1 inch in diameter;
this layer very wet; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
4 to 8 inches thick.

C14 35-42" Light brownish-gray (IOYR 6/2) fine sand; structureless;
loose; many pebbles with brown and reddish-brown coatings;
strongly acid; diffuse Irregular boundary, 2 to 6 inches
thick.

D 42-50" Gray (IOYR 5/1) fine sandy clay loam with conmmn distinct
medium mottles of strong brown (7.5YR 5/6); weak medium
subangular blocky structure; slightly hard, firm, and
slightly sticky; many pebbles with brown to reddish-brown
surfaces; strongly acid,






Range in Ch$r .cteristics: The principal type is fine sand; minor ones
are loamy fine sand and sand. Surface soil color ranges from light gray
to dark gray. Subsurface colors range from light gray (IOYR 7/1) to
dark gray (1OYR 4/1) or dark grayish-brown (IOYR 4/2). Thickness of
sandy material over finer textured material ranges from 30 inches to
several feet; where it is 30 to 42 inches, a shallow phase may be
recognized. Rock may be encountered In places beneath the sandy mantle,
Colors given are for moist conditions. When soil is dry, values are
one or two units higher.

Topography: Level to sloping with slopes mostly less than 5 perser:.,

Drainage and Permeability: Moderately well to somewhat poorly drained
with medium runoff and medium to slow Internal drainage, Rapid permeability.

Vegetation: Some slash pine, live oak, sweetgum, hickory, magnolia,
bay, maple, and a number of other hardwoods.

Use: Largely forested; some is cleared and used for the production of
corn, vegetables, watermelons, hay, and pasture.

Distribution: Central Florida, from Polk County north to the southern
edge of Lowndes County, Georgia.

Type Location: Marion County, Florida, just north of paved road 5.7
miles west of Mclntosh.

Series Established: Alachua County, Florida, 1942.








National Cooperative Soil Survey
USA

Rev, AHH
2-4-59







DESCRIPTION OF THE MAJOR MAPPING UNITS

The following profile descriptions, approximate acreages, and

proportionate extent of correlated Kanapaha soils appear in current

county soil survey reports.

Suwannee County

A profile description of Kanapaha fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.

occurring In Suwannee County (7) is as follows:

0 to 7 inches, dark gray to dark grayish-brown, loose fine sand.
7 to 44 inches, grayish-brown to light brownish-gray, loose fine
sand distinctly mottled with gray and pale yellow below
a depth of 29 inches.
44 to 74 inches, light gray, very friable fine sandy loam mottled
with reddish-yellow.

The surface soil varies from dark gray to dark grayish-brown In

wooded areas, but it Is lighter colored in cultivated fields. Fine

sand generally extends to a depth of over 42 Inches, but in some places

the finer textured material begin at 30 to 42 inches deep, In some

areas, the subsoil is distinctly mottled with red, gray, and yellow

be;ow a depth of 42 inches. This soil Is low in organic matter and

natural fertility, and is strongly acid. The soil has a low available

moisture capacity, but has a water table which Is normally in the lower

part of the root zone.

Kanapaha fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, resembles Kanapaha fine

sand 0 to 5 percent slopes, except that the thickness of the fine sand

layers is more variable and the slopes are steeper. This soil Is not

well-suited to cultivation, but Is suited to pastures and pine trees.

The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Kanapaha soils

In ;his county are as follows:

Kanapaha fine sand, 0 to 5 percent s;opes---~950 acres-- G..2%
Kanapaha fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes----;:37 acres---- 0,1%







Hillsborough County

A profile description of Kanapaha fine sand occurring in Hillsborough

County (8) is as follows:

0 to 4 inches, dark gray nearly loose fine sand; contains small
amount of organic matter; a few leached phosphatic
pebbles occur on the surface,
4 to 16 inches, light gray or light yellowish-brown loose fine
sand; contains a few phosphatic pebbles.
16 to 42 inches +, very pale brown loose fine sand with a few
streaks of yellowish-brown and brownish-yellow; contains
a few phosphatic pebbles.

This soil is moderately well-drained to somewhat poorly drained

and is strongly acid. Internal drainage and surface runoff are medium

to slow.

The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Kanapaha fine

sand in this county is 109 acres or slightly less than 0,1%.

Alachua County

A profile description of Kanapaha fine sand occurring in Alachua

County (12) is as follows:

0 to 5 inches, gray to dark gray loose fine sand; contains a
variable quantity of organic matter; strongly acid.
Under cultivation the organic matter quickly disappears,
and the surface soil becomes light gray.
5 to 40 inches, light gray or yellowish-white loose fine sand,
strongly acid.
40 to 60 Inches +, mottled light gray and brown fine sandy clay
or limestone, Locally the limestone is within 50 or 60
inches of the surface.

Small areas of medium-textured sand occur in a few places. Locally

a few chert fragments, rounded gravel, or cobbles are scattered over

the surface and mixed throughout the profile.

Kaniapaha-Bladen complex consists of areas of Kanapaha fine sand

and Bladen loamy fine sand so intricately associated and mixed that an

accurate separation of these soils cculd not be made on a map of the






scale used. Relief is level to very gently undulating. Usually both

surface and internal drainage of the Bladen soils are poor, while that

of the Kanapaha soils are good. Small areas of Bladen loamy fine sand

where the fine sandy clay loam is near the surface and small spots of

Leon fine sand are included in the complex.

The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Kanapaha soil

in this county are as follows:

Kanapaha fine sand------------ 20,818------------. 6%
Kanapaha-Bladen complex------.. 4,862 ---------.---0.8%

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Data on physical and chemical analyses of several Kanapaha profiles

from Alachua County were reported by Gammon et al. (6). Particle size

distribution of a typical profile is shown in Table 1. Fine sand and

medium sand were the dominant particle sizes. Fine sand varied from

40,1 to 45.5 percent in the surface soil. Medium sand ranged from 30C5

to 36.6 percent, and very fine sand from 10,3 to 11,4 percent. The

surface layers contained 3.6 to 4.0 percent silt and 1.0 to 1.7 percent

clay. The lower layers contain less fine sand and silt than the surface

layer. The 35 to 40 inch layer varied from 10,7 to 17,6 percent clay.

Table 2 contains chemical analyses of the same Kanapaha soil

profiles, Reaction ranged frompH 5,9 to .6.5and moisture equivalent

varied from 6.29 to 7020. The organic matter content varied from 2.63

to 3,18% In the surface soil. The cation exchange capacity of the

surface horizon ranged from 4.8 to 7.6 milllequivalents per 100 grams.

Calcium varied from 3.89 to 4.63 milliequivalents per 190 grams of soll.

All the horizons were low in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, but






the surface soil was higher In nitrogen and potassium than the other

horizons. Magnesium was higher In layers below 35 inches than in the

upper layers.

Air and Moisture Regimes

The relief of Kanapaha soils is nearly level in most cases and

sloping In a few places. They are deep, moderately well-drained to

somewhat poorly drained soils. Internal drainage and surface runoff

are medium to slow. Because of a very slowly permeable substrate,

they may have a perched water table, which is between 30 and 60-inch

depths for 2 to 6 months of a year. The soil layers are rapidly

permeable by air and allow deep rooting except where inhibited by a

high water table. The soil has a low available moisture capacity, but

is favored by a water table normally in the lower part of the root zone,

While the upper portion of the profile is rapidly permeable, It may

become saturated to the surface during long wet periods,





Table 1. Physical properties of Karapaha fine sand, Alachua County (6).


Horizon Very Very
Depth In Coarse Coarse Medium Fine Fine Coarse Fine Clay
inches Sand Sand Sand Sand Sand Silt Silt

0-2 0.2 7.2 36.6 40.1 10.3 4.0 0.4 1,0
2-7 0.2 8.8 39.3 38.4 8.3 3.8 0.2 1.0
7-15 0.5 8.5 39.4 38.6 3.1 8.5 0.3 1.1
i5-35 0.3 8.6 36.7 39.2 8.0 4.6 0.3 2.1
35-40 0.4 7.3 30.0 32.3 5.2 5.5 1.7 17.6
40-50 0.3 6.5 27.8 24.4 2.7 2.1 0.0 36 i




Table 2. Chemical properties of Kanapaha fine sand, Alachua County (6)



Horizon Moist- Total Cation Exchangeable Bases
Depth in pH ure Solution Organic Total Phos- Exchange Ca K M-
inches Equiv- Loss Matter Nitrogen phorus Capacity me/ me/ me/
talent me/lOOg l0... lOOg lOOg

0-2 5.86 7.21 3.3 3.18 .114 .017 7.6 4.63 .084 1.03
2-7 5.78 2.36 0.5 .47 .022 .013 1.7 .61 .009 .12
7-15 5.40 1.52 0.2 .30 .010 .017 1.6 .38 .003 .14
15-35 5.07 1.73 0.2 .14 .002 .014 1.4 .22 .009 .10
35-40 4.98 9.90 0.6 .50 .025 .188 10.2 2.33 023 .57
40-50 4.82 19,36 0.6 ,59 .030 .065 17.6 5~48 .078 12,




-1l-


MANAGEMENT OF KANAPAHA SOILS

Since surface runoff and internal drainage are slow to medium, water

management practices are essential for desirable yields of cultivated

crops on Kanapaha soils. These soils are strongly acid and low in

organic matter content. They require lime and liberal applications

of fertilizer to improve the low natural fertility. Crop residues

should be left on the surface of the soil. Cover crops should occupy

the land at least two-thirds of the time and should be plowed under

when mature. A rotation which includes Improved pasture and cultivated

crops also improves soil fertility, A good sod of bahiagrass or

bermudagrass should be established and maintained 4 out of 6 years.

Kanapaha soils are well-suited to cultivated crops, especially truck

crops and corn, Improved pasture, and pine trees, Because of the

moderately shallow water table, drought has less influence on pastures

on this soil than on similar sandy soils. The soil Is very porous

resulting in rapid movement of water and air. The water table generally

fluctuates between 30 and 60 inches below the surface for two to six

months of a year, The available moisture capacity Is low, but because

of a high water table, the soil is not as drought In a dry season as

associated soils on higher elevations. Water erosion and wind erosion

are not hazards. Under good management fair to good yields of

vegetables and citrus fruits are cbtainedo Management requirements

include soil building crops, water control, Irrigation, liming, and

liberal fertilization.

Since this soil is p*Kous and plant nutrients leach cut rapidly,

frequent applications of fertill;ier are nded, For truck crops and




-12-


vegetables, 1,200 to 2,500 pounds per acre of a mixed fertilizer are

usually applied. The fertilizer generally contains from 25 to 40

percent of the nitrogen from organic sources and sufficient copper,

zinc, manganeseand boron for good plant growth. Most of the

fertilizer Is applied at planting time and part as a side dressing.

When the crops begin to bear fruit, asmaBntui nitrate, nitrate of soda,

or nitrate of soda-potash may be applied to some crops as a sldedressing.

Organic fertilizers such as cottonseed meal or castor pomace are often

applied before peppers, tomatoes, or strawberries are planted. Mixed

fertilizer is applied to fruit trees at the rate of 15 to 40 pounds

per tree.

Kanapaha soils are strongly acid and lime must be applied to correct

the acidity and to supply calcium. The soils should be tested to

determine how much to apply. From 1,000 to 2,000 pounds per acre of

lime is usually applied every two to three years for most crops, and

about 1,000 pounds per acre for improved pasture.

Fertility Experiments on Kanapaha Soils

Corn: On Kanapaha-Ona fine sand complex near Ga;nesvlle, Robertlor

and Lundy (10) studied the effect of various fertilizer rates on the

yield of corn. Even with the low level of calcium in this soil, corn

yielded as high as 109 bushels per acre, This yield was obtained with

800 pounds per acre of 4-12-12 applied at planting and 160 pounds per

acre of nitrogen from animonium nitrate applied when the corn was knee

high. When ammonium nitrate was split Into two or three applications,

there was no significant increase in yield, The corn was planted at

the same rate for all fertilizer treatments, but at harvest the lowest




-13-


fertilizer rates had the fewest stalks. The weight of ears and the ears

per stalk increased significantly as the rate of fertilizer was increased.

Fiskell (4) Investigated the effect of high rates of nitrogen on

corn yields, With 350, 490,and 630 pounds of nitrogen per acre from

three sources, the yields of corn averaged 115.7, 126.7, and 126,8

bushels per acre, respectively. At the same rate, the method of

application or the nitrogen source had no significant effect on yields

of corn. Increasing P205 from 120 to 220 pounds per acre and K20 from

120 to 300 pounds per acre did not increase corn yields. He concluded

that high nitrogen fertilization did not increase corn yields economically.

Robertson et al. (11) studied the effect of stand and fertility

on the yield of corn. The corn was planted the same distance apart in

the row for all fertilizer rates. The plots where two rows were planted

and the next two rows were not planted, yielded almost as much as the

plots where all the rows were planted. When two rows were left out,

there were more ears per stalk and the size of the ear was larger.

This difference may have been due to several factors such as moisture,

temperature, light, and carbon dioxide. About 80 percent of the carbon

dioxide required must move into the field. The plots with two blank

rows might alter all of the factors mentioned, for the air could

readily move into the field.

Fiskell and Winsor (5) recorded the effect of minor element sources

on the yield of sweet corn on Kanapaha fine sand. They found that 30

pounds per acre of frit NF501 or 30 pounds of a complete minor element

salt mixture used in addition to 1,000 pounds per acre of 10-5-10

fertilizer Increased the yield 30 percent. Copper sulfate or zinc

sulfate at either 3,9 ot 39 pounds per acre had no effect on the yield




-14-


nor did EDTA at 30 pounds per acre. Where zinc was applied, and on

the check plots, lime at 3 tons per acre increased yields. The

following crop of soybeans averaged 14 bushels per acre, with a 4

bushel increase for lime and 4.4 for fruit NF501 and EDTA plus the

complete minor element mixture.

Pearl Millet and Oats: Blue and Eno (1) made a study of the

effect of lime on plant growth and recovery of nitrogen from anhydrous

ammonia, urea, and ammonium nitrate on Kanapaha fine sand. They found

that urea and anhydrous ammonia produced rather low yields of pearl

millet and oat forage, and there was low recovery of the applied

nitrogen by the plants when compared to ammonium nitrate. Liming

the soil produced a marked increase in the yield of pearl millet and

oat forage, and in plant recovery of nitrogen from the applied urea

and anhydrous ammonia. Plant recovery of nitrogen from ammonium

nitrate was somewhat less from the limed soil. Nitrification was

very low on the unlimed soil. An application of 2 tons of lime per

acre Increased the pH to 6.0 and resulted in a large increase in

the nitrification rate. For efficient use of reduced sources of

nitrogen, such as urea and anhydrous ammonia, in the acid sandy soils

of Florida, the soil reaction should be maintained between pH 5.5

and 6.5 by the judicious application of lime.

Snap Beans: Breland (2) reported the effects of soil phosphorus

and calcium applications on soil analysis and yield of snap beans

on Kanapaha fine sand. Various rates of superphosphate and dolomite

were applied while the nitrogen and potassium rates were constant.

Increasing dolomite from 1,000 to 2,500 pounds per acre increased

to CaO content of the soil 110 pounds per acre; the increase was




-15-


409 pounds per acre when the dolomite applied was increased to 4,000

pounds per acre. Four applications of superphosphate at 90 pounds

of P205 per acre each, Increased the soil test values for P205 8

pounds per acre, and 17 pounds of P205 per acre by 4 applications

of superphosphate at 180 pounds per acre.

Breland and Locascio (3) studied the effect of phosphorus and

dolomite applications on soil test values on Kanapaha fine sand.

Superphosphate (46% P205) and agricultural grade dolomite were used

at rates of 0, 90, and 180 pounds of P205 and 1,000, 2,500, and

4,000 pounds per acre of dolomite, respectively, About 7 months

after applying the dolomite, the soil pH reached a maximum. Two

and one-half years after the dolomite was applied, the pH, calcium,

and magnesium levels began to decline, but the magnesium level was

first to decline. The magnesium content of the leaf tissue was

increased significantly. After the first crop,the percent recovery

of the applied phosphorus as NH40Ac (pH 4.8) extractable phosphorus

was 5 and 4 percent for the 90 and 180 pound rates, respectively,

As each increment of phosphorus was applied, the phosphorus values

continued to increase. The soil received 360 and 720 pounds per

acre of P205 and 64 percent of this phosphorus was recovered.

Kanapaha soil fixed a larger amount of phosphorus than the Ona soil,

and It was found to be less available to plants. Therefore, Kanapaha

soil needs larger amounts of applied phosphorus than Ona soils,

Potatoes: Breland (2) investigated the effect of lime and

phosphorus on soil test values after growing irish potatoes on

Kanapaha fine sand. When dolomite was increased from ',000 to 2,500

pounds per acre, the CaO content of the soil was increased 110 pounds




-16-


per acre. Increasing dolomite to 4,000 pounds per acre Increased

CaO content 409 pounds per acre. Four applications of superphosphate

at 90 and 180 pounds of P205 per acre increased the soil test values

8 and 17 pounds of P205 per acre, respectively.

Breland and Locascio (3) made a study of the effect of dolomite

and phosphorus applications on soil test values on Kanapaha fine sand,

Dolomite applications significantly increased the calcium and magnesium

content of plant tissue. The increases in the recovery of phosphorus

were significant, and the total soil phosphorus Increased. The

recovery was 64 percent of the applied phosphorus. The amount of

phosphorus fixed by the Kanapaha soil was 10 percent higher than

for the Ona soil. The Kanapaha soil received the same amount of

phosphorus as the Ona soil, but contained three times as much, Irish

potato leaf samples grown on Ona soil contained 190 percent more

phosphorus than those grown on Kanapaha soil.


ESTIMATED YIELDS

The estimated average acre yields of principal crops grown on

Kanapaha fine sand in Alachua County (12), Suwannee County (7), and

Hillsborough County (8) are shown In Tables 3, 4, and 5, respectively.




Table 3, Estimated average acre yields of the principal crops on K~ e aha fine san that may be expected over
a period of years In Alachua County.


Corn and Bright Sugar Sweet Water- Permanent
Corn Peanuts Cowpeas tobacco cane for Cucumbers potatoes Okra melons pasture
Interplanted syrup
Corn Nuts

bu2 bu3 bu lb. tons lb. gal crates bu crates car loads cow-acre-days

9 18 8 450 .6 800 175 125 60 100 .5 100-200


lYields obtained under common management; permanent pasture is based
2yields without fertilizer.
3Yields with 200 Ibs. 5-7-5 plus 100 Ibs. of NaN03 per acre.


Table 4. Estimated average acre yields of principal crops on Kanapaha
management in Hillsborough County.1


on improved management.


fine sand under two levels of


Tomatoes Sweet Green Pole Cucumbers Squash Lettuce
Corn Peppers Beans
A B A B A B A 8 A B A A B
doz doz bu bu bu bu bu bu bu bu crates crases
110 180 350 425 140 230 100 160 150 250 70 100 70 i2,

Cabbage Eggplant Watermelons Corn Crowder peas Citrus fruit
tons bu no. bu bu bu


B
350


B
400


A B A B
100 175 330 500


IYields in A columns under common management; those nr; columns under more intMrnsve management,


rr- I I ~--I II --~---C~- ----ili








Table 5. Estimated average acre yields of principal crops on Kanapaha fine sand 5
to 8 percent slopes under two levels of management in Suwannee CountyI


Bright Water Pasture
Corn Peanuts tobacco melons Grass Small grain
cow-acre-days2 Ibs. of beef
A 8 A B A B A 8 A B A B
bu bu Ib lb lb lb no. no.
18 40 450 900 900 1800 175 275 150 315 55 140


lYields in A columns are expected under common management; those in B column under
improved management.

2Number of days a year that 1 acre of pasture will graze 1 cow without injury to
the pasture.




-19-


LITERATURE CITED

1. Blue, W. G. and C. F. Eno. The effect of lime on plant growth and
recovery of nitrogen from anhydrous ammonia, urea, and ammonium
nitrate in acid sandy soils. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc, of Fla, Proc.
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2. Breland, H. L. The effect of soil application of calcium and
phosphorus on the soil analysis and yield of snap beans and Irish
potatoes. State Project 1039. Fla. Agr. Exp, Sta. Annual Report.
p. 185. 1961.

3. Breland, H. L, and S. J. Locascio. The effect of dolomite and
phosphorus applications on soil fertility measurements. Soil and
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6. Gammon, N. Jr., J. R. Henderson, R. A. Carrigan, R. E, Caldwell,
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chemical analyses of some virgin Florida soils. Fla. Agr. Exp, Sta.
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7. Huston, T. B., M. W. Hazen, T. C. Mathews, and G. A. Brown. Soil
Survey of Suwannee County, Florida. U.S.D.A. and Fla. Agr. Exp.
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8. Leighty, R. G., V. W. Carlisle, 0. E. Cruz, J. H. Walker, J. Beem,
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Z. T. Millsap. Soil survey of Hillsborough County, Florida. U.S.D.A.
and Fla, Agr. Exp. Sta. Series 1950, No. 3. 1958.

9. Robertson, W. K. and J. G. A. Fiskell. Subsoiling and deep
placement of fertilizer. State Project 764. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
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10. Robertson, W. K. and H. W. Lundy. Factors limiting field crop
production In north central Florida. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. of
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11. Robertson, W. K., V. N. Schroder, H. W. Lundy, and G. M. Prine.
Carbon Dioxide, as it affects corn yields. Soil and Crop Scl.
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12. Taylor, A. E., R. G. Leighty, M. B. Marco, C. Lounsbury, J. R.
Henderson, and 0. E. Gall. Soil survey of Alachua County, Florida.
U.S.D.A. and Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Series 1940. No. 10. 1954.




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