DEPARTMENT OF SOILS MIMEOGRAPH REPORT SL 68-1 JANUARY, 1968
KANAPAHA SOILS OF FLORIDA
L. G. Thompson, Jr., R. E. Caldwell,
V. W. Carlisle, and R. G. Leighty
Department of Soils
Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida
JUL 24 1988
I.F.A.S. Univ. of Florida
Introduct ion*.,*..0..,,......... ............* .. ...,*******a******** 1
General Characteristics of the Series.................... 1
Geology and Physiography.,.................................. 2
Climate..... ....................................*............. 2
Figure 1. Location of Major Areas of Kanapaha and
Associated Soils.............................*.. 3
Official Series Description..,...... ........................** ...** 4
Description of the Major Mapping Units........................... 6
Suwannee County..........................*...****.******.* 6
Hillsborough County................................** 7
Alachua County.......... ............. ..*..o....**........ 7
Physical and Chemical Properties....................... ........** 8
Air and Moisture Regimes................. ** *..*...*****. 9
Table 1. Physical Properties of Kanapaha Fine Sand,
Alachua County...... ..............,......***** 10
Table 2. Chemical Properties of Kanapaha Fine Sand,
Alachua County...... ................******.. 10
Management of Kanapaha Solls....................... .********* 11
Fertility Experiments on Kanapaha Soils.,.........-... .... 12
Corn,.. ........... ............. ......... .....*.. **....* 12
Pearl Millet and Oats........................... .. 14
Snap Beans....., ..... *,,.,. ..... .......***... .......* 14
Estimated Yields.......................... .............***** 16
Table 3. Estimated Yields in Alachua County...,.............. 17
Table 4. Estimated Yields in Hillsborough County.,.,,,..,... 17
Table 5. Estimated Yields in Suwannee County..........O...0Cec 18
Literature Cited............ ........ o... oe.........,..*.** ****** 19
General Characteristics of the Series
Kanapaha series consists of moderately well-drained to somewhat
poorly drained soils formed from marine sands over phosphatic loamy
materials or limestone of the Hawthorn formation. They have gray tu
dark gray fine sandy surface layers varying in thickness from 2 to 7
Inches. They occur on level to sloping topography, with most slopes
less than 5 percent. The subsoil layers are light gray fine sand with
shades of yellow and reddish-yellow mottles. Finer textured materials
occur at a depth of more than 30 Inches and In places may be several feet
deep. In some areas, pebbles of phosphatic materials are scattered over
the surface and mixed throughout the profile, A few chert and rounded
gravel fragments are found on some sloping areas. The subsoil is
moderately permeable, and the water table normally is moderately shallow
(30 to 60 Inch depth) for 2 to 6 months of a year. These soils are
usually associated with the Arredondo, Fellowship, Galnesville, Fort
Meade, Plummer, Blanton, and Bladen soils. They are not as well-drained
as the Gainesville or Arredondo soils but are better drained than the
Plummer or Bladen soils. Kanapaha soils have a grayer colored profile
than Arredondo, Gainesville,and Fort Meade. They are coarser textured
and lighter colored throughout the profile than Fellowship soils.
The natural vegetation consists of oak, loblolly pine, sweetgum,
magnolia, hickory, bay, sedges, a few saw-palmetto, and wiregrass,
Most of the areas are in native forest, but a small portion of the total
area is cultivated, used for pasture, or plantings of slash pine.
Geology and Physiography
Kanapaha soils have developed from relatively thin to moderately
thick beds of phosphatic sands and clays over limestone. They usually
occur on level to nearly level areas, frequently near lakes and ponds,
Internal drainage ranges from medium to slow through the finer textured
layers with rapid permeability through the sandy horizons. Surface
runoff ranges from none to slight.
The climate of the Kanapaha soil areas In Florida is characterized
by high relative humidity, long warm summers, and short mild winters.
Although the rainfall is generally abundant throughout the year, crops
are usually subjected to short periods of moisture stress in the spring
and fall. The climate is favorable for corn, peanuts, bright tobacco,
tung trees, a large variety of vegetables, and pasture grasses.
The average annual temperature Is approximately 710F., with
temperatures averaging about 570F. In December and January and about
810F. in July and August; although the temperatures as low as 60F. and
as high as 1030F. have been recorded by the United States Weather
Bureau station at Gainesville, Florida (12).
The annual rainfall of about 50 Inches is fairly well-distributed,
with larger amounts of precipitation usually occurring from June to
Figure 1. Location of Major Areas of Kanapaha and Associated Soils.
OFFICIAL SERIES DESCRIPTION
The Kanapaha series consists of moderately well-drained Regosols
of central Florida. These soils are formed chiefly from marine sands
over finer textured materials or limestone of the Hawthorne and Ocala
formations. They are commonly associated with the Fellowship, Blichton,
Gainesville, Arredondo, Fort Meade, Hague, Zuber, Chiefland, and Jonesville
soils and to some extent with others. The Kanapaha soils are sandy to
a greater depth over finer textured materials than the Fellowship,
Blichton, Hague, and Zuber soils. They are less well-drained and are
paler in the subsurface layers than the Gainesville, Arredondo, Fort Meade,
and Jonesville soils. They are not as drought as the Chiefland soils.
They are rather widely distributed in central Florida but the total
acreage is small,
Soil Profile: Kanapaha fine sand
Ap 0-7" Dark gray (IOYR 4/1) fine sand; structureless; loose;
very little organic matter and very few roots; strongly
acid; gradual smooth boundary.
Cl 7-16' Gray (IOYR 5/1) fine sand; structureless; loose; very
little organic matter and only a few fine grass roots;
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. 6 to 12 inches.
C12 16-30" Gray (IOYR 5/1) fine sand with a few streaks of darker
color and a few streaks of pale yellow (5Y 7/3);
structureless; loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary. 10 to 24 inches thick.
C13 30-35" Light gray (IOYR 7/2) fine sand; structureless; loose;
a few sandy phosphatic pebbles up to 1 inch in diameter;
this layer very wet; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
4 to 8 inches thick.
C14 35-42" Light brownish-gray (IOYR 6/2) fine sand; structureless;
loose; many pebbles with brown and reddish-brown coatings;
strongly acid; diffuse Irregular boundary, 2 to 6 inches
D 42-50" Gray (IOYR 5/1) fine sandy clay loam with conmmn distinct
medium mottles of strong brown (7.5YR 5/6); weak medium
subangular blocky structure; slightly hard, firm, and
slightly sticky; many pebbles with brown to reddish-brown
surfaces; strongly acid,
Range in Ch$r .cteristics: The principal type is fine sand; minor ones
are loamy fine sand and sand. Surface soil color ranges from light gray
to dark gray. Subsurface colors range from light gray (IOYR 7/1) to
dark gray (1OYR 4/1) or dark grayish-brown (IOYR 4/2). Thickness of
sandy material over finer textured material ranges from 30 inches to
several feet; where it is 30 to 42 inches, a shallow phase may be
recognized. Rock may be encountered In places beneath the sandy mantle,
Colors given are for moist conditions. When soil is dry, values are
one or two units higher.
Topography: Level to sloping with slopes mostly less than 5 perser:.,
Drainage and Permeability: Moderately well to somewhat poorly drained
with medium runoff and medium to slow Internal drainage, Rapid permeability.
Vegetation: Some slash pine, live oak, sweetgum, hickory, magnolia,
bay, maple, and a number of other hardwoods.
Use: Largely forested; some is cleared and used for the production of
corn, vegetables, watermelons, hay, and pasture.
Distribution: Central Florida, from Polk County north to the southern
edge of Lowndes County, Georgia.
Type Location: Marion County, Florida, just north of paved road 5.7
miles west of Mclntosh.
Series Established: Alachua County, Florida, 1942.
National Cooperative Soil Survey
DESCRIPTION OF THE MAJOR MAPPING UNITS
The following profile descriptions, approximate acreages, and
proportionate extent of correlated Kanapaha soils appear in current
county soil survey reports.
A profile description of Kanapaha fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
occurring In Suwannee County (7) is as follows:
0 to 7 inches, dark gray to dark grayish-brown, loose fine sand.
7 to 44 inches, grayish-brown to light brownish-gray, loose fine
sand distinctly mottled with gray and pale yellow below
a depth of 29 inches.
44 to 74 inches, light gray, very friable fine sandy loam mottled
The surface soil varies from dark gray to dark grayish-brown In
wooded areas, but it Is lighter colored in cultivated fields. Fine
sand generally extends to a depth of over 42 Inches, but in some places
the finer textured material begin at 30 to 42 inches deep, In some
areas, the subsoil is distinctly mottled with red, gray, and yellow
be;ow a depth of 42 inches. This soil Is low in organic matter and
natural fertility, and is strongly acid. The soil has a low available
moisture capacity, but has a water table which Is normally in the lower
part of the root zone.
Kanapaha fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, resembles Kanapaha fine
sand 0 to 5 percent slopes, except that the thickness of the fine sand
layers is more variable and the slopes are steeper. This soil Is not
well-suited to cultivation, but Is suited to pastures and pine trees.
The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Kanapaha soils
In ;his county are as follows:
Kanapaha fine sand, 0 to 5 percent s;opes---~950 acres-- G..2%
Kanapaha fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes----;:37 acres---- 0,1%
A profile description of Kanapaha fine sand occurring in Hillsborough
County (8) is as follows:
0 to 4 inches, dark gray nearly loose fine sand; contains small
amount of organic matter; a few leached phosphatic
pebbles occur on the surface,
4 to 16 inches, light gray or light yellowish-brown loose fine
sand; contains a few phosphatic pebbles.
16 to 42 inches +, very pale brown loose fine sand with a few
streaks of yellowish-brown and brownish-yellow; contains
a few phosphatic pebbles.
This soil is moderately well-drained to somewhat poorly drained
and is strongly acid. Internal drainage and surface runoff are medium
The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Kanapaha fine
sand in this county is 109 acres or slightly less than 0,1%.
A profile description of Kanapaha fine sand occurring in Alachua
County (12) is as follows:
0 to 5 inches, gray to dark gray loose fine sand; contains a
variable quantity of organic matter; strongly acid.
Under cultivation the organic matter quickly disappears,
and the surface soil becomes light gray.
5 to 40 inches, light gray or yellowish-white loose fine sand,
40 to 60 Inches +, mottled light gray and brown fine sandy clay
or limestone, Locally the limestone is within 50 or 60
inches of the surface.
Small areas of medium-textured sand occur in a few places. Locally
a few chert fragments, rounded gravel, or cobbles are scattered over
the surface and mixed throughout the profile.
Kaniapaha-Bladen complex consists of areas of Kanapaha fine sand
and Bladen loamy fine sand so intricately associated and mixed that an
accurate separation of these soils cculd not be made on a map of the
scale used. Relief is level to very gently undulating. Usually both
surface and internal drainage of the Bladen soils are poor, while that
of the Kanapaha soils are good. Small areas of Bladen loamy fine sand
where the fine sandy clay loam is near the surface and small spots of
Leon fine sand are included in the complex.
The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of Kanapaha soil
in this county are as follows:
Kanapaha fine sand------------ 20,818------------. 6%
Kanapaha-Bladen complex------.. 4,862 ---------.---0.8%
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Data on physical and chemical analyses of several Kanapaha profiles
from Alachua County were reported by Gammon et al. (6). Particle size
distribution of a typical profile is shown in Table 1. Fine sand and
medium sand were the dominant particle sizes. Fine sand varied from
40,1 to 45.5 percent in the surface soil. Medium sand ranged from 30C5
to 36.6 percent, and very fine sand from 10,3 to 11,4 percent. The
surface layers contained 3.6 to 4.0 percent silt and 1.0 to 1.7 percent
clay. The lower layers contain less fine sand and silt than the surface
layer. The 35 to 40 inch layer varied from 10,7 to 17,6 percent clay.
Table 2 contains chemical analyses of the same Kanapaha soil
profiles, Reaction ranged frompH 5,9 to .6.5and moisture equivalent
varied from 6.29 to 7020. The organic matter content varied from 2.63
to 3,18% In the surface soil. The cation exchange capacity of the
surface horizon ranged from 4.8 to 7.6 milllequivalents per 100 grams.
Calcium varied from 3.89 to 4.63 milliequivalents per 190 grams of soll.
All the horizons were low in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, but
the surface soil was higher In nitrogen and potassium than the other
horizons. Magnesium was higher In layers below 35 inches than in the
Air and Moisture Regimes
The relief of Kanapaha soils is nearly level in most cases and
sloping In a few places. They are deep, moderately well-drained to
somewhat poorly drained soils. Internal drainage and surface runoff
are medium to slow. Because of a very slowly permeable substrate,
they may have a perched water table, which is between 30 and 60-inch
depths for 2 to 6 months of a year. The soil layers are rapidly
permeable by air and allow deep rooting except where inhibited by a
high water table. The soil has a low available moisture capacity, but
is favored by a water table normally in the lower part of the root zone,
While the upper portion of the profile is rapidly permeable, It may
become saturated to the surface during long wet periods,
Table 1. Physical properties of Karapaha fine sand, Alachua County (6).
Horizon Very Very
Depth In Coarse Coarse Medium Fine Fine Coarse Fine Clay
inches Sand Sand Sand Sand Sand Silt Silt
0-2 0.2 7.2 36.6 40.1 10.3 4.0 0.4 1,0
2-7 0.2 8.8 39.3 38.4 8.3 3.8 0.2 1.0
7-15 0.5 8.5 39.4 38.6 3.1 8.5 0.3 1.1
i5-35 0.3 8.6 36.7 39.2 8.0 4.6 0.3 2.1
35-40 0.4 7.3 30.0 32.3 5.2 5.5 1.7 17.6
40-50 0.3 6.5 27.8 24.4 2.7 2.1 0.0 36 i
Table 2. Chemical properties of Kanapaha fine sand, Alachua County (6)
Horizon Moist- Total Cation Exchangeable Bases
Depth in pH ure Solution Organic Total Phos- Exchange Ca K M-
inches Equiv- Loss Matter Nitrogen phorus Capacity me/ me/ me/
talent me/lOOg l0... lOOg lOOg
0-2 5.86 7.21 3.3 3.18 .114 .017 7.6 4.63 .084 1.03
2-7 5.78 2.36 0.5 .47 .022 .013 1.7 .61 .009 .12
7-15 5.40 1.52 0.2 .30 .010 .017 1.6 .38 .003 .14
15-35 5.07 1.73 0.2 .14 .002 .014 1.4 .22 .009 .10
35-40 4.98 9.90 0.6 .50 .025 .188 10.2 2.33 023 .57
40-50 4.82 19,36 0.6 ,59 .030 .065 17.6 5~48 .078 12,
MANAGEMENT OF KANAPAHA SOILS
Since surface runoff and internal drainage are slow to medium, water
management practices are essential for desirable yields of cultivated
crops on Kanapaha soils. These soils are strongly acid and low in
organic matter content. They require lime and liberal applications
of fertilizer to improve the low natural fertility. Crop residues
should be left on the surface of the soil. Cover crops should occupy
the land at least two-thirds of the time and should be plowed under
when mature. A rotation which includes Improved pasture and cultivated
crops also improves soil fertility, A good sod of bahiagrass or
bermudagrass should be established and maintained 4 out of 6 years.
Kanapaha soils are well-suited to cultivated crops, especially truck
crops and corn, Improved pasture, and pine trees, Because of the
moderately shallow water table, drought has less influence on pastures
on this soil than on similar sandy soils. The soil Is very porous
resulting in rapid movement of water and air. The water table generally
fluctuates between 30 and 60 inches below the surface for two to six
months of a year, The available moisture capacity Is low, but because
of a high water table, the soil is not as drought In a dry season as
associated soils on higher elevations. Water erosion and wind erosion
are not hazards. Under good management fair to good yields of
vegetables and citrus fruits are cbtainedo Management requirements
include soil building crops, water control, Irrigation, liming, and
Since this soil is p*Kous and plant nutrients leach cut rapidly,
frequent applications of fertill;ier are nded, For truck crops and
vegetables, 1,200 to 2,500 pounds per acre of a mixed fertilizer are
usually applied. The fertilizer generally contains from 25 to 40
percent of the nitrogen from organic sources and sufficient copper,
zinc, manganeseand boron for good plant growth. Most of the
fertilizer Is applied at planting time and part as a side dressing.
When the crops begin to bear fruit, asmaBntui nitrate, nitrate of soda,
or nitrate of soda-potash may be applied to some crops as a sldedressing.
Organic fertilizers such as cottonseed meal or castor pomace are often
applied before peppers, tomatoes, or strawberries are planted. Mixed
fertilizer is applied to fruit trees at the rate of 15 to 40 pounds
Kanapaha soils are strongly acid and lime must be applied to correct
the acidity and to supply calcium. The soils should be tested to
determine how much to apply. From 1,000 to 2,000 pounds per acre of
lime is usually applied every two to three years for most crops, and
about 1,000 pounds per acre for improved pasture.
Fertility Experiments on Kanapaha Soils
Corn: On Kanapaha-Ona fine sand complex near Ga;nesvlle, Robertlor
and Lundy (10) studied the effect of various fertilizer rates on the
yield of corn. Even with the low level of calcium in this soil, corn
yielded as high as 109 bushels per acre, This yield was obtained with
800 pounds per acre of 4-12-12 applied at planting and 160 pounds per
acre of nitrogen from animonium nitrate applied when the corn was knee
high. When ammonium nitrate was split Into two or three applications,
there was no significant increase in yield, The corn was planted at
the same rate for all fertilizer treatments, but at harvest the lowest
fertilizer rates had the fewest stalks. The weight of ears and the ears
per stalk increased significantly as the rate of fertilizer was increased.
Fiskell (4) Investigated the effect of high rates of nitrogen on
corn yields, With 350, 490,and 630 pounds of nitrogen per acre from
three sources, the yields of corn averaged 115.7, 126.7, and 126,8
bushels per acre, respectively. At the same rate, the method of
application or the nitrogen source had no significant effect on yields
of corn. Increasing P205 from 120 to 220 pounds per acre and K20 from
120 to 300 pounds per acre did not increase corn yields. He concluded
that high nitrogen fertilization did not increase corn yields economically.
Robertson et al. (11) studied the effect of stand and fertility
on the yield of corn. The corn was planted the same distance apart in
the row for all fertilizer rates. The plots where two rows were planted
and the next two rows were not planted, yielded almost as much as the
plots where all the rows were planted. When two rows were left out,
there were more ears per stalk and the size of the ear was larger.
This difference may have been due to several factors such as moisture,
temperature, light, and carbon dioxide. About 80 percent of the carbon
dioxide required must move into the field. The plots with two blank
rows might alter all of the factors mentioned, for the air could
readily move into the field.
Fiskell and Winsor (5) recorded the effect of minor element sources
on the yield of sweet corn on Kanapaha fine sand. They found that 30
pounds per acre of frit NF501 or 30 pounds of a complete minor element
salt mixture used in addition to 1,000 pounds per acre of 10-5-10
fertilizer Increased the yield 30 percent. Copper sulfate or zinc
sulfate at either 3,9 ot 39 pounds per acre had no effect on the yield
nor did EDTA at 30 pounds per acre. Where zinc was applied, and on
the check plots, lime at 3 tons per acre increased yields. The
following crop of soybeans averaged 14 bushels per acre, with a 4
bushel increase for lime and 4.4 for fruit NF501 and EDTA plus the
complete minor element mixture.
Pearl Millet and Oats: Blue and Eno (1) made a study of the
effect of lime on plant growth and recovery of nitrogen from anhydrous
ammonia, urea, and ammonium nitrate on Kanapaha fine sand. They found
that urea and anhydrous ammonia produced rather low yields of pearl
millet and oat forage, and there was low recovery of the applied
nitrogen by the plants when compared to ammonium nitrate. Liming
the soil produced a marked increase in the yield of pearl millet and
oat forage, and in plant recovery of nitrogen from the applied urea
and anhydrous ammonia. Plant recovery of nitrogen from ammonium
nitrate was somewhat less from the limed soil. Nitrification was
very low on the unlimed soil. An application of 2 tons of lime per
acre Increased the pH to 6.0 and resulted in a large increase in
the nitrification rate. For efficient use of reduced sources of
nitrogen, such as urea and anhydrous ammonia, in the acid sandy soils
of Florida, the soil reaction should be maintained between pH 5.5
and 6.5 by the judicious application of lime.
Snap Beans: Breland (2) reported the effects of soil phosphorus
and calcium applications on soil analysis and yield of snap beans
on Kanapaha fine sand. Various rates of superphosphate and dolomite
were applied while the nitrogen and potassium rates were constant.
Increasing dolomite from 1,000 to 2,500 pounds per acre increased
to CaO content of the soil 110 pounds per acre; the increase was
409 pounds per acre when the dolomite applied was increased to 4,000
pounds per acre. Four applications of superphosphate at 90 pounds
of P205 per acre each, Increased the soil test values for P205 8
pounds per acre, and 17 pounds of P205 per acre by 4 applications
of superphosphate at 180 pounds per acre.
Breland and Locascio (3) studied the effect of phosphorus and
dolomite applications on soil test values on Kanapaha fine sand.
Superphosphate (46% P205) and agricultural grade dolomite were used
at rates of 0, 90, and 180 pounds of P205 and 1,000, 2,500, and
4,000 pounds per acre of dolomite, respectively, About 7 months
after applying the dolomite, the soil pH reached a maximum. Two
and one-half years after the dolomite was applied, the pH, calcium,
and magnesium levels began to decline, but the magnesium level was
first to decline. The magnesium content of the leaf tissue was
increased significantly. After the first crop,the percent recovery
of the applied phosphorus as NH40Ac (pH 4.8) extractable phosphorus
was 5 and 4 percent for the 90 and 180 pound rates, respectively,
As each increment of phosphorus was applied, the phosphorus values
continued to increase. The soil received 360 and 720 pounds per
acre of P205 and 64 percent of this phosphorus was recovered.
Kanapaha soil fixed a larger amount of phosphorus than the Ona soil,
and It was found to be less available to plants. Therefore, Kanapaha
soil needs larger amounts of applied phosphorus than Ona soils,
Potatoes: Breland (2) investigated the effect of lime and
phosphorus on soil test values after growing irish potatoes on
Kanapaha fine sand. When dolomite was increased from ',000 to 2,500
pounds per acre, the CaO content of the soil was increased 110 pounds
per acre. Increasing dolomite to 4,000 pounds per acre Increased
CaO content 409 pounds per acre. Four applications of superphosphate
at 90 and 180 pounds of P205 per acre increased the soil test values
8 and 17 pounds of P205 per acre, respectively.
Breland and Locascio (3) made a study of the effect of dolomite
and phosphorus applications on soil test values on Kanapaha fine sand,
Dolomite applications significantly increased the calcium and magnesium
content of plant tissue. The increases in the recovery of phosphorus
were significant, and the total soil phosphorus Increased. The
recovery was 64 percent of the applied phosphorus. The amount of
phosphorus fixed by the Kanapaha soil was 10 percent higher than
for the Ona soil. The Kanapaha soil received the same amount of
phosphorus as the Ona soil, but contained three times as much, Irish
potato leaf samples grown on Ona soil contained 190 percent more
phosphorus than those grown on Kanapaha soil.
The estimated average acre yields of principal crops grown on
Kanapaha fine sand in Alachua County (12), Suwannee County (7), and
Hillsborough County (8) are shown In Tables 3, 4, and 5, respectively.
Table 3, Estimated average acre yields of the principal crops on K~ e aha fine san that may be expected over
a period of years In Alachua County.
Corn and Bright Sugar Sweet Water- Permanent
Corn Peanuts Cowpeas tobacco cane for Cucumbers potatoes Okra melons pasture
bu2 bu3 bu lb. tons lb. gal crates bu crates car loads cow-acre-days
9 18 8 450 .6 800 175 125 60 100 .5 100-200
lYields obtained under common management; permanent pasture is based
2yields without fertilizer.
3Yields with 200 Ibs. 5-7-5 plus 100 Ibs. of NaN03 per acre.
Table 4. Estimated average acre yields of principal crops on Kanapaha
management in Hillsborough County.1
on improved management.
fine sand under two levels of
Tomatoes Sweet Green Pole Cucumbers Squash Lettuce
Corn Peppers Beans
A B A B A B A 8 A B A A B
doz doz bu bu bu bu bu bu bu bu crates crases
110 180 350 425 140 230 100 160 150 250 70 100 70 i2,
Cabbage Eggplant Watermelons Corn Crowder peas Citrus fruit
tons bu no. bu bu bu
A B A B
100 175 330 500
IYields in A columns under common management; those nr; columns under more intMrnsve management,
rr- I I ~--I II --~---C~- ----ili
Table 5. Estimated average acre yields of principal crops on Kanapaha fine sand 5
to 8 percent slopes under two levels of management in Suwannee CountyI
Bright Water Pasture
Corn Peanuts tobacco melons Grass Small grain
cow-acre-days2 Ibs. of beef
A 8 A B A B A 8 A B A B
bu bu Ib lb lb lb no. no.
18 40 450 900 900 1800 175 275 150 315 55 140
lYields in A columns are expected under common management; those in B column under
2Number of days a year that 1 acre of pasture will graze 1 cow without injury to
1. Blue, W. G. and C. F. Eno. The effect of lime on plant growth and
recovery of nitrogen from anhydrous ammonia, urea, and ammonium
nitrate in acid sandy soils. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc, of Fla, Proc.
2. Breland, H. L. The effect of soil application of calcium and
phosphorus on the soil analysis and yield of snap beans and Irish
potatoes. State Project 1039. Fla. Agr. Exp, Sta. Annual Report.
p. 185. 1961.
3. Breland, H. L, and S. J. Locascio. The effect of dolomite and
phosphorus applications on soil fertility measurements. Soil and
Crop Set. Soc. of Fla. Proc. 22:60-68. 1962.
4. Fiskell, J. G. A. Corn yields and incidence of barren stalks In
an experiment using high nitrogen rates-a progress.report. Soil
and Crop Sct. Soc. of Fla. Proc. 21:237-244. 1961.
5. Fiskell, J. G, A. and H. W. Winsor. Fertilization value of minor
element sources having a moderate rate of nutrient release. State
Project 792. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report. p. 161. 1958.
6. Gammon, N. Jr., J. R. Henderson, R. A. Carrigan, R. E, Caldwell,
R. G. Leighty, and F. B. Smith. Physical, spectrographic and
chemical analyses of some virgin Florida soils. Fla. Agr. Exp, Sta.
Bull. 524. 1953.
7. Huston, T. B., M. W. Hazen, T. C. Mathews, and G. A. Brown. Soil
Survey of Suwannee County, Florida. U.S.D.A. and Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Series 1961. No. 21. 1965.
8. Leighty, R. G., V. W. Carlisle, 0. E. Cruz, J. H. Walker, J. Beem,
R. E. Caldwell, J, B. Cromartle, J. L, Huber, E. D. Matthews, and
Z. T. Millsap. Soil survey of Hillsborough County, Florida. U.S.D.A.
and Fla, Agr. Exp. Sta. Series 1950, No. 3. 1958.
9. Robertson, W. K. and J. G. A. Fiskell. Subsoiling and deep
placement of fertilizer. State Project 764. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Annual Report. p. 151. 1957.
10. Robertson, W. K. and H. W. Lundy. Factors limiting field crop
production In north central Florida. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. of
Fla. Proc, 20:306-316. 1960.
11. Robertson, W. K., V. N. Schroder, H. W. Lundy, and G. M. Prine.
Carbon Dioxide, as it affects corn yields. Soil and Crop Scl.
Soc. of Fla. Proc. 21:229-237. 1961.
12. Taylor, A. E., R. G. Leighty, M. B. Marco, C. Lounsbury, J. R.
Henderson, and 0. E. Gall. Soil survey of Alachua County, Florida.
U.S.D.A. and Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Series 1940. No. 10. 1954.