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 Insects of Porto Rico and the Virgin...
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Systematic account of the...
 Insects of Porto Rico and the Virgin...
 Title Page
 Introduction
 Systematic account
 List of new genera and species
 Index
 Insects of Porto Rico and the Virgin...
 Title Page
 Family Geometridae
 Family Pyralididae
 List of new genera and species
 Index
 Insects of Porto Rico and the Virgin...
 Title Page
 Introduction
 Check list of the butterflies of...
 Systematic account
 Relationships of the butterfly...
 Table of faunal distribution
 Analysis of faunal distributio...
 Bibliography
 Index to scientific names
 Back Matter














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Scientific survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands /
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00091487/00019
 Material Information
Title: Scientific survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands /
Alternate title: Scientific survey of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands
Physical Description: 19 v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: New York Academy of Sciences
Jay I. Kislak Reference Collection (Library of Congress)
Publisher: The Academy,
The Academy
Place of Publication: New York N.Y
Publication Date: 1919-
Frequency: completely irregular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Scientific expeditions -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Periodicals -- Puerto Rico   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Periodicals -- Virgin Islands of the United States   ( lcsh )
Natuurlijke historie   ( gtt )
Geologie   ( gtt )
Expedities   ( gtt )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Puerto Rico
United States Virgin Islands
 Notes
Summary: Includes bibliographies.
Ownership: Provenance: Gift of Jay I. Kislak Foundation.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, pt. 1-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased with vol. XIX, pt. 1.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 18, pt. 4 (1952).
General Note: Kislak Ref. Collection: Vol. 18, pt. 2 (1941)-pt. 4 (1952).
Statement of Responsibility: New York Academy of Sciences.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01760019
lccn - 2002209050
System ID: UF00091487:00019

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Table of Contents
    Insects of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands: Heterocera or moths (excepting the Noctuidae, Geometridae and Pyralididae)
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Introduction
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
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    Systematic account of the species
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    Insects of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands: Moths of the Family Noctuidae
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    Title Page
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    Introduction
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    Systematic account
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    List of new genera and species
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    Index
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    Insects of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands: Moths of the Families Geometridae and Pyralididae
        Page 290-3
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    Title Page
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    Family Geometridae
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    Family Pyralididae
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    List of new genera and species
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    Index
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    Insects of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands: Lepidoptera (Suborder) Rhopalocera (Superfamily) Papilionoidea (True butterflies) (Superfamily) Hesperioidea (Skippers)
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    Title Page
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    Introduction
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    Check list of the butterflies of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands
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    Systematic account
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    Relationships of the butterfly faunas of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands
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    Table of faunal distribution
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    Index to scientific names
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    Back Matter
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Full Text






NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES


SCIENTIFIC SURVEY
OF

Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands


VOLUME XII-Part 1.

Insects of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands

Heterocera or Moths (excepting the Noctuide, Geometridae
and Pyralidide)-W. T. M. Forbe


NEW VORK:
PUBLISHED BY THE ACADEMY
1930











N 5's-
pt. I













INSECTS OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGT'

ISLANDS


HETEROCERA OR MOTHS

(excepting the Noctuide, Geometride and Pyralidide)

BY W. T. M. FORBES

CONTENTS
Page
Introduction ........................................ ...... 4
Geology and origin .................... ................... 5...
Examples of Porto Rico butterflies endemic in the West Indies...... 9
Distribution in Porto Rico ....................................... 10
Diagnosis of the Lepidoptera ...................................... 12
Key to families .................................................. 14
Systematic account of the species .................. .................. 1!)
Euchromiide ................................................... 19
N olid e ........................................ .... ............ 2
N. sp. Nol(i sinuittt
A rctildse ........................................ ............... :
Pericopidae ..... ............................ ............... 40
N. race Ctenmichidia virgo virginalis
Agaristida .................................. .............. 4:
(Noctuida) (Schaus).......................................... ... 44
N otodontid e ..................................................... 44
Sphingide ....................................................... 47
(Geometrida) (Schaus)................................ ......... 70
Epiplem id e ...................................................... 7
(Pyralididne) (Schaus) ........................................... 72
Hyblaeide ..................................................... 72
T hyridide ......................................... ............. 7
Pterophoride .................................................... 74
Orneodid ...................................................... So
Tortricide .................. ................................. S1
N. sp. Olethreutes canofascia
Phaloniide .................................................... 9:
C ossid e ......................................................... 9)
Yponomeutide .................................................. 97
Glyphipterygide ................................................. 101
H eliodinide ..................................................... 103
Cosm opterygida .................................................. 105
Blastobasid e .................................................... 11o
Gelechlidae ...................................................... 113
X ylorictidae ...................................................... 130
N. sp. Mothonica ocellea











4 SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO

Page
(Ecophoride ....................... .......................... 132
N. sp. Triclonella rhabdophora
H ellozelide ..................................... ............... 130
Coleophoridse ...................... ........ ................ 137
Gracilariide ....................... . ........................ 138
N. sp. Acrocercops inconspicua
Lyonetiidae ...................................... ............... 144
Oinophilid e ..................................... ............... 146
Opostegide ................ ................................. 148
Tischerlid e ..................................... ............... 149
Psychida ........... ............................ .............. 150
Tineide ........................................ ................ 151
N. sp. (Enoc miniimella
N. sp. Acrolophus triformaUs
M egalopygidae .................................. ................. 165
E ucleid e ........................................................ 163
N. sp. Monoleuca albicollia

INTRODUCTION
The first insects to be described from the region included in this re-
port were a number of species recorded by Linnaeus from St. Thomas.
It is altogether likely that only a part of them were taken on that small
island, which in those days was an important junction point. Some,
like Empyreuma pugione, were presumably brought from Porto Rico,
but many may have come from further afield. Cramer and other ento-
mologists of the same generation described a few additional ones.
Our first group of fairly authentic records for Lepidoptera is due to
Leopold Krug, and to Dr. Juan Gundlach of Cuba, whose material was
partly worked up by Dewitz and finished by M6schler. Gundlach him-
self also published a catalogue of this material with a few further notes.
More recently economic entomologists have obtained and recorded a large
number of species, as detailed in the introduction to Wolcott's catalogue
of the insects of Porto Rico. In the last two decades the American Mu-
seum of Natural History has sent several expeditions to Porto Rico and
the Virgin Islands. Among those connected with these expeditions who
collected the greater number of the Lepidoptera obtained mention should
be made of F. E. Lutz (1914), H. G. Barber and F. E. Watson (1914),
H. E. Crampton (1914-1915), F. E. Lutz and A. J. Mutchler (1915),
F. E. Lutz and L. B. Woodruff (1925). The last of these expeditions
included the Virgin Islands as well as Porto Rico, and Lutz and Cramp-
ton also collected in the Virgin Islands on their way to British Guiana
in 1911. While this report was in press, finally, the author was able to










FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


spend a few weeks collecting in Porto Rico. A few of the most impor-
tant captures have been added to the proof; but it is hoped to publish
a full account in the Journal of the Department of Agriculture of Porto
Rico.
In this report the material already published in Wolcott's catalogue is
presented very briefly for completeness; for the actual collectors and au-
thorities, his catalogue should be consulted. Material not otherwise
credited is from the American Museum expeditions. In the U. S. Na-
tional Museum there is some material from our region, most of it ob-
tained either from the experiment stations or as a result of Mr. August
Busck's collecting in 1898-1899. Mr. Busck supplies the largest group
of micro records except in the case of the Virgin Islands, a majority of
his records being from Culebra Island, which is otherwise practically
unrepresented. The records contributed by the U. S. National Museum
are differentiated in the present paper by the letters "N. M." Some
records from the Cornell University collection, consisting largely of ma-
terial collected by Gershon Garb, are marked "C. U."
In the following account of the moths the species are arranged in
what the author believes to be approximately their natural order, begin-
ning with the most specialized, except that the three very large families
of Noctuidse, Geometrid.e and Pyralididse, will be treated independently
by Dr. Schaus.

GEOLOGY AND ORIGIN OF THE FAUNA

Geologically the island of Porto Rico is one of the newer units of area
of the earth's surface, being, so far as we know now, probably not quite
as old as the order Lepidoptera itself. Apparently during the Cretaceous
an island was piled up by a period of intense volcanic activity, culminat-
ing in a period of mountain-building-which is also represented in the
other Greater Antilles,-perhaps on the basis of older land of which
there appear to be some remnants visible in Cuba. Then there was a
period of erosion, followed by partial submergence, roughly representing
the stretch of time from the Eocene to beyond the middle Miocene; dur-
ing this time the calcareous rocks which form the outer part of the island
were laid down in the off-shore seas.
In the late Miocene the island was again raised, and was presumably
connected to neighboring islands, producing a condition where migration
may have been relatively free from island to island in the West Indies
and also from Central America; if, indeed, the islands had been sepa-
rated at all before the Pliocene (?) faulting. In the Pliocene this re-










SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


gion was again partially submerged, leaving only a fringe of the lime-
stones of Oligocene to late Tertiary age above water.' Finally, after
several oscillations of sea-level during the glacial epochs, the present
level was reached. There is no evidence that during any part of the
time after its first emergence Porto Rico was ever wholly under water;
but for a time, in the Oligocene and Mio(ene, it must have had only
about half its present area, and for a time in the late Tertiary it must
have been part of a much larger land-mass.
The northern series of Virgin Islands may practically be regarded as
a continuation of the volcanic central core of Porto Rico, from which
these islands may have become separate as a result of the Pliocene or
Pleistocene faulting; and Culebra and Vieques islands obviously are
parts of the same system. St. Croix is more independent both in posi-
tion and origin. The theory is generally held that it belonged originally
to the same land-mass; but the fault which split it off from the rest
seems to have been greater, and if we are to consider only the present
depths of the sea, one would group it rather with the Lesser Antilles.
It has but little volcanic rock, being essentially a limestone area com-
parable with the northern and southern strips of Porto Rico and with
the lower of the Lesser Antilles. From the point of view of the Lepi-
doptera it must be considered as having always been isolated, and must
have been peopled by wind or drift from the neighboring islands. Our
present very incomplete knowledge points to a closer resemblance to St.
Thomas than would be expected from the very different rock-foundations
and topography.
When we look for traces in the Lepidopterous fauna of these oscilla-
tions, we find few vestiges of the forms which may have occupied the
island in its first emergence period. There is one moth which, because
of its archaic character and lack of close relatives, was undoubtedly pres-
ent in the larger Antilles ever since this period, and may have had a con-
tinuous existence in Porto Rico, though it is also possible that it migrated
from Cuba or elsewhere in the time of the late Tertiary connection.
This is the genus Psychonoctua, which has a few subspecies, or closely
related species in the Antilles, and one also in Mexico, but is represented
nowhere else in the world. It is a rather archaic member of the very
old family of the Cossidoe, and no doubt goes back to the Cretaceous.
1 According to Vaughan (Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., xxix, pp. 629-630), it was in this
period that the vast faulting mainly took place which divided the previous land-mass
into blocks roughly representing the present islands, and also created the surrounding
deeps. Prof. Meyerhoff (in lit.) is inclined to put the major part of this faulting in
the Pleistocene; and the close likeness between the fauna of St. Croix, so far as we
know it. and that of St. Thomas. seems to favor the later dalt.










FORBES, INSECT OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


During the Oligocene time of reduced area there is no reason to be-
lieve that any substantial addition was made to the fauna of Porto Rico,
or even to that of the -Greater Antilles as a whole, but with the later
Tertiary emergence room was provided for a much more extensive fauna,
and no doubt a large part of our now characteristic Antillean fauna
arrived at that time. There are three possible sources for these new-
comers: the United States; Mexico (or rather Yucatan and Honduras),
and South America via the Lesser Antilles. The third of these routes
was obviously the most important, and the connection seems to have been
at least as much with the Andean as with the Amazonian fauna, indi-
cating that the link may have been through Trinidad and Venezuela
(if not through land now wholly lost). The most striking Andean link
is perhaps the solitary Antillean genus of Satyridm, Calisto. The endem-
ically Antillean species of Disnorphia (spio) and Hymenitis (dia-
phana) are ambiguous but seem rather to' point to the Mexican or Cen-
tral American connection; and Clothilda indicates this connection defi-
nitely. Of the insects mentioned, only Dismorphia spio and Calisto
have actually reached Porto Rico, the other two being still limited to the
more westerly islands of the Greater Antilles. In two cases there seem
to be definite Old World affinities, indicating that Porto Rico has pre-
served an ancient relict form, Eurema portoricensis (the only endemic
Porto Rican butterfly that seems to be a well-marked species) and Ute-
theisa ornatrix (stretchii). The first of these is certainly a very ancient
form, and could almost represent the ancestor from which all the other
New-World Euremas are derived. It is probably a relict. On the other
hand, U. ornatrix would appear to be an accidental introduction from
the Old World, which found conditions favorable and broke up into sev-
eral local forms in the Greater Antilles, the two most extreme of which
(typical ornatrix and bella) have been released to spread on the main-
land so recently that from Florida to Massachusetts, and from Kansas
to the Argentine, they have not yet split into further local forms. One
may surmise that the introduction took place during one of the Pleisto-
cene fluctuations when the Greater Antilles were cut off both south and
north by an ocean standing at a higher level than the present.2

2 Meyerhoff is inclined to discount the importance of these oscillations. The changes
of sea-level due to the glacial oscillations are usually reckoned as about 150 ft. To
judge by the present sea-depths, changes of this amount would enormously increase the
area of the Virgin Islands, but would have relatively little effect on Porto Rico, and
would certainly not be sufficient to create land-bridges between the various islands.
It is probable, however, that there would be substantially easier inter-island migration
during the glacial epochs. It is not unlikely, also, that the changed temperature and
wind conditions would have an effect on the ease and direction of migration, but the
nature and amount are still unpredictable.










SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


In the lack of a fo.sil record for the butterflies, a North American
source may be suspected but cannot be proved. The most likely deriva-
tive from that continent is perhaps Hypanartia paullus, which is simi-
lar to the extinct Prodryas persephone of Colorado and to one or two of
the African Antanartios, and definitely diverges from the present Hypa-
nartias of the South American mainland. It may perhaps be a relict of
a North American type now extinct everywhere else. In other islands
of the Greater Antilles we have the primitive lauraceous-feeding Papilios,
which seem to connect with the very primitive North American P.
troilus; and there is also Danaida cleophile, which has more resem-
blance to the typical North American "Monarch" than to its recent
South American segregates.
Since this period of greatest extent of land in the Miocene, it would
appear that the enrichment of the Antillean fauna, and its Porto Rican
portion, has been so steady and gradual that we can see no definite sign
of the successive periods of easier and more difficult access that no doubt
came with the fluctuations of the glacial period. We have every stage
from forms so distinct as to be real species (as in the case of Lymire)
to forms with faint geographical divergences not yet dignified by names,
as in Euremas of the elathea group.
Finally there is the effect of man. To judge by groups and regions
that we know better, his rl8e has been largely that of exterminator
through the utilization of the ground and the introduction of more
aggressive animals. There is, however, a considerable list of Lepidoptera
which may well have been introduced along with man's food plants and
the like. Among these are, no doubt, such pests as Leucoptera coffeella
and Plutella maculipennis, scavengers like Ereunetis minuscule, and use-
ful insects like the silk-worm and the honey-bee. The butterflies and
the strong-winged Noctuida and Pyralididoe are so capable of arriving
by themselves that we cannot safely blame man, but man probably
brought Hypolimnas misippus from Africa or Asia, and Hyblaea puera,
along with it.
A curious feature is the complete absence of several dominant families,
most notably the Erycinida 3 and Saturniide. In the case of the Ery-
cinids, their feeble flight and erratic distribution may be an explanation,
though, if we except the region here considered, they are found practi-
cally all over the tropical and warm temperate zones; but the Saturniidae
are a mystery. They are strong flyers, and they are an ancient group
3 Single species have been described from Cuba and the Bahamas; they are insuffi-
ciently known to venture a guess as to their relationships.










FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


which must have existed in South America for an enormous length of
time, as a whole group of primitive genera (Automeris, Dirphia, etc.)
are dominant there. Also South America contains the annectant Oxy-
tenide and Cercophanidae, suggesting that the whole family may have
arisen in that continent. As Coloradia and Hemileuca are endemic in
North America, we have the Antilles completely surrounded with primi-
tive Saturnid genera, which could have entered from any of the three
directions.

EXAMPLES OF PORTO RICO BUTTERFLIES ]ENDEMIC IN THE WEST INDIES

A. Ancient types of uncertain affinity, with Old World features

Phyciodes pelops Eurema portoricensis
Hypanartia paullus Cautethia noctuiformis 5

B. Species of South American affinity

Chlosyne tulita Nyridela chalciope
Chlorippe idyja Empyreuma pugione
Adelpha gelania Paramulona albulata7
Calisto nubila Miulona nigrip nctca
Dismorphia spio Cincia conspersa 7
Phoebis neleis Calidota strigosa 8
Papilio pelaus Ctenuchidia virgo
Eunomia columbina Aillopos blaini

C. Connection with species on both sides; in general of southern
affinity, but with the original Florida member of the complex now widely
distributed.
Papilio aristodemus Lymire flavicollis
Phcbis thalestris Progona pallida
Composia sybaris

4 Including those also found in tropical Florida or transgressing a few miles to the
north.
The species in Central America is also found in the southern United States, which
was perhaps the original home of the genus.
SThis genus appears to be of Chilean affinity. Its distribution should be compared
with that of the hystricine mammals of Porto Rico (as reported by Miller, Smith. Misc.
Coll. Ixvi, No. 12, 1916). The closest relatives of these mammals, also, seem to be
fossil forms known from southern South America.
These three genera, with additional forms from the other Antilles, might well be
transferred to list A, but South American species of the group are already known and
more are quite likely to be discovered, while nothing of the sort has been found in
the United States.
STransgressing as far as Texas.










SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


I). Races endemic to Porto Rico or to the Antilles

Papilio androgeus epidaurus
Heliconius charithonia (Antillian race)
Colaenis julia (Antillian races)
Papilio polydamas (separate races in Porto Rico and on the
Virgin Islands)
Utetheisa ornatrix stretchii
Hyalurga vinosa vinosa
Phlegethontius sextus jamaicensis
Phlegethontius brontes smythi
Isognathus rimosa wolcotti
Aellopos tantalus zonata

DISTRIBUTION IN PORTO Rico

The chief factors which control distribution of the insects in such ai,
area as Porto Rico are three: humidity (including both rainfall and
atmospheric relative humidity), relief and soil.
On account of the prevailing winds the rainfall of Porto Rico shows
a gradient, being highest in the northeast part of the island, where it
surpasses 100 inches, and lowest in the southwest corner near the coast.
in the lee of the central mountain range; the humidity also increases
with altitude in the more mountainous part of the island, attaining its
maximum in the higher levels of the mountains, which are covered with
dense mist-forest. In the matter of soil, the chief distinction is be-
tween the residual volcanic soils, which cover the middle half of the
island, and those derived from water-laid calcareous rocks. The last
mentioned enclose the former between a narrow strip on the west part
of the southern coast, and a band, which in places reaches a width of
about twenty miles, on the north coast.
As a result of the combination of these factors, the following areas
should probably be considered separately in future collecting:
1. The lowland areas, fringing the coast, and almost wholly under-
lain by recent more or less calcareous rocks, but extending back into the
Oligocene plateau so far as it is not deeply dissected. They may be
divided into a humid main area, on which most of the collecting stations
have been located, and a small arid area at the southwest corner of the
island, near Gupnica, and extending east to Guayanilla.
2. The foothills. This area would appear to have a fauna similar to
that of the more humid part of the last-mentioned area, but thb analoev










FORBES. INSE('T OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


may be due to the fact that in both areas collections have been made
mainly on cultivated ground, which covers most of their extent. Aibonito
is the chief locality in the foothills region where field work was con-
ducted. Specimens labeled Mayagiiez and Coamo Springs, which are
close to the outer fringe of this region, are perhaps better included in
the first area, although doubtless a number of these specimens were taken
on the other side of the boundary.
3. The mountains, comprising the Cordillera Central-the long range
lying between Maricao and Aibonito, and the nearly isolated Luquillo
Mountains, rising to the peak of El Yunque. This area is strongly con-
trasted with the rest of the island, and includes most of the surviving
forest. It is an area of fogs as well as of heavy rainfall, and the forest
approaches the "mist-forest" type of South America. There has been
no really systematic collecting of Lepidoptera in this area so far as I
can learn, but it is not unlikely that many of the old records were ob-
tained within it and that the species in question will be rediscovered on
Porto Iico when the island is better explored." As a rule these species
were published without any definite indication of locality. This is the
area which should, harbor the ancient relict forms, possibly exterminated
by cultivation at lower levels or climatically limited to the moister forest
from the beginning. The Psychonoctua, perhaps the most ancient of
our known local fauna, was first found in coffee groves at the edge of
this area (between Yauco and Adjuntas), and the Ctenuchidia and Dis-
morphia also have their habitat there. It is in this area, which is much
like the similarly humid portions of Cuba and Jamaica, that the curious
Hymenitis diaphana may eventually be discovered. Some of these in-
sects may originally have had a wider distribution in Porto Rico, which
is more humid on the whole than Cuba or Jamaica, but if so, the intense
cultivation makes it unlikely that they have survived.
In comparison with the other West Indies, Porto Rico is in a sense
intermediate between the Greater and the Lesser Antilles. Geologically
and geographically it certainly belongs to the former, but its fauna is
pauperized, in that way approaching the condition of the older Lesser
Antilles, such as Guadeloupe. As to the relationship shown by local
forms, there is a curious sort of alternation. For instance, the Porto
Rico race of Heliconius charithonia is not really separable from that in
Jamaica, but the intervening island of Haiti, so far as we know, harbors
only a more normal strain; on the other hand, the local form of Papilio
Since this was written, two brief visits to El Yunquie imve in fact led to Ihe redis-
covery of several species, among them Nola bistriga and the Porto Rican Afrida, which
turns out to be charientisma and not tortri(iformis.











SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


polydamas diverges strongly toward the aberrant types present in Haiti
and from Guadeloupe to Martinique, while the intervening Virgin Islands
(St. Thomas and St. Croix) have a form that has gone to the other ex-
treme. The Ctenuchidia, here characterized for the first time, is an
extreme type, but cannot be really understood till the races on other
islands have been discovered and studied.
The general impression is what one might expect, that for a long time
the Antilles were divided into separate islands, with no active migration
from one to another, and produced the highly localized strains now
typified by P. polydamas polycrates and neodamas. Then the barriers
were let down and there was an invasion from the mainland, that swept
away the races of polydamas from considerable areas and replaced them
by a larger-spotted type, of which P. p. thyamus is a representative.
Finally, after a second interruption, there came a second migration from
outside the Antilles of modern typical polydamas. Much further study
is needed to straighten all this out, but the species of Phebis and some
other groups seem to show traces of the same double (or even triple)
influx of forms from the mainland, so recently that there has not been
time for the fixing of fully stable species. The obvious suggestion is
that these migrations were connected with the repeated oscillations of
the glacial periods, already recorded from this region on geographical
evidence.

DIAGNOSIS OF THE LEPIDOPTERA

Wings similar in texture, covered more or less fully with scales that
occasionally are largely mixed with hair or even limited to small areas
of the wing. Veins of wing for the most part arising from a central
loop (the cell) originally formed by the development of a cross vein be-
tween the stems of radius and ( ubitus, followed in the more modern
types by the loss of the base of the intervening media. Veins not com-
plexly anastomosing, with few closed cells, and usually none in the outer
part of the wing below the costal region. Hind wing in Porto Rico
forms with fewer veins than fore wing, by the loss of four in the radial
region.
Head normally with a spiral tongue, formed of the maxillms, for the
taking of liquid food ; o with labial palpi as a rule much better developed
than maxillary palpi, and frequently alone visible. Antenna conspicu-
ous, attached to the top of the head, with the single pair of ocelli, when

o1 Except in the family Micropterygidle, which are not yet known from Porto Rico,
and which have fully developed biting mandibles, feeding on pollen.
















FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


present, located immediately behind them. Mouth parts frequently
atrophied.
Transformation complete. Egg usually simple in form, without ap-
pendages, but frequently with complex sculpture, which may center in
a pattern at the top (upright egg), or at the end (flat-type egg) where
the micropyle is located.
Larva a caterpillar, normally with true legs and from two to five pairs
of prolegs, each bearing sa series or ring of hooks, and occasionally with
two additional pairs, which never have hooks (Megalopyge). Head nor-
mally with several pairs of eyes (six) on each side, with antenna very
short, in an area of membrane at the base of the mandible, and with a
pair of slender separate sclerites between front and epieranium. Leaf-
mining caterpillars may lose a large proportion of these characters.
Caterpillars usually herbivorous, browsing on leaves or boring in twigs,
wood or leaves; but carnivorous either occasionally or habitually in a
number of species, and parasitic in a very few (none of which are yet
known from Porto Rico).
Pupa not very active, the legs non-functional, and frequently with
all the parts soldered down; either with four or five abdominal incisures
movable and capable of progression (incomplete pupa), or with at most
three and able to move only the tip of the abdomen about (obtect pupa).
The pupa in most moths is formed in a shelter (in the ground or a
cocoon) but in the butterflies above the skippers and in many Ptero-
phoride and Geometridae it is exposed and suspended by the tail or girt
about the body.
The order as a whole is nocturnal, both in larva and adult, but the
diurnal minority are far better known to most people, and are the butter-
flies par excellence. Quite a few of the nocturnal forms are also easily
aroused in the day and will then fly freely, but others sleep with remark-
able soundness. Divers caterpillars are also diurnal, not always those
which have diurnal butterflies.












SCIEXTIF'IC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


KEY TO FAMILIES
1. Hind wing deeply cleft ............................................ 2
Hind wing entire ................................................ 3
2. Both wings deeply cleft into six feathers................. Orneodide
Fore wing somewhat cleft in two feathers, hind wing more deeply in
three ............................................. Pterophoridfe
3. Hind wing broad, broader than its own fringe; when relatively nar-
row, with bluntly rounded apex of membrane...................... 4
Membrane of hind wing with apex produced in a long point and deeply
concave below it. ............................Gelechiidae (in part)
Hind wing with membrane lanceolate or linear, much narrower than
its own fringe ..................... ........................... 40
4. Frenulum absent and antennae clubbed (more or less swollen in the
outer part, with or without a fine tip)........................... 5
Frenulum present, or antenna with shaft regularly tapering to near
apiex, usually both ................... .......................... 12
5. Head with front wider than high, with well separated antennae; fore
wing with all ten radials, medals and cubitals present and all
arising separately from the cell ........................Hesperiidae
Head with front narrower and swollen bases of antennae in contact;
fore wing with not more than nine veins arising separately from
the cell ........................................................ 6
6. Fore wing with 3rd A free and curving down to inner margin; hind
wing with only one anal vein..........................Papilionidae
Fore wing with only one free anal vein, hind wing with two.......... 7
7. Palpi porrect, about as long as head and thorax; male with four
functional legs, female with six........................Lilytheidwp
Palpi shorter, frequently upturned .................. ..............
8. All six legs well developed and used for walking .................... 9
Only four legs used for walking, the first pair rudimentary .......... 10
9. Front very narrow, the bases of the antenna encroaching on the
narrow eyes; fore legs of male without true claws....... Lycenidae
Front broader, the eyes round; fore legs of male with a pair of true
claws ................ ................................Pieride
10. Fore wing in Porto Rican genus with all the radials stalked from
apex of cell; Sc much swollen at base; cell of hind wing closed..
Patyridfe
Fore wing with R, arising separately from the cell; Sc rarely swollen 11
11. Cell of hind wing closed; fore wing with 3rd A very slender, but a
true tubular vein, running into 2nd A.................... Danaidme
Cell of hind wing closed by a fine vein or open; 3rd A of fore wing
obsolete ...................... .................... Nym phalide
12. Hind wing with Sc and R closely parallel or fused for a distance
beyond where R leaves the cell; 1st A of fore wing absent or weak
at margin of wing......... .................... ............... 13

1 The Porto li(il exceptions are its olne Agaristidl. lt f1 solme of the Ellic]hrmiid'w.












FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


Hind wing with Sc and R well separated beyond the point where R
leaves the cell or, if somewhat approximate, with 1st A of fore
wing a fully developed vein ...................................... 15
13. Fore wing with 3rd A tubular; R, of hind wing (appearing as a cross-
vein between Sc and R) as strong as most veins; body very stout,
usually with fine spines on edges of segments........... Sphingidse
Hind wing without obvious vein connecting Sc and R; body more
slender ...................................................... 14
14. Hind wing with anal region ample, with 1st A preserved or with R,3,
of fore wing strongly stalked .......................... Pyralidida
Hind wing with 1st A lost, the anal region smaller as a rule; fore
wing with at most two veins shortly stalked............Thyrididse
15. Fore wing with Cu apparently three-branched; M, being not much
nearer to M3 than to M,, or rarely absent ....................... 16
Fore wing with Cu apparently four-branched; M2 arising close to M,
and connected to it by a strong vein............................. 19
16. Hind wing with Sc leaving R close to base, thence widely separate
from it .............................................Epiplem idte
Hind wing with Sc closely approximate or fused with R at /4 or 1%
way out on the cell ............................................ 17
17. Base of Sc angled, and connected to base of frenulum by a cross-vein;
slender; tympanum subventral on first segment of abdomen........
Geometridae
Sc gently curved at base and not connected to frenulul-base: essen-
tial part of tympanum thoracic, under base or wing.............. 18
18. Sc and R fused on basal third of cell................a few Arctiide
Sc and R closely parallel but separate; stout moths...... Notodontid-e
19. Vein 1st A well developed in fore as well as hind wing (in Xylorictide
running into the bend of Cu, and not reaching the margin)........ 20
Vein 1st A obsolete in fore wing, sometimes present in hind wing.... 32
20. Sc of hind wing fused with cell for most of length of cell............
Megalopygidie
Sc of hind wing at most shortly fused with cell before middle....... 21
21. Hind tibia with spurs about as long as width of tibia or less; palpi
not exceeding front............................................. 22
Hind tibia with strong spurs; palpi usually extending up to middle of
front .... ................ ................................... 23
22. Very stout Sphinx-like moths; fore wing with large accessory cell
Cossidse
More slender moths; fore wing without accessory cell...... Psychidae
23. Hind wing less than twice as long as wide.......................... 24
Hind wing more than twice as long as wide ........................ 26
24. Third segment of palpus long and pointed, at least in side view
Glyphipterygide
Third segment of palpus short and blunt, often porrect.............. 25
25. Porto Rico species with R,_- stalked, R, running to apex.... Eucleidae
R, in any case arising from cell, usually with all radial branches
separate; R, running to costa .........................Tortricidse












SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


26. First segment of palpus very long; vestiture of thorax spatulate, and
usually forming tufts; eyes sometimes hairy..Tineidte (Acrolophinae)
First segment of palpus much shorter than the other two; vestiture
scaly ; eyes naked .............................................. 27
27. Fore wing with R, and R, stalked, and both running to costa........ 28
R, and R, separate, or Rs running to outer margin ................. 29
28. Fore wing with cell very oblique in wing, all the veins except R,
arising from it near its apex; Cu, or Cu, very short..Blastobaside
Fore wing with R2 and Cu, arising well back from end of cell, cubi-
tal branches long................ ......... (Ecophoride (Ethmia)
29. Fore wing with R, running to the costa; usually with rough bristly
head; maxillary palpi folded; labial palpi with bristles on second
segment and fusiform third segment...................... Tineidae
Fore wing with R, running to the outer margin or the bluntly rounded
apex ......................................... ............... 30
30. Third segment of palpus short and blunt, second segment roughly
scaled; Cu2 of fore wing arising from cell not more than / way
out........................................... a few Tortricidse
Third segment of palpus acute, or Cu, arising more than % way out
on cell ......................................................... 31
31. Hind wing with R and MR closely approximate or stalked; Porto
Rican species with 1st A of fore wing running into Cu,...Xylorictid.
Hind wing with R and M~ well separated from origin and nearly
parallel; 1st A free..............................Yponomeutide
32. Hind wing with Sc lost (with two veins in all arising from upper
side or angle of cell) .............................. Euchromiidoe
Hind wing with Sc preserved, fusing with cell for a considerable dis-
tance, but leaving it before end................................. 33
Hind wing with Sc and R fusing at a point before middle of cell or
Sc free ................................... ....... ............ 35
33. Sc much swollen at base, and minute free base of R inconspicuous, or
the veins fused to base; tympanic hood high on basal segment of
abdomen (above spiracle) ; colors often bright, ocelli often absent 34
Sc only two or three times as thick as R at base, and separate from
it; tympanic hood lateral, enclosing spiracle, or colors dull; ocelli
present ........................................... ... Noctuidse
34. Fore wing with raised scale-tufts.............................Nolidse
Fore wing smooth-scaled ................................ Aretiidm
35. Micros. Scaling soft; hind wing with very broad fringe, much
wider at the anal angle; fore wing with accessory cell, when trace-
able, separated by a weak vein from discal cell; radial veins usually
free; when stalked, with R4 and R, stalked ................... 36
Macros. Scaling close and strong; fringe relatively narrow, and not
strongly widened at anal angle; accessory cell, when present, sepa-
rated from cell by a full-strength vein; radial branches usually
with R, and R, stalked the farthest ............................. 37












FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


36. Palpus with third segment blunt and more or less porrect..Phaloniidte
Palpus with third joint slender, pointed and upturned, often continu-
ing the general curve of the segment ...................Gelechiidse
37. Fore wing with all veins arising from the cell (10) present and
separate; hind wing with 1st A slender, but preserved; maxillary
palpi large.........................................Hyblaeide
Fore wing with at least R, and R, stalked; 1st A absent; maxillary
palpi rudim entary .............................................. 38
38. Antenne swollen on outer part (clubbed) ............... .Agaristidwe
Shaft of antenna regularly tapering to near apex .......... ...... 39
39. Showy moths, marked with black; tympanic hood large, situated
above spiracle and conspicuous from dorsal side....... Pericopide
Moths rarely with extensive areas of black; and, in that case with
tympanic hood lateral and inconspicuous................ Noctuide
40. Fore wing with cell strongly oblique in wing, its lower outer angle
very close to dorsal margin of wing and connected to it by one or
two very short and almost directly transverse veins (M3, Cu. or Cu2) 41
Fore wing with cell very nearly central in wing, if somewhat oblique,
with Ms, Cu, and Cu, nearly longitudinal, rather long and sub-
equal; or cell lost .............................................. 43
41. Fore tibia very slender, with epiphysis absent (or very inconspicuous
at its end); antennae turned forward in repose........Coleophoride
Tibise usually stout; epiphysis always conspicuous; when reduced in
size (Batrachedra), located near middle of tibia .................. 42
42. Hind wing with R and Mi originating from cell widely separated and
nearly parallel; hind wing lanceolate................ Blastobasidse
Hind wing linear, with the veins obscure as a rule; when wider,
with R and M, closely approximate at origin or stalked............
a few Cosmopterygidse
43. Fore wing without cell............................................ 44
Fore wing with cell formed, rarely open ............................ 46
44. Antenna with large eye-cap; fore wing with a single simple main
vein ................................................ Opostegida
No eye-cap; principal vein of fore wing branched ................... 45
45. Fore wing linear, with obscure veins; hind tarsi with tufts of spines
at joints .............................. Heliodinidae (Cycloplasis)
Fore wing broadly lanceolate; tarsi smoothly scaled ................
Heliozelidae (Coptodisca)
46. Fore wing with only four veins running from cell to costa, and five or
six to inner margin ............................................ 47
Fore wing with only four veins (or fewer) running to inner margin
unless there are five running to costa............................ 48
47. Hind tarsi with tufts of bristles at segments; palpi distinct but more
or less drooping ........................ Heliodinide (Heiodines)
Hind tarsi smoothly scaled or hairy, not spined at segments........
Yponomeutidte (Plutella, etc.)




























SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


48. Maxillary palpi folded; labial palpi conspicuous.................... 48a
Maxillary palpi porrect or rudimentary; labial palpi conspicuous.... 50
Both pairs of palpi rudimentary, drooping or absent......Lyonetiida
48:,. Cell of fore wing very small, with about six veins arising from it,
imnelbrane with miclroscoplic spinules (;lcellle; : minute mlloths
with rough heads and large eye-caps..................Nepticulide
Cell of fore wing more than half as long as wing. membrane not
spinulated .................................................... 49
49. Fore wing with apex turned up or down sharply; palpus not bristled..
Oinophilide
Fore wing nearly flat; palpus with bristles (sometimes fugitive) on
outer side of second segment ............................. Tineide
50. Hind tibia smooth or bristled.......................... Gracilariidm
Hind tibia hairy above ........................................... 51
51. Hind wing lanceolate, with the principal vein running through its
center and branched outwardly.......... Heliozelidte (Heliozela)
Hind wing with R close to Sc near costa edge, and Cu well below its
middle, or with wing linear and veins obscure.................... 52
52. Head with very rough and bristly erect hair on vertex and face; cell
normal ...................................... Tineidae (Tineola)
Head with a flat and spreading tuft of coarse hair-scales: extending
out over bases of antenna; cell very large............ Tischeriidse
Head smooth-scaled; cell normal....................Cosmopterygide











FORBES, INSECTS OF I'ORTO RICO: MOTHS


SYSTEMATIC ACCOUNT OF THE SPECIES

EUCHROMIIDU E (SYNTOMIDrE, AMATIDAE)

The Euchromiide, also long known as the Syntomide and occasionally
as Amatide or Zygoenide, are a family numbering about 2000 species,
most typically day-fliers, though some fly also, or even mainly, at night.
A very large proportion mimic other insects, to a certain extent Lepidop-
tera, but more often Hymenoptera, Hemiptera and such distasteful
Coleoptera as the Lycidae. The caterpillars have tufts of hair of vari-
ous lengths, with a single large subdorsal tuft on each side of the meso-
and metathorax. They make their cocoons out of their hair, like the
ArctiidTe.
KEY TO GENERA

1. Hind wing with M, weak and arising as a rule from near the middle of
the end of the cell, frequently represented only by a fold and line of
scales, Cu therefore apparently 3-branched (Euchromiine) ........ 2
Hind wing with M, as strong as the other veins and connected with the
cubital stem, Cu therefore apparently 4-branched (Ctenuchine).... 4
2. Shaft of antenna dilated on last quarter....................EEunomia
Shaft of antenna with the middle half dilated: abdomen with a pair
of small terminal tufts. ............................. Phoenicoprocta
Shaft of antenna simple, tapering.................................. 3
3. Fore wing with Cu, arising more than 4/5 way out on cell..Nyridela
Cu, arising less than 4/5 way out on cell................ Cosmosoma
4. Hind wing with Cu, and Cu, long-stalked ............................ 5
Cu, and Cu, arising from cell well apart. ............................. 6
5. Hind wing scarlet; shaft of antenna not dilated.......... Empyreuma
Hind wing brown (tawny) ; shaft of antenna swollen at middle......
Horama
G. Hind wing with M. and M, long-stalked...................... Lymire
M, and M1, arising separately ............................. Correbidia

Phcenicoprocta Hampson (Hyela Walker n. b. 1.)

Some of the species of this genus are extraordinarily variable and
have a variety of names. I believe there are only two species in Porto
Rico, one of them showing only a little local variation, the other with
numerous color-forms. One of these color-forms has generally been con-
sidered a distinct species. The caterpillar of Phcenicoprocta vacillans
feeds on Cassava according to the record on a specimen in the U. S. Na-
tional Museum.












SCIENTIFICC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


KEY TO SPECIES

1. Tegule red, with upper third mainly black; segments of abdomen with
the blue scaling at about the middle of their length, with white poste-
rior edges ............................................ .parthenii
Tegule solidly colored, yellow, or black and blue, not red; abdominal
segments without white, but with blue on posterior edges..capistrata 2
2. Body mainly orange and red................................typical
Body blue and black .................................... var. eximia

Phcenicoprocta parthenii Fabricius

1793. Zyga'na parthenii Fabricus, Ent. Syst., iii, p. 402.
1898. Mallodeta partheni Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal., i, p. 195. Fig. 92.
1915. Mallodeta partheni Draudt, Seitz Macr. World, vi, p. 57. P1. xii, Fig. a4
1922. Mallodeta parthenii Zerny, Lep. Cat., vii, p. 59.
1923. Mallodcta parthcni Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 156.
1854. Glaucopis multicincta Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M., i, p. 153.
1877. Glaucopis m llticincta Dewitz, Mitt. Munch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 92.
1877. Glaucopis multicin.ct Butler, Ill. Lep. Het. B. M., i, xi. fig. 11.
1890. Pcecilosoma utiticincta Moischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 113.
1891. Precilosoma iulticincta Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 154.


Hampson put this species in Mallodeta. The lateral tufts on the
abdomen are far less developed than in the type of that genus if indeed
present at all; and the superficial appearance is also more like Phceni-
coprocta.
Haiti and San Domingo. "P. R." (Dewitz, M6schler, Gundlach);
Rio Piedras, Feb. 15, 1912 (Jones-- M.; also Wolcott): (Guanica,"-
Aug. 8, 1913 (Wolcott-N. M.) ; Vega Alta (Wolcott); Aguadilla, Jan.,
1899 (Busck-N. M.) ; Isabela, Apr. 24, 1930 (Forbes); Coamo Springs.
June 5-7, 1915, July 17-18, 1914.

Phcenicoprocta capistrata (Fabricius)

1775. ZygUona capistrata Fabricius, Syst. Ent., p. 554.
1898. Bombyliodes capistrata Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal., i, p. 180.
1923. Bombyliodes capistrana Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R.. vii. p. 156.

-The specimens in the Insular Experiment Station collection which wcra taken at
GuAnica, were labelled Santa Rita, apparently because there were no printed GuAnica
labels; and similarly the Boquerin specimens were labelled San Germfin. This has
caused some confusion of records, but Mr. Sein informs me that the localities published
in Wolcott's list were correct as given in the Experiment Station records, so Santa Rita
and San GermAn records, which duplicate Wolcott's records from GuAnic' and Bo luerOn
respectively, have been dropped. The present writer recently collected at San GermAn
and found conditions much more humid than they appear to be at Boquerin, and a sub-
stantially different fauna.











FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


1912. Autoch-loris 13 capistrata Zerny, Lep. Cat., vii, p. 55.
1915. Autochloris capistrata Draudt, Seitz Macr. World, vi, p. 50, Pl. xi,
fig. b5.

1854. Lcemocharis select Herrich-Schiffer, Auss. Schm., i, p. 73, Fig. 256.
1877. Glaucopis select Dewitz, Mitt. Minch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 92.
1890. Glaucopis select Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 113.
1891. Glaucopis select Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 155.
1914. Phlenicoprocta capistrata Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal. Suppl., i, p. 125.
1857. Glaucopis thomw Lucas, Sagra's Hist. Cuba, Ins. p. 660.
1899. Phenicoprocta cubana Druce, Ann. Mag. N. H. (7), iii, p. 228.

Male fore wing transparent with black and blue border and discal
spot, female with black areas more extensive, highly variable.
Brazil; Cuba. "P. R." (Dewitz, Stahl, M6schler, Gundlach,
Draudt).

Phcenicoprocta capistrata var. eximia (Herrich-Schiiffer)

1866. Glaucopis eximia Herrich-Schiffer, Corresp.-bl. min-zool. Ver. Regens-
burg, xx, p. 115.
1898. Phcenicoprocta eximia Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal., i, p. 199, P1. vii, fig.
15 (form redicta Draudt).
1912. Phoenicoprocta eximia Zerny, Lep. Cat., vii, p. 59.
1915. Phoenicoprocta eximia Draudt, Seitz Macr. World, vi, p. 58, Pl. xil,
fig. c4 (form reducta).

This is a female form of the preceding species. Fore wing black
dusted with blue, with a hyaline area in the middle. In typical eximia,
from Cuba, this encloses a black discal spot as in the typical male; in
variety portoricensis Draudt (1. c.) the patch extends down almost to
Cuii; in variety reducta Draudt it connects with the border and divides
the hyaline area into two separate spots.
Porto Rico (Hampson, Draudt, var. portoricensis). Santa Cruz
(Hampson, Draudt, var. reducta).

Eunomia Hiibner

A small genus, apparently endemic to the West Indies, as the two
species reported from the mainland are both known also from the West
Indies and may well have been transported to the continent in modern
times. The nominal species are distributed as follows and appear to be
local forms of a single valid species. The forms from Cuba and the

3l Hampson (1905, Ann. Mag. N. II. (7), xv, p. 427) first made this change of generic
name.












SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


Bahamas have a black discal dot; those from Jamaica to Porto Rico,
a red one.
Grand Cayman: caymnanensis. Cuba: insularis, nitidula.
Bahamas: latenigra. Jamaica: rubripunctata.
Hayti, Porto Rico: columbina

Eunomia columbina Fabricius

1793. Zygaena columbina Fabricius, Ent. Syst., iii, p. 403.
1818(?)." Eunomia colunibin Hiibner, Zutr. Snillllllll. Exot. S.-hm.. Figs. !). 10.
1898. Eunomia columbina Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal., i, p. 201, Fig. 95.
1912. Eunomia columbina Czerny, Lep. Cat., vii, p. 60.
1915. Eunomia columbina Draudt, Seitz Macr. World, vi, p. 59, P1. xli, fig. dl.
1917. Eunomia columbina Forbes, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., xxxvii, p. 339.
1877. Glaucopis insularis Dewitz, Mitt. Miinch. Ent. Ver. i, p. 92.
1890. Glaucopis insularis Moschler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 113.
1891. Glaucopis insularis Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 155.
1923. Glaucopis insularis (?) Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 156.
(not Eunomia insularis Grote).

The specimen in the American Museum leans a little toward rubri-
punctata, as I have noted. It may represent a distinct race. The larve
of Eunomia eat Convolvulacem.
"P. R." (Dewitz, Moschler, Gundlach) ; Maricao, Jan. 23, 1914.

Nyridela Lucas

Nyridela chalciope Hiibner

1827?. Isanthrene chalciope Hiibner, Zutr. zur Samml. Exot. Schm., iii, p. 20,
Figs. 469, 470.
1890. Isanthrene chalciope Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 113.
1891. Isanthrene chalciope Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 154.
1877. Glaucopis chalciope Dewitz, Mitt. Miinch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 92.
1912. Nyridela chalciope Zerny, Lep. Cat., vii, p. 65 (part).
1915. Nyridela chalciope Draudt, Seitz Macr. World, vi, p. 69 (part, includ-
ing the figure, P1. ix, fig. k6).
1917. Nyridela chalciope Forbes, Bull. A. M. N. H., xxxvii, pp. 339, 345.
1923. Nyridela chalciope Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 156.
(not Nyridela chalciope of Hampson).

I use the name chalciope for Antillean specimens of this genus.
These average a little smaller than the mainland N. zanthocera, which
I have seen only from Central America. The Brazilian N. acroxantha

S*I have adopted Sherborn's dates for IIiihner's works. Occasionally they can be
proved too late; they are rarely, if ever, too early.












FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


differs in having dominantly black antennae, and was mistaken for
chalciope by Hampson. The type locality of chalciope was Havana.
Cuba, San Domingo; Jamaica. "P. R." (Dewitz, Stahl, Moschler,
Gundlach).

Cosmosoma Hiibner

A large and varied genus in tropical America; represented also by a
single species in Florida (C. myrodora) closely related to the Porto
Rican C. auge. The caterpillar of C. myrodora is yellow, with irregular
tufts of black and white hair from black warts.

KEY TO SPECIES

Stalk of M, and Cu, longer than their free portions in hind wing; larger
(expanse 40 mm.) ; abdomen blue dorsally, orange on sides..........auge
Stalk of Ms and Cu, shorter than their free parts; smaller (30 mm.) ; ab-
domen orange dorsally, blue on sides............................ achemon

Cosmosoma auge Linmeus

1767. Sphinx auge Linna'us, Syst. Nat. Ed. 12, i, p. 807.
1898. Cosmosoma auge Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal., i, p. 227.
1912. Cosmosoma auge Zerny, Lep. Cat., vii, p. 68.
1915. Cosmosoma auge Draudt, Seitz Macr. World, vi, p. 71, P1. xiii, fig. cl.
1923. Cosmosoma auge Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. It., vii, p. 157.
18-. Cosmosomia omphale Hiibner, Samml. Exot. Schm., ii, P1. ccclxix.
1890. Cosmosoma omphale Mischler. Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges.. xvi, p. 113.
1891. Cosmosoma omphalc Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Na:t., xx, p. 154.
1877. I.,/.,,i..., i omphale Dewitz, Mitt. Miinch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 92.
1882. Glancopis omphale Dewitz, Nova Acta Acad. Leop-Car., xliv, p. 251,
PI. i, fig. 4 (cocoon).
1877. Cosmosoma melitta M6ischler, Verh. z-b. Ges. Wien. xxvii, p. 635, P1.
viii, fig. 3.

Larva on Mikania.
West Indies and Mexico to Uruguay. "P. R." (Dewitz, Stahl,
Mischler, Gundlach); Rio Piedras, Arecibo and Aibonito (Wolcott);
Coamo Springs, Dec., 1914.

Cosmosoma achemon Fabricius

1781. Zygwna achemon Fabricius, Spec. Ins., ii, p. 162.
1898. Cosmosoma achemon Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal., i, p. 247.
1912. Cosmosoma achemon Zerny, Lep. Cat., vii, p. 67.
1915. Cosmosoma achemon Draudt, Seitz Macr. World, vi, p. 79, Pl. xiv,
fig. c4.
1923. Cosmosoma achemon Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 157.











SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


18-. Euchromia tyrrhene Hlibner, Zutr. Samml. Exot. Schm., Figs. 483, 484.
1877. Glaucopis tyrrhene Dewitz, Mitt. Miinch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 92.
1897. Cosmosoma voltumna Druce, An. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), xx, p. 303.

Strongly sexually dimorphic and quite variable; male with much
orange on fore wing, including a patch opposite lower angle of cell;
female with orange limited to bases of costa and inner margin, the disc
transparent. Porto Rico specimens seen have the scaling almost wholly
orange and represent tyrrhene Hiibner; mainland males may have even
the patch below the cell black.
Greater Antilles; Venezuela; Amazons; Brazil. "P. R." (Dewitz,
Stahl); Arecibo, Feb. 6, 1913 (N. M.), at light (Wolcott) ; Mayagiiez,
Aug. 20, 1916.

Lymire Walker

The center of distribution of this genus is evidently the West Indies,
though there are a couple of aberrant species in South America, and
the Florida species ranges somewhat north of tropical Florida. Cater-
pillar on Ficus; head brownish red, marked with white; body whitish,
with yellow stripes and dark dorsum; hair in irregular tufts, mostly yel-
low, with some brown tufts on metathorax or first segment of abdomen.

Lymire flavicollis Dewitz
P1. I, fig. 2

1877. Echeta flavicollis Dewitz, Mitt. Miinch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 94.
1890. Echeta flavicolUs Mischler, Abh. Senek. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 114.
1891. Echeta flavicolli Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 156.
1923. Lymire flavicollia (sic) Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 157.
1917. Lymire senescens Forbes, Bull. A. M. N. H., cccvii, p. 345.
1926. Symire (sic) albipedalis Gaede, Deut. Ent. Zeit., 1926, p. 130.

I am inclined to believe there is only a single species of Lymire on the
island, though three are reported. They may be distinguished as fol-
lows:
1. Abdomen yellow below and at apex (Jamaica)........ melanocephala
Abdomen white below ............................................. 2
2. Expanse 25 mm.; dorsal half of fore wing shaded with gray..flavicolliU
Expanse 40 mm.; dorsal gray band wholly below fold, except toward
outer margin (Cuba) ..................................... albipennis

The name of flavicollis, described in a genus not familiar to the pres-
ent generation of entomologists, has not before been identified, and has











FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


been overlooked by every one not working specially on Porto Rico.
Gaede, following Seitz, evidently overlooked both our descriptions.
"P. R." (Dewitz, Gaede); Coamo Springs, Jan. 6-10; Naguabo, Mar.
7-9 (type of senescens).

Horama Hlibner

While this genus distinctly belongs to the Ctenuchine, it approaches
the Euchromiine in the stalking of Cu, and Cu,, which, though universal
in that group, is very rare in the Ctenuchine. The enlarged and plumed
hind legs seem to mimic the similarly enlarged legs of many Hymenop-
tera. The two Porto Rican species are unusual in having a brown hind
wing.
KEY TO SPECIES

First segment of abdomen almost wholly pure white; hind wing chocolate
brown, darker than fore wing...................................pretus
First segment of abdomen with a cream patch on middle line; hind wing
bright tawny ................... ............................. panthalon

Horama panthalon Fabricius
P1. II, fig. 4

1793. Zygena panthalon Fabricius, Ent. Syst., iii, p. 405.
1877. Horama panthalon Dewitz, Mitt. Miinch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 94.
1890. Horama panthalon Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 113.
1891. Horama panthalon Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, 153.
1898. Horama panthalon Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal., i, p. 417, P1. xv, fig. 91.
1912. Horama panthalon Zerny, Lep. Cat., vii, p. 121.
1915. Horama panthalon Draudt, Seitz Macr. World, vi, p. 143, PI. xxi, fig. h3.
1923. Horama panthalon Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 157.

Hayti; Jamaica; Venezuela. "P. R." (Dewitz, M6schler, Gund-
lach); Boquer6n, common, Jan. 9, 1923 (Wolcott); Coamo Springs,
June, Sept.; Manati, June 25-29, 1915.

Horama pretus Cramer
P1. II, fig. 1

1777. Sphinx pretus Cramer, Pap. Exot., ii, P1. clxxv, figs. E. F.
1877. Horama pretus Dewitz, Mitt. Munch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 94.
1890. Horama pretus M6schler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 113.
1891. Horama pretus Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, 153.
1912. Horama pretus Zerny, Lep. Cat., vii, p. 122.
1915. Horama pretus Draudt, Seitz Macr. World, vi, p. 144, P1. xxi, fig. 14.
1923. Horama pretus Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vil, p. 157.
1839. Mastigocera vespina Harris, Am. Jour. Scd., xxxvi, p. 315.











SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


The hind tibim are not nearly smooth, as Hampson implies, but almost
as fully plumed as in H. panthalon. Caterpillar orange, with darker
head and thorax, with tufts of gray and white hairs, and two pairs of
small black dorsal pencils on each of the middle segments; on Elceoden-
dron xylocarpum (Wolcott).
Venezuela. "P. R." (Dewitz, Stahl, Mischler, Gundlach) ; Rio
Piedras, Guanica, Pt. Salinas (at flowers), Boquer6n (also larva), Pt.
Cangrejos (Wolcott), Mayagiiez, Mar. 15, 1912 (Hooker-N. M.) ; San
Juan, Feb., 1914; St. Thomas, Feb. 12, 13 and 24, 1925 (also reported by
Harris and M6schler) ; St. John, Mar. 6 and 11, 1925; Tortola, Mar. 29,
1925.
Empyreuma Hubner

This genus is endemic to the West Indies, with one species limited
to Jamaica and the other on the remaining Greater Antilles. The sec-
ond shows some local variation, and several forms have been named.
The Porto Rico race has as good a claim as any to be considered the type
form (described from St. Thomas, where it has not been found recently).
The species mimic the local purple species of Pepsis (1. rubra Y in
Porto Rico).

Empyreuma pugione Linnueus

1767. Sphinx pugione Linnweus, Syst. Nat. Ed. 12, 1, p. 807.
1775. Sphinx lichas Cramer, Pap. Exot., i, P1. xlv, fig. B.
1820(?). Empyreuma pugione and lichas Hiibner, Verz. Bek. Schm. Nos.
1297, 1298.
1877. Empyreuma pugione Dewitz, Mitt. Miinch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 94.
1890. Empyreuma pugione M6schler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 113.
1891. Emqyreuma pugione Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 155.
1917. Empyreuma pugione Forbes, Bull. A. M. N. H., xxxvii, p. 342.
1923. Empyreuma pugione Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 157.
1898. Empyreuma lichas Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal., i, p. 423, fig. 223.
1912. Empyreuma sanguinea portoricensis Rothschild. Nov. Zool., xix, p. 155.
1912. Empyreuma mucro Zerny, Lep. Cat., vii, p. 122.
1915. Empyreuma mucro portoricensis Draudt, Seitz Macr. World, vi, p. 144
(P1. xxi, fig. kl, is given as E. mucro).
(Not Zygerna lichas Fabricius, which is an Old World species of Amata, nor
Empyreuma pugione of Hampson, which is E. anassa Forbes.)

Caterpillar dull orange, hairy, with silvery lateral stripes; on oleander
(Nerium) according to Wolcott.
Porto Rico (Dewitz, Stahl, M6schler, Gundlach, etc.); Mayagiiez,
May 21 and 23, 1912 (Hooker-N. M.) ; Rio Piedras and Arecibo (Wol-











FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


cott). St. Thomas (Linnaeus, Cramer). Specimens from Haiti and
San Domingo are less red, approaching form afinis.
Correbidia Hampson

The species of this genus appear to mimic protected beetles of the
family LycidBe, like the genus Lycomorpha in North America. They are
general in tropical America.
KEY TO SPECIES

Fore wing with blackish band and apex........................terminalis
Fore wing almost wholly orange ochre.............................. bicolor
Correbidia terminalis Walker

1856. Euchromia (Pionia) terminalis Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M., vii, p.
1633.
1866. Charidea cimicoides Herrich-Schlffer, Corresp. B1, zool.-min. Ver.
Regensb., xx, p. 116.
1877. Charidea cimicoides Dewitz, Mitt. Miinch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 94.
1890. Charidea cimicoides MIschler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 114.
1891. Charidea cimicoides Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 156.
1892. Correbia terminalis and cimicoides Kirby, Cat. Lep. Het., p. 168.
1898. Correbidia terminalis Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal., i, p. 519.
1912. Correbidia terminalis Zerny, Lep. Cat.., vii, p. 146.
1915. Correbidia terminalis Draudt, Seitz Macr. World, vi, p. 187.
1923. Correbidia terminals Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 158.

The slightly darker mainland form of this species (C. t. continentalis
Draudt) is figured by Hampson, 1. c. Fig. 274, and Draudt, 1. c. P1. xxvi,
fig. a5. Larva on under side of leaves of Cecropia (Gundlach).
West Indies and Mexico to Venezuela (Brazil in error, according to
Hampson). "P. R." (Dewitz, Stahl, Moschler, Gundlach); El Yunque,
Mar. 29, 1930 (Forbes).

Correbidia bicolor Herrich-Schlffer
1866. Charidea bicolor Herrich-Schiffer, Corresp.-Bl. zool.-min. Ges. Regensb.,
xx, p. 116.
1890. Charidea bicolor M6schler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 114.
1891. Charidea bicolor Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 156.
1915. Correbidia bicolor Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal. Suppl., i, p. 366, Pl. xxi,
fig. 6.
1917. Correbidia bicolor Seitz, Macr. World, vi, p. 216, P1. xxxi, fig. hi.
1923. Correbidia bicolor Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 158.

Possibly an extreme light form of the preceding, from which it ap-
pears to differ only in color.
Cuba. "P. R." (M6schler, Gundlach).











SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


Charidea proxima Grote ("Zygaenide, suppl. p. 24, 1867") is listed
by M6schler and Gundlach from Porto Rico. It does not appear in
modern catalogues or revisions, and I cannot trace the original paper.
Lycomorpha fumata Moschler is a Lithosiid (Lycomorphodes).


NOLIDA

This is a small family, but found over practically the whole tem-
perate world. It has sometimes been put with the Micros, but the
thoracic structure is practically identical with that of the Arctiide, and
unlike anything in the Micros. The caterpillar is distinctive, being the
only type with tufted hair that has lost a ventral pair of prolegs. Celama
sorghiella is well-known from Porto Rico; the other two species were
known only from single specimens, but have been taken in series this
spring.

KEY TO GENEBA

Fore wing with four radial branches preserved, R, being free below the bifid
vein which runs to the apex...................................... Nola
Fore wing with R, and a single forked radial only, three branches in all..
Celama

Celama Walker

Celama sorghiella Riley

1882. Nola sorghiella Riley, Rept. U. S. Dept. Agr. Ins., p. 188, Pl. xi, fig. 1.
1893. Nola sorghiella Neumoegen and Dyar, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., i, p. 110.
1898. Celama sorghiella Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal., ii, p. 20.
1919. Celama sorghiella Draudt, Seitz Macr. World, vi, p. 240.
1920. Celama sorghiella Strand, Lep. Cat., xxiv, p. 459.
1923. Celama sorghiella Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 158.
1890. Nola portoricensis Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 118.
1891. Nola portoricensis Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 161.

White, with some pale brown and blackish scaling, rarely showing the
two transverse bands of N. bistriga in light brown. Caterpillar some-
times a minor pest of sugar cane and other coarse Graminem; yellowish,
striped with brown, with short, stiff, brown-tipped yellow hair.
Southern U. S. to northern South America, Argentine, rare or absent
in tropical South America. "P. R." (Moschler-type of portoricensis
Gundlach); Rio Piedras (N. M.; Wolcott); Mayagiiez, July 24-29, 1912.











FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


Nola Leach

Nola bistriga M6schler

1890. Stenola bistriga MSschler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 119.
1891. Stenola bistriga Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 161.
1898. Nola bistriga Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal., ii, p. 44, P1. xix, fig. 17.
1919. Nola bistriga Draudt, Seitz Macr. World, vi, p. 235, P1. xxxii, fig. k7.
1920. Nola bistriga Strand, Lep. Cat., xxxiv, p. 464.
1923. Nola bistriga Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, 158.

White, lightly sprinkled with black, with two nearly straight and
parallel black lines across the wing, either falling short of the costa, or
continued to the costa by a faint incurved termination. Subterminal
line zig-zag, reduced to fragments. 20 mm.
With a dozen specimens, the male of this species is still unknown; it
was described from two obviously much faded females.
"P. R." (M6schler-types); El Yunque, at light, Mar. 29, Apr. 22-
23, 1930 (Forbes).
Nola sinuata, new species

Female. Fore wing with R, strongly bent up near base, but not approaching
Sc, R,, R, and R, stalked from the apex of a small triangular accessory cell,
R, much farther than R,. Structure otherwise normal for Nola. Male un-
known, the antenna presumably pectinate.
Fore wing dull white, lightly dusted with fuscous and some blackish scales,
with moderate tufts at two-fifths and four-fifths length of cell, each lying over
the radial vein and accompanied by a slight tuft opposite it on cubitus; a
weaker tuft at upper angle of cell. Costa brown out to the first tuft, cell
shaded with brown between antemedial line and second tuft, and terminal area
somewhat shaded with brown except toward apex. Antemedial line strongly
excurved over cell, oblique and retracted to basal angle below, and concave
at anal vein; finely dentate where it crosses cell, with teeth below R and
above and below Cu. Postmedial line double and brown-filled at middle of
costa, then abruptly turning directly out and running in a great sweep of
nearly three-fourths of an ellipse to directly below the end of cell, where it
runs longitudinally inward between Cu, and Cu,, then turning a right angle
and running in a concave sweep across the submedian area and outwardly
oblique to inner margin. A dark shade before postmedial line toward inner
margin, sometimes almost making a fuscous patch. Subterminal line fairly
defined on outer side, diffuse basally; outwardly oblique from below costa to
below R,, then abruptly retracted and again rounding out to a double point
below middle of margin, sharply angled in on Cu, and then running directly
across to anal angle, where it meets the outer margin. Hind wing whitish,
lightly stained with gray toward margin. Expanse 16 mm.

This species would run in Hampson's key to N. apera, which differs ut-
terly in the course of the lines; it is probably nearest to N. solvita Schaus.










SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


from Brazil, which is much darker, and an undescribed species from
Guiana which lacks the brown base of costa and other shades. It also
resembles the minuscule group of Roeselia, which has the accessory cell,
but differs by the loss of vein R, and by the much more deeply sinuate
postmedial line.
Porto Rico: April 6, 1930 (type) and April 7, 9 and 10 (paratypes) in
Cornell University collection, also Jan., 1915, paratype in American
Museum of Natural History.
ABCTIIDM
This large family (of nearly 4000 species) is of world-wide distri-
bution. The Porto Rican species are prevailingly of South American
affinity. The family is generally well-defined by the relation of Sc and
R of the hind wing, the base of Sc being much swollen, and R not more
than a fourth as wide, often actually fused with it; and the two veins
fusing for some half the length of the cell. A few Noctuidm have a
comparable length of fusion, but the base of Sc is very moderately
swollen. The genus Afrida is discussed here, as it is universally placed
in the Lithosiinm; it is, however, a Noctuid, related to Sarrothripa and
Characoma.
The Mulona group is endemic to the West Indies: so far as we know
authentically, Cincia is confined to Jamaica; Paramulona, save for the
single record from Porto Rico, is known only from Cuba; Mulona is
found in both Cuba and Jamaica. The report of its presence in Colom-
bia is undoubtedly an error. Progona is a wide-spread tropical Ameri-
can genus, related to the North American Crambidia, and the rest of
the family belong to well known South American genera.
The caterpillars of this family always have some extra hair from the
warts, but in the extreme case this is limited to a single extra hair on
wart iii, above the spiracle. More often there are regular tufts, and in
that case there are two subdorsal tufts on the meso- and metathorax (ex-
cept in Eupseudosoma). The legs have the hooks uniordinal (not alter-
nately of unequal lengths) but the two ends of the series are abruptly
and noticeably shortened. The cocoon is made largely of the hair, which
is barbed so as to be easily felted together (as is also the case in the
Euchromiide).
KEY TO GENERA
1. Ocellus absl nt (Litlh siin:e) 1~ ..................................... 2
Ocellus present, visible just behind base of antenna (Arctiinie)....... 7
In a few Litlhosiina there is a rudiment of tlie u.erllus as a pigment dot, but it is
far from the edge of the eye and completely covered by the head-vestiture.












FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MONTHS


2. M1 in fore wing and M. and M, in hind wing lost (fused with Ms and
Cu, respectively) ; the cubitus, therefore, apparently 3- and 2-
branched; fore wing with accessory cell; Sc and R, anastomosing..
Progona
Cu apparently 4-branched in fore wing and 3- and 4-branched in hind
w ing .................. .................................. ... .. 3
3. Both wings with all veins; accessory cell present............ Agylla
Hind wing with M, lost, accessory cell absent........................ 4
4. Fore wing with M2 and M, stalked, Sc and R, anastomosing ........ 5
M. and M, arising separately, Sc and R, free, though closely approxi-
mate; hind wing with M, and Cu, stalked ........................ 6
5. Hind wing with only two veins from upper angle of cell, R and M,
being completely united "' ................. ....... Lycomorphodes
Hind wing with R and M both present................Paramulona
6. Fore wing with R, and R, stalked beyond the origin of R:,.... lulona
R, and R, stalked beyond the origin of R,.................... Cincia
7. Hind wing with a medial vein lost; white with red abdomen........
Eupseudosoma
Hind wing with all veins.......................................... 8
8. Expanse about 12 mm. (1/2 inch) ; fore wing with a radial vein lost..
Afrida
Expanse over 25 mm. (1 inch) ; all veins present .................... 9
9. Fore wing with R, stalked with R_,................................ 10
R free .......................................................... 11
R2 and R,_, arising from an accessory cell.......................... 12
10. Hind tibia with end-spurs only; tongue and palpi reduced.Ecpantheria
Hind tibia with four spurs, tongue strong, palpi upturned to vertex..
Ammalo
11. Fore wing with Cu, from lower angle of cell, closely approximate to
M, and M,; palpi surpassing vertex ....................Phegoptera
Cu. a quarter as far from M, as from Cu2; palpi moderate... Halysidota
12. Antennae pectinate in both sexes; abdomen hairy at base.... alidota
Antenne simple in both sexes; abdomen smooth-scaled.... Utetheisa


Lycomorphodes Hampson

Lycomorphodes strigosa Butler

1877. Trichromia strigosa Butler, Trans. Ent. Soc., 1877, p. 328.
1900. Lycomorphodes strigosa Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal., ii, p. 379, P1. xxviil,
fig. 32.
1918. Lycomorphodes strigosa Draudt, Seitz Macr. World, vi. p. 253, P1.
xxxiv, fig. d8.
1922. Lycomorphodes strigosa Strand, Lep. Cat., xxvi, p. 727.
1890. Lycomorpha fumata Mbschler, Abh. Senck, naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 114.
1891. Lycomorpha fumata Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 157.
1923. Lycomorpha fumata Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 158.

Closely similar to the Euchronmiid;l Ibut ilistingulishedl by the ibsePnce of 1hpe o-cllus.











SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


This species shows a curious parallelism to the Euchromiidse bth in
structure and coloring, but the type of body as well as the lack of icelli
point to the Lithosiine.
Brazil. "P. R." (type of fumata M6schler, Gundlach).

Progona Berg (Parablavia Hampson)

This genus is hardly distinct from the North American Crambidia,
differing only in the union of M, and Cu, of the hind wing. Besides the
described South American species there is one in the Gulf strip of the
United States.
Progona pallida M6schler
1890. Delphyre pallda M~schler, Abh. Senck. nature. Ges., xvi, p. 118
1891. Delphyre pallida Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 160.
1900. Parablavia pallida Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal., ii, p. 126; Pl. xxi, fig. 12.
1914. Parablavia is a synonym of Progona according to Hampson, Cat. Rep.
Phal. Suppl., 1, p. 476.
1919. Progona pallida Draudt, Seitz Macr. World, vi, p. 290, P1. xxxvi, fig. g2.
1923. Progona (Delphyre) pallida Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 158.

"P. R." (Moschler, Gundlach). Cayey, May 30-31, 1915.

Agylla Walker

A large South American genus, also represented in the Old World
tropics. The secondary sexual characters are striking and varied,
though limited to abdominal tufts in the species reported from Porto
Rico. The larva seems to be unknown; it may be that it feeds on lichens.

Agylla sericea Druce
1885. Crambomorpha sericea Druce, Biol. Cent.-Am. Het., 1, p. 132.
1890. Mieza galactina Maassen, Stubel's Reise, Lep., pp. 67, 131, Pl. iv, fig. 27.
1890. Gnophria limpida Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 117.
1891. Gnophria limpida Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 160.
1900. Agylla sericea Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal., ii, p. 206.
1919. Agylla sericea Draudt, Seitz Macr. World, vi, p. 284; P1. xxxvii, fig. f4.
1920. Agylla sericea Strand, Lep. Cat., xxvi, p. 613.
1923. Agylla sericea Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R.,vii, p. 158.

Mexico to Brazil. "P. R." (Moschler ex coll. Staudinger). The
Porto Rican record is based on a single specimen and there may be some
error. The group is otherwise unknown from the West Indies.

Paramulona Hampson

This genus is endemic to the West Indies, but is credited to Porto
Rico on the basis of a single record. Though quite distinct in appear-











FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


ance from Mulona nigripuncta, I suspect there may really be a confusion
with it, as M6schler and Gundlach mistakenly list it as a synonym of
Cincia conspersa, a Jamaica species which they (apparently in error for
M. nigripuncta) report from Porto Rico.

Paramulona albulata Herrich-Schaffer
1866. Mieza albulata Herrich-Schiffer, Corresp.-B1. z-b. Ges. Regensb., xx,
p. 120.
1877. Mieza albulata Dewitz, Mitt. Minch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 95.
1900. Paramulona albulata Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal., ii, p. 386, fig. 300.
1919. Paramulona albulata Draudt, Seitz Macr. World, vi, p. 252, P1. xxxiv,
fig. c8.
1920. Paranulona albulata Strand, Lep. Cat., xxvi, p. 732.
1923. Paramulona albulata Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 158.

Dull ochre, shaded and dusted with dull black.
Cuba. "P. R." (Dewitz, Stahl).
Mulona Walker
Mulona nigripuncta Hampson
1898. Mulona nigripuncta Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal., ii, p. 387, P1. xxix, fig. 6.
1919. Mulona nigripuncta Draudt, Seitz Macr. World, vi, p. 252, Pl. xxxii,
fig. 19.
1920. Mulona nigripuncta Strand, Lep. Cat., xxvi, p. 732.

Whitish with some fifteen black dots and an orange dot near end of
cell.
Colombia. Porto Rico (Hampson); Manati, June 27-29, 1915.
Cineia Walker
Cincia conspersa Walker
1854. Cinoia conspersa Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M., ii, p. 538.
1890. Cincia conspersa M6schler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 118.
1891. Cincia conspersa Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 161.
1923. Cincia conspersa Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 158.

Very similar to the preceding species, but with broader wings, wholly
gray hind wing and different venation. The genus appears to be limited
to Jamaica.
Jamaica. Reported from Porto Rico by Mischler, almost certainly
in error for M. nigripuncta.
Afrida Moschler

This small genus belongs to the Noctuide, subfamily Sarrothripinse.
It is treated here because it still stands as a Lithosiid in all catalogues.











SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


Afrida charientisma Dyar

1890. Afrida tortriciformis Moschler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 120.
1891. Afrida tortriciformis Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 162.
1923. Afrida tortriciformis Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 158.
1913. Afrida charientisma Dyar, Ins. Ins. Men., i, p. 30.
1914. Afrida charientisma Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal., Suppl., i, p. 651, P1.
xxxiv, fig. 13.
1918. Afrida charientisma Draudt in Seitz, Macr. World, vi, p. 268, P1. xxxv,
fig. b6.
1922. Afrida charientisma Strand, Lep. Cat., xxvi, p. 707.
1900. Afrida minute, subsp. 1. Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal., ii, p. 350.
(Not Afrida tortriciformis Mischler, 1886)

Distinguishable from A. tortriciformis, which Mbschler doubtfully
credited to Porto Rico and from A. tortricifascies, which is to be expected
in Porto Rico, by the absence of an anal lobe on the male hind wing and
the distinct and complete ante- and postmedial lines.
Cuba; Grenada. P. R. (Moschler); El Yunque, Apr. 22, 1930
(Forbes).

Eupseudosoma Grote

Eupseudosoma belongs to a South American group intermediate be-
tween the Arctiidae and Euchromiide. The caterpillar, as described by
Dyar, is Euchromiid; the imago also shows Euchromiid characters, but
intergrades into the more typically Arctiid Halysidota group.

Eupseudosoma involutum Sepp

1852. Phalwna involuta Sepp, Surinam. Vlinders, i, p. 115.
1855. Charidea nivea Herrich-Schiiffer, Aussereur. Schm., i, fig. 279.
1865. Eupseudosoma niveum Grote, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., v. p, 240.
1877. Eupseudosoma niveum Dewitz. Mitt. Miinch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 95.
1890. Eupsodosoma niveum Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 114.
1891. Eupscudosoma nivea Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. N.it., xx, p. 157.
1900. Eupscudosoma involutum Dyar, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xxiii, p. 258
(life history).
1901. Eupseudosoma involutum Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal., iii, p. 27, fig. 20.
1903. Eupseudosoma involutum Holland, Moth Book, Pl. xiv, fig. 1.
1919. Eupseudosoma involutum Strand, Lep. Cat., xxii, p. 9.
1921. Eupseudosoma involutum and ab. nivea Seitz, Macr. World, vi, 364, P1.
1, fig. al, 2.
1923. Eupseudosoma involutum Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 158.
1882. Eupseudosoma floridum Grote, Can. Ent., xiv, p. 187.
1887. Euchtetes immaculate Graef, Ent. Am., iii, p. 42.











FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


Larva with yellow head and dense tufts of varicolored hair, most fre-
quently brown; on Eii.i n,, and guava.

Florida to Brazil. "P. R." (Dewitz, Stahl, Mischler, Gundlach);
Rio Piedras and Caguas (Wolcott); Mayagiiez, April (C. U.)

Ammalo Walker

The Porto Rican species of Ammalo belongs with the North American
species in the subgenus Tanada Walker. The few species of this genus
cover most of temperate and tropical America, and with the preceding
and three following genera make up the wholly American group of
Phegopterine.
Ammalo insulata Walker
1855. Halesidota insulata Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M., iii, p. 734.
1897. Euchawtes insulatus Druce, Biol. Cent.-Am. Het., ii, p. 392.
1901. Amnialo insulata Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal., iii, p. 84, Pl. xxxvii, fig. 14.
1903. Ammalo insulata Holland, Moth Book, P1. xiv, fig. 3.
1919. Ammalo insulata Strand, Lep. Cat., xxii, p. 35.
1922. Ammalo insulata Seitz, Macr. World, vi., p. 384, P1. liii, fig. g4.
1923. Ammalo insulata Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 159.
1865. Pareuchwutes cadaverosa and P. affnis Grote, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., v,
p. 245.
1877. Parcclirates cadarcrosa and P. affinis Dewitz, Mitt. liinch. Ent. Ver., i,
p. 95.
1890. Pareuchlrtes cadacvrosa and P. affinis MSschler, Abh. Senck. naturf.
Ges., xvi, p. 116.
1891. Pareitchctes cadaverosa and P. affinis Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist.
Nat., xx, p. 158.

This widespread species is markedly variable and needs further study.
The larva is reported on grass and weeds (Wolcott), including Vernonia
and Epilobium (Gundlach).
Florida to Argentina. "P. R." (Dewitz, Stahl, M6schler, Gund-
lach, C. U.) ; Rio Piedras; Aibonito; Guanica (at light) ; and Pt. Can-
grejos (Wolcott) ; Guanica, Oct. 2, 1913.

Phegoptera Herrich-Schliffer (Opharus Walker)

The type of Phegoptera is histrionica, one of the species included when
IIerrich-Schiiffer first assigned species to it in 1853. The generic name
was proposed somewhat earlier without species. Opharus was proposed
only in 1855 and, until Hampson's change, was much less familiar in
the literature than Phegoptera.











SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


Phegoptera bimaculata Dewitz
1877. Halisidota bimaculata Dewitz, Mitt. Miinch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 95.
1890. Halisidota bimaculata Moschler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 115.
1891. Halisidota bimaculata Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 157.
1901. Opharus bimaculata Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal., iii, p. 120.
1919. Opharus bimaculata Strand, Lep. Cat., xxii, p. 55.
1922. Opharus bimaculata Seitz, Macr. World, vi, p. 398, PI. Ivi, fig. g5.
1923. Opharus bimaculata Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 159.
1884. Opharus albipunctatus Druce, Biol. Cent.-Am. Het., 1, p. 102, P1. x, fig.
11; ii, p. 382 (1897).

Larva with dorsal and lateral series of equal, truncate blackish pencils
on the abdomen only (N. M.)
Mexico and Central America to Brazil. The Porto Rico record is
based on Dewitz's type alone and should be verified.

Halysidota Hiibner

A large and abundant genus over the whole of temperate and tropical
America. The caterpillars are densely clothed with fine feathery hair,
sometimes almost concealing the body, and have a limited number of
thin pencils at each end besides a mid-dorsal series of short ones. Most
of the caterpillars are rather general feeders on trees and shrubs. The
Porto Rican species is related to the North American H. tessellaris.

Halysidota cinctipes Grote

1865. Halisidota cinctipes Grote, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., v, p. 242.
1877. Halisidota cinctipes Dewitz, Mitt. Munch. Ent. Ver., 1, p. 95.
1896. Halisidota cinctipes Dyar, Psyche, vii, p. 550 (larva).
1901. Halisidota cinctipes Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal., iii, p. 160, Pl. xl, fig. 15.
(Also larva.)
1919. Halisidota cinctipes Strand, Lep. Cat. xxii, p. 73.
1922. Halisidota cinctipes Seitz, Macr. World, vi. p. 412, lix, fig. c3.
1923. Halisidota cinctipes Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 159.
1890. Halisidota tesselaris Moschler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 115.
1891. Halisidota tesselaris Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 158.
(not Halisidota tesselaris Hiibner).

A wide-spread species in tropical America, whose local variation is not
yet fully understood. The caterpillar is black and red-brown, with red-
brown head, and clothed with gray-brown general hair and largely white
pencils. It eats Coccoloba.
Florida and Arizona to Brazil. "P. R." (Dewitz, M6schler, Gund-
lach.)











FORBES. INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


Calidota Dyar

This genus is a connecting link between the Arctiine and the Haly-
sidota group in both larval and adult characters. The larva has the dense
feathery hair of Halysidota, but lacks the longer pencils.

Calidota strigosa Walker

1855. Sychesia strigosa Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M., iii, p 736.
1891. HaUsidota strigosa M6schler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 115.
1892. Halisidota strigosa Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p.' 157.
1897. Theages strigosa Dyar, Can. Ent., xxix, p. 217.
1900. Calidota strigosa Dyar, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1901, p. 268 (larva).
1901. Calidota strigosa Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal., iii, 433, P1. 1, fig. 10.
(Also larva.)
1919. Calidota strigosa Strand, Lep. Cat., xxii, p. 307.
1922. Calidota strigosa Seitz, Macr. World, vi. p. 295, P1. Ivi, fig. a4.
1923. Calidota strigosa Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 159.
1865. Halisidota cubensis Grote, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., v, p. 243.
1877. Halisidota cubensis Dewitz, Mitt. Minch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 95.

Caterpillar on Guettarda elliptica; red-brown with shining black head.
Pupa shining as in the Phegopterinae.
Texas; Florida; Greater Antilles. Porto Rico (Dewitz, Stahl, M6sch-
ler, Gundlach, Wolcott); St. Croix (Hampson).

Ecpantheria Hlibner

Ecpantheria icasia icasia Cramer
P1. II, fig. 2

1777. Bombyx icasia Cramer, Pap. Exot., ii, P1. clxxxi, fig. E.
1901. Ecpantheria icasia Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal., iii, p. 383 (part).
1877. Ecpantheria icasia and eridane Dewitz, Mitt. MUnch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 95.
1890. Ecpantheria icasia and eridane M6schler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi,
p. 116.
1891. Ecpantheria icasia and eridane Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx,
p. 158.
1916. Ecpantheria icasia Van Zwaluwenburg, Ins. Ins. Men., iv. pp. 12-17
(life history).
1919. Ecpantheria icasia Strand, Lep. Cat., xxii, p. 274 (part).
1919. Ecpantheria icasia Seitz, Macr. World, vi, p. 319, P1. xli, figs. a5, bl.
1923. Ecpantheria icasia Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 159.
1929. Ecpantheria icasia icasia Forbes, Ann. Ent. Soc. Am., xxii, pp. 312, 318,
etc.
(Not eridanus Cramer, or eridane Hiibner.)

Races of this species cover a large part of northern and central South
America. It is reported as absent from Cuba, and appears to have in-










SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


vaded Porto Rico from the Lesser Antilles, where the type form is also
found. The males, as represented in the Cornell University collection,
tend to have the ocellate spots heavy, well contrasted and dark brown,
but largely or completely absent from the thorax. The females are in-
clined to lose the pattern and are easily mistaken for E. eridanus. The
caterpillar is black, with reddish head, tubercles, and sometimes trans-
verse stripes on the incisures (at least in the Peruvian race). The stiff
blackish hair is all cut off rather evenly. The caterpillar is a general
feeder, and is occasionally injurious.
West Indies: "P. R." (Dewitz, Stahl, Mdschler, Gundlach); May
(C. U.); Rio Piedras, Guinica, Juncos, Aibonito and Toa Baja (Wol-
cott); Mayagiiez, Jan. 1912, and Arroyo, Feb. 1899 (N. M.); Toa Baja,
Jan. 17, and San Juan (C. U.); Aibonito, June 1-3, 1915; Adjuntas,
June, 1915; Coamo Springs, Jan., 1915; St. Croix, Mar. 7, 1915.
Utetheisa Hiibner
The group to which Utetheisa ornatrix belongs has a considerable de-
velopment in the Old World, with several genera and numerous species,
but if we leave the Gahipagos Islands out of account there is only a single
species in the New World. It would seem then that there must have been
a single accidental introduction to account for it. The species, however,
has had time to divide into several strikingly distinct subspecies, and so
must have been here ages before the time of man. Of these various forms,
the one characteristic of the eastern Greater Antilles and northern Lesser
Antilles (U. o. stretchii) most closely resembles the Old-world types in
pattern, and so presumably marks the original site of introduction. The
Galapagos have a second endemic species, but its structure has not been
examined, and it cannot be said if it is derived from the normal American
species or represents a second separate introduction.
The caterpillars feed as a rule inside or partly inside the large inflated
pods of Crotalaria and similar legumes. Two forms of U. ornatri.v exist
side by side in Porto Rico, with a moderate amount of intergrading. I
am inclined to believe that stretchii was the original inhabitant of the
chain from Haiti to beyond the Virgin Islands and that typical ornatrix
belonged to the Lesser Antilles, but the latter has proved aggressive and
in recent times seems to have spread not only over South America and
via Mexico to the Mississippi Valley, but has returned on its parent
form, and may be gradually swamping it on its own home islands. At
present both forms seem distributed practically all over Porto Rico and
the Virgin Islands, though the American Museum has only stretchii
from San Juan and Manati.











FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


Utetheisa ornatrix ornatrix Linnaeus
1758. Phalwna (Noctua) ornatrix Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, p. 511.
1837. Deiopeia ornatrix Westwood, in Drury (2d. Ed.), i. p. 46, Pl. xxiv,
fig. 2.
1877. Deiopeia ornatrix Dewitz, Mitt. Miinch. Ent. Ver., i. p. 95.
1822. Utetheisa ornatrix Hiibner, Verz. Bek. Schm. No. 1732.
1901. Utetheisa ornatrix Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal., iii, p. 485.
1903. Utetheisa ornatrix Holland, Moth Book, P1. xvii, fig. 8 .
1917. Utetheisa ornatrix Forbes, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., xxxvii, p. 340 (dis-
cussion of races).
1919. Utetheisa ornatrix Strand, Lep. Cat., xxil, p. 362.
1923. Utetheisa ornatrix Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 159.

In the type form the fore wing has a few scarlet dots only, in the var.
stretchii it is largely scarlet. Both have white hind wings, unlike the
forms from Cuba, Jamaica and the eastern United States. Caterpillar
brilliantly striped transversely with black and with orange; very sparsely
hairy. It eats mainly Crotalaria, but is reported from many legumes.
It is occasionally injurious in the West Indies.
Kansas to southern South America, in the Antilles north and west to
Haiti, but rarer than stretchii on Haiti and Porto Rico.

Utetheisa ornatrix stretehii Butler
1872. Deiopeia ornatrix var. Stretch, Zyg. Bomb., p. 58, P1. ii, fig. 17.
1877. Deiopeia ornatrix var. stretchii Butler, Trans. Ent. Soc., 1877, p. 361.
1901. Utetheisa ornatrix ab. 1, stretch Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal., iii, p. 486.
1919. Utetheisa ornatrix ab. 1, stretch Strand, Lep. Cat., xxii, p. 362.
1917. Utetheisa ornatrix stretchii Forbes, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., xxxvii,
p. 341.

(The following records also probably belong to this form, as U. o. bella
Linn. appears not to occur in Porto Rico.)
1877. Deiopeia bella Dewitz, Mitt. Miinch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 95.
1890. Utetheisa bella M6schler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 116.
1891. Utetheisa bella Gundlach. An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 160.
1923. Utetheisa bella Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 159.

Typical U. ornatrix and U. o. stretchii show a peculiar relationship
on Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. The species normally occurs in
colonies, and each colony is usually mainly composed of one or the other
form, but in every case where large series have been taken single speci-
mens of the other form and occasional intergrades are found. Westward,
stretchii is found alone, and to the south ornLdri.r invariabllv occurs
alone," so if Porto Rico were considered by itself the two would be con-

17 Specimens showing traces of sltetchii blood may be, taken as far south as Trinidad.











SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


sidered merely color-phases, but taking the species as a whole they are
seen to be races.
Haiti to Virgin Islands; from the Virgin Islands the American Mu-
seum has material from St. Thomas, St. Croix, Tortola and St. John,
in all cases associated with typical ornatrix.

Utetheisa pulchella L.
U. pulchella L. of Europe was once taken at Ponce by Donald Fraser,
Feb. 2, 1927. It is undoubtedly an accidental introduction.

PERICOPIDJE (HYPSIDE in part)
This family as usually limited is wholly American, and composed of
a few showy species, a large proportion of them being Mullerian mimics
of butterflies. They are mainly tropical but range well north in the
Rocky Mountains. On structural characters they approach closely to the
Herminiins of the Noctuidoe, but the tympanum is always much more
conspicuous. The latter are also never showy forms. The larve hardly
differ from those of the Arctiidse. (See Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus,
ii, 62, 108.)
KEY TO GENERA
1. Hind tibia with all spurs preserved; fore wing with M, free..Composia
Hind tibia with end-spurs only.................................... 2
2. Fore wing with R2 free............................... C.tenuchiia
R, stalked with R,_...................................... yalurga

Composia Hiibner
KEY TO SPECIES

Wings and abdomen regularly spotted with white...................sybaris
White spots confined to costa of fore wings and margins of both wings..
fldelisst8ma
Composia sybaris Cramer
P1. II, fig. 3
1777. Phalana (Noctua) sybaris Cramer, Pap. Exot., i, p. 112, Pl. lxxi, fig. E.
1793. Bombyx credula Fabricius, Ent. Syst., iii (1), p. 475.
1841. Hypercompa (?) sybaris Duncan, Nat. Libr., PI. xxiii, fig. 1.
1877. Composia sybaris Dewitz, Mitt. Miinch. Ent. Ver., 1, p. 95.
1891. Composia sybaris MSschler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 116.
1892. Composia sybaris Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat.. xx, p. 159.
1914. Composia sybaris Dyar, Ins. Ins. Men., ii, p. 62 (larva).
1923. Composia sybaris Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 179.
1822. Composia credula Hiibner, Verz. Bak. Schm., No. 1851.
1822-1834. Composia credula Hiibner, Samml. Exot. Schm., ii, PI. cccci.
1925. Composia credula Hering, Seitz, Macr. World, vi, p. 428, Pl. lx, fig. e5.










FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


Caterpillar (Dyar, Ins. Ins. Men., ii, p. 62) pale yellow, with blue-
black transverse stripes on abdominal segments 1-7, red stripes on thorax
and on eighth and ninth segments of abdomen, red head, legs and anal
plate, and black hair, with four long white ones on mesothorax and
eighth segment of abdomen.
Jamaica, San Domingo. Porto Rico (Dewitz, Stahl, Moschler, Gund-
lach); Coamo Springs, Dec.-Jan.; Arecibo, Feb., June, 1915; Quebra-
dillos, June 2-3, 1915; Vieques Id., Feb. (Busck-N. M.); St. Croix
(Mbschler, Gundlach); St. Thomas, Feb. 21-22, Mar. 14, 1929 (Brown);
St. John, Mar. 7-9; Tortola, Mar. 17; Anegada, Mar. 31.

[Composia fldelissima Herrich-Schiffer
1866. Composia fldelissima Herrich-Schiiffer, Corresp.-B1. z-b. Ges. Regensb.,
xx, p. 131.
1890. Composia fidelissima Dyar and French, Ent. News, i, pp. 103, 153, 154
(fig.).
1891. Composia fidelissima Dyar, Ent. News, li, p. 50 (habits).
1903. Composia fidelissima Holland, Moth Book, PI. xxxviii, fig. 4.
1914. Composia fidelissima Dyar, Ins. Ins. Men., ii, p. 62 (larva).
1923. Composia fidelissima Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 179.
1925. Composia fidelissima Hering, Seltz, Macr. World, vi, p. 428, Pl. Ix, fig.
e6 (note on larva).

The larva is red with most of the warts blue, and with sparse but
normally tufted hair; inconspicuous stripes on abdominal segments 1-2,
5-7 only. The caterpillar eats Canavalia and Echites.
Florida to Brazil.
The record for Porto Rico was based on a misdetermined specimen of
C. sybaris, now in the collection of the Insular Experiment Station.] 18
Ctenuchidia Grote

This genus seems to have been one of the endemic West Indian genera
which has had time to separate into local races on the various islands.
The Porto Rican form has not been characterized before, and doubtless
further forms will be discovered on single islands where the forest has
survived. The Porto Rican form has been found only on the mountains
which constitute the backbone of the island.
KEY TO FORMS

1. Abdomen tawny with dark apex; disc of hind wing translucent
(Para ) ................................... ................ butus
Abdomen mainly black above, hind wing with opaque blue ground.... 2

Throughout this paper species incorrectly reported from Porto Rico, or incidentally
referred to, have been placed in brackets.












SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


2. Apex of abdomen red or yellow, contrasting, with at most some black
on m id-dorsal line ............................................... 3
Apex of abdomen blackish, with yellow or red lateral stripes only......
fulvibasis, interrupt, subcyanea, agrius
3. Spots small; the hind wing immaculate in male, with one or two small
spots in female (Cuba) ..................................... virgo
Spots large, the female with five large hyaline spots on hind wing and
male with two large spots...............................virginalis

Ctenuchidia virgo virginalis new race

P1. I, fig. 1

1923. Composia subcyanea Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 179.
(Not Mecania (?) subcyanea Walker).

Similar to typical C. virgo, from Cuba. Base of fore wing yellow instead
of red; female with eleven conspicuous hyaline spots, arranged 2, 4, 5; male
with some small spots on disc, and two large subapical ones; hind wing of
female with five large hyaline spots arranged 2, 3; male with a small spot in
cell and two large subapical ones; apex and side stripes of abdomen both
yellow, the apex of the male with a black mid-dorsal line.
The yellow apex of the abdomen and the relatively large number of spots
connects this form with typical virgo, but the much larger size of the spots,
sex for sex, and the complete absence of red color seem distinctive.

Porto Rico: Maricao, July 27, 1914, female type, collected by F. E.
Watson; Yauco, Aug. 24, 1922, male allotype, collected by Wolcott, also
a female paratype at the Insular Experiment Station, taken with the allo-
type. The female in the American Museum is in absolutely fresh condi-
tion, but has lost two of its wings, perhaps from the attack of a bird ; the
male is in the National Museum.

Hyalurga Hiibner (Lauron Walker)

As there is no obvious difference in structure between the large species
commonly called Hyalurga and the smaller Laurons, and the pattern is
essentially the same, Hering unites them. The Laurons, including the
Porto Rico form, are probably all local representatives of a single species.

Hyalurga vinosa Drury

1770. Sphinx vinosa Drury, Ill. Ex. Ent., i, p. 47, P1. xxiii, fig. 4.
1856. Dioptis (Hyrmina) rinosa Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M., ii, p. 332.
1866. Hyalurga vinosa Herrich-Schiiffer, Samml. auss. Schm., p. 131.
1925. Hyalurga vinosa Hering. Seitz, Macr. World, vi, p. 450, P1. lxv, fig. e7.
182-. Dioptis rica Hiibner, Zutr. Samml. Exot. Schm., Figs. 531, 532.
1856. Callimorpha rica Lucas. Sagra's Hist. fis. Cuba, p. 302.
1925. Hyalurga rica Hering (?), Seitz Macr. World, vi, p. 450, Pl. lxv, fig. f2.
1877. Lauron rinosa Dewitz, Mitt. Miinch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 95.










FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


1890. Lauron vinosa Mischer, Abh. Senck, naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 116.
1891. Lauron vinosa Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 159.
1914. Lauron vinosa Dyar, Ins. Ins. Men., ii, p. 62 (larva).
1914. Lauron vinosa Jones, Ins. Ins. Men., ii, pp. 108-111 (life history).
1923. Lauron vinosa Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 178.

This seems to be the oldest name for a group of representative species
(or a variable species) ranging from Mexico to Brazil. This typical
race is limited to the Antilles, the Venezuela and Honduras records
being undoubtedly based on dark females of other races. Dyar considers
that the Antilles contain two races of this species, typical vinosa on the
Lesser Antilles and rica on the Greater, Porto Rico specimens being in-
termediate.
Caterpillar with warts i and iv single-haired, with long white-tipped
hairs on meso- and metathorax and eighth segment of abdomen. Orange
yellow, irregularly mottled with wine color, the warts blue, except some of
those on the paler segments. Longer hair black, shorter pale, both
barbed. Head and part of true legs black. Caterpillar on Tournefortia
and heliotrope. Egg white, hemispherical, attached by the convex side.
Pupa dull black in a slight silken web.
Greater Antilles (except Jamaica, which has H. v. diastilba) ; Antigua,
St. Kitts. P. R.: Rio Piedras, Jan., June, Dec. (N. M., also Wolcott),
Toa Baja, Apr. 4, and Mayagiiez, May (Hooker-N. M., also C. U.);
Utuado, Jan. (Busck-N. M.); Coamo Springs, Jan., Aug., 1915;
Aibonito, June, 1915; Culebra Id. (Busck-N. M.); St. Croix, Mar. 2,
1925.
AGARISTID.E (PHAL.ENOIDID2E)

A small segregate of the Noctuide, but probably a homogeneous group.
Its only distinction from the Eudryas group of the Noctuide is the
swollen antenna.
The caterpillars are brilliantly colored, and frequently transversely
striped. They normally feed on Vitacee, more rarely on the biologically
similar Onagraceae.
Only one species is known from Porto Rico.

Tuerta Walker
Tuerta sabulosa Boisduval

About 1870. Agarista sabulosa Felder. Reise Novara Lep.. i. Pl. cvii. fig. 11.
1874. Eusemia sabulosa Boisduval. Rev. Zool. (3), ii, p. 106.
1896. Copidryas sabulosa Druce, Biol. Cent.-Am. Het., ii, p. 329.
1901. Tuerta sabulosa Hampson. Cat. Lep. Phal., iii, p. 625.











SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


1903. Tuerta sabulosa Holland, Moth Book, p. 143, Fig. 81.
1912. Tuerta sabulosa Strand, Lep. Cat., v, p. 29.
1919. Tuerta sabulosa Draudt, Seitz, Macr. World, vii, p. 5, P1. i, fig. b3.
1890. Agarista noctuiformis Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 112.
1891. Agarista noctuiformis Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 153.
1923. Tuerta noctuiformis Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, 160.

The disconnected distribution is a little surprising, but I agree with
Hampson in seeing no difference between Antillean and Mexican speci-
mens.
New Mexico to Central America. "P. R." (Moschler, Gundlach,
from Krug coll.); Coamo Springs, June 5-7, 1915; Gudnica, Aug. 11,
1913 (N. M.).

NOCTUIDAE

Will be taken up in a subsequent part of this volume, by Dr. Schaus.

NOTODONTIDAE

A large family with many resemblances to the Noctuidoe, but with
apparently three-branched cubitus, clumsy body, and frequently with
retracted head and weak mouth-parts-characters that caused it formerly
to be classified with the "Bombyces." All the known Porto Rico forms
have preserved vein M, of the hind wing, but it is lost in Hemiceras,
which is to be expected on the island. The caterpillar is similar to that
of the Noctuide, but always has several (more than three) setm on the
outer face of the prolegs, and typically the last prolegs are modified,
frequently lengthened, and usually upraised when at rest. All the known
Porto Rican genera have fasciculate male antennae.
KEY TO GENERA
1. Fore wing with accessory cell very long and slender, vein M, arising
from near its middle or before........... ...................... 2
Accessory cell very short, M, arising from its apex; fore wing square-
ended ................ .................................. H ippia
2. M, of fore wing arising from near base of accessory cell or free...... 3
M, arising from the accessory cell about half way out........Rifargia
3. Basal half of fore wing contrastingly darker than outer half........
Proelymniotis
Fore wing mainly of the same color from base to outer margin......
Nystalea
Nystalea Guenee

A medium-sized genus, limited to South America. The caterpillars
have somewhat lengthened hind legs but are not much modified other
wise.











FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


KEY TO SPECIES

1. Fore wing brown, with a contrasting pale spot at apex, and frequently one
at end of cell; frequently more or less obviously pale toward inner mar-
gin ........................................................... ebalea
Light gray-brown, strigose, with more or less distinct series of dots repre-
senting the ordinary lines; typically darker toward inner margin..
nyseus
Nystalea ebalea Cramer

1779. Noctua ebalea Cramer, Pap. Exot., iv, P1. cccx, fig. C.
1852. Nystalea ebalea Guenee, Sp. Gen. Lep. Noct., ii, p. 123.
1877. Nystalea ebalea Dewitz, Mitt. Miinch. Ent. Ver., 1, p. 96.
1890. Nystalea ebalea Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 123.
1891. Nystalea ebalea Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 163.
1901. Nystalea ebalea Schaus, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1901, p. 268.
1923. Nystalea ebalea Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 179.
1852. Nystalea conchyfera Guenee, Sp. Gen. Lep. Het. Noct., ii, p. 122, P1. ix,
fig. 2.

The type figure has paler shading at the anal angle. Guenke's con-
chyfera has only the pale apical spot. In the Porto Rican specimens in
the American Museum, the ground is much paler as a whole though
the apical spot remains contrasting. There is frequently an ocellate
spot on the middle of the fold.
The larva feeds on Comocladia and Spondias (Gundlach).
Antilles. Northern South America. "P. R." (Dewitz, Mbschler,
Gundlach); Coamo Springs, Jan. 6-10, 1915. St. Thomas (Guenee).

Nystalea nyseus Cramer

1779. Noctua nyseus Cramer, Pap. Exot., i, P1. lxxv, fig. E.
?1857. Cirrhesta nyseus Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M. xi, p. 633.
1877. Cirrhesta nyseus Dewitz, Mitt. Miinch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 96.
1893. Cirrhesta nyseus Kirby, Syn. Cat. Lep. Het., p. 617.
1890. Nystalea nyseus Msschler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 123.
1891. Nystalea nyseus Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 164.
1901. Nystalea nyseus Schaus, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1901, p. 268.
1923. Nystalea nyseus Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 179.

Northern South America. I have the species from British Guiana.
"P. R." (Dewitz, Stahl, Moschler, Gundlach).

Proelymniotis Schaus

The following species is the genotype. It is probably not distinct from
Nystalea.












NCI1ETIFIC R'RVEY OF PORTO RICO


Proelymniotis aequipars Walker

1858. Xystalca aquipars Walker. List, Lep. Ins. B. M., xv, p. 1742.
1893. Nystalea wquipars Kirby, Syn. Cat. Lep. Het., p. 618.
1869. Heterocampa seminivea Walker, Char. Lep. Het., p. 17.
1883. Kystalea divisa Mischler, Verh., z-h. Ges. Wien., xxxii, p. 343, PI. xviii,
fig. 32.
1890. Nystalea divisa Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 123.
1891. Nystalea divisa Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 164.
1893. Nystalea divisa Kirby, Syn. Cat. Lep. Het., p. 618.
1901. Proelymniotis tcquipars Schaus, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1901, p. 273.
1923. Iroclymniotis aquipars Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 179.

Fore wing with base and a postmedial costal spot dark brown, the
outer half otherwise light gray. 60 mm.
South America generally; Cuba. "P. R." (Moschler, Gundlach).

Rifargia Walker

A tropical Amercan genus, resembling the North American Hetero-
campa.
Rifargia distinguenda Walker

PI. I, figs. 4, 5

1856. Acronycta distinguenda Walker, List. Lop. Ins. B. M., ix, p. 63.
1901. Rifargia distinguenda Schlus, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1901, p. 317.
1923. Rifargia distingvenda Wolcott, Jour. Dept. AgrP. P. R., vii, p. 179.
1877. Symmerista dubia Mischler, Verh. z-b. Ges. Wien, xxvii, p. 689.
1890. Symmerista dubia Mischler, Abl. Senck. naturf. Ges. xvi, p. 123.
1891. Synmmerista dubia Gundlaeli, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 162.

Shining pale gray.
Northern South America, south to the Matto Grosso: Cuba. "P. R."
(M6schler, Gundlach, N. M.).

Hippia Mischler (Symmerista in part)

The genus is closely related to Symmerista (Edema).

Hippia insularis Grote

1867. Edema insularis Grote. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil.. vi, p. 321.
1877. Edema insularis Dewitz. Mitt. Miinch. Ent. Ver.. i. p. 96.
1890. Edema insularis Miiseler. Abli. en(ck. naturf. (Ges.. xvi. p. 123.
1891. Edema insularis Gundlacli, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 164.
1893. Edema insularis Kirby. Syn. C:t. Lep. Ilet. . 573.
1923. Edema insularis Woleott. Jour. Dept. Agr. P. I.. vii, p. 179.
1886. Elasmia ligfosa Msschler, Ah nc. k. naturf. Ges.. xiv, p. 36, Fig. 30.
1887. Edema mandela Druce. Biol. Cent.-Am. Lep. Het., i, p. 235, P1. xxv, fig. 3.
1901. Hippie insularis Schaus. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1901, p. 286.











FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


Mottled, dull gray with a triangular whitish costo-apical shade; the
apical area below it shaded with darker gray; 35 mm. The caterpillar
on Cupania (Gundlach).
Cuba, Jamaica, Mexico. "P. R." (Dewitz, Msschler, Gundlach).

SPHINGIDoE

After the Noctuide and Geometridoe, the sphinxes are both the largest
and most conspicuous family of moths in Porto Rico. They are largely
modern types, and their presence seems to be due to their activity and
power of migration, though the little genus Cautethia is characteristic
of the Antilles and Central America and may have arrived at an earlier
period than most of the others. Most of the caterpillars are known. They
are distinguishable by the presence of a single knob, horn or button on
the dorsum of the eighth abdominal segment. They feed mainly on
trees and shrubs, but the Porto Rican fauna contains a larger proportion
of herbaceous feeders than does that of most regions.

KEY TO GENERA o

1. Inner face of first segment of palpus with a patch of fine sensory
hairs (Semanophort e) ........................................... 2
Inner face of first segment of palpus without sensory hairs, commonly
naked (Asemanophorm) ......................................... 6
2. Inner face of second segment of palpus with a hollow roofed over by
enlarged scales ........................................... H erse
Inner face of second segment not modified .......................... 3
3. Apex of fore wing truncate from R, to R .............. Protambulyx
Apex of fore wing simple ................................. ...... 4
4. Third segment of palpus close-scaled, projecting like a little horn
beyond the vestiture of the second ....................... Cocytius
Third segment of palpus inconspicuous............................. 5
.. Mid-tarsus with a comb of fine spines near its base....Phlegethontius
Mid-tarsus with the ordinary sparse spines only.......... Ceratomia
6. Pilifer with the bristles of apical half abruptly much shorter than
those at the base, in Celerio nearly lost; apical segment of antenna
w ith long bristles ............................................... 7
Pilifer with bristles gradually decreasing in length toward apex...... 8
7. Antenna of nearly even width to near the apex ..........Xylophanes
Antenna fusiform. distinctly swollen beyond middle.......... Celerio
S. Edges of abdominal segments with a single series of long spines, all
the sam e length ................................................. 9

19 To use this key it is necessary to remove one palpus and mount it so that the inner
face is visible, and to denude a small portion of one of the middle abdominal segments
near its edge; there is therefore given, in addition, an artificial key to the species based
on superficial characters.












SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


Spines on edges of abdominal segments alternately of two or more
lengths, often imbricated...................................... 12
9. Thorax with a double longitudinal dorsal crest..................... 10
Thorax smoothly scaled over; apical segment of antenna long and
slender, with scattered erect scales.......................Pholus
10. Hind wing gray and black.......................... Pseudoephins
Hind wing yellow or tawny (in a Cuban species limited to base on
under side) ...................... ................ ....... ... 11
11. Hind wing yellow, the thoracic crest low.................Isognathus
Hind wing reddish or, if yellow, with crest of thorax high..Erinnyis
12. Spines of middle abdominal segments alternately of two lengths but
in a single line................................................ .. 13
Spines of abdominal segments imbricated......................... 14
13. Fore wing angulate......................................Madorym
Fore wing with outer margin even........................Pachylia
14. Basal row of spines on abdominal segments broader than long; fore
wing with translucent spots in outer portion; R, and R, running to-
gether toward apex; day-fliers with strongly tufted abdomen......
Aellopo8
Basal row of spines, like the others, longer than wide; fore wing
without translucent spots....................................... 15
15. End-segment of antenna long, filiform, much as in Pholus; apex of
fore wing acute.......................................Perigonia
End-segment of antenna short................................... 16
16. Thorax with a high crest; fore wing angled...................Epistor
Thorax not crested; fore wing rounded.................. Cautethia

ARTIFICIAL KEY TO SPECIES

1. Abdomen with a subdorsal series of pink spots; hind wing shaded
with pink ........................................H. cingulata
Abdomen with a series of bright yellow spots...................... 2
Abdomen without pink or yellow, though often with white spots,
sometimes broadly shaded with yellow........................... 5
2. Hind wing with yellow spots, at least toward inner margin.......... 3
Hind wing without yellow....................................... 4
3. Disc of hind wing fully scaled or only faintly translucent.C. cluentius
Disc of hind wing largely transparent...................C. antaus
4. Abdomen with three pairs of yellow spots.................P. rustic
Five pairs of spots.......................................P. sexta
5. Outer margin of fore wing angulate or strongly sinuate, concave at
veins M, and Cu2................................... ...... 6
Fore wing truncate across apex, but otherwise with even outer mar-
gin ..................................... ............. P. strigilis
Outer margin of fore wing even or evenly wavy ................... 8
6. Hind wing marked with yellow; angulation of fore wing slight......
P. lusca
Hind wing dull colored, fore wing deeply dentate................. 7












FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


7. Fore wing light gray with silver discal spot............... M. oiclus
Fore wing dark brown, without silver.................T. lugubris
8. Hind wing strongly marked with pink.............................. 9
Hind wing largely tawny or basally shaded with tawny or chestnut 10
Hind wing bright ochre yellow........;........................... 15
Hind wing black with a series of cream-yellow spots.............. 18
Hind wing largely blue...............................P. labruscw
Hind wing less conspicuously marked in black or white, gray, brown,
or olive ........................................................ 19
9. Hind wing with a median pink band; lines on veins of fore wing
pure white ........................................C. lineata
Hing wing with pink border...........................P. fasciatus
Hind wing with only a pink patch at anal angle............ P. vitis 2
10. Abdomen contrastingly barred with black......................... 11
Abdomen not conspicuously barred............................... 12
11. Fore wing mainly black and brown....................E. lassauxi
Fore wing ash gray........................................ E. ello
12. Border of hind wing tending to break into streaks on the veins
toward apex .................................................. 13
Border of hind wing complete................................... 14
13. Fore wing blackish; disc of thorax of male with a conspicuous whitish
lateral stripe..................................... E. domingonis
Fore wing ash gray....................................E. obscura
14. Thorax streaked, without a contrasting median darker band; abdomen
below, with rare exceptions, with black dots; female gray. E. cnotrus
Thorax blackish in center, gray at sides; no black dots below; both
sexes with smoky fore wing with pale apex and anal angle......
E. crameri
15. Yellow of hind wing in a medial band; ground of fore wing green,
rarely chestnut ....................................... pluto
Yellow of hind wing extending to base; ground of fore wing gray or
gray-brown ....................................... ............. 16
16. Abdomen gray; very small species with blunt fore wings.... C. grotei
Abdomen barred; larger species, usually with pointed wings.......... 17
17. Border of hind wing with a sharp point on 2d A, and then usually
ending abruptly, rarely narrowly extended; fore wing frequently
with heavy black bars in base and middle of fold, and between
veins Ma and Cu ......................................I. rimosa
Border of hind wing gradually tapering to near inner margin, its inner
edge nearly straight; fore wing streaked between the veins; the
black bar, if any, below vein Cu........................E. alope
18. Series of cream spots on hind wing continuous; fore wing light wood
brown ................................................ X. tersa
Spot at anal angle a little out of line and separated from the others,
and twice as large; fore wing green...................X. chiron

o2 The original figure shows more pink. but it is submarginal. not marginal.











SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


19. Fore wing with translucent white postmedial spots toward costa;
abdomen with a large caudal tuft ................................... 20
Fore wing evenly scaled .......................................... 21
20. Abdomen blackish with a white transverse band..... AclPopos species
Abdomen with apical half yellow, without white............A. blaini
21. Broadly shaded with olive; anal angle of hind wing with a contrast-
ing white tip..............................................P. ficus
Finely marked in gray and brown; anal angle not white............ 22
22. Lateral region of abdomen with a few alternate black and pale bars
below, the black bars alternating with black lines or transverse spots
on incisures, higher up................................P. brontes
Lateral region with 5 or 6 heavy alternate black and white bars,
covering the whole subdorsal quadrant; no lines on incisures......
P. tetrio

Herse Oken

A world-wide genus of very few species; relatively best developed in
Australasia.

Herse cingulata Fabricius

1705. Merian, Metam. Ins., Surinam, P1. Ixiv, lower fig.
1758. Sphinx convolvuli Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. Ed. 10, p. 490 (in part).
1770. Sphinx convolvuli Drury, Ill. Exot. Ins., PI., xxv, fig. 4
1797. Sphinx convolvuli Abbot and Smith, Lep. Ins. Georgia, P1. xxxii.
1775. Sphinx cingulata Fabricius, Syst. Ent.. p. 545, No. 291.
1890. Sphinx cingulata M6schler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 111.
1891. Sphinx cingulata Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 151.
1877. Phlegethontius cingulata Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Hist., iii, p. 224.
1859. Macrosila cingulata Clemens, Jour. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil., p. 164.
1877. Protoparce cingulata Butler, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond., ix, p. 608.
1903. Herse cingulata Rothschild and Jordan, Nov. Zool., ix, Suppl. p. 10
(with full bibliography).
1903. Herse cingulata Holland, Moth Book, P1. vi, fig. 3.
1912-15. Herse cingulata Moss, Trans. Zool. Soc., xx, p. 83, Pls. viii, figs. f-k,
xv, fig. e (larva).
1920. Herse cingulata Moss, Nov. Zool., xxvii, p. 361 (larva).
1923. Herse cingulata Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 152.

The moth is most easily distinguished by the pink on the body, the
larva by having two vertical black stripes on each side of the head.
This is an important pest on sweet potato both in Porto Rico and the
United States. It also eats various other Convolvulacee.
Canada to temperate South America; Bermuda; Hawaii. "P. R."
(Dewitz, Msschler, Gundlach); July 15 (Jones); larve injurious on
northwest coast from Arecibo to Aguadilla (including Hatillo) in Dec.;
Rio Piedras (Wolcott); Mayagiiez, May (C. U.).











FORBES. INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


Cocytius Hiibner

This small genus contains some 9f the largest and showiest of
all the moths, and is famous for the length of the tongue, which ac-
cording to Moss reaches 101/4 inches (26 cm.) in C. cluentius. The
genus is limited to tropical and subtropical America. The caterpillars
are green, with strong horn and triangular head. They have one or seven
pale oblique stripes and feed on Anonacee.

KEY TO SPECIES

1. Hind wing opaque, the disc yellow; smaller..............cluentius
Hind wing with disc transparent.................................. 2
2. Each transparent spot partly divided by a streak or point of scales
running in from its outer side; very large species (over 150 mm.)..
anttrus
Transparent spots with their outer ends rounded or truncate; smaller
(under 140 mm.) ....................................duponchel

Cocytius cluentius Cramer

1705. Merian, Metam. Ins. Surinam, P1. iii.
1775. Sphinx cluentius Cramer, Pap. Exot., P1. lxxiv, fig. B.
1778. Sphinx cluentius Cramer, Pap. Exot., Pl. cxxvi, fig. A.
1822. Phlegethontius cluentius Hiibner, Verz. Bek. Schm., No. 1500.
1832. Amphonyx cluentiis Poey, Cent. Lep. p. 4.
1877. Amphony.r cluentius Dewitz, Mitt. Mainch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 92.
1890. Amiphonyx cluentius Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 111.
1891. Amphony. cluentius Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 152.
1t.56. Mlhrcrosilu clac'tius Walker, List. Lep. Ilet.. B. M.. viii. p. 200.
1892. Cocytius cluentius Kirby, Cat. Lep. Het., p. 687.
1903. Cocytius cluentius Rothschild and Jordan, Nov. Zool., ix, Suppl. p. 54.
1920. Coc!tius clhctiujs Moss, Nov. Zool.. xxviii. 'ls. i, ii. (larva).
1923. Cocytius cluentius Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R. vii, p. 153.

Larva with all seven lateral stripes present, and with a white mid-
dorsal stripe, the last stripe a little emphasized.
On Anona, rarely on Piper (Moss).
Cuba and Mexico to southern Brazil. "P. R." (Dewitz, Stahl,
liischler, Gundlach, Wolcott.)

Cocytius duponchel Poey

C. duponchel Poey will certainly be taken in Porto Rico. It is inter-
mediate in appearance between cluentius and antcus, and the larva, ac-
cording to Moss, has a red dorsal stripe.











SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


Cocytius antaeus antaus Drury
1773. Sphinx antweus Drury, Ill. Exot. Ent., P1. xxv, fig. 1.
1856. Amphonym jatropha Lucas, Sagra's Hist. Cuba, vii, p. 299.
1865. Macrosila anthfaus (sic) Herrich-Schilffer, Corr.-Bl., 1865, p. 59.
1865. Amphonyx anteus Grote and Robinson, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., v, p. 66
(in part).
1890. Amphonyx antaus M6schler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 111.
1891. Amphonyx antcus Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 152.
1900. Amphonya antceus Dyar, Pr. U. S. Nat. Mus., xxiii, p. 256 (larva).
1892. Cocytius anteus Kirby, Cat. Lep. Het., p. 686.
1903. Cocytius antceus Rothschild and Jordan, Nov. Zool., ix, supply. p. 59.
1903. Cocytius antwus Holland, Moth Book, P1. vi, fig. 1.
1912-15. Cocytius anteus Moss, Trans. Zool. Soc., xx, p. 84, Pis. vii, figs. a-d,
xv, fig. a.
1920. Cocytius anteus Moss, Nov. Zool., xxvii, p. 362 (larva).
1923. Cocytius antcus Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 153.

This species was originally described from Cuba; there is a slight
variant form on the mainland (C. a. medor Stoll) ranging from the
southern United States, where it seems to intergrade with the type form,
to Brazil.
The caterpillar has only the stripe leading to the horn, distinct.
Florida, Bahamas, Jamaica, Haiti. "P. R." (Dewitz, Mischler,
Gundlach): Guainica, RIio P'iedras (Wolcott). St. Thomas, Feb. 23,
Mar. 1, 1925.

Phlegethontius Hiibner (Protoparce Burmeister)

A considerable genus in South America, with a few stray species in
the temperate zone. Some would exclude brontes, which is the type
of Diludia Grote, and is in many ways transitional to the genus
Chlanogramma. Rothschild and Jordan have designated cluentius as
the type of the genus, which is invalid, as sexta (carolina) had already
been fixed by Kirby (1892). It has some years priority over Protoparce.

KEY TO SPECIES

Abdomen with five yellow spots on each side..........................setus
Abdomen with three pairs of spots................................rusticus
Without yellow spots ............................................ brontes

[Phlegethontius sextus Johansson
1763. Sphinx sexta Johansson, Amcen. Acad., vi, p. 410.
1892. Phlegethontius sexta Kirby, Cat. Lep. Het., p. 688.
1902. Protoparce sexta Holland, Moth Book, P1. iv, fig. 2.











FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


The type form of this species ranges from Canada to Central Amer-
ica.]

Phlegethontius sextus jamaicensis Butler

1756. Browne, Hist. Jamaica, P1. xliii, fig. 7.
1764. Sphinx carolina Linn., Mus. Lud. Ulr., p. 346 etc. (in part).
1890. Sphinx carolina Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 111.
1891. ,Sphinx carolina Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 151.
1857. Sphinx paphus Menetries, Enum. Corp. Anim. Mus. Petr. Lep., p. 89
(not paphus Cramer).
1877. Protoparce jamaicensis Butler, Trans. Zool. Soc., ix, p. 608.
1892. Phlegethontius jamaicensis Kirby, Cat. Lep. Het., p. 688.
1903. Protoparce sexta jamaicensis Rothschild and Jordan, Nov. Zool., ix,
supply p. 68.
(Macrosila or Protoparce carolina of authors, in part.)

This form of P. sextus appears not to have been figured. The cater-
pillar of sextus is green, with seven oblique side stripes, but without the
subventral pale stripes of P. quinquemaculatus. It feeds on Solanacese,
especially tobacco and tomato.
Greater Antilles. "P. R." (div.); Rio Piedras, GuAnica, Aibonito,
Bayam6n, Arecibo, Mayagiiez (Wolcott).

Phlegethontius rusticus rusticus Fabricius

1705. Merian, Metam. Ins. Surinam, P1. v.
1775. Sphinx rustica Fabricius, Syst. Ent., p. 540.
1780. Sphinx rustica Stoll, in Cramer, Pap. Exot., PI. ccci, fg. A.
1890. Sphinx rustica Moschler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 110.
1891. Sphinx rustic Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 150.
1797. Sphinx chionanthi Smith and Abbot, Lep. Georgia, P1. xxxiv.
1822. Acherontia chionanthi Hiibner, Verz. Bek. Schm., No. 1495.
182-. Cocytius rustica Hiibner, Samml. Exot. Schm., iii, P1. xxxviii, (Kirby's
numbering) figs. 1, 2.
1856. Protoparce rustica Burmeister, Sph. Brasil., p. 63.
1903. Protoparce rustic Holland, Moth Book, P1. vii, fig. 5.
1912-15. Protoparce rustica Moss, Trans. Zool. Soc., xx, p. 90, Pls. viii, figs.
a-c; xv, fig. b (larva).
1920. Protoparce rustica Moss, Nov. Zool., xxvii, p. 367, P1. ii (larva).
1877. Phlegethontius rustica Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., iii, p. 224.
1903. Protoparce rustica rustica Rothschild and Jordan, Nov. Zool., ix, supply.
p. 84.
1923. Protoparce rustica rustica Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 153.

Larva similar to se.'ta, but with red spiracles; normally on Tecoma
and Bignonia (Bignoniaceu) ; also reported from heliotrope and Sesa-
mum, Verbenaceme, Boraginaceae, etc.











SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


Generally distributed in tropical and warm temperate America. "P.
R." (Dewitz, M6schler, Gundlach, Stahl) ; Rio Piedras (Wolcott). "St.
Jan" (M6schler).

[Phlegethontius brontes Drury
1773. Sphinx brontes Drury, ii, p. 53, P1. xxix, fig. 4.
1865. Diludia brontes Grote and Robinson, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., v, p. 39.

The type form of this species was described from Jamaica.]

Phlegethontius brontes smythi Clark
1877. Sphinx brontes Dewitz, Mitt. Minch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 92.
1890. Sphinx brontes Moschler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 110.
1891. Sphinx brontes Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. I-ist. Nat., xx, p. 151 (mis-
printed "Sphin").
1903. Protoparce brontes cubensis Rothschild and Jordan, Nov. Zool., ix,
supply. p. 90 (in part).
1919. Protoparce brontes smythi, Clark, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Club., iv, p.
100, P1. x, fig. 1.
1923. Protoparce brontes smythi Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 153.

The larva of the species is very similar to P. sexta, but has orange
spiracles. It feeds on Tecoma (Gundlach).
"P. R." (Dewitz, M6schler, Gundlach) ; Rio Piedras (type).

[Ceratomia amyntor Geyer

Ceratomia amyntor Geyer, a North American species, is reported from
Porto Rico by Van Zwaluwenberg, probably in error. The moth is
brown, the hind wing broadly shaded, but without the white marginal
dot of Pachylia ficus. The larva has four small horns in front as well as
the caudal one, and eats elm.]

Protambulyx Rothschild and Jordan

This is the only Porto Rican representative of the subfamily Ambuli-
cinoe or Smerinthine, and its adult is highly aberrant for the subfamily,
approaching the preceding group; the larva, however, is not abnormal.

Protambulyx strigilis Linnaeus

1771. Sphinx strigilis Linnmus, Mant. Plant., p. 538.
1770. Sphinx strigilis Drury, Ill. Exot. Ins., P1. xxviii, fig. 4. (The name is
attached only in the index, which was issued much later than the
text and plate.)
1822. Pholus strigilis Hiibner, Verz. Bek. Schm., No. 1437.











FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


1856. Amnbulyx strigilis Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M., viii, p. 121.
1877. Ambulyx strigilis Dewitz, Mitt. Miinch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 92.
1890. Ambulyx strigilis Moschler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 109.
1891. Ambulyx strigilis Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 148.
1903. Protambulyx strigilis Rothschild and Jordan, Nov. Zool., ix, supply p.
179, Pl. lxvii, fig. 11.
1920. Protamoulyx strigilis Moss, Nov. Zool., xxvii, p. 371. Pls. iii, x (larva).
1923. Protambulyx strigilis Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 153.

The larva is rough with high triangular head, as is usual in the Am-
bulicinm, with several pale oblique stripes, and a longitudinal subdorsal
one on the thorax. The last oblique is stronger than the others which
sometimes are absent. Moss bred the caterpillar on Anacardiacesa. It is
variously reported by others on Comocladia and Erythroxylon (Gund-
lach), Anacardia and Spondia (B6nninghausen) and Anona (Wol-
cott). The last record is given as doubtful, and may be due to confusion
of the insect with the somewhat similar larva of Cocytius.
Cuba and Mexico to Southern Brazil, with a variant race in Florida
and the Bahamas. "P. R." (Dewitz, Stahl, Mischler, Gundlach); Rio
Piedras (Wolcott).

Pseudosphinx Burmeister

Pseudosphipx tetrio Linneus
1705. Merian, Metam. Ins. Surinam, P1. v. (larva).
1771. Sphinx tetrio Linneus, Mant. Plant., p. 538.
1779. Sphinx hasdrubal Cramer, Pap. Exot., P1. ccxlvi, fig. F.
1832. Sphinx hasdrubal Poey, Cent. Lep., P1. xi.
1856. Pscudosphinx tetrio Burmeister, Sphing. Brasil, p. 64.
1890. Pseudosphinx tetrio Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges. xvi, p. 111.
1891. Pseudosphinx tetrio Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 152.
1903. Pseudosphinx tetrio Rothschild and Jordan, Nov. Zool., ix, suppl., p. 353.
1903. Pseudosphinx tetrio Holland, Moth Book, P1. vi, fig. 2.
1912-15. Pseudosphinx tetrio Moss, Trans. Zool. Soc., xx, p. 92, P1. viii, fig. o;
xv. fig. j (larva).
1920. Pseudosphinx tetrio Moss, Nov. Zool., xxvii, p. 374 (larva).
1923. Pseudosphinx tetrio Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R.. vii, p. 154.
1856. Macrosila hasdrubal Walker, List. Lep. Ins. B. M., viii, p. 202.

The female of this species is, with the possible exception of Cocytius
anteaus, the largest of American Sphingidoe. The male usually has a
triangular dark patch resting on the middle of the costa; the female is
paler, much larger and without the patch. The caterpillar is black,
transversely striped with cream, with red head and tail. It is very con-
spicuous and feeds on frangipanni (Plumiera, Apocynacea).











SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


Southern United States to Southern Brazil. "P. R." (Dewitz, Stahl,
Moschler, Gundlach) ; Rio Piedras, Ballena, coast near GuAnica (Wol-
cott). "St. Jan" (Moschler). Abundant.

Isognathus Felder

[Isognathus rimosa Grote
1865. Erinnyis rimosa Grote, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., v, p. 73, P1. ii, fig. 1.
1871. Isognathus rimosus Grote, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., iii, p. 185.
The caterpillar is striped irregularly in two shades of gray, with irreg-
ular white lateral spots, and a filiform horn. Like the preceding species
I. rimosa eats Plumiera.
The type form of the species occurs in Cuba, and races on the main-
land are found south as far as Venezuela.]

Isognathus rimosa wolcotti Clark
1877. Anceryx rimosa Dewitz, Mitt. Miinch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 92.
1890. Dilophonota rimosa Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 110.
1891. Dilophonota rimosa Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 150.
1903. Isognathus rimosa rimosa Rothschild and Jordan, Nov. Zool., ix,
supply p. 358 (in part).
1922. Isognathus rimosa wolcotti Clark, Proc. N. E. Zool. Club, viii, p. 8.
1923. Isognathus rimosa var. wolcotti Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii,
p. 154.

Porto Rico (Dewitz, Mischler, Wolcott, Clark).

Erinnyis Hiibner

This genus is made up of only a few species, but they are widely dis-
tributed in tropical America and frequently very abundant. One of
them also, E. ello, flies far north into the temperate zone, though it does
not appear to breed in the north. The caterpillars are slender and
cylindrical, with the thorax swollen, and usually with brilliant markings
dorsally, which are exposed when the caterpillar is disturbed. The horn
is very slender in the early stages, like that of the last two genera, but
it is rudimentary in the last stage. The food consists of Apocynacese
and Euphorbiacee.
KEY TO SPECIES

1. Basal half of hind wing yellow...............................alope
Base of hind wing tawny or darker................................ 2
2. (Go to alternative 10 in key to family, page 49.)











FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


Erinnyis alope Drury

1719. Meriam, Metam. Ins. Surinam, P1. 1xii (larva).
1773. Sphinx alope Drury, Ill. Exot. Ins., pp. 9, 58, P1. xxvii, fig. 1.
1780. Sphinx flavicans Goeze, Ent. Beytr., iii (2), p. 216.
1822. Erinnyis alope Hiibner, Verz. Bek. Schm., No. 1492.
1903. Erinnyis alope Rothschild and Jordan, Nov. Zool., ix, suppl., p. 362.
1903. Erinnyis alope Holland, Moth Book, P1. v, fig. 12.
1912. Erinnyis alope Moss, Trans. Zool Soc., xx, p. 95 ((larva).
1920. Erinnyis alope Moss, Nov. Zool., xxvii, p. 384 (larva).
1923. Erinnyis alope Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 154.
1856. Dilophonota alope Burmeister, Sphing. Brasil, p. 69.
1891. Dilophonota alope Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 110.
1891. Dilophonota alope Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 149.
1856. Anceryx alope Walker, List. Lep. Ins. B. M., viii, p. 225.
1877. Anceryx alope Dewitz, Mitt. Miinch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 92.
1877. Anceryx fasciata Butler, Trans. Zool. Soc., ix, p. 600.
1881. Anceryx edwardsi Butler, Papilio, i, p. 105.

Caterpillar with black thoracic patch, including a red ring, and with
a black lateral line; on Carica and Euphorbiaceae, including cassava.
Florida to Argentina. "P. R." (Dewitz, Stahl, Mischler, Gundlach);
Rio Piedras (Wolcott).

[Erinnyis lassauxi Boisduval
1859. Anceryx lassauxi Boisduval, Bull. Soc. Ent. France, 1859, p. 157.
1923. Erinnyis lassauxi, (R. & J.) Moss, Nov. Zool., xxvii, p. 384, P1. x
(larva).

The larva has vague dark patches on the thorax. It feeds on Asclepia-
dacee.
Races of this species range from Florida to the Argentine.]

Erinnyis lassauxi, form merianme Grote

1865. Erinnyis merianw Grote, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., v, p. 75, P1. 11, fig. 2.
1867. Dilophonota merianw Grote, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., vi, p. 329.
1882. Dilophonota meriana' Gundlach, Contr. Ent. Cubana, p. 219 (larva).
1890. Dilophonota meriano Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 110.
1891. Dilophonota merianwa Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 149.
1877. Anceryx merianw Dewitz, Mitt. Miinch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 92.
1894. Dilophonota lassauxi, ab. meriana, Rothschild, Nov. Zool., i, p. 95.
1903. Erinnyis lassauxi, f. merianas Rothchild and Jordan, Nov. Zool., ix,
supply. p. 364.
1903. Erinnyis lassauxi merianae Holland, Moth Book, P1. v, fig. 2.

This appears to be the ancestral form of the species, with the hind
wing as in the rest of the genus, instead of solidly black. Its center of
distribution is the Antilles, and it is the only form yet reported from











SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


Porto Rico. The caterpillar is reported from Cuba by Gundlach as
feeding on papaya (Carica), while Moss bred the type form from
Asclepiads.
"P. R." (Dewitz, Moschler, Gundlach).

Erinnyis ello Linnreus
1719. Merian, Metam. Ins. Surinam, P1. Ixiv (larva).
1758. Sphinx ello Linnieus, Syst. Nat. Ed. 10, p. 491.
1822. Erinnyis ello tIiibner, Verz. Bek. Schm., No. 1489.
1!03. Eri n!ls icllo Rothschild and Jordan. Nov. Zool.. ix. snpl., p. :;li5.
1903. Erinnyis ello Holland, Moth Book, P1. v, fig. 10 a, fig. 5 9.
1912. Erinnyis ello Moss, Trans. Zool. Soc., xx, p. 95 (larva).
1920. Erinnyis ello Moss, Nov. Zool., xxvii, p. 385 (larva).
1923. Erinnyis ello Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 154.
1856. Dilophonota ello Burmeister, Sphing. Brasil., p. 69.
1890. Dilophonota ello Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 110.
1891. Dilophonota ello Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 149.
1856. Anceryx ello Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M., viii, p. 224.
1877. Anceryx ello Dewitz, Mitt. Mtinch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 92.

"Perhaps the commonest Sphingid of tropical America," with which
the present writer concurs. The male has a dark shade-stripe from the
base to the apex of the fore wing. Caterpillar on Euphorbiaceae, espe-
cially cassava, and Carica; highly variable, green or powdery gray; with
the usual lateral stripe from side of head to rudiment of horn, as a rule
contrasting and yellow; dorsal patch on thorax sometimes reduced to
traces on the anterior slope of 'the hump.
Common throughout tropical and subtropical America, occasionally
wandering north even to Canada. "P. R." (Stahl, Mischler); Rio
Piedras and Aguadilla (Wolcott); Ponce, July 12, 1915 (Osburn);
Coamo Springs, Dec., 1914.

Erinnyis cenotrus Stoll

1780. Sphinx onotrus Stoll. in Cramer's Pap. Exot.. iv, P1. ccci, fig. C.
1787. Sphinx penaus Fabricius, Mant. Ins., ii, p. 93.
1822. Erinnyis (onotrus Hiibner, Verz. Bek. Schm., No. 1490.
1903. Erinnyis anotrus Rothschild and Jordan, Nov. Zool., ix, suppl.. p. 367,
P1. x, fig. 7, S.
1903. Erinnyis anotrus Holland, Moth Book, P1. v, fig. 11, 9.
1920. Erinnyis osnotrus Moss, Nov. Zool., xxvii, p. 385 (larva).
1923. Erinnyis anotrus Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 154.
1878. Dilophonota hippothoon Burmeister, Descr. Rep. Argent., v., p. 333 (with
larva), P1. x, fig. 5.
1856. Dilophonota oenotrus Burmeister. Sphing. Bras., p. 70.
1890. Dilophonota aenotrus Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 110.











FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


1891. Dilophonota anotrus Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 149.
1856. Anceryx onotrus Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M., viii, p. 227.
1877. Anccry.r ",ootras Dewitz, Mitt. Miinch. Ent. Ver. i, 92.
S(For several further synonyms see R. & J., 1. c.)

The male has a large blackish area on the fore wing, the female is ash
gray. Caterpillar much like that of ello, but more slender, with the usual
black spot on thorax; on Morrenia (Burmeister) and Zschokkeea (Apocy-
nacese) according to Moss.
Florida and Texas to Argentina. "P. R." (Dewitz, Mischler, Stahl).
Erinnyis crameri Schaus
1870. Dilophonota omphalesc Butler, Trans. Zool. Soc., ix, p. 603.
1898. Dilophonota crameri Schaus, Ent. News, ix, p. 603.
1903. Erinnyis crameri Rothschild and Jordan, Nov. Zool., ix, supply p. 368,
pl. x, fig. 5 3.
1903. Erinnyis cramieri Holland, Moth Book, P1. v, fig. 7, $.
1920. Erinnyis crameri Moss, Nov. Zool., xxvii, p. 385, Pl. vii, fig. 3 (larva).
1923. Erinnyis crameri Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 154.
(Sphinx, Anceryx, Dilophonota, Erinnyis snotras auct. in part.)
In this species both sexes have the blackish area on the fore wing like
the male of cenotrus. The sides of the thorax are gray, contrasting with
the blackish central stripe. Caterpillar with two red bars on thorax, the
posterior bar with a black spot on it. Found on Taberncemontana
(Apocynacea).
Florida and Texas (Holland) to Paraguay. Porto Rico: Rio Piedras,
at light (Wolcott) ; Ponce.
Erinnyis obseura obscura Fabricius
1775. Sphinx obscura Fabricius, Syst. Ent., p. 538.
182-. Erinnyis stheno Hiibner, Samml. Exot. Schm., iii, P1. xxxvii.
1923. Erinnyis stheno Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 154.
1856. Anceryx obscura Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M., viii, p. 226.
1865. Erinnyis pallida Grote, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., v, p. 78.
1867. Dilophonota pallida Grote, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., vi, p. 329.
1865. Erinnyis cinerosa Grote, An. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., viii, p. 201.
1874. Dilophonota obscura Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Hist., ii, p. 27.
1891. Dilophonota stheno MSschler, Abh. Senck. niturf. Ges., xvi, p. 109.
1891. Dilophonota stheno Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 448.
1903. Erinnyis obscura obsura Rothschild and Jordan, Nov. Zool., ix, supply ,
p. 369.
1903. Erinnyis obscura Holland, Moth Book, P1. v, fig. 5.
1920. Erinnyis obscura Moss, Nov. Zool., xxvii, p. 386, P1. vii, fig. 2.

The male has a longitudinal dark shade as in E. ello. The caterpillar
lacks the dorsal thoracic spots, but has a dark longitudinal line on thorax,
and spots behind. It feeds on Gonolobus (Asclepiadacese).











SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


Florida to Argentina, straying north to Canada. "P. R." (Stahl,
Moschler, Gundlach) ; Ponce, July 25. St. Thomas (Moschler, Gund-
lach). Santa Cruz (Hiibner).

Erinnyis domingonis Butler
1875. Dilophonta domingonis Butler, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1875, p. 697.
1882. Dilophonota festa Hy. Edw. Pap., ii, p. 11.
1903. Erinnyis domingonis Rothschild and Jordan, Nov. Zool., ix, supply ,
p. 370, P1. viii, fig. 13 S, 12 ?.
1903. Erinnyis domingonis Holland, Moth Book, P1. v, fig. 9.
1923. Erinnyis domingonis Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 154.
(Anceryx, Dilophonota obscura auct., in part.)

Florida and Texas to Paraguay. Porto Rico: Rio Piedras, at light
(Wolcott).

Pachylia Walker

A tropical American genus, with very few species but those few very
common. It is probably closely related to the preceding three species
though put in another tribe by Rothschild and Jordan. The larvae are
very stout with a rudimentary horn, and have a pale subdorsal stripe as
well as seven side-stripes slanting down and back, as in Pholus. They
feed on Moracese (Ficus, breadfruit, Cecropia).

Pachylia flcus Linnaeus
1705. Merian, Metam. Ins. Surinam, P1. xxxiii, upper right figure and prob-
ably larvae.
1758. Sphinx ficus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. Ed. 10, p. 491.
1779. Sphinx ficus Cramer, Pap. Exot., iii, P1. ccxlvi, fig. C.
1822. Pholus ficus Hiibner, Verz. Bek. Schm., No. 1438.
1856. Deilephila flous Burmeister, Sphing, Brasil, p. 61.
1856. Pachylia ficus Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M., viii, p. 189.
1877. Pachylia ficus Dewitz, Mitt. Miinch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 91.
1890. Pachylia ficus Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 109.
1891. Pachylia ficus Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 147.
1903. Pachylia ficus Rothschild and Jordan, Nov. Zool., ix, supply p. 373.
1903. Pachylia ficus Holland, Moth Book, P1. iii, fig. 12, P1. x, figs. a-g, P1.
xv, fig. g.
1912. Pachylia ficus Moss, Trans. Zool. Soc. xx, p. 97 (larva and pupa).
1920. Pachylia ficus Moss, Nov. Zool., xxvii, p. 387 (larva).
1923. Pachylia ficus Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 155.
(For further synonymy see Rothschild and Jordan, 1. c.)

The larva is green, the dorsum turning yellow before pupation. Moss
could only make the caterpillar eat species of Ficus, but Wolcott reports
it on Castilloa elastica (? in error for Ficus elastica).











FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


Florida, Texas and California to Argentine. "P. R." (Dewitz,
Mischler, Gundlach); Rio Piedras and Guanica (Wolcott); Coamo
Springs, Dec., 1914.

Madoryx Boisduval

Caterpillar (M. pluto) similar to Erinnyis, but with small enlarged
subdorsal tubercles on middle abdominal segments; on Onagracee.

Madoryx oiclus Cramer

1779. Sphinx oiclus Cramer, Pap. Exot., iii, Pl. ccxvi, fig. C.
1822. Hemeroplanes oiclus Htibner, Verz. Bek. Schm., No. 1428.
1856. Enyo oiclus Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M., viii, p. 115.
1875. Madoryx oiclus Boisduval, Sp. Gen. Lep. Het., i, p. 151.
1903. Madoryx oiclus Rothschild and Jordan, Nov. Zool., ix, supply p. 383.
1923. Madoryx oiclus Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 155.
1875. Madoryx faunus Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lep. Het., i, p. 153.
1877. Calliomma faunus Butler, Trans. Zool. Soc., ix, p. 630.

In M. oiclus the two silver spots at the end of the cell are subequal, in
M. pseudothyreus the lower one is much larger.
Mexico to Brazil. Porto Rico: Rio Grande, pupating larva under a
rose bush (Wolcott), perhaps in error for the Cuban and Florida M.
pseudothyreus.

Epistor Boisduval

I am very doubtful of the correctness of this name under the code.
Kirby selected lugubris as the type of Triptogon. Rothschild and Jordan
appear to ignore that genus as heterogeneous and undescribed.

Epistor lugubris Linnmus
1771. Sphinx lugubris Linnreus, Mant. Plant., p. 537.
1770-1773. Sphinx lugubris Drury, Ill. Exot. Ins., PI. xxviii, fig. 2.
182-."' Enyo lugubris tHibner, Zutr. z. Samml. Exot. Schm., figs. 395, 596.
1877. Enyo lugubris Dewitz, Mitt. Minch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 91.
1890. Enyo lugubris Miischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 106.
1891. Enyo lugubris Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 143.
1870. Thyreus lugubris Boisduval, Cons. Lep. Guat., p. 69.
1875. Epistor lugubris Boisduval, Sp. Gen. Lep. Het., i, p. 297.
1903. Epistor lugubris Rothschild and Jordan, Nov. Zool., ix, supply p. 403.
1903. Epistor lugubris Holland, Moth Book, P1. ii, fig. 17.
1920. Epistor lugubris Moss, Nov. Zool., xxvii, p. 397, P1. iii, fig. 4, P1. x, fig.
5. (larva).

21The date appears to be somewhat later than 1822, the reference not being given in
the Verzeichniss.











SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


1923. Epistor lugubris Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 155.
1892. Triptogon lugutbris Kirby, Cat. Lep. Het., p. 644.

The dark color and angled wings are distinctive. The caterpillar has
eight or nine normal oblique side-stripes, and a complete subdorsal
stripe. It resembles the North American Darapsa myron and, like it,
feeds on Vitaces (Vitis and Cissus).
Subtropical and tropical America, straying north to Massachusetts.
"P. R." (Dewitz, Stahl, M6schler, Gundlach); Rio Piedras (Wolcott).

Cautethia Grote

The three nominal species of this genus represent each other locally
and are perhaps merely geographical forms, though Rothschild and Jor-
dan find some difference in the genitalia. The Porto Rican species
should be noctuiformis, but is reported by Wolcott as grotei, supposedly
on the authority of B. Preston Clark. Caterpillar green, with a slender
horn, swollen at base, the first segment of abdomen largest. Dorsum
with a double whitish shade, sides with reversed oblique whitish shades;
subdorsal line from prothorax to horn, defined above, shaded below.
Spiracles red and white, the first abdominal black and white. Food
Chiococcus receiosus (Rubiaceax) according to Dyar.

Cautethia noctuiformis Walker

1856. (Enosanda noctuiformis Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M., viii, p. 232.
1877. (Enosanda noctuiformis Dewitz, Mitt. Minch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 91.
1805. Cautethia noctuiformis Grote and Robinson, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., v,
p. 168.
1903. Cautethia noctuiformis Rothschild and Jordan, Nov. Zool., ix, supply ,
p. 414.
1891. (Enosanda grotei Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 107.
1882. Cautethia grotei Gundlach, Contr. Ent. Cubana, p. 179.
1890. Cautethia grotei Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 144.
1823. Cautethia grotei Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 155.

This form apparently has not been figured. It averages smaller and
less brown than C. grotei H. Edw., figured in Holland's Moth Book, P1.
ii, fig. 21. It is the smallest of the West Indian Sphingide. Larva on
Rubiaceae (Gundlach).
Greater Antilles. "P. R." (Dewitz, Mischler). St. Thomas (Roths-
child and Jordan).











FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOT0HH


Perigonia Herrich-Schiiffer

Perigonia lusca Fabricius
P1. I, fig. 6

1777. Sphinx lusca Fabricius, Gen. Ins., p. 272.
1856. Perigonia lusca Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M., viii, p. 101.
1877. Perigonia lusca Dewitz, Mitt. Miinch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 91.
1890. Perigonia lusca Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 105.
1S91. Perigonia lusca Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 143.
1903. Perigonia lusca Rothschild and Jordan, Nov. Zool., ix, supply pp. 426-429
(six forms).
1920. Perigonia .lusca Moss, Nov. Zool., xxvii, p. 400, P1. vii (larva).
1923. Perigonia lusca Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 155 (var. inter-
rupta).
1864. Perigonia restituta Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M., xxxi, p. 32.
1864. Perigonia interrupt Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M., xxxi, p. 291.
1870. Macroglossa doto Schaufuss, Nunq. Otio., i, p. 21.

The species is extremely variable in wing-form as well as in pattern,
and has received numerous names, for which Rothschild and Jordan
must be consulted. The Porto Rican specimens, it is believed, belong to
the form interrupt. The following forms appear to have been figured:
passerina Boisduval, Burmeister, Descr. Rep. Argent., v, P1. x, fig. 7;
restituia Walker, Druce, Biol. Cent.-Am., Pl. iii, fig. 4; tenebrosa Felder,
Reise Novara, Pl. lxxxii, fig. 3. Larva green, with seven side-stripes,
and a subdorsal stripe; on coffee and various other Rubiacee.
Florida and Mexico to Argentina. "P. R." (Dewitz, Moschler, Gund-
lach). St. John, Mar. 7, 1925. The specimen from St. John perhaps
comes nearest to form ilus.

Aellopos Hiibner (Sesia auct.)

I prefer to use the unambiguous name Aillopos rather than Sesia,
which I believe belongs more properly to the Clear-wings. All the species
are day-fliers and are very active. Migrant specimens of several species
have been taken in the northern United States, far beyond their normal
ranges.
The larve have a mid-dorsal stripe or spots as in Hemaris, as well as
the oblique stripes; they feed on Rubiacee.

KEY TO SPECIES

1. Abdomen largely yellow, without white belt.... ............... blaini
Abdomen blackish, with one white segment........................... 2
2. Part of translucent spots on fore wing double................... fadus
Translucent spots of fore wing all single............................. 3











SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


3. Upper spot much larger than second, which is normally also smaller than
third .................................................. tantalus
Upper spot not larger than second, usually with four spots........titan

Aellopos fadus Cramer
1775. Sphinx fadus Cramer, Pap. Ex. i, p. 95, P1. 1xi, fig. C.
1822. Aellopus fadus Hiibner, Verz. Bek. Schm. no. 1408.
1903. Sesia fadus Rothschild and Jordan, Nov. Zool. ix, supply. p. 437.
1903. Sesia titan Holland, Moth Book, P1. ii, fig. 16.
(Not Sesia titan Cramer etc.)

There are usually 4 to 7 translucent spots in the outer series, and the
inner series may also be formed of double spots.
Tropical America generally, occasionally straying far north into the
Temperate Zone. P. R.: Bayam6n, July 8, 1925 (Sein).

Aellopos titan Cramer
1777. Sphinx titan Cramer, Pap. Ex. ii, p. 73, P1. cxlii, fig. F.
1822. Aellopus titan Hiibner, Verz. Bek. Schm. no. 1407.
1903. Sesia titan Rothschild and Jordan, Nov. Zool. ix, suppl. 436, P1. viii,
fig. 16.
The male has tufts at the ends of the fore tibia and femur.
Tropical America generally, straying north to Massachusetts or
farther. The Porto Rico specimen is doubtless a straggler; it was taken
the same time as the single straggler of S. fadus. P. R.: Bayam6n, July
8, 1925 (Sein).
[Aellopos tantalus Linnfeus
1758. Sphinx tantalus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. Ed. 10, p. 493.
1820. (?) Aellopos tantalus Hiibner, Samml. Exot. Schm., ii, P1. civil.

Florida to Tucumdn, Argentina, as a stray even farther north.]
Aellopos tantalus zonata Drury
P1. II, fig. 7.
1773. Sphinx zonata Drury, Ill. Exot. Ins., P1. xxvi, fig. 5.
1856. Macroglossa tantalus and zonata Lucas, Sagra's Hist. Cuba, vii, p. 288.
1877. Macroglossa tantalus Dewitz, Mitt. Miinch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 91.
1890. Macroglossa tantalus Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi., p. 105.
1891. Macroglossa tantalus Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 143.
1865. Aellopos tantalus Grote, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., v. p. 42.
1877. Aellopos tantalus Butler, Trans. Zool. Soc., ix, p. 530.
1903. Sesia tantalus zonata Rothschild and Jordan, Nov.. Zool., Ix, suppl.,
p. 435.
1823. Sesia tantalus var. zonata Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 155.

In this species the transparent spots on the fore wing are three, the
upper one largest, the middle normally smallest.











FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


Greater Antilles; Florida; St. Kitts. "P. R." (Dewitz, Stahl, Misch-
ler, Wolcott) ; Mayagiiez (N. M.); Desengafio, Sept. (C. U.) ; Aibo-
nito, June 1-3, 1915; East San Juan, Aug. 3, 1914; Coamo Springs, July,
1914. St. Thomas (.Butler). St. Croix, Mar. 4, 1925.

Aellopos blaini Herrich-Schiffer
1869. Aellopos blaini Herrich-Schiiffer, Ausser. Schm., ii, fig. 553.
1875. Macroglossa aedon Boisduval, Sp. Gen. Lep. Het., i, p. 357, P1. xi, fig. 1.
1890. Macroglossa aedon M3schler, Abh. Senek. naturf. Ges., xvi., p. 105.
1891. Macroglossa aedon Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 143.
1877. Aellopos aedon Butler, Trans. Zool. Soc., ix, p. 634.
1877. Macroglossa blaini Dewitz, Mitt. Miinch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 91.
1903. Sesia blaini Rothschild and Jordan, Nov. Zool., ix, supply p. 434.
1923. Sesia aedon Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 155.

Cuba, Jamaica, "P. R." (Dewitz, M6schler).

Pholus Hiibner

A wide-spread American genus, its only close relative limited to
Hawaii (known by a single mutilated specimen). The moths are con-
spicuous and varied in color, and form a striking element of all the
American faunas.
Caterpillars characteristic: when young with a very long horn, which
is turned back over the body, and which is lost in the last stage or reduced
to a nodule or eye-spot. There is a series of oblique lateral stripes or
patches, but they slant down and back, unlike the usual Sphingid stripes.
The caterpillars eat Vitacee and Onagracese.

KEY TO SPECIES

1. Hind wing largely blue, fore wing bright green; abdomen with white
spots at spiracles (Argeus)............................... labrusca
Hind wing not blue, fore wing not green, abdomen without special mark-
ings ............................................................ 2
2. Hind wing with a complete pink border .....................fasciatus
Hind wing with a pink patch at anal angle .....................vitis

Pholus vitis Linnaeus

1705. Merian, Metam. Ins. Surinam, PI. xlvii, upper figures.
1758. Sphin, vitis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, p. 491.
1780. Sphinx vitis Cramer, Pap. Exot., iii, P1. cclxvili, fig. E.
1822. Dupo vitis Hiibner, Verz. Bek. Schm., No. 1466.
1839. Philampelus hornbeckiana IIarris. Sill. Jour. Sci., xxxvi. p. 290, note.
1865. Philampelus linnet Grote and Robinson, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., v, p. 157,
PI. ill, fig. 3.
1856. Philampelus vitis Walker, List, Lep. Ins. B. M., viii, p. 176.











SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


1877. Philampelus vitis Dewitz, Mitt. Miinch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 92.
1890. Philampelus vitis Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 109.
1891. Philampelus vitis Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 146.
1903. Pholus vitis vitis Rothschild and Jordan, Nov. Zool., ix, supply p. 493.
1903. Pholus vitis Holland, Moth Book, P1. iii, fig. 1.
1912. Pholus vitis Moss, Trans. Zool. Soc., xx, p. 101, P1. xii, figs. a-f, xv,
fig. m (larva and pupa).
1920. Pholus vitis Moss, Nov. Zool., xxvii, p. 405, P1. x, fig. 11.
1923. Pholus vitis Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 155.

The oblique spots of the caterpillar take the form of rather narrow
stripes as in achemon but there are normally only five. Merian's figure
shows the first two of these five much reduced, and looks more like Moss's
figure of anchemolus. The caterpillar feeds on Vitacese, especially
Cissus.
Warm temperate and tropical America, straying north to New Eng-
land; a distinct race in Jamaica. "P. R." (Dewitz, Stahl, M6schler);
Rio Piedras, at light (Wolcott). St. Thomas (Harris).

Pholus fasciatus Sulzer

1773. Sphinx vitis Drury, Ill. Exot. Ins., i, p. 60, P1. xxviii, fig. 1.
1776. Sphinx fasciatus Sulzer, Gesch. Ins., p. 151, P1. xx, fig. 1.
1814. (?) Eumorpha elegans jussieuw Hiibner, Samml. Exot. Schm., 1, PI.
clxix.
1822. Dupo jussieuw Hiibner, Verz. Bek. Schm., No. 1467.
1839. Philampelus vitis Harris, Sill. Jour. Sci., xxxvi, p. 299.
1856. Philampelus fasciatus Lucas, Sagra's Hist. Cuba, vii, p. 193, pi. xvii,
fig. 5.
1877. Philampelus fasciatus Dewitz, Mitt. Miinch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 92.
1890. Philampelus fasciatus Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 109.
1891. Philampelus fasciatus Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 147.
1903. Pholus fasciatus Rothschild and Jordan, Nov. Zool., ix, suppl., p. 494.
1903. Pholus fasciatus Holland, Moth Book, P1. iii, fig. 2.
1912. Pholus fasciatus Moss, Trans. Zool. Soc., xx, p. 102, P1. xl, figs. a-i, P1.
xv, fig. 1 (larva and pupa).
1920. Pholus fasciatus Moss, Nov. Zool., xxvii, p. 405, P1. ii, fig. 4 (larva).
1923. Pholus fasciatus Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 155.
(Probably Sphinx vitis Linnteus in part.)

Larva green, or red, black, and white, or yellow, with eight slender
oblique stripes. On Jussieua (Onagracese).
Southern States to Patagonia, straying north to New England. "P.
R." (Dewitz, Stahl, Mischler) ; Rio Piedras and Martin Pefia (Wol-
cott).











FORBES, INE('TS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


Pholus labrusen Linnaeus

1705. Merian, Metam. Ins. Surinam.. Pl. xxxiv (with larva).
1758. Sphinx labrusca( Linnaus. Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, p. 491.
1777. Sphin.r labrusae' Cramer. Pap. Exot.. ii. 'l. clxxxiv. fig. A.
1822. Argeus labruscce Hiibner, Verz. Bek. Schm., No. 1442.
1856. Philampelus labrusca Burmeister, Sph. Brasil, p. 58.
1S77. Philaipclus lubru.s'r Dewitz. Mitt. Miinch. Ent. Ver.. i, p. 9)2'.
1890. Philampelus labrusca Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi p. 109.
1891. Philampelus labruscw Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 147.
1903. Pholus labrusce Rothschild and Jordan, Nov. Zool., ix, supply p. 496.
1903. Pholus labrusca Holland, Moth Book, Pl. iii, fig. 11.
19)12. Pholus labrusew Moss, Trans. Zool. soc., xx, p. 104, Pl. xiii, figs. a-e,
PI. xv, fig. k (larva and pupa).
1920. Pholus labruscw Moss, Nov. Zool., xxvii, p. 406 (larva).
1923. Pholus labrusew Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 155.

Caterpillar with side patches very broad when young, in the adult
fusing into a broad vague pale shade, with only a little oblique mottling.
On Cissus (Vitacem).
Tropical America, straying to Canada and Patagonia. "P. R." (De-
witz, Stahl, Moschler, Gundlach) ; Rio Piedras (Wolcott); Mayagiiez,
July, 1914; Ponce, July 12, 1915 (Osburn). St. John, Mar. 10, 1925.

Xylophanes Hiibner

A large South American genus with one straggler breeding in tem-
perate North America. This group shows the extreme development of
the characteristic Sphingid form, with wings very narrow and pointed,
and body also slender, conical and pointed. The larve are swollen at
the first segment of the abdomen, with a specialized eye-spot, and feed
on Rubiacee.
KEY TO SPECIES

1. Hind wing yellow, fore wing green............................. pluto
Hind wing with small pale spots.................................... 2
2. Next to last spot of hind wing twice as large as those above it and out
of line; fore wing green or brown.......................... chiron
Spots all in line, the last two but little enlarged; fore wing light wood-
brow n ..................................................... tersa

[Xylophanes chiron Drury

1771. (1773.) Sphinx chiron Drury, Ill. Exot. Ins., i, p. 56, P1. xxvi, fig. 3.

Jamaica, St. Lucia.]











SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


Xylophanes chiron nechus Cramer

1777. Sphinx nechus Cramer, Pap. Exot., ii, P1. clxxvii, fig. B.
1822. Theretra nechus Hiibner, Verz. Bek. Schm., No. 1447.
1856. Charocampa (sic) chiron Walker, List Pep. Ins. B. M., viii, p. 132.
1890. Chwocampa chiron Moschler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 108.
1891. Chocrocampa (sic) chiron Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 445.
1856. Cherocampa nechus Lucas, Sagra's Hist. Cuba, i, p. 294.
1877. Cha rocampa nechus Dewitz, Mitt. Miinch. Ent. Ver., i, p. 91.
1875. Cherocampa haitensis Butler, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1875, p. 9.
1903. Xylophanes chironnechus (sic) Rothschild and Jordan, Nov. Zool., ix.
supply p. 698.
1923. Xylophanes chironnechus (sic) Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii,
p. 155.
1920. Xylophalm chirobin ic ihts Moss. Nov. Zool.. xxvii, p. 412. Il. viii. fi,. 6
(larva).

Caterpillar with red subdorsal ocelli on first two segments of abdomen
and a yellow one on third; feeding on several Rubiaceae.
Florida to Uruguay. "P. R." (Dewitz, Stahl, Maschler) ; Rio Piedras
(Wolcott). St. Thomas (Gundlach, M6schler).

Xylophanes tersa Linnaeus

1771. Sphinx terse Linnieus, Mant. Plant., p. 538.
1771. Sphinx tersa Drury, Ill. Exot. Ins., P1. xxviii, fig. 3.
1822. Theretra tersa Hiibner, Verz. Bek. Schm., No. 1449.
1839. Chwrocamipa tersa Harris, Sill. Jour. Sci., xxxvi, p. 303.
1877. Cha'rocoampa tersa Dewitz. Mitt. Miinch. Ent. Ver., i, 91.
1890. Chwrocampa tersa Mbschler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges. xvi, p. 108.
1891. Chocrocampa tersa Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 145.
1903. Xylophanes tersa Rothschild and Jordan, Nov. Zool., ix, suppl., p. 703.
1912. Xylophanes tersa Moss, Trans. Zool. Soc., xx, p. 106, P1. xiv, figs. n-q,
P1. xv, figs. n, o (larva and pup-).
1920. Xylophanes tersa Moss, Nov. Zool., xxvii, p. 413 (larva).
1923. Xylophanes tersa Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii. p. 156.

Larva with a complete series of ocellate spots, the first one more
brilliantly colored than the rest; usually feeds on Spermacoce and breeds
at least as far north as New York City.
Canada to Argentina. "P. R." (Dewitz, Stahl, Mischler, Gundlach);
Rio Piedras and Mameyes (Wolcott); Naguabo, Mar. 1914; Coamo
Springs, Dec. 1914; Ponce, July 23, 1915; Ensenada, June 1915.

Xylophanes pluto Fabricius
1777. Sphinx pluto Fabricius, Gen. Ins., p. 274.
1822. Oreus thorates Hiibner, Zutr. z. Samml. Exot. Schm., Figs. 525, 526.
1856. Calliomma pluto Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M., viii, p. 111.











FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RI('O: MOTHS


1856. Pergesa thorates Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M., viii, p. 151.
1881. Pergesa thorates Gundlach, Contr. Ent. Cubana, p. 198 (larva).
1823. Sphinx crcsus Dalman, Anal. Ent., p. 48.
1890. Pergesa pluto Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi. p. 108.
1891. Pergesa pluto Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 445.
1903. Xylophanes pluto Rothschild and Jordan, Nov. Zool., ix, supply p. 681.
1903. Xylophanes pluto Holland, Moth Book, Pl. ii, fig. 7.
1923. Xylophanes pluto Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. 1'. R., vii, p. 156.

Easily distinguished from any other sphinx known in Porto Rico by the
green fore wings and yellow-centered hind wings. Larva on Erythroxy-
lon, with the usual eye-spot on first abdominal segment (Gundlach).
Florida to southern Brazil. "P. R." (Dewitz, Moschler, Gundlach);
Rio Piedras. at light (Wolcott). St. Thomas (Gundlach, Moschler).

Celerio Oken (IDrcpilphil anct.)

The correctness of this name is very doubtful. Until the appearance
of Rothschild and Jordan's revision, in which generic names were
chosen by the invalid "first species rule," it was generally known as
Deilephila (Laspeyres or Ochsenheimer) with lineala (livornica) for
the type as specified by Kirby. The genus is one of the two world-wide
genera of Sphingidw, Herse being the other, and appears to be both
ancient and very much of a migrant.
Forms of the Porto Rican species are found everywhere, save perhaps
in the hottest regions of India and Brazil. In the desert of western
Ecuador, Murphy found that it was the first species to arrive in num-
bers when the extremely rare occurrence of a rainstorm brought out vege-
tation on which it could feed.
The caterpillars are unusually cylindrical for Sphingidw, and a few
()ld World speci's tend to lose the horn.

Celerio lineata lineata Fabricius
1775. Sphinx lincata Fabricius. Syst. Ent.. p. 541.
1777. Sphinx daucus Cramer, Pap. Exot., ii, P1. cxxv, fig. D.
1810. Deilephila lineata Ochsenheimer, Schm. Eur., iv, p. 42 (part).
1877. Deilephila lineata Dewitz. Mitt. Miinch. Ent. Ver.. i. p. 92.
1890. Deilephila daucus MMischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 108.
1891. Deilephila daucus Gundlach. An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx. p. 146.
1903. Celerio lineata lineata Rothschild and Jordan. Nov. Zool., ix, supply ,
p. 731.
1903. Celerio lineata Holland, Moth Book, P1. ii, fig. 14.

There is a large popular literature, mostly under the (correct) name
of Deilephila lineata.











SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


Larva highly variable, green with red- or yellow-centered ocelli, or
checkered with black and green, or largely black, with yellow dots in
patches; head yellow, without a black stripe across the mouth. On
Onagraceae, Portulaca and many other plants.
Range: almost all of North America, including the Galapagos, with
variant races in the Old World. "P. R." (Dewitz, Stahl, Moschler,
Gundlach); Rio Piedras and Gudnica (Wolcott); Mayagiiez, May 1914
(C. U.); Ponce, July 22, 1914; Coamo Springs, June 5-7, 1915.

GEOMETRIDIE

Will be taken up in a subsequent part of this volume by Dr. Schaus.

EPIPLEMIDAE

A small but wide-spread family, distinguished from the Uraniide by
the presence of a frenulum, from all other American moths by the stalk-
ing of R, and M, in the fore wing. It is present in most of the warm-
temperate and tropical regions, but unaccountably absent from Europe.
The larvw are inconspicuous, more or less social when young, scattering
whpn older, and hiding by day. The North American species feed on
Caprifoliacese.
Chrysocestis fimbriaria, included in this family by Dalla Torre on the
authority of Warren, is a Geometer.

KEY TO GENERA

1. Hind wing rounded, R, and M1 separate, R2 absent in fore wing......
Cerasympiasta
Hind wing angled at M ........................................... 2
2. Hind wing with a tooth at R rather stronger than the one at Ms..
Epiplema
Hind wing at most with a slight angulation at R ...................... 3
3. Fore wing with R, running into Sc; hind wing with anal angle normal..
Nedusia
Fore wing with R, free; hind wing deeply notched at anal angle..
Syngria
[Cerasympiasta marsitata and sanata Moschler

1891. Cerasympiasta marsitata Miischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 261.
1891. Cerasympiasta sanata Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 262.

These species are omitted from Dalla Torre's catalogue, and appear
not to be Epiplemides; presumably they are Geometers.]











FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


Nedusia Hiibner

The Porto Rican species has the dentation of the hind wing much
better marked than has the type, but there is nothing approaching the
deep anal notch of the following genus (Syngria).

Nedusia excavata Moschler
P1. I, fig. 3

1891. Nedusia excavata M6schler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 244.
1891. Nedusia excavata Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 328.
1923. Syngria reticularia Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 179.
1925. Nedusia excavata Dalla Torre, Lep. Cat., xxx (1), p. 5.

Ash gray, with dark brown markings, the median line of the hind wing
whitish, edged with dark brown, and bent at a right angle.
Surinam (M6schler). "P. R." (Moschler, Gundlach, N. M.) ; Coamo
Springs, June 5-7, 1915.

Syngria Guenee
Easily recognized by the deep notch below Cu, of hind wing, the teeth
on M, and Cu, being much less conspicuous.
KEY TO SPECIES

Gray with whitish lines and veins................................ reticularia
Straw yellow with tawny and brown markings .................. ramosaria

Syngria reticularia Msschler
1891. Syngria reticularia M6schler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 256.
1891. Syngria reticularia Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 332.
1923. Syngria reticularia Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 179.
1925. Syngria reticularia Dalla Torre, Lep. Cat., xxx (1), p. 7.

Porto Rico (Moschler, Gundlach).

Syngria ramosaria Moschler
1891. Syngria ramosaria Moschler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 256.
1891. Syngria ramosaria Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 332.
1923. Syngria ramosaria Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 179.
1925. Syngria ranosaria Dalla Torre, Lep. Cat., xxx (1), p. 7.

Cuba (M6schler, ex coll. Herrich-Schiffer and Gundlach). P. R.
(M6schler, Gundlach).

Epiplema Herrich-Schliffer
This genus fairly covers the range of the family. As delimited by
Dalla Torre (following Warren), it includes Erosia Guen&e and the
North American genera Callizzia and Calledapteryx, and comprises some











SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


270 species. The moths rest in a curious position, with the hind wings
curved and somewhat separated from the fore wings, which are held
nearly horizontal, and folded lengthwise.
KEY TO SPECIES
1. Fore wing straw color, with triangular blackish spots near middle of
costa and inner margin ............................... obvallataria
Fore wing without blackish triangles, smaller......................... 2
2. Ground of fore wing dark brown, inner margin reddish.... ineptaria
Ground of fore wing straw color with dark transverse lines..excludaria

Epiplema ineptaria Mischler
1891. Erosia ineptaria Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 262.
1891. Erosia ineptaria Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 335.
1923. Erosia ineptaria Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p .179.
1925. Epiplema ineptaria Dalla Torre, Lep. Cat., xxx (1), p. 17.

If I have it identified correctly the male has the fore wings longer in
proportion to the hind wings, which are more rounded and have lost
Cu2; the hind wings also have a fold and hair-pencil on the inner margin.
Porto Rico (Moschler, Gundlach); Coamo Springs, Apr. 9, 10, and
San German, Apr. 17, 1930 (Forbes).

Epiplema excludaria Miischler
1891. Erosia ineptaria Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges.. xvi, p. 262.
1891. Erosia excludaria Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 335.
1923. Erosia excludaria Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 180.
1925. Epiplema excludaria Dalla Torre, Lep. Cat., xxx (1), p. 15.

Only M6schler's type material appears to be known.
Porto Rico (Mischler, Gundlach).

Epiplema obvallataria Mischler
1891. Erosia obvallataria Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 263.
1891. Erosia obvallataria Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 335.
1923. Erosia obvallataria Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 180.
1925. Epiplema obvallataria Dalla Torre, Lep. Cat., xxx (1), p. 19.

Only the types are known.
Porto Rico (M6schler, Gundlach).

PYRALIDIDE

Will be taken up in a subsequent Part of this volume by Dr. Schaus.

HYBLAIDAE

This is an Old World family with a single introduced species in the
West Indies. It is generally put with tlie Noetuid(a, but differs in the











FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


presence of five wholly separate radial veins in the fore wing, 1st A in
the hind wing and large maxillary palpi-also in the thoracic structures.
The caterpillars are Micro-like in appearance, and feed between leaves of
Bignoniacem.
Hyblea Fabricius

Hyblaea puera Cramer

1779. Noctua puera Cramer, Pap. Exot., ii, p. 10, P1. ciii, figs. D. E.
1787. Noctua saga Fabricius, Mant. Ins., ii, p. 137.
1794. HyUbla saga Fabricius, Ent. Syst., iii (2), p. 137.
1852. Hyblcaa puera GuenBe, Sp. Gen. Lep. Het., vi, p. 390.
1884-87. Hybl~a puera Moore, Lep. Ceylon, iii, p. 81, P1. cliv, figs. 2, 2a (with
larva).
1890. Hyblea puera Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 183.
1891. Hybla puera Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 190.
1893. Hyblea puera Smith, Bull. 44, U. S. Nat. Mus., p. 316 (bibliography).
1894. Hyblea puera Hampson, Fauna Brit. India, Moths, ii, p. 371.
1903. Hyblea puera Holland, Moth Book, P1. xxx, fig. 8.
1904. Hyblfa puera Hole, Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., xv, pp. 679-697 (full
life history).
1914. Hyblea puera Fletcher, Some So. Indian Ins., p. 392 (figs.).
1923. Hyblea puera Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 176.
1876. 2Enigma mirificum Strecker, Lep. Rhop. and Het., p. 122.

The black and orange hind wings suggest a North American Catocala
or Syneda, but the body is much stouter. The caterpillar does con-
siderable injury to teak in the Orient, and has a large economic litera-
ture. In Porto Rico the Experiment Station has bred it from Tecoma
("roble").
Old World tropics, introduced in America, from Florida to Guiana.
"P. R." (Moschler, Gundlach, Stahl); Rio Piedras and Guayanabo
(abundant), and Comerio (Wolcott).


THYRIDIDAE

A family of moderate size, really related to the Pyralids, but most
variously placed in former times, most often near the Sphingidae. The
Porto Rican species represents the Rhodoneurina, which are the tropi-
cal group of the family, the Thyridine being practically limited to the
North Temperate Zone. The majority of the larve of the Rhodoneurine
feed on the Malvaceve, and are gall-makers on the smaller twigs.











SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


Rhodoneura Guende

A large genus in the tropics of both hemispheres.

Rhodoneura myrsusalis Walker
1859. Pyralis myrsusalis Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M., xix, p. 892.
1892. Rhodoneura myrsusalis Hampson, Fauna Br. India, Moths, i, p. 357.
1897. Rhodoneura myrsusalis Hampson, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 618.
1912. Rhodoneura myrsusalis Seitz, Macr. World, ii, p. 374, P1. Ivi, fig. fl.
1914. Rhodoneura myrsusalis Dalla Torre, Lep. Cat., xx, p. 27 (bibliography).
1875. Siculodes cinereola Felder, Reise Novara, Lep., P1. cxxxiv, fig. 8.
1877. Striglina scallula Guen6e, Ann. Ent. Soc. Fr. (5), vii, p. 287.
1890. Striglina scallula and var. immaculate Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf.
Ges., xvi p. 122.
1891. Striglina scallula and var. immaculate Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist.
Nat., xx, p. 163.
1923. Rhodoneura scallula var. immaculate Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R.,
vii, p. 185.
Dalla Torre gives a more complete synonymy.

The variety differs in lacking the transparent patch on the fore wing.
"P. R." (Mdschler-both type and variety; Gundlach). General in
tropics of both hemispheres.

PTEROPHORIDIE

All the Porto Rican species of Feather-wings have the fore wing cleft
at the margin into two feathers, and the hind wing more deeply divided
into three. They are related to the Pyralidide, but all the forms have
preserved 1st A of the fore wing, which is rare in the Pyralids, and a
few have all the radial branches present and separate. The caterpillars
usually have tubular prolegs (slender and cylindrical, with enlarged
tips), and more or less tufted or secondary hair, but these structures may
be much reduced in Adaina, and the tail is modified with a horny plate in
Platyptilia. Several genera form their punp in the open, suspended by
the tail like Nymphalide. The family is world-wide, and nearly as
richly developed in the temperate zone as in the tropics.

KEY TO GENERA

1. Fringe of third feather of hind wing with a tuft or group of spatulate
black scales; normally with additional such scales in other parts of
the fringe ....................................................... 2
Spatulate black scales confined to inner margin of fore wing, scat-
tered .............................................. M arasm archa
Fringes without scattered black scales or tufts; first feather of fore
wing with four veins ............................................. 3












FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


2. Both feathers of fore wing obliquely truncate, the anterior with 5
(radial) veins, of which the third and fourth may be stalked......
Platyptilia
First feather of fore wing linear, R, and R, stalked or united, R, and
R, stalked, R, free; second feather falcate............Sphenarcles
Both feathers of fore wing linear, the first with three veins.........
Trichoptilus
3. Wings narrower, two radial veins stalked....................Adaina
Wings broader, the four radials (veins in first feather) all free....
Pterophorus
Adaina Tutt

KEY TO SPECIES

1. Rust red .............................................. participate
Pale whitish yellow .............................................. 2
2. A dark costal spot a third way out on first feather.......... bipunctata
A paler brown spot at base of cleft only; apex of fore wing and
fringes shaded with rusty.................................preusta
Several black dots and isolated black scales ................... thoma

Adaina bipunctata M6schler

1890. Pterophorus bipunctatus Mjschler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 346.
1897. Adaina bipunctata Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 61.
1910. Adaina bipunctata Meyrick, Gen. Ins., c. p. 15.
1913. Adaina bipunctata Meyrick, Lep. Cat., xvii, p. 21.
1921. Adaina bipunctata Barnes and Lindsey, Contr. Nat. Hist. Lep., iv,
p. 365, P1. xli, fig. 20.
1923. Adaina bipunctata Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 200.
1896. Leioptilus microdactylus Hedemann, Stett. Ent. Zeit.. Ivii, p. 9.
1917. Pterophorus simplicius Grossbeck, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., xxxvii, p. 136.
(not Adaina microdactyla Hiibner).

Mississippi to Florida; Antilles. (March to June in southern United
States). "P. R." (Mischler, type; Gundlach); Bayam6n, Jan. (Busck-
N. M.). St. Thomas, early Apr. (Hedemann), Mar. 20 (Gudmann).
St. Croix, Apr. 28 (Gudmann).

Adaina praeusta Mtschler

1890. Pterophorus prwustus Mischler, Abb. Senck. naturf. Ges. xvi, p. 346.
1897. Pterophorus prw'ustus Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 60.
1910. Adaina pru'usta Meyrick. elln. Ins.. c. p. 15.
1913. Adaina prweusta Meyrick, Lep. Cat., xvii, p. 21.
1923. Adaina prawiusta Wolcott. Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R.. vii. p. 2)0.

This may be a form of the preceding, rubbed specimens of which tend
to lose the costo-apical spot. I think it is represented in the N. M.











SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


series from Bayam6n, but the specimens are too poor to make identifica-
tion a certainty.
Porto Rico (Moschler).

Adaina participate Maschler
1890. Pterophorus participatus Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 346.
1897. Pterophorus participatus Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 61.
1915. Adaina pra'usta Meyrick, Gen. Ins., c. p. 15.
1913. Adaina participate Meyrick, Lep. Cat., xvii, p. 21.
1923. Adaina prausta Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 200.

Porto Rico (M6schler, Gundlach) ; Coamo Springs, April 9, and Puerto
Real, Vieques Island, April 29, 1930 (Forbes).

Adaina thoma Zeller
1877. Leioptilus thomwc Zeller, HorT Soc. Ent. Ross., xiii, p. 180, P1. vi, fig.
170.
1896. Leioptilus thomw Hedemann, Stett. Ent. Zeit., Ivii, p. 8.
1897. Pterophorus thomac Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 60.
1910. Adaina thomne Meyrick, Gen. Ins., c, p. 15.
1913. Adaina thomce Meyrick, Lep. Cat., xvii, p. 21.

Practically white, with scattered black scales, forming somewhat
larger dots at middle of wing before notch, at base of notch, two on
costa of first feather, and two smaller bars at base of fringe of second
feather. Fringes gray except on tip of second feather. 12 mm.
St. Thomas, Dec. 17 (v. Nolcken-Zeller).

Pterophorus Geoffroy (Old a mantophorus)

There is some uncertainty as to the application of this name under the
rules. I am following American tradition rather than Lindsey's choice.
The genus is a rather large one and nearly world-wide, but definitely
dominant in the temperate zone. The larvae always have secondary hair
and feed exposed; they vary considerably in details of structure.
Besides the species mentioned here, Wolcott reports an undetermined
species from Ipomaw.
KEY TO SPECIES

Pale yellow, with brown shading especially at inner margin, and some rusty
on inner margin of second feather of fore wing....................basalts
Dirty grayish cream color, the costa shaded or suffused with smoky......
paleaceus
Contrastingly mottled with ash gray and blackish.................inquinatus
Even gray (evenly powdered with miore or less fuscous diustinig) miontis-christi











FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


Pterophorus paleaceus Zeller
1873. Leioptilus paleaceus Zeller, Verb. z. b. Ges. Wien, xxiii, p. 326.
1890. Pterophorus paleaceus Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 346.
1910. Ptcrophorus palccwcus Meyrick, Gen. Ins.., c, p. 16.
1913. Pterophorus paleaceus Meyrick, Lep. Cat., xvii, p. 24.
1923. Pterophorus paleaceus Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 200.
1921. Oidt'matophlorus paleaccus Barnes and Lindsey, Contr. Nat. Hist. Lep.
iv. p. 422, PI. xlv, fig. 6.
1924. Oidamatophorus paleaceus Forbes, Mem. Cornell Ag. Exp. Sta., lxviii,
p. 650.
1880. Leioptilus sericidactylus Murtfeldt, Am. Ent., iii,, p. 235 (larva).
1882. Leioptilus sericidactylus Dimmock, Psyche, iii, pp. 389, 404.

Larva varying from greenish white to dull salmon, the shorter hairs
sticky; on Vernonia. Pupa exposed.
Eastern United States to 'Nebraska and Texas. "P. R." (M6schler,
Gundlach).
Pterophorus basalis Mischler

1890. (Edematophorus basalis Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 345.
1910. Pterophorus basalis Meyrick, Gen. Ins., c, p. 17.
1913. Pterophorus basalis Meyrick, Lep. Cat., xvii, p. 25.
1923. Pterophorus basalis Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 200.

Only the type appears to be known.
"P. R." (Moschler, Gundlach).

Pterophorus inquinatus Zeller

lb60. (Edematophorus inquinatus Zeller, Verb. zool-bot. Ges. Wien, xxiii, p.
325.
1882. (Edematophorus inquinatus Coquillett, Pap., ii, p. 61 (biology).
1896. (Edematophorus inquinatus Hedemann, Stett. Ent. Zeit., lvii, p. 9.
1921. Oidwmatophorus inquinatus Barnes and Lindsey, Contr. Nat. Hist. Lep.,
iv, p. 402, Pl. xlvi, fig. 1.
1924. Oidacmatophorus inquinatus Forbes, Cornell Mem., lxviii, p. 649.
1897. Pterophorus inquinatus Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 59.
1913. Pterophorus inquinatus Meyrick, Lep. Cat., xvii, p. 25.

Mottled gray, with an oblique series of darker shades across middle
of wing. Larva on Ambrosia; in North America associated with the
very similar Adaina ambrosia.
U. S.; Mexico; Haiti; St. Thomas, Apr. 7 (Hedemann).

Pterophorus montis-christi Walsingham

1897. Pterophorus montis-christi Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 59.
1910. Pterophorus montis-christi Meyrick, Gen. Ins., c, p. 15.
1913. Pterophorus montis-chisti Meyrick, Lep. Cat., xvii, p. 21.











SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


Hoary gray, the fore wing minutely dusted with fuscous, especially at
the base of the dorsal fringe. 17 mm.
San Domingo, Grenada. St. Croix, May 2-5 (Walsingham).

Marasmareha Meyrick

Allied to Platyptilia, but with the venation about as much reduced as
in Adaina. Wings narrow, though with traces of the truncation of the
feathers of Platyptilia; fore wing with scattered black spatulate scales on
inner margin, tending to form tufts, but no such scales on hind wing.
Larvae generally on leguminous plants, the American species bred by Miss
Murtfeldt along with Adaina ambrosia, presumably from Ambrosia.
An Old World genus, with a single introduced species in America.

Marasmarcha pumilio Zeller
1873. Mimesioptilus pumilio Zeller, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, xxiii, p. 324.
1886. Marasmarcha liophanes Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc., 1886, p. 19.
1910. Marasmarcha liophanes Meyrick, Gen. Ins., c, p. 18, Fig. 15.
1913. Marasmarcha liophanes Meyrick, Lep. Cat., xvii, p. 27.
1896. Mimaesioptilus gilvidorsis Hedemann, Stett. Ent. Zeit., Ivii, p. 8 (in
part).
1897. Stenoptilia (?) pumilio Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 58.
1913. Stenoptilia pumilio Meyrick, Lep. Cat., xvii, p. 28.
1921. Marasmarcha pumilio Barnes and Lindsey, Contr. Nat. Hist. Lep., iv,
p. 348, P1. xlii, fig. 7.
1924. Marasmarcha pumilio Forbes, Cornell Mem., lxviii, p. 646.
(Not Mimaesioptilus gilvidorsis Zeller.)

Light brown with two or three black spots. 15 mm.
World-wide in tropics and warm temperate zone. P. R.: Naranjito,
July 6, 1915. St. Croix, early May (Hedemann.).

Trichoptilus Walsingham

Feathers linear, narrower than their own fringes, the fore wing rather
deeply cleft; with three veins in first feather of fore wing. Third
feather of hind wing (except in the case of a few species not in Porto
Rico) with a tuft of black scales, like Platyptilia, from which the genus
is derived.
Trichoptilus defectalis Walker
1864. Pterophorus defectalis Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M., xxx, p. 943.
1881. Trichoptilus ochrodactylus Fish, Can. Ent., xiii, p. 142.
1898. Trichoptilus ochrodactylus Fernald, Pteroph. N. Am., PI., v, figs. 13, 14.
1886. Trichoptilus centetes Meyrick. Trans. Ent. Soc., 1886, p. 16.
1897. Trichoptilus centetes Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 56.
1907. Trichoptilus congrnalis Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1907, p. 473.











FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


1909. Trichoptilus congruals Fletcher, Spol. Zeylanica, vi, p. 28, P1. A, fig. 8;
P1. F, fig. 2 (larva), fig. 3 (pupa).
1910. Trichoptilus congrualis and defectalis Meyrick, Gen. Ins., c, p. 5.
1915. Trichoptilus defectalis Walsingham and Durrant, Biol. Cent.-Am. Het.,
iv, p. 434 (synonymy).
1921. Trichoptilus defectalis Barnes and Lindsey, Contr. Nat. Hist. Lep., iv,
p. 290, P1. xli, fig. 1.
Light ochreous brown, with faint paler transverse bars, with tufts of
black scales and some white ones in the fringes. Hind wings dark brown,
with a single larger tuft in the third feather. 14 mm. Larva with large
clubbed primary hair and a few secondaries; yellow, with reddish stripes;
on Boerhavia repens and Amaranthus.
World-wide in tropics and warm temperate zones. P. R.: Ensenada,
June 14-19; Coamo Springs, June 5-7, 1915; Guayanilla, July 22, 1914.
St. Thomas, April 22-May 18. St. Croix, Mar. 13-25 (Walsingham),
Feb. and June (N. M.).

Sphenarches Meyrick
Similar to the North American (and wide-spread) genus Oxyptilus,
with the first feather of fore wing linear and the second feather falcate.
Meyrick notes a difference in the stalking of the radial veins but, when a
vein is lost (as it may be in both genera), the difference vanishes. The
single species is widely distributed in the Old World tropics, and is
undoubtedly introduced in the Antilles.

Sphenarches caffer Zeller (Lab-Lab Plume)
1852. Pterophorus caffer Zeller, Handl. Kngl. Svensk. Vet.-Ak., 1852, p. 118.
1852. Oxyptilus caffer Zeller, Linn. Ent., vi, p. 348.
1886. Sphenarches synophrys Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1886, p. 17.
1887. Sphenarches caffer Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1887, p. 268.
1891. Sphenarches caffer Cotes, Ind. Mus. Notes, ii, p. 20 (figures of imago
and larva).
1910. Sphenarches caffer Meyrick, Gen. Ins., v, p. 6, PI., fig. 3.

Light ochre, first feather of fore wing dark with pale bars. Fringes
with numerous scattered black spatulate scales, which are most numer-
ous in the dorsal fringes, where they tend to gather into tufts. Larva
with both clubbed and long simple hairs; bred in India on lab-lab
(Dolichos), in the west Indies on Caperonia bonavistt) and pigeon pea.
Pupa spinose, exposed.
General in Old World tropics. P. R.: Rio Piedras, Aug. 6; San Juan
(Trotter and Fox, on pigeon pea). St. Thomas, Mar. 20 (Gudmann-
Walsingham); Grenada.











SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


Platyptilia Hiibner
In this genus, which is wide-spread and varied, but less dominant in
North America than Pterophorus, the larva bores into the stems of
plants (at least to pass the winter). The posterior end of the larva is
strongly chitinized and serves as a protection when the insect is at the
mouth of the burrow. The moth is superficially distinct by the much
squarer truncation of the fore wing.
Platyptilia pusillidactyla Walker
1864. Oxyptilus pusillidactylus Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M., xxx, p. 933.
1896. Amblyptilia pusillidactyla Hedemann, Stett. Ent. Zeit., Ivii, p. 8.
1S97. Platyptilia pusillidactyla Walsinglham. Proc. Zool. Soc.. 1S97, p. 57.
1909. Platyptilia pusillidactyla Fletcher, Spol. Zeyl., vi, p. 13, P1. A, fig. 2,
P1. E. figs. 5, 6 (life history).
1910. Platyptilia pusillidactyla Meyrick, Gen. Ins., c, p. 10.
1913. Platyptilia pusillidactyla Meyrick, Lep. Cat., xvii, p. 10.
1877. Platyptilia tecnidion Zeller, Horse Soc. Ent. Ross., xiii, p. 468, P1. vi,
fig. 162.
1886. Platyptilia hemimetra Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1886, p. 18.

Smoky with a pale and dark band across each feather of the fore wing
near its apex. Caterpillar pale yellow, without obvious structures or
markings; in flowers of Lantana (Fletcher), on Caperonia (Exp. Sta.).
General in the tropics, believed by Fletcher to have been spread in the
Old World from South America, with its food plant, which is an impor-
tant weed. P. R.: Rio Piedras (Wolcott, bred material). St. Thomas
(Walsingham), St. Croix, late Apr. (Hedemann).

ORNEODIDAE

This family is not closely related to the preceding, though both belong
to the Pyraloids. Each wing is deeply divided into six feathers, but they
are so closely pressed together in the resting position that the division is
likely to be overlooked. The family is small, but well represented in
tropical America as well as in the Old World. Curiously there is only
one species in the United States, possibly introduced.

Orneodes Latreille
According to some authorities the name Alucita should be used for
this genus. Orneodes is, however, unambiguous and in about as familiar
use. The larvae live as leaf-rollers and budworms in various plants.
Orneodes eudactyla Felder
1875. Alucita cidantyla Felder. Reise Novara. Lep., Pl. cxl. fig. 62.
1890. Alucita eudactyla Moschler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 346.











FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


1891. Alucita cudactyla Gundlach, An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xx, p. 383.
1)2:1. Alucita eudactylu Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 201.
1900. Orneodes eudactyla Meyrick, Gen. Ins., cviii, PI., fig. 14.
1913. Omeodes eudactyla Meyrick, Lep. Cat., xvii, 41.

The determination should be verified as several additional species of
tropical American Orneodes have been described recently and especially
as Cuba has a species very close to the Panamanian eudactyla, but appar-
ently distinct. Felder's figure is very bad and I have not had opportunity
to compare authentic Colombian and Porto Rico specimens.
Colombia, Brazil. P. R. (Mdschler) ; Coamo Springs, Apr. 4, 10, 1930
(Forbes).
ToRTRIcIDn (Leaf-Rollers)

The Tortricidre may usually be distinguished by their broad fore
wings, shouldered at the base, soft scaling, and short rough palpi with
short, usually porrect third joint. In the venation there is a tendency
for Cu2 to arise nearer the base than usual, mostly less than three-
fourths of the way out. The larve are the "leaf rollers" par excellence,
a large proportion of them feeding in rolled or folded leaves; but many
also bore in stems and a few, like the notorious codling worm of the tem-
perate zone, are fruit feeders.
The family is typically North Temperate, the few species of the New
World tropics being stragglers. The two subfamilies recognized here
are frequently treated as families. While they represent separate lines
of development, they are so completely connected by intermediate forms
that they are practically impossible to define. The two outstanding
characters are the fringe of hair on Cu of the hind wing, and the ten-
dency to convergence of veins M, to Cu, at the margin of the fore wing in
the Eucosminm; but there are numerous exceptions to both characters.
The larve show even less tangible differences, though the boring species
all belong to the Eucosminae.

KEY TO GENERA

1. Fore wing with R3 stalked with R4,................................. 2
Fore wing with R, arising separately, from cell .................... 3
2. Hind wing with M, and Cu, arising separately ........ Coelostathm a
Hind wing with Ms and Cu, connate.................... ...Drachmobola
3. Hind wing with a fringe of long hairs along base of Cu above........ 4
Hind wing without a fringe of hairs on Cu (the frequent fringe on
2nd A must not be mistaken for this fringe) ....................... 15
4. Fore wing with R1 and R, stalked ...................... Sparganothis
Fore wing with all veins arising separately ......................... 5












SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


5. Fore wing falcate-with the apex pointed, and the outer margin
strongly concave below it ............................Anchylopera
Fore wing not falcate; with even or notched outer margin............ 6
6. Hind wing with R and M, arising widely separate; nearly parallel..
Balbis
Hind wing with R and M, approximate at base or stalked.......... 7
7. Hind wing with M, and Cu, stalked or completely united............ 8
Hind wing with M3 and Cu, connate or separate...................... 12
8. Fore wing with outer margin even, veins M, to Cu, not convergent, but
all evenly spaced ............................................... 9
Fore wing with a concavity or notch at middle of outer margin, to
which veins M2-Cu, converge more or less obviously ................ 10
9. Male with a notch in antenna near base and a strong tuft of scales at
middle of fold of fore wing; hind wing with M2 strongly curved
and closely approximated to the stalk of M, and Cu, at origin......
Strepsicrates
Male without conspicuous modifications; hind wing with M, nearly
straight and parallel to the free part of M,; widely separated from
the stalk of M,+ Cu, at origin......................Laspeyresia
10. Fore wing with a vein lost, under side with sparse semierect scaling
Heligm ocera
Fore wing with normal scaling and with all veins ................... 10a
10a. Male fore wing with a costal fold................................. 11
No costal fold ............................................. Thiodia
11. Fringe of hair on base of Cu of hind wing exaggerated in male....
Crocidosema
Fringe of hair on base of Cu normal in both sexes............ Eucosma
12. Thorax smoothly scaled; fore wing with M, and M, diverging sharply
from base ..................................................... 13
Thorax tufted behind; M2 and M, of fore wing in the Porto Rican
species running closely parallel for their basal eighth..Olethreutes
13. Outer margin of fore wing concave, with veins M, to Cu, convergent
to the concavity.................................... Episimus
Outer margin of fore wing not concave, with the veins evenly spaced 14
14. Hind wing with M2 nearly straight and arising from cell far from
Ms.................................Laspeyresia (no P. R. species)
Hind wing with M2 strongly curved, close to M, at origin and then
sharply diverging ....................................... Bactra
15. Fore wing with R, running to costa, which is strongly arched; M, and
Cu, stalked ..........................................Paratorna
Fore wing with R, running to apex or below, normal in form; MA and
Cu, separate .................................................... 16
16. Hind wing with M, lost, Cu therefore apparently 3-branched........
Apinoglossa
TTind wing with all veins present, Cu apparently 4-branched........
Archips










FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


Subfamily TORTRICINaE
Apinoglossa Mischler

Only the type of the following species appears to be known. To judge
from the description, it must be very close to the European and North
American genus Tortricodes.

Apinoglossa comburana M6schler

1890. Apinoglossa comburana Msschler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 331.
1897. Apinoglossa comburana Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 132.

Fore wing with costal fold in male. Tawny, shaded with yellow-
brown, especially on inner margin and before outer margin. Hind wing
with inner half shaded with gray. 12 mm.
Porto Rico (M6schler).

Archips Hiibner (Cacecia Hiibner)

The validity of this name is still sub judice. The genus is holarctic,
with several injurious species in the United States and Europe.
Wolcott reports an undetermined species from Spondias lutea and
Malachra rotundifolia, bred at Rio Piedras. It may perhaps be A. jamai-
cana Walker.
Paratorna Meyrick

Fore wing with costa arched practically in a semicircle, inner margin
straight, and outer margin hardly recognizable; R, free, to costa; M3
and Cu, stalked; hind wing with M, and Cu, united.
A most curious genus, figured by Meyrick in Gen. Ins., cxlix, Pl. ii,
fig. 23, and Pl. v, fig. 75. Walsingham described the species in Oxy-
grapha (now generally called Peronea) and there may be a real relation-
ship. One of its species was described from India, which raises a per-
plexing geographical question, but the specialization seems too curious to
have arisen twice.

Paratorna rotundipennis Walsingham

1897. Orygrrapha rotundipennis Walsingham. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 132.
1912. Eboda rotundipennis Meyrick, Lep. Cat.. x, p. 58.
1913. Eboda rotundipennis Meyrick, Gen. Ins., cxlix, p. 59.

Tawny reddish, with water-lines and faint darker shades. Larva on
Acacia arabica, between two leaves.
Florida (Busck). St. Thomas, Mar. 8-22 (Walsingham).











SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


Colostathma Clemens

Coelostathma parallelana Walsingham
1897. Caolostathma parallelana Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 130.
1912. Cwlostatli a parvllelana Meyrick, Lep. Cat., x, p. 53.
1913. Colostathma parallelana Meyrick, Gen. Ins., cxlix, p. 52.

Cream-colored, with two transverse fawn bands. 12 mnm.
St. Domingo. P. R.: Naguabo, Mar. 7-9, 1914 (too poor to permit
confident determination, but certainly of this genus). St. Thomas,
Apr. 4-14, larva on Mimosa (Walsingham).

Drachmobola Meyrick
Differs from Calostathma only in having M3 and Cu, of the hind wing
connate instead of separate. The following species is not typical and
should perhaps be transferred to Ccelostathma in spite of its venation.

Drachmobola insignitana Mischler
1890. Tortrix insignitana Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 330.
1897. Tortrix (?) insignitana Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 133.
1912. Drachmobola insignitana Meyrick, Lep. Cat., x, p. 54.
1913. Drachmobola insignitana Meyrick, Gen. Ins., cxlix, p. 53.

Pale yellow with darker strigulations on fore wing, and black discal
dot. 10 mm.
"P. R." (Moschler) ; Aibonito, June 8-15, 1915.

Sparganothis Hiibner
This genus centers in the United States, with a species or two
invading the Old World. It is sometimes made the type of a separate
family, but the early stages agree with those of the other Tortricinse in
every important way. Sparganothis flavedana belongs to the subgenus
Platynota, characterized by rough scaling and a large costal fold, but the
species may be distinct, as specimens are consistently much less brown
than those from the north.
KEY TO SPECIES

Hind wing gray-brown...........................................effetana
Hind wing tawny..............................................flavedana

Sparganothis effcetana Mischler
1890. Tortrix efftlana Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 330.
1897. Tortrix (?) effaetana Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 133.
1923. Tortrix affatana Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 201.
1912. Sparganothis effoetana Meyrick, Lep. Cat., x, p. 57.
1913. Sparganothis effetana Meyrick, Gen. Ins., cxlix, p. 58.










FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


Fore wing powdery rusty brown; terminal line of hind wing also
tawny. 18 mm. Described from a single female.
Porto Rico (M6schler).
Sparganothis flavedana Clemens
1866. Platynota flavedana Clemens, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil., xii, p. 348.
1897. Platynota flavedana Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 134.
1869. Tortrix flavedana Robinson, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., ii. P1. vi, fig. 55.
1912. Sparganothis flavedana Meyrick, Lep. Cat., x, p. 57.
1913. Sparganothis flavedana Meyrick, Gen. Ins., cxlix, p. 58.
1924. Sparganothis flavcild(u Forbes. Cornell Menm.. lxviii. p. 47!).
(Not Platynota flavedana Holland, Moth Book, PI. xlviii, fig. 24).

Palpi long and beak-like, fore wing heavily tufted. Red-brown, the
basal three-fourths of the fore wing darker brown and typically contrast-
ing in male. Female much larger than male; 10-20 mm.
Larva a general feeder, bred in P. R. from Jobo (Spondias lutea).
Eastern U. S., generally; Haiti. P. R.: Lares, emerged Oct. 28 (Wol-
cott, N. M.) ; Coamo Springs, Jan. 6-10, 1915. St. Thomas, Apr. 10
(Gudmann-Walsingham).

Subfanily Ercosas.l x-, (OLETIIUElITI.NA:)

Olethreutes Hiibner

A large and apparently world-wide genus, which has been divided
recently into several genera or subgenera, but has never been studied
from the world point of view. The first two species belong to the sub-
genus Cacochauis Walsingham (Proc. Zool. Soc., 1891, p. 503, Pl. xli,
fig. 4). It may be characterized as follows, following Heinrich's scheme
(Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., cxxxii, 76) :-
Thorax with posterior tuft. Fore wing with R, arising from accessory
cell ("upper internal vein from 10-11"), R, and R4 approximate; MI, M,
and M, parallel and equally spaced to margin, but Cu, strongly curved,
and closely approximate to M,, but widely separated from Cu, at margin,
without any distinct notch at border; Cu, from cell rather before three-
quarters. Hind wing with R and M, approximate at origin, M, and M,
approximate at origin, diverging at one-eighth to one-quarter way to
margin, M, and Cu, connate but immediately divergent; inner margin of
male with a slight groove and thickening. Hind tibia of male with a
groove and hair-pencil. Male with valve of Olethreutine form; spine
cluster (Spc,) not separate from general spinning of cucullus, (Spc,)
sessile, of well developed spines; spines on base of sacculus weak;
gnathos normal, continuous with a tapering anal tube. whli(h appears to











SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


be complete at apex, but very weakly chitinized; extending shortly, as a
rounded lobe, below the bars which attach it to the tegumen; socii
diffuse, hairy; uncus with tip broadened and shallowly bifid with a
double terminal tuft of reentrant hairs; penis unarmed. The two
spine clusters on the valve are practically connected by spines along
the neck. Female with signum single, with a spine; duct extensively
chitinized, but not as far as bursa.
In Heinrich's key these species will run to Olethreutes, from which
the approximation of M, and M3 at the base will separate them. The twc
known species are closely similar both superficially and in genitalia, and
both have been bred from Phyllanthus.



|an b i sBfFigs. 1-2. Olcthreutes: genitalia.
r[ t2 Fig. 1. f. cano ou a , n. sp., ventral view.
spread out. Fig. 2. O. albimacul ana aWal-
singham, right valve only.




KEY TO SPECIES

White costal spot small, antemedial, and obviously formed of an emphasized
part of the pale antemedial band; ventral naked edge of sacculus narrow
and simple ...................................... ............ canofascia
White costal spot at middle of wing, without obvious connection with the
obsolete antemedial fascia; ventral naked area of the sacculus broad, and
separate from the hairy area by a broad thin flange........... albimaculana
No white markings ............. .......................... hebesana

[Olethreutes albimaculana Walsingham

1892. Cacocharis albimaculana Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1891, pp. 503,
543, P1. xli, fig. 4 (venation).
1897. Cacocharis albimaculana Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 125.

St. Vincent and Brazil (Walsingham); Dominica and Jamaica
(N. M.)]

Olethreutes canofascia, new species

Light brown, with a transverse whitish antemedian fascia interrupted
with gray at the middle, preceded by a blackish shade on inner margin,
and followed by a chocolate brown shade on costa and olive patch on
inner margin.











FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


Head dark brown; scape of antenna cream; palpus pale with light brown
shades and some gray on lower part of second segment, the second segment
with two black spots near upper edge; of the usual Olethreutes form (Cor-
nell Memoir, lxxxvi, p. 380, Fig. 281, or perhaps nearer Fig. 282). Thorax
brown, transversely barred on both disc and tegule with white, with brown
posterior tuft. Fore wing with basal third brown, heavily flecked with white
and more or less with lead gray; antemedial fascia of a group of almost
fused white strike, separated by a few gray scales, which are strongest in
cell; its outer boundary excurved over Sc, and extending out in an obtuse
angle at lower edge of cell; base of inner margin, below A, violet gray,
flecked with black. Outer part of wing with brown-gray ground shot with
violet and shading into light brown; the markings of various shades of
brown, and partly pale-outlined. A hatchet-shaped chocolate-brown patch,
with a narrow base on middle of costa, extending down and out, to a sharp
angle beyond end of cell and a rounded angle in lower part of cell three-
fourths of way out, the former with a notch below it which encloses a lead-
gray har: a triangular olive-brown patch resting on middle third of inner
margin, extending almost up to cell along the antemedial fascia and out
almost to anal angle, where it fades out; the inner margin before anal angle
marked by some pale strike; outer part of costa with three pairs of oblique
whitish strike, followed by two practically single ones; the first two pairs
leading down into a trapezoidal lead gray bar along the upper edge of the
hatchet-shaped spot; the others separated by black-brown bars and extending
down into a confusion of light yellow-brown and lead-gray. Outer part of
wing in the best marked specimen (the female) of two gray-brown areas
and two yellow-brown ones, the former a triangle lying between the two
medial patches, and a vertical oval opposite the anal angle, and the latter a
vertical area between these two spots, marked with some vague black dots;
and a bluntly crescentic area enclosing the upper part of the gray-brown anal
area and resting on the outer margin above its middle. An irregular terminal
band of white-tipped scales, in places reduced to a line. In the males the
two gray-brown outer spots and the vertical area between them are repre-
sented by a somewhat mottled gray-brown area. Fringe brown. Hind wing
mouse gray with slightly paler apical fringe. Abdomen blackish. Expanse,
$ 12 mm., y 14 mm.

Larva light olive green, with light brown head; webbing the leaflets of
the food-plant together.
P. R.: Type and allotype from Rio Piedras, July 10, 1916 (Acc. no.
393-16) in A. M. N. H.; paratype with same data deposited in Cornell
University collection; paratype from Manati, June 27-29, 1915, in Ameri-
can Museum; paratypes from Rio Piedras, Aug. 27, 1913 (Cowgill) and
July 10, 1916 (Smyth), bred on Phyllanthus in Ins. Exp. Sta.
The genitalic figure is from the type.











SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


Olethreutes hebesana Walker
1863. Sciaphila hebesana Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M., xxviii, p. 342.
1903. Olethreutes hebesana Fernald, in Dyar, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. lii,
no. 5038.
1924. Olethreutes hebesana Forbes, Cornell Mem. lxviii, p. 458.
1926. Endothenia hebesana Heinrich, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. cxxxiii, p. 103.
1870. Penthina fullerea Riley, Amer. Ent., ii, pp. 204, 371.

Mottled dull brown, the middle of the costa darker. Larva a stem borer
in various herbs. This species belongs to the subgenus Endothenia, dis-
tinguished by the stalking of R and M1 of the hind wing.
United States generally, and north to British Columbia and Ontario.
St. Lucia (C. U.) P. R.: Coamo Springs, April 4, 7, and Puerto Real,
Vieques Island, April 29, 1930 (Forbes).
Bactra Stephens

A world-wide genus, composed of a small number of superficially
similar but structurally distinct species, of which the Neotropical
species have not been studied. The American Museum has a female of
this genus from Aibonito, July 14-17; and Walsingham reports "Bactra
lanceolana" from St. Thomas. Bactras were also collected in numbers on
the 1930 trip.
Episimus Walsingham

This is a mainly Neotropical genus with a couple of species that extend
far into the temperate zone, and forms a connecting link between the
Olethreutes and Eucosma groups, though to my mind it comes rather
nearer to Eucosma. There are similar intermediate types in the tropics
of the Old World. The larve of Episimus normally eat Rhus and
Myrtaces.
Episimus argutanus Clemens

1860. Bactra (F) argutana Clemens, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil., xii, p. 358.
1897. Episimus argutanus Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 124.
1924. Episimus argutanus Forbes, Cornell Mem., lxviii, p. 447.
1926. Episimus argutanus Heinrich, Bull. U. S. Nat., Mus., cxxxii, p. 79.
1914. Enarmonia argutana Walsingham and Durrant, Biol. Cent.-Am. Het., iv,
p. 238.
1875. Grapholitha (Hedya) allutana Zeller, Verb. z.-b. Ges. Wien., xxv, p.
295, P1. lx, fig. 27.

Brown, mottled, with purple iridescence when fresh; a few submar-
ginal black dots toward costa.
Larva a rather general feeder, but most frequently on Rhus and
Hamamelis,-bred on St. Thomas from Euphorbia.










FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


United States to Mexico, and West Indies to Grenada. St. Thomas,
Mar. 18 (Gudmann). St. Croix, May-June (v. Hedemann, Pontoppi-
dan-Walsingham).
Episimus nesiotes Walsingham
1897. Episimus nesiotes Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 123.

Fore wing a confused mixture of lead-gray and gray-brown with
crimson iridescence, below the fold usually cream white with brown and
black strike; with some yellow-brown and black scaling, especially at
one-third and two-thirds of the way out. Speculum large, rounded, its
basal half lead gray, and outer half mainly white with a few black dots.
Fringe crimson-iridescent. 14-17 mm. Larva on Euphorbia hyperici.
folia (Gudmann) and manchineel (Wilson-N. M.).
St. Croix, May 4-June 15 (Walsingham; N. M.)

Anchylopera Stephens
Anchylopera virididorsana Moschler
1890. Phomopterys virididorsana MSschler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi,
p. 334.
1897. Ancylia virididorsana Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 125.
1923. Phoxopteria virididersana (sic) Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii,
p. 201.

Orange-ochre, shaded with green, with a triangular green patch rest-
ing on inner margin of fore wing. Hind wing gray with three metallic
strigules near margin. 8-10 mm.
Porto Rico (M6schler). San Germ6n, Apr. 16 and Puerto Real,
Vieques Island, Apr. 28-29, 1930 (Forbes).

Thiodia Hiibner

A variant of Eucosma which has lost the costal fold in the male.
Without opportunity to see a male, I am quite unwilling to say whether
the following species really belongs here.

Thiodia autochthones Walsingham

1897. Thiodia autochthones Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 126.

Mouse gray, strigulated; the most conspicuous mark being an ochreous
patch near anal angle, containing two black dots, preceded by lead gray
and followed by a whitish spot. A continuous black basal line in fringe.
8 mm.
St. Thomas, Apr. 10-18: St. Croix, Apr. 30-May 27 (Walsingham).










SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


Eucosma Hiibner

Fore wing with three or four veins convergent to a concavity in the
outer margin, the veins all free; hind wing with R and M, approximate
(or perhaps stalked); M, and Cu, stalked. Scaling smooth; palpi
moderate, rough and somewhat beak-like. Male with an inconspicuous
but well developed costal fold.
This genus has recently been divided, largely on genitalic characters;
the two following species may not belong to the restricted genus, but per-
haps are assignable to Epinotia.
Eucosma longipalpana M6schler
1890. Grapholitha longipalpana Moschler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 333.
1892. Pewdisca (?) longipalpana Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1891, p. 506.

Pale yellow, dusted with tawny; a dark antemedial band, a dark
shade about end of cell, followed by an area with oblique dark shades
and two brown dots. Outer margin pale, speculum obscure, paler; fringe
yellowish. Hind wing dull luteous with darker veins. 8 mm.
Porto Rico (Mhschler).
Eucosma (?) lustromarginata Walsingham
1897. Eucelis (?) lustromarginata Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 129.

Hind wing with M3 and Cu, united. Gray, mottled and strigulated,
without an obvious speculum. 9 mm.
St. Croix, May 5 (Hedemann-Walsingham).
Eucosma strenuana Walker
1863. Grapholita strenuana Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M., xxviii, p. 383.
1879. Paedisca strenuana Walsingham, Ill. Lep. Het. B. M., iv, P1. lxxii, fig. 4.
1897. Eucosma strenuana Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 126.
1902. Eucosma strenuana Fernald in Dyar, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., lii, p. 458.
1923. Epiblema strenuana Heinrich, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., cxxiii, p. 140 (with
synonymy).
1905. Eucosma minutana Kearfott, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xxviii, p. 356.
1924. Epiblema strenuana and var. minutana Forbes, Cornell Mem., lxviii,
p. 413.

Smoky, more or less dusted with white, with contrasting whitish specu-
lum bearing two black dots. Fringe powdery, without basal line. 10-19
mm. Small specimens are minutana Kearfott, but there is no sharp
boundary. Larva a stem-borer in Ambrosia.
United States generally; San Domingo. P. R.: Coamo Springs, Apr.
4-9; Isabela, Apr. 24; Puerto Real, Vieques Island, Apr. 29, 1930
(Forbes).











FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


Crocidosema Zeller

So far as I know, this genus has only the following widely distributed
species and a second one in Hawaii.

Crocidosema plebeian Zeller
1847. Crocidosema plebejana Zeller, Isis, xl, p. 721.
1897. Crocidosema plebejana Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 127.
1907. Crocidosema plebejana Spuler, Schmet. Europas, ii, p. 273, PI. lxxxiv,
fig. 45.
1926. Crocidosema plebejana Heinrich, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. cxxiii, p. 190.
1914. Eucosma plebeiana Walsingham and Durrant, Biol. Cent.-Am. Lep.
Het., iv, p. 231.

Mottled brown, with dark base and oblique outer fascia; the female
usually much paler than the male. Larva in flowers, fruit, and seeds of
Malvacese, including cotton; also reported from Cratagus.
World-wide in the warmer regions. P. R.: Bayam6n, Jan. 1899
(Busck-Walsingham-N. M.). Culebra Island, Feb. (do.). St. Thomas
Mar. 18-23 (Gudmann-Walsingham). St. Croix, May 5-31 (Hedemann,
Pontoppidan), Mar. 1, 1925.

Strepsicrates Meyrick (Phthinolophus Dyar)
Strepsicrates smithianus Walsingham
1892. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1891, p. 506.
1897. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 127.
1917. Strepsicrates smithiana Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 202.

Dark brown, inner margin light gray, outer part of costa mottled with
light gray. Hind wing translucent blue-gray, with smoky border and
veins. Larva on guava.
Cuba, Panama, etc. St. Vincent and Dominica. P. R.: Rio Piedras,
Aug. 11 (Smyth-N. M.); Naguabo, Mar. 7-9, 1914. St. Croix, May 9
(Hedemann-Walsingham).

Heligmocera Walsingham

Similar to Strepsicrates. Fore wing with three veins convergent to a
slight concavity at outer margin; R, lost (united with R,), M1 stalked
with R,.,, M, above middle of cell, Cul strongly curving up and ending
close to tip of M,; Cu, from near middle of cell, closely approximate for
a distance to the rudiment of 1st A, then abruptly diverging near margin.
Hind wing as in Eucosma and Strepsicrates. Scaling of interspaces on
under side of both wings of small semierect black scales, the scales of the










SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


upper side of the hind wing also semierect, as in the Strepsicrates group,
so that the wing is translucent. Male with a broad and shallow notch on
base of antennal shaft, covering several segments.
Although I have only females, and see the venation a little differently
from Walsingham, I believe I have correctly identified this extraordinary
genus. Fletcher (Mem. Dept. Agr. India, xi, p. 107) sinks it to Acroclita;
I am convinced incorrectly.

Heligmocera calvifrons Walsingham
1892. Heligmocera calvifrons Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1891, p. 508.
1897. Heligmocera calvifrons Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 131.

Base and disc largely dull rose, outer part and inner margin olive green,
shaded and mottled with blackish. 14 mm.
St. Vincent and Grenada. P. R.: El Yunque, Mar. 29, Apr. 22-23,
1930 (Forbes).
Laspeyresia Hilbner

Palpi more closely scaled and evenly upturned than in the preceding
genera. Hind wing typically with M3 and Cu, connate, but stalked in
the Porto Rican species; R and M1 closely approximate at base, unlike the
following genus. The genus is typically North Temperate, the few
Neotropical species being aberrant in appearance. The famous Mexican
"Jumping Bean" probably belongs to this genus (L. saltitans.)

Laspeyresia flavicollis Walsingham
1897. Cydia (?) flavicollis Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 130.
1926. Laspeyresia flavicollis Heinrich, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., cxxxii, p. 60.

Stone gray; head yellow; outer margin of fore wing red; speculum
white, enclosed in bronzy bars, and crossed by six or seven black lines.
15 mm. The two known specimens are both females.
Florida (Heinrich, A. M. N. H.). St. Thomas, Mar. 9 (Hedemann-
type).
Balbis Walsingham (Dichrorampha in part)

Easily separated from all other Porto Rican Tortricids by the widely
separated R and M, of the hind wing. The palpal scaling is shorter than
in Dichrorampha (Hemimene) and the colors generally more brilliant.

KEY TO SPECIES

Ground rosy .................................................... fgurana
Ground orange-ochre ............................................excitana










FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


Balbis figurana Zeller

1877. Grapholitha (Coptoloma ?) flgurana Zeller, Horse Soc. Ent. Ross., xiii,
p. 163, P1. ii, fig. 55.
1892. Coptolonma (?) figurana Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1891, p. 505.
1897. Balbis figurana Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 129.

Rosy, with wavy confused blackish markings, mixed with lead-gray,
the ground more ochreous along outer part of costa. Middle of costa with
a stronger black bar in a brown area. Terminal spots a nearly complete
series. 8-9 mm.
St. Thomas, Dec. 17 (Zeller).

Balbis excitana Moschler
1890. Grapholitha excitana Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 333.
1892. Grapholitha (?) excitana Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1891, p. 505.
1897. Balbis excitana Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 129.

Ochre, mixed with rust-brown, the outer part of costa more orange;
margins barred with brown, with a paler, brown-striate patch at middle
of inner margin. Speculum tawny and white, with two black bars;
enclosed in shining yellowish bars. Hind wing pale. 8 mm.
Porto Rico (Mbschler).

PHALONIIDE

This family is closely related to the Tortricidm, but at least in
America, there is no difficulty in distinguishing it. The two main
differences are the position of Cu, on the fore wing, more than three-
fourths of the way out on the cell, and the complete absence of 1st A.
A more convenient character is often the resting position. In this family
the apex of the fore wing, beyond the cell, is strongly bent down, leaving
a transverse hump at the end of the cell, and the bent portion is concave
or even plaited at the middle, giving the resting moth a humped appear-
ance. The larvae are borers, usually in stems of herbs, and the moths
are less lively than the Tortricid.e, so that they are very easily over-
looked. Many more species undoubtedly await discovery, though the
family seems actually smaller anl less varied than in the Temperate
Zone.
The Porto Rican fauna has never been studied in relation to that of
the mainland, and part of the following species may be synonyms. The
first one, according to M6schler, has Cu, straighter than is usual in the
group, and so is likely to be a Hysterosia, the rest are most probably
true Phalonias.











SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


KEY TO GENERA

Wings smooth or nearly so......................................Phalonia
Wings heavily tufted; hind wing with Ms and Cu, connate..... Comophila
Phalonia Hiibner (Conchylis Treitschke)
A large and obscure genus in Europe and in North and South America,
both on account of the rarity and fragility of specimens, and the large
number of closely related species. In several Porto Rico species M3 and
Cu, are connate or even stalked (subgenus Saphenista Walsingham).
Typically they are separate.
KEY TO SPECIES
1. Larger, 12 mm.; hind wing with R and M, approximate only (Hyster-
osia ?); ground and markings a general mixture of dull brown,
yellow and tawny. ..................................... ..prolectana
Smaller (mostly 8 mm.) ; hind wing with R and M, stalked (Phalonia) ;
ground white to yellow ........................................... 2
2. Ground of outer third heavily shaded with rose.............. bunteana
No rose shading ........................................ ........... 3
3. Ground deep ochre, fascia complete, broad and even......... .lepidana
Ground white, silvery; median fascia broken............ichthyochroa
Ground cream white to light ochre. ................................. 4
4. A complete median fascia ................... ........................ 5
Two pairs of opposite dark costal and dorsal spots, or with the ante-
medial pair nearly joining to make a fascia ........................ 6
5. Median fascia olivaceous, narrow and angled............ subolivacea
Median fascia multicolored, broad at inner margin........ tectonicana
6. Outer part of fore wing also with contrasting brown markings......
distigmatana
Fore wing with dark thorax and base of costa, and two pair of spots
only ................................................vicinitana
Phalonia (?) prolectana Moschler
1890. Cochylis prolectana Mischler, Abh. Senck, naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 332.
1923. Phalonia prolectana Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 201.

Porto Rico (Mischler).
[Phalonia bunteana Robinson
1869. Conchylis bunteana Robinson, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., ii, p. 288, P1. viii,
fig. 86.
1897. Thyraylia bunteana Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 139.
1903. Phalonia bunteana Fernald in Dyar, U. S. N-t. Mus., Bull. lii, p. 487.
1924. Phalonia bunteana Forbes, Cornell Mem., lxviii, p. 511.

Cream white on basal third; median fascia and a bar across apex
vellow-brown and black; outer third ochre; heavily shaded with pink;
13 mm. Larva on Lactuca.
Eastern U. S.; St. Vincent.]










FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


Phalonia lepidana Clemens

1860. Argyrolepia (?) lepidana Clemens, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil., xii, p. 355.
1869. Conchylis lepidana Robinson, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., ii, p. 287, P1. viii,
fig. 84.
1897. Thyraylia lepidana Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 139.
1903. Phalonia lepidana Fernald, in Dyar, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. lii, p. 487.
1924. Phalonia lepidana Forbes, Cornell Mem., Ixviii, p. 507.

Deep ochre; markings yellow-brown, defined with black dusting;
median fascia even in width, oblique out, followed by an oblique fascia
from lower angle of cell to before anal angle, and a vertical subterminal
band. 10 mm.
Pennsylvania; Jamaica. St. Croix, May 6-18 (Walsingham). The
West Indian records should be verified.

Phalonia ichthyochroa Walsingham
1897. Phalonia ichthyochroa Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 136.

Shining silvery whitish; costa rust-brown at base, a broken median
fascia, rust-brown with some black, and outer part of wing mottled with
rust brown and black. 9 mm.
Grenada. St. Thomas, Mar. 15. St. Croix, Apr. 26 (Walsingham).

Phalonia subolivacea Walsingham
1897. Phalonia subolivacea Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 137.

Creamy white; base of costa olivaceous, median fascia olivaceous,
angled at middle; outer part of wing with some olivaceous markings.
10 mm.
P. R.: Bayam6n, Jan., 1899 (Busck-Walsingham); Naguabo, Mar.
7-9, 1914; Arecibo, July 30-Aug. 1, 1914. St. Thomas, Mar. 7-Apr. 4
(Walsingham). St. Croix, Apr. 26-May 7 (Walsingham), Mar. 1, 1925.

Phalonia tectonicana MSschler
1890. CochVlis tectonicana M8schler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 332.
1923. Phalonia tectonicana Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 201.

Yellow; face white; base of fore wing pale, middle of costa mixed
with rusty, median fascia tawny, brown at costa, much broader toward
inner margin, where it is mainly dark violet-brown, with some white
strike, and inner side partly edged with white. Outer part mixed red-
dish white, brown, violet and rusty; fringe cream, banded with tawny.
Hind wing white with fine stria and terminal line. 8 mm.
Porto Rico (Mischler).










SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


Phalonia distigmatana (alsingham
1897. Phalonia distigmatana Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 137.

Cream with fawn-brown markings; four spots at costa, the first a
longitudinal basal shade, second matched by a dorsal spot, not strong,
third with its corresponding dorsal spot almost forming an angulate
band; an obscure spot at end of cell; and a broken subterminal band
extending down from fourth spot to inner margin. Fringe pale. 9 mm.
St. Vincent and Grenada. P. R.: Bayam6n, Jan. 1899 (Busck-
Walsingham). St. Croix, June 25 (Walsingham).
Phalonia vicinitana Msschler
1890. Cochylis vicinitana Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 333.
1923. Phalonia vicinitana Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 201.
Pale yellow; thorax dark brown; fore wing with dark brown spot at
base of costa and two broken transverse fascism, the second much widened
at the margin. Hind wing pale yellow. 8 mm.
Porto Rico (Mischler).
Undetermined Phaloniids
Wolcott also reports an unidentified Phalonia boring in Erechtites
(bred by Smyth) and a Commophila in Dahlia. The N. M. has also an
undetermined species from ginger.
COSSIDME
The Cosside are a primitive family with some resemblances to the
Tortricidae, especially in the early stages; and some characters which
suggest that they are not very far from the ancestor of the butterflies.
Tlie caterpillars are borers, usually in hard woodl, and like the Tortricida,
have sete iv and v of the abdomen on the same tubercle, and prolegs with
multiordinal hooks; but the head is heavier and the jaws are turned
more forward. The following genus, which is closely related to the
wide-spread genus Xyleutes, though perhaps more primitive, was
omitted from the Lepidopterorum Catalogus, fasc. xxix, though some
of its species, originally described in Duomitus, appear as species of
Xyleutes. It belongs to the Zeuzerince, which have the male antenna
pectinated with simple tip, and the intercalated cell (1st M.), at least
in the hind wing, located at the lower angle of the discal cell.
Psychonoctua Grote (Xyleutes, Duomitus in part)
A small and primitive genus, with a group of closely related species in
the Antilles, some of them perhaps of no more than subspecific value,
and a single species known from Central America.










FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


Psychonoctua personals Grote
P1. I, fig. 7
1865. Psychonoctua personalis Grote, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., 1865, p. 250.
1909. COFFEE STEM-BORER Tower, Ann. Rept. P. R. Agr. Exp. Sta., 1908, p. 27.
1913. Psychonoctua species Hooker, Ann. Rept. P. R. Agr. Exp. Sta., 1912,
p. 35.
1918. Psychonoctua jamaicensis (?) Van Zwaluwenberg, Jour. Econ. Ent., x,
p. 513.
1923. Psychonoctua sp. nov. Wolcott; Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 200.

Gray with inconspicuous light brown markings. Larva a minor pest
of coffee, boring into the hard wood of the trees and causing a knotty
overgrowth. The species has been reported injurious only in coffee
orchards in a few places near the Central Range of Mountains. Dyar con-
sidered the Porto Rican form distinct from the Cuban P. personalis
and there is doubtless a racial difference, but Schaus and Heinrich find
no difference in structure.
"P. R." (Tower, Hooker, Van Zwaluwenberg); Mountains north of
Yauco, Villalba and Lares (Wolcott); Aguadilla, Jan. (Busck-N. M.);
Mayagiiez, Apr. 15, 1912 (Hooker-N. M.), Coamo Springs, April 4,
Catafio, Apr. 21, 1930 (Forbes); Miramar, San Juan, April 15, 1924
(Exp. Sta.) ; Aguirre, May 22, 1930 (Leonard) ; Puerto Real, Vieques
Island, April 28-29, 1930 (Forbes).

YPONOMEUTIDAE

I am using the term Yponomeutida for a miscellaneous lot of forms
that combine primitive Tineine traits with characters foreshadowing the
Macrolepidoptera. Hardly two genera are really closely related, and
some workers would divide the series into seven or more families. Be-
sides the forms discussed here, Pexicnemidia must be considered. I have
put it in the Tineida, following M6schler, but the venation suggests a
form near Urodus. The very short antenna seems distinctive in either
family.
The larve of many species form very beautiful lace cocoons, which are
somewhat irregular in Plutella, but constitute regular quadrangular
meshes in Urodus. In the more primitive genera the hooks of the
larval prolegs are in several series, a more primitive condition even than
that of the Tineidae. The pupa is obtect.

KEY TO GENERA
1. Hind wing lanceolate, pointed, veins M, and M2 stalked ................ 2
Hind wing with blunt apex, with all veins separate.................. 3











SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


2. Second segment of palpus with a large triangular tuft......Plutella
Second segment of palpus close-scaled ....................Argyresthia
3. Hind wing with one vein lost; a transparent patch below base of Cu..
Yponomeuta
Hind wing with all veins, and no definite transparent patch.......... 4
4. Fore wing with a vein lost; hind tibia hairy; vertex hairy, unlike
face ..................................................... Euarne
Fore wing with all veins present and separate at origin .............. 5
5. Hind tibia hairy above; Cu, of fore wing arising near Cu,, from near
end of cell ...................................................... 6
Hind tibia smooth-scaled; Cu. of fore wing arising three-fourths of
way out on cell............................................Atteva
6. Hind wing with Cu, far from M,, approximate to Cu,; moth dull-colored
with translucent hind wing ................................ Urodus
Hind wing close-scaled (pinkish), Cu1 close to M,, widely separated
from Cu, ................................................ Lactura

Urodus Herrich-Schaffer (Trichostibas)

Moth dull-colored with arched costa, much straighter inner margin
and translucent hind wing; superficially Lithosiid-like. Larva so far as
known on Lauraces (Persea in the U. S.). Cocoon unique, a fusiform
structure of large open quadrangular meshes with a hole at each end,
through the upper of which the moth emerges, and through the lower
the pupa ejects the cast larval skin; the whole suspended by a single
thread, which is attached along the length of one side (save in one un-
described northern species which attaches it at right angles to the middle
of the side). The whole structure seems an extreme case of adaptation
both against discovery by enemies (ants) which seek their prey by feel-
ing and against mold resulting from very high humidity.
Meyrick omits this genus from the Yponomeutid fascicle of the Lep.
Cat., but both imago and larva show connection to Atteva.

Urodus sordidata Zeller
1877. Trichostibas sordidata Zeller, Horse Soc. Ent. Ross., xiii, p. 233.
1897. Trichostibas sordidata Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 115.
1923. Trichostibas sordidata Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 204.

Fore wing fuscous, hind wing grayer. Male with a hair-pencil on
2nd A of hind wing, but none at costa. 16 mm.
Porto Rico (Zeller).

[Lactura Walker (Mieza Walker)

This genus should be found in Porto Rico, but appears not to be
known as yet. Mieza albulata Herrich-Schiffer is a Lithosiid and is
discussed in Paramulona.]











FORBES, INSECTS OF PORTO RICO: MOTHS


Atteva Walker ((Eta Grote)

Moth brilliantly colored, most of the American species with part of
the wing-surface bright orange or copper, and the rest yellow, reticulated
with black lines. The Oriental species have various other brilliant and
simple patterns. Larva on Simarubaceae (on Ailanthus in the North) ;.
social in a web, very slender with obsolescent tubercles and setm and bril-
liant reddish, yellow and black coloring.
A tropical genus of both hemispheres, one species, however, being
acclimatized as far north as New York. The distinctness of A. pustu-
lella, A. punctella and the northern A. area is doubtful, but there is
some slight difference in appearance between the various strains.

Atteva pustulella Fabricius
1781. Phalena Tinea punctella Stoll, in Cramer, Pap. Exot., iv., p. 164, Pl.
ccclxxii, fig. L.
1787. Tinea pastulella (sic) Fabricius, Mant. Ins., ii, p. 241 [the misprint is
corrected in his Ent. Syst., iii (2), p. 292].
1896. (Eta punctella Hedemann, Stett. Ent. Zeit., Ivll, p. 10.
1897. Atteva punctella Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 112 (in part).
1914. Atteva punctella Meyrick, Lep. Cat., xix, p. 21, and auct. (in part).
1914. Atteva pustulella Walsingham and Durrant, Biol. Cent-Am. Lep. Het.,
iv, p. 330 (bibliography).
(not Phalana Tinea punctella Linneus).

Fore wing with copper ground reduced to isolated costal and dorsal
spots by extension of the black and yellow area. Larva on Ailanthus
and Castela erecta (Hedemann). I follow Walsingham in separating
this from A. punctella and A. aurea.
St. Croix (Baron Eggers-Hedemann) and south to Argentina.

Yponomeuta Latreille (Small Ermine Moths)

A mainly temperate group, more primitive in most structures than
the preceding, but more advanced in the loss of one vein. Most of the
species are white or gray, with numerous black dots. The larva are
also white with black dots as a rule and live socially in a web. One or
two species are injurious to Rosaceae in Europe.

Yponomeuta triangularis M6schler

1890. Yponomncuta triangularis MXischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. (es., xvi, p. 339.
1896. Yponomeuta triangularis Hedemann, Stett. Ent. Zeit., Ivii, p. 10.
1897. Yponomeuta triangularis Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 117.
1914. Yponomeuta triangularia Meyrick, Lep. Cat., xix, p. 17.
1923. Yponomeuta trianoularis Wolcott. Jour. Dent. Agr. P. R., vii. D. 204.











SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO


Light gray with numerous black dots, forming four longitudinal series
on fore wings. Hind wing brown-gray, with fringe at anal angle white.
18 mm. Larva on Eleodendron xylocarpum in the usual nest (Wolcott).
Bermuda. "P. R." (Moschler); Boquer6n (Busck-N. M.) and Pt.
Salinas (Wolcott). St. Thomas, Mar. 17 (Hedemann).

Argyresthia Hiibner

Walsingham (Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 155) reports an undetermined
species from St. Thomas, possibly a variety of A. percussella Zeller. It
may be distinguished from all other Porto Rican Yponomeutide by
the narrower hind wings.
Euarne M6schler

Palpi short, with fusiform third joint; vertex rough; fore wing with
eleven veins, all separate.

Euarne obligatella Moschler
1890. Euarne obligatella Mischler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 340.
1897. Euarne obligatella Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1897, p. 114.
1914. Euarne obligatella Meyrick, Lep. Cat., xix, p. 20.

Fore wing rough-scaled, white and yellow, with a dozen scattered
brown dots. Hind wing gray, with white-tipped fringes. 14 mm.
This species has not been recognized, its description reads rather like a
Tineid near Tiquadra.
Porto Rico (Moschler).
Plutella Schranck

Plutella maculipennis Curtis

1758. I'halulna (Tinca) x.rlosfclla Linnreus, Syst. Nat.. El'. 10, p. i3S, in part.
1832. Uerostoma maculipennis Curtis, Brit. Ent., second page of text to P1.
ccccxx.
1890. Plutella xylostella M6schler, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges., xvi, p. 341.
1910. Plutella naculipennis Spuler, Schm. Europas, ii, p. 452, Pl. xlvii, fig. 44.
1914. Plutella maculipennis Walsingham and Durrant, Ent. Mo. Mag., xxxiii,
p. 173 (use of name).
1914. Plutella maculipennis Meyrick, Lep. Cat., xix, p. 59.
1923. Plutella maculipennis Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. P. R., vii, p. 205.
1923. Plutella maculipennis Wilson, Bull. V. I. Agr. Exp. Sta., iv, p. 12, fig. 12.
1924. Plutella maculipennis Forbes, Cornell Mem., lxviii, p. 341.

Brown, the inner margin of the fore wing in the male contrastingly
paler, taking the form of a series of overlapping half-diamonds. Female
with the same markings, but not contrasting. An important pest, origi-