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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00091523/00592
 Material Information
Title: Witness
Series Title: Journal of Undergraduate Research
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Kendzior, Megan
Pulvermacher, Neta
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
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Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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System ID: UF00091523:00592


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Megan Kendzior

What would you have done? What would you have done
if you were a German boy, a Jewish man, a Polish woman
during the Holocaust? What if you were the neighbor of a
Jew who had been taken without warning or reason? What
if you were a member of a Polish family that was evicted
from their home and sent to a concentration camp? What if
you were enlisted to become a member of the Nazi party?
What if the German expansion had taken over your home,
city, or country? Would you surrender? Would you fight?
Would you run? These are questions that prompted my
artistic research and exploration. I asked these questions of
myself and of four women dancers who participated in this
creative and research endeavor. Together we formed a
dance company whose purpose was to explore and honor
the historical details of the Holocaust. This information
became the basis for the dance Witness, which was
created, in collaboration with the dancers, during the fall
of 2009. In this process, I shared information with the
dancers through text, movement, and pictures and allowed
them time to physically explore and embody the ideas and
images. The process in its entirety was inspired by a
research trip that I took to Europe and subsequently to the
concentration camp of Auschwitz. Books, photographs,
journals, and videos about the history of Auschwitz and
the kind of hellish life that was lived there informed our
creative process.
In Witness, four women amidst rows of old shoes
explore the thin line between humane and inhumane and
investigate the questions that are raised about the choice
between the two in the face of great adversity. This project
serves as an investigation of the transparent yet defining
boundary of human nature, drawing directly from the
monstrosity and horror of World War II and the Holocaust.
The research objective is to reveal the manner in which art
can express tangible, complex, and historical research,
specifically through the medium of physical dance
theater-in other words, to offer an avenue for embodying
history both personal and collective through movement,
music, and theater. Utilizing research from the
choreographer's detailed personal history, conflicting
religious background, and intersecting bloodlines, the
work blends gesture and emotion to provide a resonating
experience. Embedded within this personal research is an
imagined but detailed account of Koncentrations Lager
Auschwitz. The resulting work, Witness, delves into the
horrors of the Holocaust accompanied by the somber
breath of the accordion (Figure 1).
I knew the task at hand: to explore, through movement,
the blend of grief, anger, sadness, and horror that I was
feeling at the monstrosity that I had witnessed at
Auschwitz in August 2009. I felt compelled to explore the

College of Fine Arts, University of Florida

physical reaction that I had experienced upon immersion
into the concentration camp. This feeling penetrated my
mind, body, and soul while visiting this site of mass
murder. The physical feeling that I felt at Auschwitz was
additional impetus for the in-depth research that led to
Witness. This physical reaction inspired me to dig deep
within myself to investigate the heart of the response. The
fuel to investigate this experience was generated from a
desire to honor in memorial the millions of victims that
died during the Holocaust. Witness provides an outlet for
the inquiry that has stemmed from this experience.

Figure 1: Witness in rehearsal during October 2009. Frank Ferraro,
Melissa Coleman, Melaney Holtham, Kristen McLaren and Whitney

Witness began on Friday, September 4, 2009. In a
hollow, emotionless state, I entered into the rehearsal
process with four beautiful women. These women were
chosen specifically for their maturity, focus, dedication,
and heart. The rehearsal process began with gut reactions
and the instinctual nature of human beings at the center of
the research. I asked the dancers to listen to their deepest
feelings, those which are unbiased and unprepared. In-
depth research of specific places, dates, occurrences, and
feelings fueled us. As discussion began most of our
rehearsals, we took a detailed look into the physical history
and location of Koncentrations Lager Auschwitz. Deep into
the world of questioning how and why the Holocaust had
happened, I began questioning myself and my own
existence at a physical and emotional level. In this place of
honest inquiry, we began to dissect details of my personal
experience at Auschwitz, which lead to the detailed
exploration of the physical concentration camp itself. I
knew before my visit to Auschwitz that I wanted to explore
the individual story of each dancer in my company.
Therefore, we worked from a place of personal discovery
in order to create four detailed solos. From discussion, we

University of Florida I Journal of Undergraduate Research I Volume 10, Issue 3 I Summer 2010


moved to structured improvisation. With a detailed format
in mind and an idea to explore, the dancers allowed their
bodies to fully deepen into the present moment, thus
investigating the manifestation of our discussions in their
physical bodies. This method of rehearsal allowed for me
to gain new perspective on the deviation between
preconceived thoughts and reality. During discussion, I
formulated thoughts and ideas on topics of interest.
Through improvisation, physical exploration allowed for
the underlying truth to shine through, at times confirming
the calculated beliefs and other times opposing them.
As a recipient of the University of Florida University
Scholars Research Grant, I visited Auschwitz in Oswi9cim,
Poland on August 8, 2009. Witnessing this site of horror
firsthand changed my entire outlook on daily life. I
realized, upon my return to Florida, the strength and weight
of my experience and the necessity for its exploration
through movement. I felt a responsibility to internalize that
experience and transfer the ideas to an art form that could
share the story with as many people as possible. I feel a
yearning and necessity to speak for those who can no
longer speak for themselves.
While at Auschwitz, I barely spoke. I saw movement
there. I cannot say that it was the millions of ghosts that
permeate the walls of the barracks. It was not the wind, as
there was no wind that day. It was not the sunshine casting
shadows upon the barracks, nor was it the movement of
trees, birds, or bugs. I witnessed within myself the dance
that was never performed there. I saw it. I stood, mostly in
silence. I absorbed the atmosphere like a wide-eyed child.
Every image and detail that entered through my eyes dug
deeper and deeper into my soul, leaving its mark upon my
Throughout my visit at the concentration camp, I felt the
full range of human capabilities: a mixture of horror,
sadness, anger, disgust, rage and disbelief at the
inhumanity that stood before my eyes. I searched for a
similar reaction and found it in the photographic journal of
Erich Hartmann. He speaks of his wife's reaction at the end
of his book. Ruth Bains Hartmann states, "one can feel
anger, sorrow, pity, rage, nausea, anxiety for the human
race" (101). Walking through the dusty roads with high
barbed wire fences on each side, I felt hollow with a
complete lack of hope or passion. My humanity was tossed
aside, and in place a physical tension had been manifested
out of the reality of Auschwitz.
I saw movement happening throughout the camp.
Standing in front of the gate that guards the exit of
Auschwitz, I imagined the millions of beings who were
forced to march under this gate. Four specific locations at
the camp spoke to me. The roll call square held hundreds
of imaginary beings whose bones were stacked into the
standing position. A square of concrete adjoining the camp
kitchen pierced my heart, soul, and body in the poignant
march that an orchestra of camp prisoners once played
there. Brick barracks held three-tiered wooden bunks with

straw mattresses. Piles of bodies, physically during the war
and spiritually during my 2009 visit, rested nightly in these
rabbit cages. There was also a courtyard surrounded on
three sides with a high wall at one end. This "wall of
death" was numbing and forced my undivided attention for
an unfathomable amount of time, both during my visit to
the camp but also in my research and thoughts from that
day forward.
These four highlights of my visit formed the basis of the
work Witness. I realized the impact that each of these
physical locations had on me immediately after our first
rehearsal as a company. I wrote of the experience in our
first group rehearsal and of my personal experience in
Europe. These four moments became the entire structure
for the piece. Upon looking into these four historical events
within the existence of the Holocaust and Auschwitz, the
work began to take shape. I choreographed a movement
idea that aligned with each of the four physical places that
stood out during my visit: the roll call square, the orchestra
square, three-tiered bunks, and the "wall of death." I
worked with the dancers and informed them of my detailed
research on each of the historical events and places.
Together, we formed comprehensive ideas and explored
them through movement.
We began with the roll call. During my visit to the camp,
I sensed the struggle that the prisoners went through. I felt
this specifically while standing in the grassy square in the
middle of the camp, the same square where masses of
humans stood as they were degraded and dehumanized by
the Nazis in a morning call of names and numbers (Figure
2). The journal of Sima Vaisman, a Jewish doctor and
Holocaust survivor, and the detail with which she wrote of
her experience, allowed for my dancers and me to gain
insight into the horrific ordeal that occurred each morning
at a concentration camp:

Figure 2: Women during roll call at Birkenau.
Source: Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum

University of Florida I Journal of Undergraduate Research I Volume 10, Issue 3 I Summer 2010


They chase us out of the block at 4:30 and, no matter
what the weather, those interminable roll-calls begin.
In rows of five, without moving, we wait for hours in
the snow and mud until the time the German S.S.
deigns to come count us. Beware, those who dare say
a word, move about, or don't stand at attention when
the S.S. passes. Beware, too, those who faint. At the
summons, everyone must be present and standing. We
hold up the ones who fall from exhaustion, so that the
S.S. won't see them on the ground. We revive them
any way we can when roll-call is over. (33)
While standing near the roll call square, I visualized
their physical condition and their mental state. I envisioned
their struggle to stand for hours on end. I imagined their
struggle to continue living. I felt their hope for change. I
sensed the increasing hopelessness in their empty eyes.
Paintings and journal entries informed these mental images
(Figure 3). I grasped the millions of empty souls, empty
hearts, and empty stomachs that stood in the same square
daily during the reign of Hitler's personal army, the SS.
According to Vaisman's journal,
Every day, we stand outside for hours at roll-call and,
after roll-call, they distribute our bread to us, the
ration already diminished to a sixth. After the third
day we're given a little soup, three or four spoonfuls
per person. But each time after this distribution and
this roll-call, we have to return to the barn under
blows that rain down and, inside, more blows await
us. (72)

Figure 3: Roll-Call 1941/1942 by Wincenty Gawron (1964).
Source: Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum.

This entry was pertinent to the physical exploration of
this historic experience as it assisted the dancer's quest to
honestly place themselves among the prisoners of a roll
call at Auschwitz. Reading this journal and viewing
pictures and drawings assisted us imagine the human
bodies that were physically unable to stand any longer and
mentally unable to handle the stress of the situation. The
first soloist, Whitney Wilson, delved into the realm of
these ideas and acted as a moving vehicle for the thoughts
that these prisoners would have had during a roll call
experience. I saw her as an angel or a ghost flitting among
pillars of strength. Wilson danced thoughts of disbelief,
heartache, physical ache, the struggle to stand tall, and the
battle to stay alive. These details were instrumental in the
creation of Witness as the process focused on an honest,
realistic, and honoring representation of the actual
Once the roll call square was thoroughly explored, the
idea was relinquished in order to move to the next solo and
the next physical location that held weight and struck a
chord within me. Upon entering the concentration camp,
one walks under the legendary gate, which states "Arbeit
Macht Frei/Work Will Set You Free" (Figure 4).
Immediately to the right of this gate is a concrete square,
where an orchestra was forced to play (Vaisman 52).
Prisoners were forced to play in the orchestra and it was
their duty to provide a beat for their fellow prisoners to
march to. They served as entertainment and distraction as
well as private entertainment for the Nazi officers at their
evening retreats, as detailed in the epic movie Schindler's

Figure 4: Entrance gate to Auschwitz

University of Florida I Journal of Undergraduate Research I Volume 10, Issue 3 I Summer 2010


Standing in front of the orchestra square on my visit to
Auschwitz, I could hear the music that this group of
prisoners would have played. I felt their presence and heard
their songs. I imagined a bow moving across the strings of
a violin, heard the rhythm of a beating drum, felt the breath
moving in and out of an accordion, and sensed the air
vibrating through a horn. The second soloist, Melissa
Coleman, utilized these details, as well as photos,
paintings, and journals, during her solo (Figure 5). She
danced the mental controversy between tough labor and
exploitation. Was it better to be exploited for a specific
talent and therefore given a day off work? Was this
exploitation worth the physical rest? Could you watch your
family and friends perform backbreaking duties while you
play an instrument at the command of a Nazi officer?
Coleman explored the space between these choices in her
solo. This was exemplified by her focus, which varied
between the accordion player on stage and the three
women on stage who were marching to work.

Figure 5: Day of a Prisoner by Mieczyslaw Koscielniak (1950)
provides us with insight into the horror of the Holocaust.
Source: Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum.
This idea dissolved to give way to a focused study on
observation, confinement, and lack of privacy. During my
visit to Auschwitz, I was struck by the poor living
conditions forced upon millions of human beings. Vaisman
speaks of the facilities in her testimony:
Inside, the floor is made of red bricks. On either side
of a short, narrow hallway, two passageways, on both
sides of which sorts of rabbit cages face each other in
three rows, one on top of the other. I can find no
expression more appropriate to designate our future

beds than that of 'rabbit cage'. Each cage is 6 x 3 feet
(the size of a body). There are six of us in a cage. We
are forced to sleep head-to-foot. We can also sit up but
only by bending over, since the cages are low. (31)
I witnessed these "rabbit cages" during my visit to the
camp. I was horrified at the idea of hundreds of men,
women, and children sharing a bunker at this level of
discomfort. Vaisman describes the discomfort: "We spend
entire days in these 'cages,' sitting completely bent over
(we do not have the right to stretch out during the day)"
(32). I was taken aback by the idea of cold, tired, sore, and
empty bodies piling up and along the barracks. A bed can
be a place of comfort and solace, but at Auschwitz the
barracks were infested with disease and fecal matter. The
straw mattress provided no alleviation for an exhausted
body. Blankets were small and dirty, providing no
consolation or warmth. In consequence, says Vaisman,
"Every night the quarrels begin, for we cannot lie down.
We have to lie on top of each other, we can't turn over at
night unless our neighbor turns over; everyone suspects her
neighbor of taking one centimeter more than she had the
day before, of being too comfortable" (74).
I could imagine the movement that occurred every night
in each of the barracks. I could feel this lack of comfort,
and I could sense the quest to find one ounce of relief
during my visit to the camp. Says Vaisman, "and another
day similar to the ones before being sad, interminable,
hopeless, in filth and shameful lack of privacy" (35). The
Auschwitz archives of photos and drawings added a layer
of reality and information to the creative process for this
segment of the work (Figure 6).

Figure 6: Inside of a Male Barrack in Birkenau by Mieczyslaw
Koscielniak (1972).
Source: Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum

Standing in a bunker at Auschwitz, I sensed the struggle
for personal space, the lack of privacy and felt disgusted at
the horrid living conditions that were forced upon these

University of Florida I Journal of Undergraduate Research I Volume 10, Issue 3 I Summer 2010


human beings. Melaney Holtham assumed the role of
surveying these conditions as the third soloist in Witness.
Her solo began as if she had woken from a nightmare with
a quest to evaluate her living situation. She began by
witnessing the structure of the barrack. A wooden barrack
that has three levels, she concludes. Then, as the women
form a strewn pile of bodies, Holtham moves to observe
the humanity that coexisted within that structure.
Repetition is at the basis of this solo as the first inspection
discusses the physical structure, the second examination
discusses the human interaction amidst the physical
structure, and the third wave of scrutiny blends the
structural and humanistic elements of the living conditions
to provide a removed and dynamic inspection. The
movement was inspired by the architecture of the barracks
and from a drawing hv Jerzv Adam Brandlhber (Ficures 7

and 8).


Figure 7: Witness

Figure 8: Mortuar
Source: Auschwit
As dawn break
awake. The four
this experience
(Figure 9). The
detailed explorati
are sent to the wa

are the penal barracks, numbered Barrack 10 and Barrack
11. Between these barracks is a dusty courtyard where
thousands of prisoners were shot.


Figure 9:Witness during rehearsal. Melaney Holtham, Whitney
Wilson, Melissa Coleman, Kristen McLaren.

S"During my visit to the concentration camp, I stood silent
in this courtyard. I was frozen, unable to move and unable
to feel. I stood watching the movement, witnessing ghosts
of prisoners walk out of the barracks, line up at the wall,
and fall to their deaths. Standing in the middle of the
courtyard on a bright August 2009 day, I could see in my
t mind the way that they fell. I could sense their fear,
acceptance, hatred or conceit. I could not tell you how long
I stood in this courtyard. Time passed. I felt as if I had
witnessed every single prisoner fall during the time I stood
imagining and witnessing this movement at the wall. Our
exploration of this wall began with the idea of building it.
The fourth soloist, Kristen McLaren, explored the idea of
shaping bricks through movement. She exemplified the
hard labor of the camp by building this wall. Meanwhile,
the three other women explored the idea of being sent to
the wall and murdered there. These explorations coincide
during rehearsal
as curiosity and defiance bring McLaren to the wall of
death in the final group of dying prisoners. The women
then began to explore the forms of punishment that were
used at Auschwitz in the penal barracks. This research
brought us to the human and physical reaction that occurs
when a group of people is punished. They have the
capacity to unite. This strong bond merges and strengthens
the group that then empowers the women to walk out of the
penal barracks and into the light. At this moment in the
piece, the women step out of their shoes to symbolize the
release of the spirits they were embodying. They unite as a
group once more while the audience is given an
opportunity to witness the entire spectrum of the work. The
women and the accordion player also allow a moment for
themselves to realize the entirety of their experience within
the piece that concludes with a slow procession across the
y by Jerzy Adam Brandhuber (1949) space and into oblivion.
z-Birkenau State Museum space and into oblvion.
I chose to work with the accordion for both personal and
ks in the barracks, the prisoners are beaten historical reasons. The accordion has always played a
women on stage during Witness simulate significant role in my life. My grandfather, Stanley P.
and subsequently, a selection occurs Kendzior, was a professional accordion player. My
three women who have experienced yearning to have an accordion player on stage was initiated
ons of the physical structure of Auschwitz in order to honor him and the gift of music that he gave to
ll of death. In the far corner of Auschwitz me. During my childhood, most weekends at my
University of Florida I Journal of Undergraduate Research I Volume 10, Issue 3 I Summer 2010


grandparent's home were spent dancing the polka. My
grandmother, Victoria Kendzior, and I would dance while
my grandfather would play for us. I would also watch him
practice almost every night that I was there. My
grandfather died in the winter of 2004. I also chose to
search for an accordion player because of the history
behind the instrument. The accordion is prevalent all across
Eastern Europe, especially in Poland. While I was in
Krakow, Poland in August 2009, there were accordions
everywhere. Within my research of the Holocaust and
World War II, I found a prevalence of the accordion in
picture and video footage (Figure 10). The signs all pointed
to the necessity of an accordion within this work.

Figure 10: An orchestra of prisoners with an accordion leading the
Source: Deutsches Bundesarchiv (German Federal Archive)
I found Frank Ferraro through word of mouth. The
coincidence and irony in our meeting grew to become an
appreciated partnership of choreographer and composer.
We worked together to create the score for Witness. He
acted as a storyteller, speaking the ideas of Auschwitz and
the Holocaust with music while we danced them with
movement. His focus and dedication added immensely to
the piece and his presence transformed the experience for
the dancers, the audience, and for me (Figure 11).

Figure 11: Frank Ferraro accompanies Witness in performance.

There were also a hundred shoes on stage. Dated in style
and worn in appearance, fifty pairs of shoes line across the
stage, with dancers sprouting from four specific pairs.
Additionally, there is a pile of shoes a few feet high, which
spills from the live musician towards the center of the
stage. These shoes informed both the process of making the
piece as well as the audience who viewed the piece. The
idea for the shoes came from a yearning to tell a larger
story. The four women on stage were to tell the story of
millions of victims of the Holocaust. At Auschwitz, there is
a barrack entitled "Proof of Auschwitz." Within this
barrack are rooms full of clothing, suitcases, shoes, hair,
pots and pans, and other items that were confiscated from
the prisoners (Figure 12). My experience in this building
was poignant and haunting. Therefore, the shoes became a
vehicle for broadening the mind of an audience.

Figure 12: Shoes in the "Proof of Auschwitz" barrack.

Leading me to the subject matter of Auschwitz was a
personal and family history rich with traditions and stories.
Throughout my own existence, I have heard stories of my
grandfather who was a war hero. I have heard stories of the
immigration of my family and their subsequent loss in
return to Europe. I have heard stories of the Polish
traditions from my grandmother. I have heard beautiful and
carefree polkas on the accordion of my grandfather. This
storytelling has influenced who I am, the ideas that I think,
the things that interest me, and the manner that I speak,
breathe, and live. Subsequently, it has become the way that
I dance. I dance my story daily. My feelings influence my
movement, rhythm, breath and interaction with others. This
history influences me and those around me. This
realization brought me to an all-encompassing questioning
of not only those that told their stories to me first hand, but
also of all generations before me who have undoubtedly
influenced my growth and development as a human being.
This questioning brought me to research my heritage and
dig deep into the connections between familial ties. I am of
Russian and Austrian heritage on my mother's side. I am of
Polish heritage on my father's side. My mother's family is
Jewish. My father's family is Catholic. I attended the
Center for Positive Living, a trans-denominational spiritual
community, and thus my beliefs blend all that has come
before me. I have become a meeting point and melting pot

University of Florida I Journal of Undergraduate Research I Volume 10, Issue 3 I Summer 2010


of cultures and beliefs. In this way, my personal history
links me to the Holocaust and to Auschwitz. My mother's
great, great aunt and her family were murdered at
Auschwitz, as were my father's great, great grandparents.
During my visit to Auschwitz, I found the name of my
relation, Leo Kendzierski #8304, in the book of names
(Figure 13).


as *C












Figure 13: The book of names at Auschwitz.

The now desolate and hollow camp of Auschwitz was
once the junction of very alive, breathing, conscious,
dynamic, existing, functioning, growing, knowing, living
human beings; human beings with whom I share the same
genes, blood, and descent. This knowledge fuels my
research. The hunger with which I researched my family's
heritage brought me to the decision to visit the
concentration camp of Auschwitz. The experience that I
had in August at Auschwitz will provide a thirst for
understanding that will never be quenched yet is examined
through dance.
Based on the experience of this project, I found a
connection between my personal history and the fact that
every person, place, and idea in this world has different

struggles and successes. Physical environments have an
extreme effect on the overall experience of a human being.
I discovered the impact that my childhood and heritage
have on the woman that I have become. I have also found
disbelief at the possibility for the human race to abuse
power. The possibility for a person to cross the line
between moral and immoral is infinite and this process has
taught me that. Erich Hartmann comments on this subject
at the end of his photographic study of the concentration
Standing in the Auschwitz gas chamber, I was
confronted with the realities of deliberate and cold-
blooded killing as never before, not even during the
war. It was an experience that I will not be able to
forget, it was a reminder of what human beings were
capable of doing to other human beings when passion
and rage took the place of reason and basic decency. I
realized again how easy it is in these days of high
technology for the relatively few without conscience
to take away the freedoms and spirit and the lives of
the many who are at their mercy. I came to understand
that I was not safe-that no one anywhere is safe-
from these dangers because the line that divides
victors from victims-and good and evil-is thin and
elastic. (103)
The human race has the capacity to create or destroy. A
thought, whether positive or negative, begins a cataclysmic
reaction that can be carried out by one or many human
beings. Ideas formulated by a single person or small group
of people can monstrously affect millions of people. The
instantaneous nature of a thought is truly eye opening and
its power is enveloping. A thought in one moment has the
power to transform into a speech in the next moment and
an army in the next. In another context, a thought in one
moment has the power to spark conversation in the next,
which leads to a physical exploration of that thought
through dance. Context informs content. Setting dictates
freedom. The freedom of thought, the freedom to be you,
the freedom of speech, the freedom to create art all stem
from the awareness that one holds over its surroundings.
Since opening my awareness to the experience of
Auschwitz prisoners, I have found a deeper connection to
myself, my history, and my surroundings. I have realized
that human beings have an infinite power inside of them
that allows for a broad and diverse spectrum of characters
to live and evolve in this world.

University of Florida I Journal of Undergraduate Research I Volume 10, Issue 3 I Summer 2010


Works Cited

Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum, 2009. Web. Oct. 2009.

Brandhuber, Jerzy Adam. Mortuary. 1949. Charcoal,
paper. Collections of the Auschwitz-Birkenau State
Museum Poland. Web. Sept. 2010.

Deutsches Bundesarchiv (German Federal Archive), 2010.
Web. Aug. 2010. .

Gawron, Wincenty. Roll-Call 1941/1942. 1964. Oil on
plywood. Collections of the Auschwitz-Birkenau State
Museum, Poland. Web. Sept. 2010.

Hartmann, Erich. In The Camps. New York: W.W. Norton,
1995. Print.

Koscielniak, Mieczyslaw. Inside of a Male Barrack in
Birkenau. 1980. Pen and ink. Collections of the
Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum, Poland. Web. Sept.

Schindler's List. Dir. Steven Spielberg. 1993. DVD.

Vaisman, Sima. A Jewish Doctor in Auschwitz: The
Testimony of Sima Vaisman. Hoboken, N.J: Melville
House Publishing, 2005. Print.

University of Florida I Journal of Undergraduate Research I Volume 10, Issue 3 I Summer 2010

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