Front Cover
 Part 1: A handbook of the littoral...
 Part 2: Polychaetous annelids of...
 Part 3: Bryozoa of Porto Rico with...
 Part 4: Marine cercariae of Puerto...
 Back Cover

Group Title: Scientific survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands
Title: Scientific survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands /
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00091487/00015
 Material Information
Title: Scientific survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands /
Alternate Title: Scientific survey of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands
Physical Description: 19 v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: New York Academy of Sciences
Jay I. Kislak Reference Collection (Library of Congress)
Publisher: The Academy,
The Academy
Place of Publication: New York N.Y
Publication Date: 1933-1956
Frequency: completely irregular
Subject: Scientific expeditions -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Periodicals -- Puerto Rico   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Periodicals -- Virgin Islands of the United States   ( lcsh )
Natuurlijke historie   ( gtt )
Geologie   ( gtt )
Expedities   ( gtt )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Puerto Rico
United States Virgin Islands
Summary: Includes bibliographies.
Ownership: Provenance: Gift of Jay I. Kislak Foundation.
Statement of Responsibility: New York Academy of Sciences.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, pt. 1-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased with vol. XIX, pt. 1.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 18, pt. 4 (1952).
General Note: Kislak Ref. Collection: Vol. 18, pt. 2 (1941)-pt. 4 (1952).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00091487
Volume ID: VID00015
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01760019
lccn - 2002209050


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Part 1: A handbook of the littoral echinoderms of Porto Rico and the other West Indian Islands
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    Part 2: Polychaetous annelids of Porto Rico and vicinity
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    Part 3: Bryozoa of Porto Rico with a resume of the West Indian bryozoan fauna
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    Part 4: Marine cercariae of Puerto Rico
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Full Text





A Handbook of the Littoral Echinoderms of Porto Rico and the
Other West Indian Islands-Hubert Lyman Clark






Introduction. 4
Crinoidea ..... 7
Order Articulata... 10
Suborder Pentacrinoida ........ 10
Section Comatulida. 10
Family Comasteridae. 10
Family Tropiometrida. 11
Family Colobometride. 12
Family Antedonidne. 12
Suborder Holopoida... 13
Family Holopidia. 13
Asteroidea. 13
Order Phanerozonia. 16
Family Astropectinidce. 16
Family Luidiidm ...... 19
Family Oreasteride. 22
Family Ophidiasterid2e. 23
Order Spinulosa. 26
Family Asterinidce. 26
Family Echinasteridme. 28
Order Forcipulata.... 30
Family Asteriidre. 30
Ophiuroidea ....... 31
Order Phrynophiurida. 41
Family OphiomyxidE.. 41
Family Gorgonocephalidi. 42
Order Laemophiurida. 42
Family Ophiacanthide. 42
Family Amphiurida'.... 44
Family Ophiotrichide. 60
Order Chilophiurida ....... 61
Family Ophiochitonida .... 64
Family Ophiocomidce..... 65
Family Ophiodermatidfe. 68
Family Ophiolepididwe.. 73
Echinoidea. 74
Order Cidaroida. 76
Fam ily Cidaridin. ............................. 76


Order Centrechinoida.. 78
Family Centrechinidfe.. 78
Family Arbaciida... 79
Family Echinidmt. 80
Family Echinometridfe. 83
Order Exocycloida. 85
Family Clypeastridte.. 85
Family Scutellidan... 86
Family Echinoneidie. 89
Family Hemiasteridae. 89
Family Spatangidae. 90
Holothurioidea. 92
Order Aspidochirota. 100
Family Holothuriidae. 100
Order Dendrochirota. 111
Family Cucumariidm... 111
Family Psolidar.. 117
Family Molpadiida. 117
Family Synaptidie. 118
Appendix A. 124
Local Lists. 124
Glossary. 132
Index.. 137


The Echinoderm fauna of the West Indian region is a very rich one,
if all of the Continental and Abyssal forms are included, but the littoral
fauna is remarkable only when compared with that of temperate seas. It
is markedly less varied than that of the Philippines and compares poorly
with that of northwestern Australia. Nevertheless it is sufficiently abnn-
dant and diversified to attract the attention of anyone interested in sea-
shore life. and except for the scarcity of crinoids it is fairly representative
of the group. The present report, although based primarily on collections
made in the waters of IPorto Rico and the Virgin Islands, is intended to
include (at least in the keys) all of the West Indian echinoderms, so far
as they are now known, which a shore collector may hope to find any-
where in the West Indies. Although fewer than half of these have
actually been taken in Porto Rico, number of additional species are
known from the Virgin Islands. and nearly if not quite all of these will
probably be found at Porto Rico in the cour.' of time. No species is in-
cluded in the present list which lhom been idcen hilherlo only in depths of
len fathoms or more.


Until the beginning of the twentieth century, very little was known
about the echinoderms of Porto ico., only a few of the more conspicuous
forms having been recorded. In the case of the Virgin Islands, however,
the activities of a local apothecary at St. Thomas, Mr. A. II. Riise, in-
spired by the great Danish zoologists Orsted and Llitken, brought to light
(some seventy-five ago) a considerable echinoderm fauna. In-
deed, a very large part of our knowledge of West Indian echinoderms is
due to this enthusiastic and patient collector and the eminent zoologists of
Copenhagen who studied his material and described the new forms.
The first Porto Rican collections of importance were made by the "Fish
Hawk," of the U S. Fish Commission, in January and February, 1899.
These were sent to me for study in 1900 and the following year my report
was published (1901, Bull. V S. Fish Commission, I, pp. 231-263, Pis.
14-17). A considerable and very interesting part of the "Fish Hawk"
collection was made by dredging water of considerable depth (12-
225 fins.) and hence there were more than thirty species included in that
report which are not to be found in the present volume. In 1900, Mr.
George 31. Gray, the well-known collector, of the Woods Hole Marine
Biological Laboratory. made a collection of twenty-two species near San
Juan, Porto Rico, which he kindly permitted me to examine; there were
two species not in the "Fish Hlawk" collection.
There is a considerable literature on West Indian echinoderms but
most of the papers deal with collections made by a single vessel or indi-
vidual or with the fauna of some one limited area. Besides the "Fish
Hawk" report mentioned above, I have published a discussion of the
littoral echinoderms of the West Indies (1919, Publ. 281 Carnegie Inst.
Washington, pp. 49-74) which gives a list of the known species and
shows their geographical range. The two expeditions from the University
of Iowa, 1893 and 1918. made extensive collections of echinoderms
in Florida and the West. Indies. and the various reports based on them
are a most important contribution to our knowledge of West Indian
littoral forms, although much of the material was from moderately deep
water and hence does not concern us here. So far as completed, these
reports, arranged by classes, are as follow.':
Crinoids of 18939. H. L. Clark, 1918. U Iowa: Bull. Lab. Nat.
Hist.. VII, No. 5, pp. .2-16.
Crinolds of 1918. A. H. Clark. 1921. Univ. Iowa: Studies in Nat.
Hist., IX, No. 5. pp. 3-28.
Asteroids of 1893. A. E. Verrill. 1915. Univ. low, Iull. Lab. Nat.
lHist., VII. No. 1, pp. 3-232.
Ophiuroids of 1893. A. E. Verrill, 1899. Univ. Iowa: Bull. Lab. Nat.
Hist., V, No. 1, pp. 1-86.

6 'IVE

Opiliuiroids of 191S. A. II. C('lark. 10121. lows .s in Nat.
Hist., IX, No. 5, pp. 29-63.
Echinoids of 1893. H. L. Clark, 1918. Univ. Iowa: Bull. Lab. Nat.
Hist., VII, No. 5, pp. 16-37.
Echinoids of 1918. H. L. Clark, 1921. Univ. Iowa: Studies In Nat.
Hist., IX, No. 5, pp. 103-121.
Holothurians of 1918. E. Deichmann, 1926. Univ. Iowa: Studies in
Nat. Hist., XI, No. 7, pp. 9-31.

Another important series of papers, based on the collections made by
Messrs. Kiikenthal and Hartmeyer in 1907, is as follows:
Westindische Seeigel und Seesterne. L. Ddderleln und R. Hartmeyer,
1910. Zool. Jahrb. Suppl. 11, heft 2, pp. 145-156.
Westindische Holothurien. C. P. Sluiter, 1910. Zool. Jahrb. Suppl.
11, heft 2, pp. 331-342.
Ophiures. R. Koehler, 1913. Zool. Jahrb. Suppl. 11, heft 3, pp.

The reports on the "Blake" collections and on various collections of the
"Albatross" deal so largely with material from deep water that they con-
cern us but little. There are a few scattered local lists and notes made by
various individuals in connection with shell collecting or general travel.
These have not been disregarded though they need no special mention.
The collections of Echinoderms made by the New York Academy of
Sciences parties in 1914 under the leadership of Dr. Roy Waldo Miner, and
1915, led by Dr. Mliner and Dr. Rtaymond C. Osburn, were identified and
labelled by Dr. Willard G. Van Name, but it has been thought desirable
that they should be reiexamined in connection with the preparation of the
present report. This has been a distinct privilege, for most of the speci-
meins are well preserved and Dr. Van Name's careful work has greatly
lightened the labor of studying so large an amount of material. It is
seldom that collection is so satisfactorily labelled and prepared for
study. There are alogether 550 specimens, representing 50 species, of
which 11 are now for the first time recorded from Porto Rico.
This makes the total number of species, at present known from the
island, at least sixty-seven; several additional brittle stars are known
to occur but their specific identity is still doubtful, imperfect specimens
only having as yet been taken. In addition to these, there are a dozen
forms known from the Virgin Islands but not yet recorded from Porto
Rico. At other West Indian Islands, notably Jamaica, Antigua, Barbados
and Tobago (not to mention the Tortugas) considerable shore collecting
has been done, and more than thirty echinoderms have been found that
may well be expected to occur on the Porto Rican coast. Additional


scattered records warrant the belief that still other species may possibly
occur bringing the total number of echinoderms included in the body
of this report to one hundred and fifty while nineteen additional forms
are mentioned, for one reason or another, in the introductory para-
graph to the class concerned; and these are also included in the keys. It
must be understood clearly, however, that the keys are based only on the
included species and will prove misleading or worthless if used for other
material. With this understanding, it is hoped that the report will be a
sable and trustworthy guide to the Echinoderm fauna of the shores of
Bermuda, southern Florida and the Gulf States, the eastern coast of
Mexico and Central America, the northern and northeastern coasts of
South America, and the West Indian islands. Reference to a published
figure, or figures, is given under each species, if any is available; in other
cases, figures are published herewith. In the Appendix will be found a
glossary of such technical terms and abbreviations as need explanation.
For the honor and privilege of preparing the report, I take pleasure in
thanking Dr. Roy Waldo Miner of the New York Academy of Sciences.
I also wish to thank Dr. Willard G. Van Name for his cooperation in the
identification of the Academy's Porto Rican collection.


Sea lilies ; feather stars

One of the most perplexing problems that arises in preparing a report
on West Indian shallow-water echinodermnns is to determine whether any
crinoids should be included and if so which ones. Naturally I turned
for advice to the world's authority on the group, Mr. Austin Hobart Clark,
and he, with his customary generous helpfulness, has written me as follows:
"Crinoids are sure to be found in abundance in certain places about
Porto Rico whenever anyone takes the trouble to hunt for them.
There should be plenty of them about the northeastern portion of the
island, and elsewhere about exposed headlands. If I were you I
would include the following species as without doubt occurring in
shallow water about the island, the comatulids particularly, in large
tide pools and partly submerged caves.
Name Range in depth
Nemaster grandis............................ 0-62 meters
Nemaster iowic sis.......................... 1-334 meters
Nemester rubiginosa................... 0-161 meters
Nemaster discoidea.................shallow water to 355 m.
Leptonemaster venustus.............shallow water to 479 m.


tange depth
Comniatinit crhinoplcra. 0-508 meters
Analcidlometra rmaita ......... 5.5-6(4 mete
Antedon diibe 0-168 meter.
Holopus rangii ................... 9-219 meter.
('cocirhus asteria. ........shallow water to 585 in.
Ncocrihus decorus .................. shallow water to 1219 m.
Eudorocrinus parra................shallow water to 526 im.
"With the single exception of Antilcidoinctra armatul, all of these
have been secured by fishermen iii ordinary fishing operations. The
first two have been reported as swimming at the surface at night."

I am sorry that I cannot share my friend's enthusiastic optimism over
the certainty that crinoids will be found abundance" about Porto
Rico in shallow water along shore. On the contrary, after much collect-
ing of comnatulids on the coasts of tropical Australia, and after much
futile search for them at Tortugas, at numerous points on the Jamaican
coast, and again at Tobago,1 I am convinced that comatulids will rarely
be collected along shore in the West Indies. As for the stalked forms, it
is not at all probable that they will ever be taken unless dredging or
trawling is done, except as they may occasionally become entangled in a
fisherman's line.
If we get down to facts, instead of hopes, as a basis for determining
what crinoids should be included in this report, we note first that there
are no crinoids of any sort in the present collections of the New York
Academy of Sciences. The following seven species are, however, actually
known to have been taken in the West Indian region in less than ten
Ncimuster iowcnsis Aitedon diibenii
yemaster rubiginosa ('ocometra hagcnii
C'omctinia clhinoptera Holopus raniigii
Analcidoinct'a. armata

These species are therefore included in this report as members of the
littoral faun,, but in my opinion their occurrence in very shallow water is
quite accidental and the probability that the shore collector in Porto
Rico, or any other West Indian island, will ever meet with one is, to say
the least, remote. As the other six species listed above by Mr. A. II. Clark
may, with hardly less probability, be washed ashore or brought in by some
deep water fisherman, they are included (in parentheses) in the following
key, as possibilities. There is also included Tropiometra carintal (La-
arck) though it is really a southern species not known in shallow water
north of Tobago, where it is common.
ICExcepting only Troplomnetra carinato.



A. Without a stalk on which the calyx and arms are borne; dorsal pole
with cirri.
B. Mouth at side of disk; oral pinnules with a "comb" of coarse teeth
on inner margins near tip.
C. More than 10 arms; distal cirrus segments carinate dorsally.
D. Pinnules unicolor without a conspicuous spot in the middle
of each segment.
E. No black median dorsal line on arm.
F. Armis 150-200 mm. long; cirri with 30-35 segments ....
(Nc'uinaster rnmndis).
FF. Arms 90-13'0 1mm. cirri with fewer than 20 seg-
ments .Nemaster iocucesis.
EI. A median black line, sometimes broken, on dor.ial side
of arinc ........Yclin stcr rubiginosa.
DD. Pinnules with a dark spot at middle o *ach segment.....
(Neniaster discoidea).
CC. Only 10 arms.
D. Cirri slender with distal segments compressed and with a
small dorsal spine .... .. .. .(Leptoneimaster crnustus).
DD. Cirri relatively short and stout of 8-1,2 segments, not even
marinate dorsally. ..... Comactinia cchinoptera.
BB. Mouth approximately central; no combs on oral pimnnle. 10 arms.
C. Color very dark purple or yellow and purple; arms stout and
rather rigid; each brachial with a high median keel...........
Troplometra curinata.
CC. Not as above.
D. Distal cirrus segments with a high. median transverse ridge
Analcidomctra armata.
DD. Distal cirrus segments not as above.
E. First pinnule stouter than the others, most of its segments
longer than broad ...... ......Antedon (iibenfi.
E'E. First pinnule of more than 30 bead-like segments, extraor-
dinarily flexible ..................... Coccometra hagenii.
AA. With a stalk on which calyx and arms are borne, or sessile, without
dorsal cirri.
B. Stalk long and slender with whorls of cirri.
C. First two post-radial segments of arm not united by syzygy.
(Ncocrin us decorus).
CC. First two post-radial segments united by syzygy.
D. Proximal pinnules serrate. .... (Ccocrinus asteria).
DD. Proximal pinnules smooth....... ... (Endoxoerinus par-ra).
BB. Stalk short and thick, or animal sessile ................Holopus rangii.

The above key is compiled from the numerous papers and reports of
Austin Hobart Clark, which should be consulted for further information
in regard to these species as well as for all other Recent crinoids.



Section Comnatulida

Family COMASTrrD.-E

Nemaster iowensis (Springer)
Actinometra iowensis Springer, 1902, Amer. Geol., XXX, p. 9S.
Nemaster ioweusis A. H. Clark, 1909, Vid. Med.. p. 118. 1931. Bull. 82, U. S.
Nat. Mus., Pt. 3, PIl. 18.
The curiously erratic occurrence of this comatulid is most tantalizing
to the collector who desires to secure one: it has been taken once at the
Dry Tortugas, Florida, in water only three feet deep, and a specimen is
known from the Bahamas; all other known spe 'us have been taken by
dredging or trawling in the Lesser Antilles or near Barbados, and nearly
all are fragmentary. The Tortugas specimen was about a foot across and
of a rich golden-brown color life.

Nemaster rubiginosa (Pourtalbs)
Antcdon rubigino.wa PnoirtalVs. 1869. Bull. M.C.Z., p.
Nemaster rubiginosa A. II. Clark, 1921, Univ. Iowa: Studies in Nat. Hist., ix,
p. 9. 1931, Bull. 82, U. S. Nat. Mus.. Pt. 3, PI. 19, figs. 42-45.
This species is described as more slender than the preceding, in all
parts, and always possesses on the dorsal side of each arm a black line
which may, however, be broken into a series of dashes or dots. It is known
from a few scattered stations, in the Bahamas. Tortugas, Virgin Islands,
Montserrat, Barbados and northern Brazil, but it has not yet been taken in
less than 9 fins. While it may be found in the strictly littoral region,
it is probably only accidental there.
Attention should be called to'the fact that the comatulids taken by the
"Fish llawk" at the eastern end of Porto R1ico, and recorded by me in
1901 (U. S. Fish Comm. Bull., ii, p. 235) as Actinometra, rubiginosa
(Pourtals) are regarded by AMr. A. II. Clark as Comactinia cchinoptera
and not as Nemaster rubiginosa (see A. H. Clark, 1931, Bull. S2, U. S.
Mus., i, pt. 3, pp. 231 and 397; on both pages the date of H. L. Clark's
paper is misprinted, as it should be 1901).

Coinumtinia echinoptera (J. .Miiller)
Alecto echinoptera J. Miller, 1841. Arch. ftir. Naturg.. i. p. 143.
Comactinia echinoptera A. H. Clark, 1909, Vid. Med., p. 149. 1931, Bull. 82,
U. S. Nat. Mus., Pt. 3, IPls. 42-44.



"In the bewildering diversity of arm structure," Mr. A. H. Clark
says, this species "exceeds all other crinoids"; but fortunately the cirri
are characteristic and reasonably constant in number and form. While
Comactinia is supposed to occur in very shallow water along shore, near
Charleston, South Carolina, and at various points southward to Rio de
Janeiro, Brazil, most specimens have been taken by dredging and I have
failed to find one definite statement of collecting a specimen along shore.
Mr. A. IT. Clark however gives the bathymetrical range as "from the
shore line down to 508 meters," and hence I suppose specimens may
occasionally occur in the neighborhood of the low-tide mark.
The color in life is said by Pourtal6s to be purple or yellow or some com-
bination of those colors. Preserved specimens rarely show any indication
of bright colors, but range from dull yellowish or pale brown to a darker
brown, with or without black or blackish longitudinal stripes, dorsally on
the arms; many specimens become almost white in alcohol. In size there
is great diversity, the length of arms ranging up to 150 mm., but South
Carolina specimens are only one-third that size. A. H. Clark says that
"as a general rule the size increases proportionately with the depth, the
smallest examples being those taken along the shores and the largest,
those from about 200 meters or over."
Specimens of this comatulid were taken by the "Fish Hawk" in Porto
Rican waters in 1899 and are listed by me under the names Actinometra
meridionalis and A. rubiginosa. The specimens were all fragmentary and
none was taken at a depth of less than 16 fins.

Tropiometra carinata (Lamarck)
Comatula carinata Lamarck, 1816. Anim. s. Vert., ii, p. 534.
Tropioinctra carinata A. H. Clark, 1907, Smiths. Misc. Coll. (Quarterly),
p. 349. 1908, Bull. M.C.Z., No. 8, P1. 2.
This dull, inactive comatulid is common on the flat in Buccoo Bay,
Tobago, which is covered with eel-grass and coralline algae, and at very
low tides is barely underneath the water. Here, in very warm water,
Tropiometra, attached to a coral fragment, remains as inert as a living
animal can well be. It is also present under rocks on Buccoo Reef. A full
account of its habitat, habits, reactions, and appearance has been pub-
lished by me (1917, Publ. 251, Carnegie Inst. Washington, pp. 111-119).
Except for its occurrence at Tobago, the only West Indian records for
Tropiometra are at Trinidad (depth not known), and at St. Lucia in
deep water.


Large individuals of this crinoid have the arms 100 mm. long, but most
specimens are only 123-150 mm. across when the arms are extended. The
color is diversified deep purple and dark yellow; young ones are yellow
with little purple; most adults are deep purple with little or no yellow,
rarely sprinkled with silvery white dots.

Analcidometra arniata, (Pourtalcs)
Atulcdoin uriaita P'ourtalc., 1S69. u1ll. M.C.Z., p. 350. lHartlaub, 1912. Meom.
M.C.Z.. xxvii. Pl. 7, figs. 1-7: 1'l. 1, 11g. 7.
Analcidometra arniata H. L. Clark, 1918, Univ. Iowa: Studlies in Nat. Hist.,
No. 5, p. 9.
Besides the characteristic cirri, the first pinnule of the arm furnishes
a good recognition mark for this little coinatulid. It is the longest of the
pinnules and very stout, especially at the base, giving the second brachial
the appearance of an axillary. Nothing is recorded as to the color. Speci-
mens have been taken at a few stations ranging from the Bahamas to
Barbados, several of which were in less than ten fathoms. It is not im-
possible therefore that individuals will be discovered at the Virgin Islands
and in Porto Rico.
Antedon diibenii Bilsche
Ajtedon, diileiii Hilselie, 1860. Arch. fiir Naturg., P. H. Carpenter,
1888, "Challenger" ('Comalil.e. l'l. 38. Figs. 1-
This little feather star, with arms only 30-40 unm. long, has been taken
at various points east and south of St- Thomas, the most northwestern
point at which it has been found, but I find no satisfactory record of its
occurrence along the shore anywhere. The small size, the rather stout
first pinnule and the short cirri with few segments, distinguish it from
any of the other small West Indian comatulids. There is no record of
the color in life.
C'ocrometra hagenii (Pourtalis)
Comaatula ( ihcto) htiaygnii Pionrtals. 18(;9. Bull. M.C.Z., p. 111.
Coccometra hauien ii A. II. Clark. 1I)08, Proc. Biol. Soc., Washington, xxi, p.
128. 1915-21, Bull. 82. 1' S. Nat. Mus.. It. 1. Figs. 284, 375, 499; Pt.
Figs. 298, : 31. 750.
This has been calledd the commonest species of crinoid in the West
Indies and is often present in extraordinary numbers. Professor C. C.
Nutting (1895, I'niv. Iowa: Studies in Nat. Hist., iii, p. 164) says that
"the bottom must have been actually packed with them in spots". The


small size (arms up to 100 mm. in length) and the curious first pinnule
make the species easy to recognize. It ranges from North Carolina south-
ward, perhaps as far as Barbados, in shallow or moderately deep water
but has not been recorded as yet in less than S fins. It seems to be par-
ticularly common around southern Florida in 75-125 fins. Pourtalcs says
the color in life "is pale greenish", but Professor Xutting says "brownish".
The arms may be somewhat banded or striped with brown. The "Fish
Hawk" found this feather star at the western end of Porto Rico in 97-120
Holopus rangii d'()rbigny
Holopus rangii d'Orbigny, 1837, Mag. Zool., Annim. vii, Cl. x, p. 6, Pl.
This extraordinary animal is one of the great rarities of West Indian
zoology. A single small specimen has been taken in 100 fins. of water
off Bahia Honda, Cuba; a fragment was dredged by the "Blake" off Mont-
serrat, in 120 fins.; the original specimen was taken at Martinique, depth
not known; and several specimens were found in comparatively shallow
water off Barbados, fifty years or more ago; one or more of the latter were
from water less than 10 fins. in depth. There are no recent records of
its occurrence, but it is small and inconsl)iclLous this need not cause
great surprise. The largest specimen known is about 40 imm. high and
30 mm. in diameter" the stalk is 12-15 mm. diameter and makes up
one-half of the height. The smallest specimen, with no stalk, is com-
pletely sessile and is so unlike the adull in appearance that some skepticism
as to its identity is defensible.

Sea-stars: starfishes
The littoral sea-stars of the West Indies are not numerous but several
are more or less conspicuous and are often found in curio shops or
assortments of tropical souvenir.:. The big Oreaster, formerly known as
Pentaceros, is the most commonly seen, but both Astropectens and iuidias
are frequently treasured because of their distinctive forms. The shell col-
lector who gathers only such souvenirs of his visit to the West Indies over-
looks the smaller and less conspicuous sea-star. but to the al nature
lover the little Asterinas and curious Linckias found under and among
the fragments of coral rock are of much greater interest.


The New York Academy collection contains but eight species of sea-
star and these are the most common and widespread forms; all are known
from Jamaica and all but one from Florida, while seven are found in
Trinidad and Tobago at the other end of the West Indian region. But
there are half-a-dozen other species which are recorded from Cuba, Ja-
maica, or Porto Rico itself, besides two or more debatable forms whose
actual status is still undetermined, which must be included in this report.
The perplexing forms are in the genera Astropecten and Echinaster, both
of which are common in shallow water throughout the West Indian region.
There are certainly two species of Astropecten rather easily distinguished
from each other, but whether a third well-known form is really a valid
species, a subspecies, or a variety, is still doubtful. There are unquestion-
ably two species of Echinaster on the coast of southern Florida; one of
these seems to be confined to the Gulf coast of Florida, Alabama and
Louisiana, but the other extends eastward and southward, perhaps to
Brazil. Whether the common Echinaster of Jamaica is to be considered
a form of this species or regarded as distinct is still debatable, so little
field work has been done by competent observers, but for the present I
am recognizing it under a different name. In the light of such evidence
as we have, it seems best to include in the body of this report, as well
as in the key, 17 nominal species, for those which are least likely to be
found in shallow water are the very ones which require some special
discussion either of name, structure or occurrence. Verrill (1915, p. 63)
lists "Enoplopatiria marginata (Hupe) Verrill" from the "West Indies",
but there is no evidence, or even probability, that this Brazilian species
occurs there.
The most important reference work on the West Indian sea-stars is
Verrill's "Ileport on the Starfishes of the West Indies, Florida and Brazil"
published in 1915 by the University of Iowa (Bull. Lab. Nat. Hist., vii,
No. 1. 232 pp. 29 pls.) but this uies an unsatisfactory classification and
is not altogether infallible. The classification used in the present report
is that so carefully worked out by W. K. Fisher, the best living authority
on sea-stars.
A. Disk and rays more or less flattened, the upper surface covered with
close-set paxille; marginal plates, at least the inferomarginals,
B. Superomarginal plates, large, forming a conspicuous border to
rays and disk.
C. Inferolunrginal plates more or less bare; large erect spines
on basal superomarginals............Astropeeten antillcnsis


CC. Inferomarginal plates uniformly, though not closely, cov-
ered with spinelets.
D. No large erect spines or tubercles on inner margin of
basal superomarginals..........Astropecten articulatus
DD. A large erect spine (or at least a tubercle) on inner
margin of at least some of the basal superomarginals.
Astropecten duplicatus
BB. Superomarginal plates aborted.
C. Rays 5 (very rarely 6).
D. Upper surface smooth, the paxillie close-set, bearing
crowded low granules....... .........Luidia clathrata
DD. Upper surface not smooth; paxilire not very close-set,
bearing low spinelets, of which the central one is
often very much enlarged into an erect spine......
Luidia alternate
CC. Rays 9; upper surface smooth; paxillae close-set bearing
crowded low granules...................Luidia senegalensis
AA. Disk and rays not as above; no paxille; if marginal plates are well
marked the disk is large and the rays relatively short and wide.
B. Disk large; rays short and wide; general form stellate or pen-
C. Size large; disk high with numerous stout blunt spinclets
or tubercles............................ Oreaster reticulatus
CC. Size small; general form more or less pentagonal and flat-
tened; all spinelets very small and slender.
D. Plates of upper surface distinct, imbricated, with usu-
ally a few minute spines on proximal margin.
E. Actinal intermediate plates each with 3 or 4 spine-
lets .......................Asterina folium
EE. Actinal intermediate plates, each with a single
spinelet rarely 2...........Asterina hartimeyeri
DD. Upper surface covered by a thick granular skin with
no spinelets ........................ Stegnaster wesseli
BB. Disk relatively small; rays more or less cylindrical and elongated.
C. No spinelets on upper surface.
D. Plates of the rays arranged in regular longitudinal
series .......................... Ophidiaster guildingii
DD. Plates of the rays not in regular series.
E. Some dorsal plates, irregularly placed, larger than
normal, much more convex, often swollen so as
to appear like a nodule............Liuckia bouvicri
LE. No swollen dorsal plates...........Linckia guildingil
CC. Upper surface with conspicuous spinelets.
D. No pedicellarite; rays 5.
E. Rays relatively short, thick and blunt; dorsal
spinelets few and large; color not bright red....
Echinaster sentus


HE. Rays longer, more slender and tapering; spiunelets
smaller and more numerous.
F. Spinelets on rays 1 mm. or more in length. in
7-9 longitudinal series. Ecliaster cchinophorus
FF. Spinelets on rays about .5 mmll. in length. in
11-15 series.. .E -iinastfer spinumosus
DD. Pedicellarire abundant; rays 4-9, usually 7.
Stolauterius lenuispina
NOTA BENE: For convenience, the three species of Asterinidm (Asterina, Steg-
naster) are given in the above key immediately after Oreaster
and preceding Ophidiaster. In the following pages, they are
placed in their correct position in the order Spinulosa, after the


Family ASTIO'ECTol'xII).n

Astropecten antillensis Liitken

Astropecten antilleusis Liitken, 1859, Vid. Med., p. 47. DU]erlein, 1917. Siboga
Ast., Pl. 2, figs. 9. 10: PI. IX, figs. 7-8a.
Nox II. L. Clark, 1901, U. S. Fish. Comm.. Bull. ii, p. 236.
This species is known from St. Thomas and elsewhere in the Virgin
Islands, and from Guadeloupe. My records from ,Jamaica (1898, Johns
Hopkins Univ. Cire., xviii, No. 137, p. 5) and from Porto Rico (1901,
1. c.) are errors due to a misunderstanding on my part as to the characters
distinguishing Liitken's species. The writer -as misled by incorrectly
labelled specimens in the Adams collection at Amherst College. All of
the specimens were probably articulalius.
Verrill considered nitillensis as "very closely allied" to duplicatlis and
possibly only a local v, 'ty, but since the difference in the inferomarginal
plates is quite striking and apparently constant. I believe antille
entitled to stand as an independent species. It is apparently a common
form in the Virgin Islands for Kiikenthal and flartumeyer found it at both
St. John and St. Croix. while Liitken's specimens were from St. Thomas.
But it is apparently not common elsewhere as it was not taken anywhere
by the University of Iowa's parties in either 1893 or 1918, nor have I ever
encountered it. It does not seem to reach a large size. H1= 50-60 mum.,
being about the maximum known. Nothing is recorded as to the color in
life; dried specimens are dull light yellowish, nearly white.

Astropecten articulatus (Say)

Ax-terie s articuuitu 8: 1825, Jour. Phila. Acad..
A.stropcetcl articulate I. Miller & Trosehel. 18-12.

1. t.,


Astropectcn cingulatiu Sladen, 1883, Jonrn. Lhin. Soc. London (ZoMl.), xvii,
p. 266. See Diiderlein, 1917. Siboga Ast., P1. 2, figs. 1, 2, 7, S; P1. 9,
ligs. 1, (.
This was the first Astropecten described from the West Indian region
but the limits of its diversity are still undetermined. There is no doubt
that the typical form has well developed spinelets on the outer margin of
the superomarginal plates, on the distal part of the ray; but in a great
many specimens these spinelets are reduced in size and number and are
often entirely wanting. Both Verrill and lD)derlein recognize cingulatus
Sladen as a distinct species but I am not able to find any constant char-
acter or combination of characters by which it is distinguishable from
specimens of articulatus which lack superomarginal spines. In view of
the additional fact that the range of Sladen's form is identical with that of
arliculatus, so far as the West Indian region and the North Americi
coast are concerned, I am satisfied that it is not entitled to recognition.
Nor can I consider Verrill's comnptus (1915, p. 116) from off Cape Hat-
teras, and also from off West Florida, as any more worthy. We must
appreciate the fact that a wide ranging, variable species is bound to pro-
duce individuals (under certain conditions, large numbers of individuals)
which are strikingly different from variants in other directions and even
quite different from the typical form.
In size articulatus runs up to R = 100 umm. ( Ddderlein lists one specimen
with I? = 108 mm.), but it is rare to find specimens in which R exceeds
75 mm. The proportions considerably, for in mature specimens
R=4-6.5 r or br, r and br being usually just about equal, though occa-
sionally br is appreciably greater. As for color, there are no trustworthy
records as to what it is in life; museum specimens range from nearly
white through light yellowish brown to dark purplish or reddish brown.
The range of articulatus is from North Carolina to Uruguay, from low-
water mark to about 80-90 fins. It has been reported from southern New
Jersey but I agree with Verrill that the record needs confirmation. It is
not recorded as yet from Porto Rico or the Virgin Islands, unless the
specimens which I listed in 1901 from the "Fish Hawk" collectionn as
antillensis are, as I think possible, articulatus.

Astropecten duplicatus Gr,
Astropecten duplicatus Gray, 1840, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.. p. 181. Diderlein,
1917, Siboga Ast., P1. 2, figs. 3-6; P1. 9, figs, 2-4a.
Although typical specimens of this form are easily recognized and appear
very different from typical examples of articulatus, there is no doubt of
the existence of specimens which it is not easy to place with certainty.


Such specimens lack the conspicuous conical spines on the inner end of
the basal superomarginals; sometimes they are wholly lacking on more
than half of these plates and occasionally those which are present are
reduced to low tubercles. The existence of such specimens has led
Ddderlein to treat duplicatus as merely a subspecies of articulalus, but my
own experience leads me to question the advisability of doing that. The
general form and appearance of the two species is unlike, although it is
difficult to put the differences into words; one might say that duplicatus
is less flattened, more spiny, more compact, with relatively small disk,
narrower rays and narrower paxillar areas; but numerous individuals of
both species belie such specific statements. The presence of the inner
spines (or at least tubercles) on the basal superomarginals is really the
distinctive feature of duplicatus; in this particular it is quite like antil-
lensis (hence confusion between the two species has no doubt been fre-
quent). The entire absence of such spines is presumptive evidence that
the specimen is articulaius. I have not personally seen an individual either
alive or as a museum specimen which caused me any serious perplexity,
but my experience with Astropecten in life is unfortunately too limited
to make it conclusive.
In life duplicatus is ordinarily of a reddish-brown color; the supero-
marginals are often quite red; the paxillar area and lower surface more
gray; sometimes the reddish tint is faint or quite wanting and such in-
dividuals are quite gray or light brown; but really light colored indi-
viduals are rare. Dry specimens may be either dark grayish-brown,
sometimes very dark, or ordinary light brownish-yellow, "museum color"
as it has been so aptly called. Adult specimens have the rays 75-100 mm.
long. with the breadth at base 15-18 mm. The largest specimens I have
seen, measured (in dried condition) -I=112 nam., br=20, and R-120 rmm.,
br = 18. These sea-stars occur on sandy bottoms in shallow water but only
occasionally in less than 3 or 4 feet. They are often abundant at depths of
3-10 fathoms, seeming to be somewhat gregarious. They have been taken
at many points on the Florida coast, especially about the Keys and the
Tortugas, on the Mexican coast at Vera Cruz, on the southeastern coast
of the United States, perhaps as far north as South Carolina, at the
Bahamas, Jamaica, St. Thomas, Porto Rico, Dominica, St. Vincent,
Tobago and Trinidad. The record from Brazil needs confirmation though
it is not unlikely that the southern range extends at least to the Amazon's
The Academy collection contains a single specimen of duplicatus with
R = 50 mm. It was taken by RI. C. Osburn, June 27, 1915, at Don Luis


Cayo, in Salinas Cove. The "Fish Hawk" took this species at both the
eastern and western ends of the island, in 6-15 fathoms of water.

Luidia clathrata (Say)
Asterias clathrata Say, 1825, Jour. Phila. Acad., -, p. 142.
Luidia clathrata Ltitken, 1850, Vid. Med., 37. A. Agassiz, 1877, Mem. M. C.
Z., v, P1. 20.
The Luidias are among the most easily recognized of sea-stars, because
of the flattened and regularly tessellated upper surface and the long,
relatively narrow rays. The three West Indian species are very distinct
from each other and intergrading specimens seem to be entirely lacking.
The commonest of the three species is clathrata, which in life is usually
of a bluish-gray color with the median area of each ray darker than the
margins, so that there appears to be a dark longitudinal band along the
middle of each ray; the distinctness of this, however, varies very much-
it is not always noticeable. Specimens collected by me at Port Royal,
Jamaica, were light brownish underneath and along the sides of the rays,
with the dorsal surface dull, dark greenish-gray, the median lines on the
rays being scarcely visible. A specimen I took at Montego Bay, Jamaica,
was cream-color in life, with indistinct, dusky median areas on the rays.
Verrill, 1915, says that all living specimens seen by him in Bermuda
were "pale salmon" or "rose-salmon", while those from Florida and North
Carolina are gray.
Possibly these differences in color are associated with differences in
habit and habitat, for Verrill reports that the animals live concealed
beneath the surface of the sand, his observations apparently being based
on Bermudan specimens; and the specimen collected by me at Montego
Bay was beneath the surface of pure white sand in about one fathom of
water; it was accidentally dug out by the restless feet of a bather! On the
other hand, the dark-colored specimens found at Port Royal were living
on the surface of brown sand near mangroves. Adult specimens have
H = 100 nun. or more with br 17 or 18 mm.; the largest specimen of which
I know has R = 1-5 mm. and br 20.
This sea-star is known from Bermuda, North Carolina and Florida,
Jamaica, Haiti, Porto Rico and St. Thomas. I find no reliable records
from elsewhere in the West Indies, but it is said to occur at Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil. Verrill states that it has been reported from southern New Jersey.
These extreme records seem to me to require confirmation. The bathy-
metrical range is from the shore line down to 50 fathoms. Specimens


which I have taken were perfectly inert and showed no activity what-
ever, but Verrill asserts that "when disturbed it glides away very rapidly
beneath the surface of the sand, by means of its large, flattened, muscular
ambulacral feet which it uses like paddles. It can also swim, by their
aid, free of the sand or on its surface". Presumably these remarkable
statements are based on observations made in Bermuda.
The Academy collection contains no example of this species but the
"Fish Hawk" found it on the northern coast and at the eastern end of
Porto Hico in 41/-11 fathoms.
Luidia, alternate.
Plate I
Asterias alternata Say, 1825, Jour. Phila. Aead., 144.
Luidia alternate Liitken, 1859, Vid. Med.. 1). 42.
Luidia variegata I'erric 1876, Arch. Zool. Exp., v.
This handsome sea-star is unmistakable by the elegance of its form and
the beauty of its coloration. In life. the lower surface is yellow of a lighter
or darker shade while the upper side is dark (greenish, purplish or black-
ish), irregularly banded or variegated with yellow or cream-color. The
larger marginal spines are often dark at the base and light distally. Verrill
has described a variety bicolor from moderately deep water (20-60 fins.) in
which the dark shade is said to be chocolate-brown., but it is not altogether
c(le whether this color is that of living or preserved specimens. It is,
however, an interesting fact that in this species the colors are little af-
fectvd by alcohol or by other methods of preservation. In size, alternate
somewhat exceeds clathratta, adult specimens having R=120-130
and br about 18 the largest specimen of which I know has I = 175 mm.
and br 25.
This species is less common than clathrata, but is by no means rare. It
is not known from Bermuda or the Bahamas but otherwise its range seems
to Ibe, like that of cloth rata, from the southeastern coast of the United
States and the Gulf of Mexico to Brazil. The hathymetrical range is
from the shore line down to nearly 100 fins. It is absent from the
Academy collection, but the "Fish Hawk" took a small specimen in 10
fathoms at the eastern end of Porto Rico. It is not yet known from any
point between Montserrat and Brazil.
Luidia senegalensis (Lamarck)
A.trrias srntegalensis Lnmarek, 1816, Ainim. s. Vert.. ii, p. 567.
Luidia sncoegalen is 1iiller & Troschel. 1842. Syst. Ast., p. 78.
Luidia nmoregrarii Liitken, 1859, Vid. MIed.. p. 43. Verrill, 1915, Tluiv Iowa:
Bull. Lab. Nat. IIst., PI1. 5, Fig. 1.


This sea-star is the most remarkable of all West Indian shore forms
because of the constant with which it has nine rays. Verrill says there
are "rarely eight" but I have, myself, never seen a specimen with fewer
or more than nine. This number is so unusual for a sea-star that it
makes seuegalensis the most unmistakably recognizable of any West Indian
species. Nevertheless there still seems to be some doubt whether the
West Indian 9-rayed Luidia is identical with, or distinct from, the 9-
rayed Luidia of the West African coast. Verrill adopted Liitken's name
for the West Indian species, not because examination of specimens had
convinced him the two forms were distinct but because LIitken considered
them so, and as Verrill says, "He was certainly a very expert authority
on starfishes". On the other hand, DOderlein, who is the present European
authority on sea-stars and no less able than Liitken, in his monograph
on the genus Luidia (1920) relegates Liitken's name to the synonymy of
senegalensis. I am following him therein, though I have never seen an
African specimen.
The color of this Luidia is the ordinary bluish- or greenish-gray color
of clathrata; indeed, were it not for the difference in the number of rays
the two species would be hard to distinguish. I have never seen or heard
of a light-colored form of senegaleUsis, however, the color seeming to be
as uniform as the number of rays. In size, this species is considerably
larger than either of the preceding two, as R=125-150 nunm. in adults,
and a specimen which I secured from a fisherman at Montego Bay,
Jamaica (presumably from water several fathoms deep), has 1R=210-215
nmm.; in life this individual was certainly 18 inches across. Naturally the
arms are relatively narrower than in clathrata, but the difference is not
very striking.
This sea-star is reported to be common (Verrill says it "seems to abound
most") on the coast of Brazil. It is not rare along the shores of Jamaica,
though I have not found it at Port Antonio. Verrill (1915) says he
does not know of its occurrence in Florida but we have specimens in the
Museum of Comparative Zoilogy from the western coast of the southern
part of that peninsula (Sanibel Island). It is recorded from the island
of Ilayti, from Porto Rico, from Guadeloupe and from Trinidad. The
hathymetrical range appears to be very small; I find no records of speci-
mens having been dredged or collected at any considerable depth.
The Academy collection contains one specimen, and apparently the
smallest on record; R=about 10 mm. The upper surface is dusky, with
the margins of the rays and the lower surface pale yellowish. It was
dredged (depth not stated) off the mouth of Guanica Harbor, July 2,


1915, by R. C. Osburn. The "Fish Hawk" took large examples of this
species at Mayagiiez, Puerto Real and Catano, P. R.
Oreaster reticulatus (Linmeus)
Asterias reticulata Linneus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. X, p. 661.
Oreaster reticulatus Miiller & Troschel, 1842, Syst. Ast., p. 45.
i'entaceros reticulatus A. Agassiz, 1877. Mem. M. C. Z., v, P1. 16.
This is undoubtedly the best known of West Indian sea-stars, since it
has been taken to many parts of the world in the past 175 years as a
typical curio and souvenir of the region. Although it is somewhat variable
in both form and color, the diversity is on the whole remarkably small,
and the specific characters are well maintained. Small specimens are
deep olive-green above, the color of the popular areas being a duller shade
than that of the rest of the dorsal surface; the lower surface is cream-
color, sometimes with blotches of greenish or dusky. As size increases the
green becomes less and less evident, being replaced by yellowish- or reddish-
brown, but some adults have more or less of a greenish or olive shade.
As a rule, large specimens are brownish-red or dull orange-red, or even
deep red, with the spines similar or different, sometimes yellow. Yel-
lowish-brown, orange-yellow and even yellow specimens occur. The papu-
lar areas are often of a duller shade than the skeletal parts and the con-
trast between the two is in some specimens very striking.
The size of this Oreaster is notable, as it is much the heaviest of West
Indian sea-star.. Verrill says that specimens occur up to 500 mm. in
diameter. The largest I have seen has RP=210 mm. with the disk 80 mm.
high. The height of the disk, however, varies greatly with the condition
of the specimen and with the method of preservation. The proportion of
R to r varies considerably but it is often 2 to 1 or slightly more. Specimens
with 6 rays or with only 4 are not extraordinarily rare.
The range of reticulatus is from South Carolina and the Bahamas on
the north (it is not known at Bermuda), and the Tortugas on the west,
to the Abrolhos Reefs, Brazil, on the south, and the Cape Verde Islands
on the east. It is particularly common in the Bahamas and among the
Florida Keys, and is recorded from eight of the West Indian Islands.
The bathymetrical range is very small.
There are two specimens in the Academy collection, taken in July,
1914, by R. W. 'Miner, but the exact locality is not recorded. The "Fish
Hawk" brought back specimens from Ponce, Mayagiiez and San Juan.
Mr. George 31. Gray tells me the species is very common at the last


mentioned port. He noted two rather well marked varieties there, differ-
ing in the form of the rays, the relative height of the disk, the heaviness of
the skeleton, and the spininess of the lower surface.

Ophidiaster guildingii Gray
Plate II
Ophidiaster guildingii Gray, 1840, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vi, p. 284.
It is somewhat remarkable that no figure of this species has been pub-
lished hitherto, for it has been repeatedly taken in various parts of the
West Indian region. It occurs under rocks near low tide mark, like
Linckia guildingli, but is far less common, and never reaches so large a
size. In color, however, it is often very similar to young Linckias, being
dull purplish-red variegated with a lighter shade or with whitish. In
mature specimens the ground color ranges from pale yellowish through
orange and scarlet to brownish-red, more or less blotched with bluish,
purple, maroon or brown; these colors are, however, never bright so it is
not a conspicuous sea-star. Rarely individuals are found of an almost uni-
form shade of reddish, purplish or brownish. It is a small species, mature
specimens having R=15-55mm. with br 8-9; the proportion of R to br
shows some diversity, as 11=5-7 br in different individuals. Verrill says
that a "medium sized specimen" has R=60 mm. but I have never seen one
so large. lie further states that in this individual 11=12 r, but in speci-
mens I have examined R rarely equals 8 r.
This species is characteristic of the West Indian region from the Tortu-
gas to Barbados. It is not yet known from Bermuda or the Bahamas, nor
does it seem to occur on the Gulf coast of America nor on the shores of
South America. It is not yet decided whether it occurs in the eastern
Atlantic; probably however the Ophidiasters of that region are the closely
allied Mediterranean species, ophidianus. The bathymetrical range ap-
pears to be very small.
The Academy collection contains one small specimen, of a dull whitish
color, with R=25 mm. It was taken on the reef outside Cayo Maria
Langa, entrance of Guayanilla Harbor, Ensenada, June 25, 1915, by R. W.
Miner and H. Mueller. The "Fish Hawk" took three specimens at Ponce.
Linekia bouvieri Perrier
Linckia bouriori Perrier, 1875, Arch. Zool. Exp., iv, p. 414.
Linckia nodosa Perrier, 1875, Arch. Zool. Exp., iv, p. 417. Verrill, 1915, Univ.
Iowa: Bull. Lab. Nat. Hist., vii, No. 1, Pl. 29, figs. la. lb.


It is with much misgiving that I include this species here, as it has only
once been recorded from water less than ten fathoms in depth. It seems
to be a well-marked but rare species ranging from the West Coast of Florida
to the Cape Verde Islands and Sio Thomi. There is no record of the
color of Florida specimens; those from the eastern Atlantic are said to
be "violet" when "fresh." I have been unable to find any character by
which to distinguish specimens from these widely separated regions.
Adults have R=90-100 mm., with br about 12; the largest recorded speci-
men has 1]=125 mm.
There are no records from the West Indian Islands, excepting Cuba
(off Havana, 110 fins.), nor from the South American coast; but as the
species seems to prefer water of considerable depth, 20-130 fathoms, it
is not strange that it has not been more often collected. There are no
specimens in the Academy collection nor did the "Fish Hawk" encounter
it, so there is no reason to consider it a member of the Porto Rican fauna.

Linckia guildingii Gray
Linckia guildingii Gray, 1840, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vi, p. 285. A. Agassiz, 1877,
Mem. AM. C. Z., v, P1. 4, Figs. 1-6.

This sea-star is of great interest because of its very wide distribution
and the extraordinary degree to which it relics on asexual reproduction.
Though it is one of the commonest species in the West Indies, adult speci-
mnens are very rarely seen there. Even half-grown individuals are by no
means common and those found are almost invariably asymmetrical.
Young and half-grown specimens often have 4, 6 or 7 rays instead of 5,
but in adults the number is almost always 5. These peculiarities of the
immature specimens is due to autotomy which appears to begin very early
in life and continues for an indefinite period. It seems to consist, at
first, of a transverse division of the whole animal, resulting in a 2-rayed
and a 3-raved specimen. These immediately regenerate the lost rays but
not rarely produce I instead of 3 and 2. Consequently, 7- and 6-rayed
specimens appear. As the animal increases in size, instead of dividing,
it may sever one ray from the rest of the animal and on the proximal end
of such a ray 4 or 5 new rays bud out: ultimately a new mouth and other
essentiall organs arise in their normal position. Apparently reproduction
eggs occur: only when the animal full-grown and these curious
processes of autonomous division have ceased. Rays which have given
rise to "buds" at the 'red end are often referred to as "comet forms"


or simply "comets. They are generally small but occasionally there is
found a comet of which the parent ray is 75 mm. or more in length.
The color of this sea-star when young is dull reddish, brownish or
purplish, variegated with lighter or darker. It is thus very inconspicuous
in the crannies and on the lower surface of the rocks among which it
lives. Large individuals are unicolor, sometimes of a reddish brown or
even a fine violet color (one from the Bahamas), but generally a light
yellow brown. Such individuals are found in the open on the reef flat
or on neighboring sandy bottoms. Apparently the change in color is
associated with change in habitat. Adult individuals reach a large size-
a rather symmetrical 6-rayed specimen from the Tortugas has R=112
mm. and br=15; a symmetrical 5-rayed adult found in the open at Tobago
has R=75 and br 8 mm.; most specimens from the Pacific have R=150-180
mm. the largest specimen known to me is from Bermuda and has five
unequal rays, distorted by drying, the longest about 215 mm. with the
diameter about 22. The above figures show that the rays are usually nine
or ten times as long as thick.
The distribution of this sea-star is as remarkable as its asexual repro-
duction. In the western Atlantic and Caribbean regions it is known
from Bermuda, the Bahamas, Florida and Mexico, to Brazil, with actual
records from Cuba, Jamaica, Porto Rico, St. Thomas, St. Kitts, Guade-
loupe, St. Vincent, Barbados and Tobago. But it has also been taken
at the Cape Verde Islands, Lower Guinea, Zanzibar, Mauritius, Mada-
gascar, the Red Sea, Ceylon, Andaman Islands, Queensland, Samoa, Tonga
and the Society Islands. It has not yet been definitely shown to occur
at Hawaii and it is not known from the western coast of America where
it is replaced by L. columbine.
The Academy collection contains 3 specimens of guildingii, of which
two are "comets." The largest has the parent ray 54 mm. long, and the
new rays about 20 mm. It was taken at Mangrove Island, Parguera,
Enscnada, June 27, 1915, by tR. W. Miner, IT. Mueller and M. A. Ilowe.
A second specimen has 6 rays, one 22 mm. long, four 17 imm. and one
only mm. It was discovered at' the mangrove island and coral reef
at entrance of Montalva Bay, Ensenada, June 27, 1915, by Miner, Mueller
and Howe. The third specimen has one ray 13 mm. long with four at its
proximal end, 5-7 mnun. It was collected oh the reef outside Cayo Maria
Langa, entrance of Guayanilla Harbor, Ensenada, June 25, 1915, by Miner
and Mueller. The "Fish Hawk" took guildingii at Ensenada Honda
(Culebra) and Ponce. 3Ir. Gray found it at San Juan.




Asterina folium (Liitken)
Astorina minilta var. 1 Gray. 1840, Ann. iMug. Nat. Hist.. 2S9; NON
Asterina minuta Nardo, 1834.
Astcriscus fo-ium Liitken. 1559, Vid. Med., p. 60.
Asterina folium A. Agassiz, 1877, Mem. MI.C.Z., v, p. 106; P1. 14, figs. 7-9.
Astrrina tinnita Diderleiu, 1910, Zool. Jahrl., Suppl. 11, 152.

No greater contrast in body form can well be imagined in a single class
of animals than that between the three preceding species and the three
sea-stars of the present family. Instead of long, slender cylindrical arms
and a small disk to which they are attached, where R=8-12 r, we have here
nearly or quite pentagonal, markedly flattened animals with rays rarely
equal to 2 r and usually R=1.2-1.3 r not infrequently individuals occur
in which, at least in life if not in the dry specimens, I{ and r are equal.
These little, flat, disk-like sea-stars are very characteristic of the West
Indian reefs, as- indeed of tropical reefs generally. The present species
is the most common of the West Indian forms but owing to the smIall
size, the inconspicuous coloration, and the secretive habits, it is seldom
seen save by the ardent collector. The color of very small specimens is
nearly white; as size increases, however, the upper surface becomes cream-
color, then yellow, and finally reddish-yellow, or more commonly the yellow
shade becomes greenish and the adult animal olive- or bluish-green or
even quite blue. These blue specimens are striking as that color is so
unusual among marine animals. Adult folium is from 17 to 25 mm.
across ; that is 11=10-14 and r=7-11 mm. Specimens with 4 or 6 rays
are not particularly rare.
This sea-star lives closely appressed to the under surface of fragments of
rock or coral, and in protected crevices at or just below the low tide level.
It is known from Bermuda, the Bahamas, Florida, the Tortugas, Old
Providence, Curaqao, Jamaica, Porto Rico, St. Thomas, Antigua, Guade-
loupe, Barbados and Tobago. Hence it is probably to be found at all
West Indian islands. The bathymetrical range is very small.
The Academy collection contains but a single specimen, and this is only
a small one (R-8 mm.) of a dirty whitish color. It was taken on the
outer reef south of the entrance to Guanica Harbor, June 11, 1915, by
I. W. Miner and II. Mueller. The "Fish Hawk" collection also contained
but a single specimen, which was taken at Ponce.


Asterina hartmeyeri Diderlein
Plate III
Asterina minuta var. 2 Gray, 1840, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vi, p. 289; NoN
Asterina minuta Nardo, 1834.
Asterina minuta H. L. Clark, 1898, Johns Hopkins Univ. Circ., xviii, No.
137, p. 6.
A.terina hartmeyeri Dbderloin, 1910, Zool. Jahrb. Suppl. 11. p. 154.
This species of Asterina, only half as large as the preceding, was first
detected by Gray, who with his extraordinary systematic sense and keen
eye for specific characters, recognized the constant difference between it
and folium in the armature of the actinal intermediate plates. This dif-
ference proves to be very constant and I have never seen an intergrading
specimen, yet it must be admitted that the exact relation between the two
species is still puzzling. They certainly occur in the same regions and
apparently in the same locality but whether in the same actual habitat or
not we do not know.
There has been no little confusion over the name of this species for,
curiously enough, no one has hitherto realized that the choice by Nardo of
Asterias minute Gmelin for the type species of his genus Asterina, invali-
dates Gray's Aslernba minuta from the very start. Liitken gave folium a
valid name but I have persisted hitherto in the error of using Asterina
m inuta Gray for the present species, even criticising Doderlein for giving
it a "quite superfluous" name, hartmeyeri. Oddly enough, D6derlein
did not propose this name because minute was invalid but because he pro-
posed to use that name for folium and hence must have a new name for
this little, closely related species. Now, however, the nomenclatural snarl
seems to be untangled there is no valid Aslerina minula, for Asterina
minute Nardo is Asterina gibbosa Pennant, an earlier name; Asterina
minuta var. 1 Gray is Asterina folium Ltitken (the doubts of Perrier and
Ddderlein to the contrary notwithstanding) ; and Asterina minuta var. 2
Gray is Asterina hartmeyeri Ddderlein, the present species. Verrill recog-
nized but one West Indian form which he called folium.
In color, hartmeyeri is, even in life, nearly white; large specimens have
a yellowish or a pinkish tinge which ordinarily disappears on preserva-
tion. In size, this species rarely exceeds 10mm. in diameter; the largest
specimen I have seen has R=7 mm. with r about 5. The form is more
uniformly stellate and less markedly pentagonal than in adult folium.
The limits of its distribution are not yet known. It has been taken
hitherto only in Jamaica, Porto Rico, Barbados and Tobago. It does not
seem to occur at Bermuda nor did either Hartmeyer or I find it at the


The Academy collection contains a single specimen of harlmeeyeri, the
only one as yet known from Porto Rico. It is dirty whitish in color and
has 1R=5 mm. It was taken on the coral reefs at Ballena Point, Ensenada,
June 12, 1915, by R. W. Miner and H. Mueller.
Stegnaster wesseli (I'errier)
Asterina tre. si Perrier, 1876., Arch. Zoo]. E:xp., v. 2:1.
S'tegnlaster iresscli Sladen, 1889, "Challeniger" Ast., 778. Verrill, 1915, Univ.
Iowa : Mull. La l. Nat. list., vil. No. 1, I'l. 3, figs. 3-3a.
The extraordinary thing about this sea-star is that the only other species
of Stegnaster known occurs in New Zealand. That the two are really
genetically related seems improbable, yet if they are not, we have here
a most remarkable case of convergence in structure. The West Indian
species is much smaller than the New Zealand form, as it is usually less
than 30 mm. across. The largest specimen I have seen has R-19 and r
15 mm., but Verrill records one with 1R=20 and r 16 mm. Preserved
specimens are usually whitish or yellowish ; but in life the small ones are
white, becoming yellowish, reddish-yellow and, when fully grown, quite
distinctly orange. There is a perfectly hexamerous specimen among those
taken by me at Tobago.
This interesting sea-star is not rare in Jamaica and I also found it
fairly common in Tobago. Verrill records it from the Bahamas, Florida
and Colon and it is also reported from Barbados. It has not yet been
taken in Porto Rico.
Echinaster sentus (Say)
Asterias sentus Say. 1825, Jour. Phila. Acad., p. 143.
Ecliinaster scntus Lfitken. 1871, Vid. Med.. p. 284. A. Agassiz, 1877, Mem.
M.C.Z., PI. 10.
As already stated, the West Indian species of Echinaster are still con-
fused and I am not at all sure that they should not all be regarded as one.
But in the present state of our knowledge it seenis to me much better to
recognize three species, realizing that the actual relation of these forms
to each other has still to be determined. Hence I am using the old name
of Say for the stout form with short, often blunt, rays, and few, large spines
on the dor:al surface. It usually has 1R=60-75 mm. when adult, with br
about 20 imm. The largest specimen I have seen has R=80 mm., r and br
about 20. Verrill re *ords a 4-rayed specimen with R1-53 mm. The color
in life has not been properly recorded and I have neve seen living speci-
,mens. To judge from preserved material, it seems that fully grown


specimens are very dark colored, either deep red, red-brown or dark pur-
ple; when younger, the color seems to be lighter and is possibly red of
some shade, but it does not appear in dried specimens like the bright red
of the next species (echinophorus).
This is the common Echinaster of the southeastern coast of the United
States from North Carolina to Key West and the Tortugas. It is also
known from Yucatan, Cuba, the Bahamas, Porto Rico and St. Thomas.
Records from east or south of these last islands need confirmation.
The Academy collection contains eleven specimens of which none is
adult and eight are certainly young. These young ones haye R=20-35 mm.,
with the rays somewhat more pointed than in adults; the color is dull
brown with a red tinge; they were taken at Ensenada, June 23, 1915, by
R. W. Miner. A light brown specimen with a yellow tinge has R=30,
r=8 and br 9 mm.; it is notable for the few, very large spines, only 2-6 in
each longitudinal series on a ray, and these 3-4 mm. high; it was taken
at a mangrove island at Parguera, Ensenada, June 27, 1915, by R. W.
Miner. A lighter colored and somewhat less stout specimen of about the
same size was taken at the west end of the reef between Pardas Bay and
Harbor entrance, Ensenada, June 18, 1915, by R. W. Miner and H.
Mueller. The largest specimen (R=45 mm., r and br=12), light brown
with a reddish tinge, was collected on a mud flat near a house boat, east
end of San Antonio railroad bridge (Miramar) San Juan. The "Fish
Hawk" took 11 specimens of seatus at San Juan and Puerto Real and at
three dredging stations at both the eastern and western ends of the island.
These were recorded by me as "crassisrpina Verrill" but the type of that
species is from Brazil and Verrill says it is notsentus, as one might suppose.
Echinaster echinophorus (Lainnrck)
Plates IV
Asterias echinophora Lamarek, 1816, Anim. s. Vert., p. 560.
Echinanter echinophorus Perrier, 1875, Arch. Zool. Exp., iv, p. 364.
Reversing the position which I took in 1919 (Publ. 281, Carn. Inst.
Wash.. p. 54) I am recognizing now the distinctness of the Echinaster
found in Jamaica from that which occurrs in Porto Rico. I am led to do
this because the specimens in the Academy collection are just like those
taken by the "Fish Hawk," and are obviously the same species as that
found among the Florida Keys. The Jamaican Echinaster, on the other
hand, is instantly recognizable by the slender, more terete rays, the
smaller and much more numerous spines, and the bright red color. This
color is very striking both in life and in preserved specimens, and shows
surprisingly little diversity, either with locality or age. Dried specimens

,N 'IEA-'''I(FIC SFI'RII R'. I ) ('o. T() R

are a much lighter and more yellow ish-red than the living individuals,
but there is no doubt of their redness. R=4.5-6 r and br is just about the
same as r. The largest specimen I have seen has R=65) mm., br=1 3.
Whether or not this bright red Echinaster is confined to Jamaica, I do
not know. For the present I am considering it Lamarck's echinophorus,
which Verrill lists as abundant on the Brazilian coast, and also appearing
in Yucatan. lIe places my specimens from Jamaica under sentus, but I
cannot at present agree to this.

Echinaster spinulosus Verrill
Echinaster spinulo.Ius Verrill, 1869, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xii, p. 386.
1915, Univ. Iowa : Bull. Lab. Nat. Hist., vii, Pl. 4, Figs. 1, 2.
This species is apparently restricted to the western coast of Florida,
where it is said to be abundant. It occurs not only along shore but has
been dredged in the Gulf of Mexico. south of Alabama, in 23-32 fms. The
largest specimen listed by Verrill has 11=80 mm. and r=14; R nearly 6 r;
br is about the same as r. Two specimens in the Museum of Comparative
Zoology collection show some diversity in proportions; one has R=57 rmm.
and r-11, hence R] exceeds 5 r; the other has TR=60 mm. and r=15, hence
R= only 4 r. Verrill says that the color in life is reddish-brown; pre-
served specimens are purplish-brown or often, when dried, yellowish-brown.
No specimens in the Academy collection approach this form at all, and it
is of course quite unlikely that it occurs in Porto Rico.


Stolasterias tenuispina (Lamarck)
Asterias tenuispina Lamarck, 1816, Animt. s. Vert., 11, p. 561.
Coscinasterias tenuispina Verrill, 1914, Harriman Exp. Ast., p. 45. 1915, Univ.
Iowa: Bull. Lab. Nat. IIist., vii, Pl, 26, fig. 2; PI. 27, fig. 4.
A sterias (,tolrstcrian) tenuispina Sladen, 1889, "Challenger" Ast., p. 583.
Coscinastcrias (Stolasterias) tenuispina Fisher, 1926, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.,
(9) xviii, p. 197.
Like the preceding species, Stolasterias has a very limited distribution
in the West Indian region and is quite unknown in Porto Rico, but un-
like any other sea-star included in this report it is common in the Mediter-
ranean Sea and is really a member of that fauna. It is like Linckia
yfuildingii in its addiction to autotomous reproduction, but it uses only
the ordinary method of fission; and, so far as known, comet forms do not
occur. Owing to irregularities in the regeneration that follows fission, in-


dividuals with only 4 rays sometimes occur, while specimens with 6, 7, 8
and even 9 rays are met with. In fact the majority of specimens have 7
rays. The rays are nearly always unlike in size and hence it is very rare to
find a symmetrical specimen. The largest specimen I have seen is a sym-
metrical 5-rayed individual from Bermuda, with R1=135 mm. and br 18;
11=7.5 br. A specimen with 8 unequal rays has the largest ones about
90 x 12 mm. In life the ground color is yellow-brown, with markings of
darker brown, and of bluish or violet; the lower surface and the numerous
pedicellarite are cream-color or whitish. Verrill says, "It is usually some
light shade of violet or pale purple," but I do riot recall having seen uni-
color specimens.
Verrill records this species from Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verdes
and Brazil as well as from Cuba and Bermuda. The record from Cuba
needs confirmation. The occurrence of t afaiuspina in Bermuda seems to
me almost certainly the result of accidental introduction from Europe. If
the species occurs in the Cape \ rdec Islands. as is reported, its appearance
in Brazil is not at all hard to undcrstald.


Brittle-stars; serpent-star, basket-fish
The number and variety of brittle-stars found in the West Indian region
are so great that it has been very difficult to determine which species should
be included in the present report, for many of the littoral species extend
into water of considerable depth, and it is by no means unlikely that some
known as yet only from deep water will be found in the shallows or on
the reefs along shore. When I wrote my former report on the echinoderms
of Porto Rico (1901), I included all of the 49 species collected by the
"Fish Hawk" and mentioned half-a-dozen others that probably occurred.
But of the 49 species 17 were taken only in water exceeding 10 fins.
depth and hence they are not included here. On the other hand, our
knowledge of the West Indian littoral fauna has been so much extended
in the past 30 years that there are many forms which are to be added to
my 1901 list, especially since the present report covers a much greater
area. A number of species of brittle-star seem to have restricted ranges
so that forms found only on the Florida coast, or only at Tobago, have to
be included, in order to make the report usable everywhere in the West
Indian region.
After much consideration, I am treating, in the body of the report, no
fewer than 65 species from 9 families, and I have added 3 others to the


keys. A word in regard to these and to several species which I might be
expected to include, but have not, is in order here.
First, however, I wish to offer to the United States National Museum,
and to Mr. Austin Hobart Clark particular, my sincere thanks for
making it possible for me to reexaminie the critical species of my 1901
report, enabling me to discover and correct errors made by me when I had
had but little experience with brittle-stars and when no material for com-
parison was available to me. I wish to thank Mr. Clark and the National
Museum further for enabling me to examine the specimens from Trinidad
which Kcehler mistook for Ophiophragmins iuride and also for pro-
viding the two photographs of Ophio(nida cubana. which I am using in
this paper. This cordial cooperation by our great National Museum has
added greatly to the pleasure of preparing the present report.
Although Astrocyclus cwcilia has not yet been actually reported in less
than 10 fins., it is so persistently associated with gorgonians which occur
at a lesser depth that it will probably be found some day washed up on
the shore. As it is an easily recognizable form, I am including it in the
key. The northern Ophiacanthia bidentata was recorded by me from 220-
225 fins. off the western end of Porto Rico but the identification is not
certain. A much more perplexing record Koehler's (1914) of a dry
specimen from "St. Augustine, Florida. No depth mentioned." I do
not believe that bidentata occurs along the Florida coast except possibly
in deep water. HIoweve I have included the species in the key but not in
the body of the report. I am omitting altogether A miphiodia riisei, as I
find no trustworthy shallow- after West Indian record. Moreover, the
specimens which I called riisei in 1901 prove to be not Amphiodia at all.
They represent a species of Amphioplus which a hasty review oF the de-
scribed forms leads me to think is not as yet named. The specimen which
I recorded as Amphioplus stearnsii proves to be a young Ophiocoma, lack-
ing all granules on the disk. Because of this condition, which was very
perplexing to me in 1901, I believe this is a young riisei, in spite of the
color, which resembles that of pumila. The big Ophiactis which I made
the type of a new species, longibrachia, is, I think, a very large midlleri,
but these large specimens of Ophiactis from the West Indies need a very
careful revision. Too few of them have yet been taken to permit us to
reach any final conclusion. I recorded from Mayagtiez 3 specimens of
A mphipholis subtilis, but relixamination of the material shows it is really
quite unidentifiable. Hence I can find no reason for including subtilis,
even in the key. Finally, I am including in the key but not in the body


of the report, Ophiopsila polysticta, known as yet only from near Barbados,
and probably from a depth of more than 10 fins.
The large number of species to be included has made it necessary to
give a number of keys instead of a single key to all the West Indian brittle-
stars. The first key is to be used to determine the family to which a given
specimen belongs, and this is followed by the use of the key for the proper
family. It seems better to let the family keys follow directly after the
first key, rather than to interpolate them at the proper points in the report.
In using these keys it must be remembered that they are based solely on
the 69 species included. They cannot be used for any more inclusive
group, nor in any other area than the West Indian region.
In addition to those listed in the Introduction (pp. 5-6), the most im-
portant papers for reference purposes are Kmhler's, 1914, Bull. 84, U. S.
Nat. Mus., and II. L. Clark's, 1918, Bull. -M. C. Z., 62, No. 6. Both of
these papers are primarily concerned with West Indian brittle-stars.
In the present report the sequence of species is the same in the text as
in the keys

A. No upper arm-plates.
Arms simple, undivided ... .... .Ophiomyxide
Arms dichotomously branched. ......... Gorgonocephalid:e
AA. Upper arm-plates present and well formed, though in Ophimoryptius
they are concealed under a coat of fine granules.
B. Arm-spines relatively long (longer than an arm-segment) and
projecting from side arm-plates, often hollow; oral papillr
large and conspicuous, 7 or more on each of the five jaws ; den-
tal papillae similar or usually wanting altogether... Ophiacanthid:e
BB. Not as above.
C. Arm-spines short, solid, scarcely or not exceeding the seg-
ment, usually projecting more or less; *al papilhle small,
2-S (rarely 10) on each jaw: no dental papillhe; no supple-
mentary upper arm-plates...... ...Amphiuridt
CC. Not as above.
D. Arm-spines long, glassy; no oral papillh;e a conspicuous
cluster of small dental papilla at apex of jaw: no
supplementary upper arm-plates..........Ophiotrichidae
DD. Not as above.
E. Disk covered with a very fine, almost microscopic
scaling, without granules; arm-spines relatively
long. but usually more or less appressed ; large
supplementary upper arm-plates present; one
large, flat, nearly circular tentacle-scale......


IE'. Not as above.
F. Both oral papillla and .dental papillce present;
anr-spines big and conspicuous... Ophiocomidie
FF. No dental papillie; arm-spines ver. small,
Disk closely covered with granules con-
cealing the underlying scales; 4 genital
slits in each interbrachial area.
Disk covered with plates or -ales; only
2 genital slits in each interbrachial
a riea ................ Ophiolepididme


Only one species of this family occurs in shallow -ater in the West Indies.


Only' 1 niadreporite..................... ..... Astropliyton muricatum
A madrelporlte in each interbrachial area ................ (Astrocyclus ca'cilia)


A. Armis 6(; disk with scales many of which bear small erect spinelets.
Arim-spines 3 (basally may be 4). uppermost (or next to top. when
-4 are present) distinctly longest. equalling 11/, segments........
Ophia mcatha oligacantha
Arm-spines 4, not exceeding a segment..........
Oph iacantha ophiactoidcs
AA. Arms
B. Disk covered with granules only ..... (Ophiacantha bidentata)
]B1. Disk covered with granules and small spinelets...........
Opiotreta lit toralis
Ill. Disk covered with apparently naked skin.
Disk pentagonal : when dry line scales and large radial
shields visible: upper alinr-plates not more than twice
is wide as long . .(.lOpimomitrella labra
Disk circular 'oviered iy naked .in without scales; upiier
arm-plates ; time. as wide as long.....Oiphihobleiina aitillcnsis


-s with a pair of block-like *al papilhe at apex (which may ap-
pear like 1one block) am] one (rarely 2) small, scale-like or spine-
like papillwe at each distal angle.
11. Disk covered above and below with a close coat of sc; often
ariii-spines ( ......
Amphiura palmcri


CC. Tentacle-scales single (rarely 2 on a few basal pores).
). Disk 4-8 mmn. across; oral shields as long as wide or
longer; arm-spines 7, decreasing to 5: upper arm-
plates elliptical or nearly -ircular; no dusky spot on
upper arm-spines. ..........Amphlura fibulata
I)D. Disk 3-4 mam.; oral shields as wide as long or wider;
arm-spines 5 or 4; upper arm-plates, rounded tri-
angular with proximal angle truncated: a dusky spot
on upper arm-spines.. .A mpliura stimpsonii
BB. Disk without scales on the interbrachial 'as orally and even
(in some species) dorsally also.
C. Upper surface of disk fully covered with scales..........
Hfenmipholis clongata
CC. Upper surface partly, (except for radial shields)
D. Oral shields longer than wide : a single small tentacle-
scale present; arms moderately long and slender....
Ophioneph thiys limticola
DD. Oral shields wider than long; no tentacle-scales: arms
excessively long and slender....... Ophion ina intricate.
AA. Jaws not as above.
B. Jaws with 3 or more oral papillea- on each side, distal ione usually
largest, innermost may be block-like; tentacle-seales often 2.
C. Disk with a marginal series of distinct erect (though often
low and blunt) spinelets in the interbrachial areas.
D. Marginal papilhe of disk, thick, blunt, not spiniform.
E. Radial shields broad, length twice width or less;
no longitudinal stripe on lower surface of arm.
F. Basal under arin-plates swollen ; no longi-
tudinal stripe on upper surface of arm.
G. Oral surface of interbraelihia areas cov-
ered by scales not bearing granules..
Ophioptraignmus wcurdcmanii.
GG. Oral surface of interbrachial areas with
the scales concealed by -oat of
granules Oph/c ioph/iragmi 1. filogra newu
FF Basal under armn-plates not swollen ; a con-
splieuous longitudinal stripe on upper side
of arm ....... Ophiopiraginitus pulchcr
EE. Itadial shields ii: length two or three times
the width: a conspicuous lolngitu dinal stripe on
lower surface of ...Opihiophragi mus septus
DD. Marginal papilhe of disk and ver. acute ....
Ophiolphriflitus liilikeni
CC. Disk with no margin: 's of spinclets though emeany disk-
'ales along the margin may 1 t turnl'd up on edge. making
a sort of marginal border.



D. Outermost oral papilla, low, wide and upercular, with
its fellow of the adjoining jaw capable of completely
losingg outer half (if mouth slit.
E. Disk smoothly covered with scales.
F. Arms long, ten Limes disk diameter or more.
G. Disk scales very small; middle arm-
spine pointed ; arms very slender...
A.4mphipholis gracillinta
GU. Disk scales rather coarse; middle arm-
spine very blunt ; arms not so slender
A niphipholis pachybuctra
FF. Arms short, only 3 or 4 times disk-diameter
Amphipholis squamata
E Disk covered with scattered blint spinelets of
unequal size concealing the scales............
Ophiostigma isacanthumn
D1)1). Outermost oral palpilla not opercular though it may be
much the largest.
E'. Jaws with 3 oral papillae on each side, of which
the outermost Is commonly the largest.
F. Disk covered with scales which bear no spine-
0. Tentacle-scales 2.
H. Aria-spines slender and pointed.
I, Radial shields short and wide,
often nearly circular; basal
part of arm more or less
carinatee on upper surface;
16-20 marginal scales in each
interbrachial area, dorsally,
in a specimen 9 mun. across
disk ........Aiphiodia gyira.ipis
II. Radial shields about twice as
long as wide; basal part of
arm not carinate; about 12
marginal scales each in-
terbrachial area of 9 inln.
specimen .Amnphlodia limbata
IIII. Arm-spines short and blunt or
even truncate.
1. Disk scales and radial shields
smooth arms rather stout:
uppermost arm-spines flat.
wide, rounded.
,T. Arms 7-8 times disk-di-
ameter; adoral plates
do not meet proximal
to oral shields.

K. Disk scales 10-25 per
square millimeter;
radial shields less
than twice as lung
as wide; upper
arm-plates square
cut on lateral
Amiphiodia planispina
KK. Disk scales about
50 per square mil-
limeter; radial
shields a b o u t
thrice as long as
wide; upper arm
plate. rounded
Amphiodia rhabdota
Arms 15 times disk-di-
V ameter; adoral plates
meet fully proximal to
oral shields..
Amph iodia tymbara
II. Disk scales and radial shields
rugose: arins very slender;
arm-spines small and blunt..
Ampliiodia trychna
GG. Tentacle-seale single.
H. Disk covered with fine scales among
which the primary plates are dis-
tinguishable and often conspicuous
Amphiodia pulchella
IIH. Disk covered with very fine scales
among which no primary plates
can be distinguished.
An.phiodia repens
FF. Disk covered with scales bearing more or less
nufmlerous spinelets.
G. Tentacle-scales 2; radial shields nar-
row. 2-3 times as long as wide; arms
not conspicuously banded.......
Ophliocnida scabriuscula
GG. Tentacle-scales 2. only at base of arm:
radial shields subtriangular, not
twice as long as wide; arms conspicu-
ously banded ......... Ophiocnida cubana
EE. Jaws with 4 or 5 small oral papillae on each side, of
which the outermost is very seldom the largest.


F. Inlerbrachial areas below covered with
scales; oral shields much longer than wide.
G. Tentacle-scales 2; interbrachial areas
below with a complete covering....
A mphioplus a bditus
Tentacle-scale single; interbrachial
areas sparsely 'overcd with minute
scales...........A. aphioplus thrombodes
FF. Interbrachial areas below naked ; oral shields
as wide as long or wider..
AmphiopluM coniortodes
BB. Jaws with 1 or 2 oral papilhe on each side (on some jaws excep-
tionally 3) and no block-like papilhe at apex; tentacle-scale
single, large.
C. Upper arnm-pilates more or less fn-sllhaped, the proximal angle
truncate to sole extent; nrial-spines each with a
dusky spot on upper side. .Ophi tctlis alli'ola
CC. Upper arm-plates transversely llipsoidal. 1.3-4 times as
wide as long, broadly in contact.
D. paperr arm-plates not at all swollen, the distal margin
even, without a notch a dark spot on each side;
-olors not illmply green and ( white.
Arms ( ; size small (3-4 nun. across disk ), arms short
(:t-5 times disk diameter) oral papilla single,
large. nearly circular : more or less blue in colora-
tion .... ... Ophiactis cyano-sticta
EE. Arms 5 ; (7-15 nun.), arms long (6-7 times
disk 2 oral papilhe on each side;
blue. .Ophiuctis miilleri
I)1). Copper arui-plates swollen, the distal margin notched or
with a dark spot oach side; 5 arms in adult, 6 in
young: oral papilbe usually 2 on each side but ocea-
sionally 1 or none; colors green and white, no blue
Opkiactis savigiiyi

KEY TO TIH E Opml ioTriiiCILu.I

A. A median line, white, black or colored, upper surface of arm,
lIast oll distal portion.
I,. I)isk more or e.. stumllps or aeicuilar
lets, or both.
C. Radial shields small, at least the inner ends, like disk, cov-
ered wilh minute spinelets. ... .... .Ophiot hrir ailli lulata
Radial shields large and hare, the narrow interradial areas
bel ween with a few :ular spines .... Ophiothrt.r
BliB. Disk with only low, rough granules....... .......Ophiothrix. lineata
AA. No median line on arm, even at tip.
II. Arms beautifully and regularly cross-banded with narrow lines
of white or yellow............................Ophiothri.r Orstedii


BB. Arms not so banded.
C. Disk covered with large, bare radial shields and relatively
few distinct scales each of which carries a single, low,
thorny stump; arms short. ..... Ophiothrix brachyactis
CC. Not as above.... ...... Some varieties of Op/iiothrix angulate


A. General coloration more or less green tolive-gray in preserved speci-
mens) ; middle armnn-spine much longer than the others, more or less
club-shaped ; disk scaling relatively co '.se........ Op/iioncreil olivacea
AA. Not as above.
B. Arm-spines moderately long, greatly exceeding an arm-segment;
disk pearl gray, generally marked with a net-work of dark
lines; arms sharply banded with dark brown, the bands usually
about one segment wide ....... Oph ioncreis reticilata
BB. Arm-spines short little exceeding a segment; disk reddish-white
in life, gray or yellowish in preserved material, variegated with
several shades of brown; arms banded but distal boundary of
hands indistinct and 2 or 3 segments are thus included in each
band... .. Ophiotcrc'is squamiulosa


A. Tentacle-scales 1 or 2, but if 2, the inner is not long. flat and spine-like.
B. Disk granules nearly or quite spherical (sometimes wanting in
young individuals) color very dark (except in some young
C. Tentacle-scales 2 (single oftentimes on indivii al pores or
near tip of arm) black orl blackish, unicolor or variegated
with cream-color or whitishi ; no red ....... Ophiioi om crhinlta
CC. Tentacle-scale single (2, often on basal pores I black or deep-
brown, orally tinged with rust-red; 0no white or whitish.
Ophiocomi riis i
BB. Disk granules, some or all, at least near disk margin, higher than
thick, tending to be spiniform : not very dark colored..........
Ophioconiii piu ila
AA. Tentacle-scales 2. the inner long, flat and spine-like, lying diagonally
across lower surface of arm.
B. Disk and basal part of arms, above and below, more or less freely
sprinkled with black dots... ........ Ophiopsila riisci
B. No such sprinkling of black dots.
C. Disk without scales or spots ; arm-spines S, arms banded....
Ophiop.sila vittata
CC. Disk with scales, spotted or -ariegated ; arni-spines 6.
D. Middle arm-spines smallest, at least, proximally; more
or less orange color on disk ..... Ophiopsila hartmeypcri
DD. Middle arm-spines not smaller than upper; -adial
shields white; no orange........ (Ophiopsila polysticta)



A. Upper surface of arms not covered with granules ; oral shields (ex-
cept in very young specimens of one or two species) bare.
B. Upper arm-plates single and undivided, or occasionally in large
specimens divided into 2 or 3 parts.
C. Radial shields, all covered by fine granulation of disk (150-
200 granules per sq. mm.) colors most diverse.
D. Arm-spines S-10, the lowest obviously the widest and
longest, about equal to the segment.
Ophiodcrnma pp-rcssunt
DD. Not as above.
E. Arms short, 3-4 times disk diameter; arm-spines
7-9, subequal, about 2/3 as long as joint; usually
more or less green, often a blue-green, in colora-
tion ............. Ophiodervna brevicaudum
EE. Arms longer, 4-5 times disk diameter; arm-spines
F. Arms not noticeably carinate at base, nor
very attenuate at tip; arni-spines subequal,
more or less pointed, equal to rather more
than half an arm segment..............
Ophioderma brevispiinum
FE. Arms somewhat carinate at base, quite at-
tenuate distally; arm-spines flat, blunt,
longer and closer together than in brevi-
spinnum................. Ophiodernia januarii
CC. Radial shields bare, or in certain individuals (especially
of 0. phwniunm), 1 or more mn be covered.
D. Color gray or gray-brown, often dark; no red or green;
arms usually banded.............. Ophioderma cincreum
DDI). Colors brighter, red of some shade, or green, or both, be-
ing evident.
E. Disk brick-red, arms green, or disk and arms
either red or green ; arms not banded or only
faintly so................... Ophtiodernma phmniumn
EE. Disk and arnis variegated with purplish-red or
deep rose-red and cream-color, whitish or pale
gray arms often distinctly banded...........
Ophiodermne rubicunduom
BB. Upper arm-plates broken up into 7 or more smaller plates, usually
symmetrically arranged.
C. Each upper arm-plate divided into many small pieces, the
number and arrangement of which are difficult to deter-
mine; color slate-gray above, little changed by preserva-
tion Ophioderma guttatum
CC. Each uplper arm-plate divided into a single transverse series
of 7 or ,! plates: color in life brilliant vermilion-red, wholly


lost on preservation ; musenui specimens are buff or cream-
color Ophioderma squaottsisimum
AA. Upper and under surfaces of both disk and arms covered with a fine
coat of granules; color pale gray above, white beneath; arms
faintly banded ...................... Ophiocryptus dubius
A. Upper arm-plates with no supplemental. pieces; disk convex, rough
with slightly swollen plates...... ................ Ophiozona impressa
AA. Upper arm-plates with a small supplementary piece on each side.
B. Disk flat and smooth; armn-spines 4-6...... ...... Ophiolepis eleguns
BB. Disk convex, rough; arm-spines minute, 2 or 1.................
Ophiolepis paucispina.

Family 01'ItOMYXID.E
Ophiomyxa flaccida (Say)
Ophiura flaccida Say, 1825, Jour. Phila. Acad., v, p. 151.
Ophio(myxa flaccida Ltitken, 1859, Add. ad. List. Oph., pt. 2, pp. 79, 138. H. L.
Clark, 1919, Publ. 281 Carnegie Inst. Wash., Pl. 1 (colored).
This large and active brittle-star shows extraordinary diversity of colora-
tion: usually of a dull shade of green or yellow-brown, it is sometimes
more or less conspicuously variegated with cream-color, and often the
coloration is very bright, ranging on the one hand through orange-brown
to orange or even bright yellow, and on the other through deep brown and
red-brown to lighter and brighter shades even to rose-red; the arms are
commonly banded on the distal half with a few irregular markings of
whitish. Living, it is, when full grown, about 25 mm. across the disk and
the arms are nearly or quite 4 times as much, but, because of the softness
of the disk, specimens shrink greatly when dried. The distribution is
from Bermuda on the north to Brazil on the south; it is known from
Bermuda, the Bahamas, southern Florida, Jamaica, Haiti, Porto Rico, St.
Thomas, St. Lucia, Tobago and the northern and northeastern coasts of
South America. It is often common under slabs of rock on reef flats and
along shore in very shallow water, but it also occurs down to depths of
over 100 fms.
The Academy collection contains 5 specimens, all adults and all from
Mangrove Island, Parguera, Ensenada, collected June 27, 1915, by R. W.
Miner, II. Mueller and 'M. A. HIowe. Two are dark colored and were
probably olive-green in life while the other three are much lighter and
were probably orange or yellow. The "Fish Hawk" collection contained
one specimen from Ensenada Honda (Culebra) and Mr. Gray found the
species at San Juan.


Astrophyton muricatum ( Lamarek)
Euriyale muricatum Lanmarck, 1810, Anim. ;. Vert., li, p. 538.
AstrophytolL muricatum Miiller and Troscliel, 1842, Syst. Ast., p. 122. Dlder-
lein, 1911, Japan. Euryalhe, P. 5, fig. 1.
This remarkable animal, very similar in appearance to the "basket-fish"
or "sea-spiders" of the North Atlantic coasts, is easily recognized among
the West Indian littoral ophiurans by the many-times divided arms, the
interlacing and curving inward of which give the curious form that has
suggested the name "basket-fish" or, better, "basket-star." Related species
occur in deep water but this is the only one that is seen washed up on the
beach, sometimes still clinging to the horny coral upon which it is corm-
monly found, and sometimes free: in the latter condition the arms are
generally rolled inward so tightly over the mouth that the whole animal
has the form of a compact, flattened hemisphere. The color is usually
yellowish-brown, but varies more or less and is sometimes dirty whitish.
Verrill, 1899, gives the color as light chocolate brown with irregular
blotches of darker brown on the disk; lie describes a young one as choco-
late color variegated with white, the arms banded with brown and yellow-
ish-white. As for size, the disk in adults is 25-30 mm. across, while the
if completely extended, vould be 5 or 6 times as much ; when the
arms are curled inward in a normal degree of contraction the "basket" is
about 130-150 nun. across. This Astrophyton seems to be an inhabitant
chiefly of the northwestern part of the West Indian region. It is known
only from the Bahamas, the southeastern coast of the United States, in-
cluding the Tortugas, and from Jamaic, It has not yet been reported
from Porto lRico but Verrill says the range extends to St. Croix. It has
been reported from Brazil but this record and that from St. Croix require

0 order L/ IlOPHI I (RI)1

Ophiar'antha oligacantha II. L. Clark
Oplhii'ianthl oligacantha 11. L. Clark, 1918, Dull. M.C.Z., lxii, p. 205 ; P1l.
This species is known only from a single small specimen taken by me
at the Tortugas ((arden Key) in .iJune, 1!)17. It was living in coralline
algm along shore. It resembles the following species in having six arms,
and it is not unlikely that each is the young of some much larger species.


The type of the present species is 3 nmm. across the disk and the arms are
15 rum. long. The color is yellow-brown and the arms are irregularly
Ophiacantlia ophiactoides If. L. Clark
Ophiacantha ophiactoides II. L. Clark, 1901, Bull. U. S. Fish Corn., ii, p. 2409;
Pl. 15, figs. 5-8.
This little brittle-star is recorded as vet only from Porto Rico, and the
adult is still unknown. There are six arms in each of the two specimens
which have been collected and this is probably a species character, though
it is possibly only an evidence of immaturity. The original specimen was
very pale yellowish-green, the arms banded with brown : the specimen at
hand is pale yellowish-brown, with no evident banding of the arms. Each
of the two specimens is about 2 nmi. across the disk, with the arms about
8 1111mm. long.
The Academy collection contains the second known specimen of this
little Ophiacantha. It was taken at the mangrove island and coral reef at
the entrance to Montalva Bay, Ensenada, June 27, 1915, by P. \V Miner,
IT. Mueller and IM. A. Howe. The original specimen taken byv the
"Fish Hawk," on coral sand, in 10 fins., at Gallardo Bank.

Ophiotreta littoralis (Koehler)
OphioliinJa littorilis Koehler, 1913, ZoWl. Jalrhb. 11, 370; PI.
Ophiiotreta liltoralis H. I,. Clark, 1915, 3enm. M.C.Z.,
This is another species of which little is known, so few specimen
have been taken. It reaches a diameter of 10 mm. and the arms are at
least four times as long. Nothing is recorded as to color, either in life
or as preserved specimens, so it is probably not distinctive. It has been
taken at "La Havane" (presumably a littoral station at hlav Cuba)
and at St. Thomas. It is not in the .Academy collection.

Ophioniltrella glabra (II. Clark)
Ophialcwa glabra II. L. Clark, 1901, Bull. U. S. Fish. Com., 249, PI.
figs. 1-4.
Ophiomitr(llia yilnbra II. L.. Clark, 1915, Mem. M.C.Z..
The original and only known specimen of this brittle-star was taken by
the "Fish Hawk" at Playa de .Ponce. There is no record of the depth
at which it occurred but as all the other echinoderms collected at Ponce
are strictly littoral forms, it seems very possible, if not certain, that this
species is also a shallow-water form. The type was 12 mm. across the
disk; all of the arms were broken but they were evidently rather stout.


The color was uniformly dark brown, with a few spots and blotches of
yellowish-white on the interbrachial areas below; the under surface of
the arms and the mouth parts were whitish. When preparing the key to
the Ophiacanthids for this report, my attention was called to the absence
of any well marked characters by which this species (0. glabra) can be
distinguished from the next, the long lost Ophioblenna. The resemblances
are very striking and suggest the possibility of identity.
Ophioblenna antillensis Liitken
Ophioblenna antillunsxi Liltken, 1&59, Add. ad Hist. Oph., ii, p. 137 Pl. 4, figs.
Mr. A. I1. Clark (1921) has well expressed the situation as concerns
this species: "The greatest mystery connected with the Caribbean ophiu-
rans concerns the genus Ophioblenna. The only known species, 0. antil-
lensis, was described in 1859 from two specimens collected at Water Island,
St. Thomas. In spite of all the collecting that has since been done in
the West Indies and even at Water Island itself, no others have over come
to light." The larger of the original specimens was 20 mm. across the
disk and the arms were about 90 mm. long. The color was brown; the
disk with whitish dots and fine lines, the arms with light bands. The
resemblance to Ophiiomitrella glabra in many details is very striking-
even suggesting identity.
Amphiura palmeri Lyman
Aimphiura paliicri Lyman. 18S2, Challenger Oph., pp. 123. 143. 1S75. Illus. C,
31. C. Z., No. 8. pt. 2, Il. 3, figs. 35-;:7 (as A. fle.ruo.a? Ljn.).
A4mphiura kiikenthali Koehler, 1913. Zo figs. 1-4.
There are records of the discovery of this species at Barbados in deep
water and off Georgia in 262 fins. but as a shallow-water form it has been
taken only on the southeastern coast of the United States. particularly
Florida and the Tortugas, and at St. Thomas. It is not known from
Porto RIico, unless, as Koehler (1914, p. 48) suggests, the specimen which
I recorded from Fish Hawk St. 6066 as A. fle.ruosa is this species; that
specimen, however, was taken in 162-171 finms. The disk of palmer may
be 8 mm. across and the arms over 60 rum. long. The disk is pale yellowish
or gray, the arms yellowish or light brown, in dry specimens. I find no
satisfactory character by which Koehler's kiikenthali may be distinguished
from palmeri. The distinguished French author is simply mistaken in
supposing (in 1913) that the interbrachial areas below are bare in palmer.



In 1914, when he discusses and figures the latter species, showing that
these areas are well covered with scales, he seems to have forgotten
kiikenthali altogether.
Amiphiura fibulata Koehler
Amphiura fibulata Koehler, 1913, ZouI. Jahrb. Suppl. 11. 1011, Bull. 84
U. S. Nat. Mus., PI. 7, figs. 3-5. 0
This Amphiura is known only from near Key West, Florida, where a
single specimen was taken in a little over five fathoms of water. The
color is not given by Koehler other than to say that on the upper surface
of the arms is "a very light yellowish stripe, which can hardly be dis-
tinguished on the specimen in alcohol." The disk was 8 mm. across and
the arms were "much longer" than 70-75 mm.
Amrphiura stimupsonii Liitken
Amphiura stimpsonii Liitken, 1859, Add. ad Hist. Oph., p. 110. Koehler,
1914, Bull. 84 U. S. Nat. Mus., P1. 7, figs. 1, 2.
Amphiura vivipara II. L. Clark, 1918, Bull. M. C. Z., lxii, p. 208; Pl. 1, figs. 1,
Koehler records from Key West six specimens of this small species and
says it has been reported "at various littoral stations in the West Indies."
The "Fish Hawk" took a single small specimen at Mayagiiez, "on the
reefs," and I dredged a specimen 6 mm. across the disk at the Tortugas,
in 7-8 fins., in June, 1917. This individual was very pale yellow in life
with a longitudinal stripe of bright orange on the upper surface of the
arm. This recalls the similar stripe in A. fibulata. The range of stimp-
sonii extends to Brazil, where it has been taken in 35 fms. It is also re-
corded from Barbados in 69 fins. and from the west coast of Florida in
42 fins. It is not represented in the Academy collection.
Under the name Amphiura vivipara, I redescribed small specimens of
this brittle-star in 1918, being impressed with the fact that they were
viviparous, at least at Tobago. They superficially resemble Amphipholis
squamata very closely and for that reason I entirely overlooked Liitken's
little-known species, so well figured and redescribed by Koehler in 1914.
We found small specimens of stimpsonii very abundant in the coralline
algam at Buccoo Bay, Tobago. They are also common at the Tortugas in
a similar habitat. More intensive collecting will no doubt reveal the
presence of the species generally throughout the West Indies, under suit-
able conditions. The small specimens are only 3-4 mm. across the disk
and the arms are only 15-20 mm. long. The color of disk is grayish,
usually with a few blackish spots; arms and lower surface pale yellowish
to distinctly yellow; arms indistinctly banded distally with dusky; arm-
spines frequently dusky or with a dusky spot, otherwise whitish. A variety


(annulata), found with the ordinary form, has fine transverse lines of
red on the upper surface of the arms. These lines gradually disappear
in preserved material. Large individuals, 6 mm. or more across the disk,
apparently live in deeper water, as indicated by the one mentioned above,
which I dredged at the Tortugas. This specimen is so much like the
smaller ones that I am puzzled now as to why I did not recognize their
identity in 1918.
Hemipholis elongate (Say)
Ophiura elongate Say. 1825, Jour. Phila. Acad., v. 146.
Hemipholis elongata Lyman, 1805. Illus. Cat. M. C. Z., No. 1, 1: P1. 1, figs.
1-3 (colored; as H. cordifera).
Large specimens of this handsome brittle-star mn have the disk 10
niam. across and the arms nearly or quite 90 mm. long. The disk is gray
of some shade, often with an olive tinge, and sometimes so (lark as to ap-
pear almost black; in dry specimens it is much lighter; the arms are
brownish, faintly banded with a slightly darker shade. The distribution
is extensive as it has been taken at Charleston, S. C., and at Desterro,
Brazil. It has also been recorded from Florida and Trinidad.
The Academy collection adds this fine species to the recorded fauna
of Porto Rico. An individual, 7 mm. across the disk, with arms 60-65
nmm. long, very dark olive-gray with faintly banded arms, was taken, June
23, 1915, by I{. W Miner, but there is no record as to exact locality or
Ophionephthys limicola Liitken
Ophilonephthys limicola Liitken. 1809, Add. ad Hist. Oph., pt. 3, pp. 24, fig.
This species was based on specimens taken at St. Thomas many years
ago. It had not been encountered since until, in June, 1917, I took two
specimens at Loggerhead Ke Tortugas, in shallow water. The disk is
missing in all of the five available specimens but it must reach a diameter
of at least 10 nun. to judge from the scars at the base of the arms; the
length of the arms is 120-130 mm. Liitken says the disk was 13 mm.
across in his specimen but lie could not estimate the arm length. Riise
wrote him that the color in life was yellow-green, with a darker green
stripe, and the arms yellowish. In preserved material the arms and mouth-
frame are pale brown or cream color without markings. uiise took his
specimen in 12 feet of water on a muddy bottom.
Ophionemla intricata Liitken
Ophi cnrma intricate Liitken, 1809. Add. ad Hist. Oph., pt. 3, pp. 27 (fig.), 94, 98.
I In already given (1918. Bull. M. C. Z. 62) a full account of the
rediscovery of thi< cxltraordini brittle-star at Tob. Thrie extreme


length of the arms, twenty times the disk diameter, is but one of several
remarkable features. St. Thomas and Tobago are the only places at
pre. mt known where Ophionema occurs, but intensive collecting in suit-
able mud will probably reveal it in many other regions. The disk is 6-8
mm. across and the arms 140-150 mm. long. The disk is black with the
radial shields white in marked contrast; the upper surface of the arms
is pale yellowish or nearly white with an irregular, and often broken,
longitudinal band of deep purple on each side; on the under surface of
the arm, except basally, there are frequent splashes of faint purple, giving
a somewhat irregularly-banded appearance to the under side of the arms.

Ophiophragnius wurdemnanii (Lyman)
Plate VI, text-figure 1
Amphiura wurdetmanii Lyman, 1860, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vii, p. 196.
Ophiophragmus wurdemanii Lyman, 1865, Illus. Cat. M. C. Z., No. 1, pp. 12, 132.
This species is known from Charlotte Harbor, Florida, and Beaufort,
N. C., but it has not yet been found at any West Indian island. The
specimens recorded by Kochler (1914, Bull. 84,
U S. Nat. Mus., p. 42 ; I1. 8, figs. 1, 2) as "Op/hio-
phruiagu.s ivwui ermani" are not this species but
are Ainphiodia limbata, as a reexamination has
shown. When adult, ourdemaniui about 10
across the disk and the arms are 100-125
mm. long. The color varies a good deal between
light and dark extremes; the disk is cither cream-
color, grayish or light brown. while the upper sur-
face of the arms is -ariegated dusky and cream-
color; at one extreme the are cream-color
with scattered irregular 'ross-marking of dusky,
while at the other the arms are dusky or deep
with scattered markings of cream color. Fla. I.--Ophiophir

Ophiopliragmus lilegraneus (ymnian)

Ophiocniida filogranca Lyman, illus. C' linonfo
M1. C. Z., No. S, lit. 2. p. 20, figs. S!).
Ophiophragmuis filogranci s H. L. Clark, 1918, Bull. 'M. C. Z.,
2. figs. .1, 5.

i if trdem ati li
I LI.1yman). nIIturial size,
upti r side. S[ipcimen from

rI. C.

274; Pl.

This curious long-armed brittle star is known as yet ony] from tlhe west
(coast of Florida between Punntaras; and Cedar Key. It is common in
Tamipa Bay where it lives buried mud. In adults the disk G mm.
across and the arms 80 mm. long. Nothing is recorded as to color but


dry specimens are deep gray above, more or less variegated with whitish,
and dirty whitish below.
Ophiophragmnus pulchler H. L. Clark
Ophiophragnius pulcher H. L. Clark, 1918, Bull. M. C. Z., lxii, p. 274; Pl. 8, fig. 1.
This handsome species is known only from the Tortugas, Florida,
where I secured .5 specimens, in June, 1917, on Bird Key reef-flat in 2-3
ft. of water, and near Loggerhead Key in 5-7 fins. These specimens ranged
in size from less than 3 to 71/2 mm. across the disk; in the young ones the
arms are only about 7 times the disk diameter but in adults they are
10-12 times the disk. In life, the disk is uniformly gray, the arms yel-
lowish-white; at intervals of 4-6 segments, one or two upper arm plates
are bright green and there is also a narrow longitudinal stripe of green
running the whole length of the arm but rather faint proximally. In
young specimens this stripe is bright orange red. Oral surface nearly
white but certain under-arm plates are dusky, or greenish or bright green.
In dry specimens the green persists well but the red has faded completely.
Ophiophragnius septus (Liitkeu)
Amphiura septa Liitken, 1859, Add. ad Hist. Oph., pt. 2, p. 120.
Amphipholis septa Lfltken, 1872. Of. Kong. D)anske vid. selsk. Forh., Pl. 2,
figs. 3a, 3b.
Ophiophragmnus septus Lyman, 18.; Illus. Cat. M1. C. Z., No. 1, p. 132.
This species was originally taken at St. Thomas but has not been seen
in that region since. Off Cape Hatteras, in 52 fins., the "Albatross" took
2 specimens, Feb. 29, 1884, which Koehler has described and figured
(1914, Bull. 84 U. S. Nat. Mus., p. 67, Pl. 6, figs. 4-7) as ".1 mphiodia
erecta." lie compared them with 0. liitkeni, but he apparently did not
think of septus. In April, 1916, I found this species at Sandy Point,
Buccoo Bay, Tobago. It was not common but several were secured by
digging in the mud where it lived with liitkceni, Ophionema, and Amphio-
dias. Adult specimens are 9 mm. across the disk and the arms are about
10 times that. The disk in life is gray, the arms yellowish, more or less
clouded or blotched with yellowish green, and having a longitudinal
stripe of a darker shade on the upper surface. There is also a similar
stripe on the lower side of the arm but this seems to fade away after
Ophiopliragmus liitkeni (Ljungman)
Amphipholis liitkeni Ljungman, 1871, ofv. Kongl. Vet. Akad. FUrh., xxviii, p.
Amphiodia liitkeni Koehler, 1914, Bull. 84 U. S. Nat. Mus., p. 69, Pl. 6, figs. 1, 2.
Ophiophragmus liitkeni IIH. L. Clark, 1918, Bull. M. C. Z., lxil, p. 277.


This species was originally collected at Tortola, Virgin Islands, in 10
fins. It has been encountered since only at Sandy Point, Buccoo Bay,
Tobago, where I found it common in two or three feet of water, buried
in soft sandy mud, in company with 0. septus, Ophionema intricate and
species of Amphiodia. No doubt search in similar localities, with a
spade and a sieve, will reveal the presence of this and other brittle stars
of like habits at many other islands. The disk is 5-6 mm. across in adults
and the arms 80-90 nan. in length. The upper surface of the disk is pale
cream-color with many scales and the radial shields more or less gray
or dusky. The upper arm plates are a deep gray, variegated or imper-
fectly and irregularly banded with cream-color. Arm spines nearly white.
Lower surface cream color, the distal parts of the arms somewhat varie-
gated with dusky. The coloration is little affected by preservation.

Amplhipholis gracillimna (Stimpson)
Ophiolepis gracillima Stimpson, 1852, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist.. iv. p. 224.
Amphipholi. gracillima Ijungmnan, 187, 6fv. Kongl. Yet. Akad. Foirh., xxiii, p.
314. H. L. Clark, 1915, MAem. AlM. C. Z., xxv, Pl. figs. 6.
This is one of the wide-ranging species, having been taken at Charleston,
S. C., Bermuda, and at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, as well as at the inter-
mediate points of Tampa Bay (Florida), St. Thomas, and Tobago. Its
bathymetrical range seems to be very small: shore line to 61/) fathoms. The
disk is gray and the arms pale brown,. preserved specimens. Adults
have the disk 7 or 8 mm. across, while the greatly elongated arms are
nearly 18 times as much.
There is no representative of this species in the Academy collectionn
although several Amnphiodias are labelled as such. It has been reported
from Porto Rico but the record requires confirmation.

Amiplipholis pachyba'ttra II. L. Clark
Amphipholis paclmUbactra II. L. Clark, 1918, Bull. M. C. Z., p. 284; PI. 1,
figs. 3-5.
This species was taken by me at Sandy Point, Buccoo Bay, Tobago,
in April, 1916, and it has not yet been reported from any other place.
It lives in mud with Ophionema, Ophiophragmus and other amphiurids
and hence only special and extensive collecting will ever discover it.
The color in life is pale yellow with a greenish tinge and the arms are
unicolor, but in some specimens the disk is dusky and the arms are.more
or less variegated with dusky.



Amhiiiplolis squalIata, (Delle Chiaje)
Asterias squamtata Dt elle Chiaje, 1828, Moni. Anitm. Vert. Napo iii, p. 74.
Amphipholi-s .squamuata Verrill, 1899, Trans. Conn. Acead., x. 312. H. L. Clark,
1904, Bull. U. S. Fish. Com. for 1902, P1. 6, figs. 33, 34; I'l. 7, figs. 43, 44.
This is probably most widely distributed species of brittle star in
the world as it has taken in all Tepting only the cooler
regions of the two hemispheres. It is common at low-water mark but it
-xtenls its range outward into water nearly 200 fins. deep. As its habits
are secretive. it is easily overlooked, for it prefe the interior of dead
molluscan shells, particularly bivalves, or crannies in coral rock, or the
shelter of coralline alga. Various attempts have been nmide to distinguish,
as separate specie.- the individuals collected particular regions, such
as the West Indies. Chile, and Australia, but the similarities much
greater than the differences and satisfactory diagnoses for these supposed
species have yet to be made. The color of the disk is pale gray or nearly
white, with the distal ends of the radial shields white: this patch of white
at the base of each arm is usually quite distinctive. The arms are pale
brown, yellowish or white. The disk is less than 4, and usually less than
3 millimeters in diameter, and the arms are only about five times as much,
though there is some diversity in arm-length. Very young specimens may
have G arms, and show evidence of autotomy. The species is viviparous
and the newly born young li the disk bright orange-red and the
Intensive collecting has revealed this species at Bermuda, the Tortlugas,
Jamaic, and Tobago, and there is little doubt that it oc(ur, at e ry
West Indian island,
The "Fish Hawk" 'ailed to secure it in Porto Rico, but the Academy
collection contains two small but typical specimens: one was taken June
22, 1915, at a spot "across mouth of Guanica I harbor, by {. C Osburn;
the other was collected at Mangrove Island, Parguera, Ensenada, June
27, 1915, by i.. W Miner, If. Mueller and M3. A. Howe.
Ophiostigma isaicanlhum 'a.y )
Ophiura isacanttli Say, 182,. Jour. Phila. Acad., v, p. 150.
Ophiostigma isucwanthilun Lyman, 1805. Illus. Cat. M1. C. Z.. No. 1. p. 103. Koehler,
1913, Zool. Jllhrb. Sulppl. 11, PI. 20, figs. G, 7.
This little little star ranges from Bermuda, Florida, and the Tortugas,
to Tobago and Brazil. I ts dull color and curious rough disk render it
very inconspic.ious so that it is no doubt quite generally overlooked. It
has a considerable hathymetrical range, as it has been taken at 115 fins.
although it is most comllnon near low-water mark. The color is grayish

50 xCil-L


on the disk, light or dark as the case may be (rarely brown-violet), while
the arms, and sometimes the disk. are brownish with slight indications of
handing and of spots on the upper arm plates. The disk rarely exceeds
across, with arms 1 5 times as much. Young individuals (and
'asionally mature ones) imay have 6 arms, and there is reason to believe
that autotimnoii0us reproduction occurs.
The Academy collection contains small specimens; light
-olored, 'as taken July 10, 1915. southwest of Point Brea. (C Os-
burn; one, darker, taken .July 21. 1914. at Condado Bay, inside Don
IIernanos bridge, halfway up the ht San 1Juan, bly I'. W Miner. The
"Fish Hawk" took four small specimens at the eastern end of the island
in 20-23 fins.
AM 'll )IO)IA
The species of this genus are apparently in a of flux. many of
them are ill-defined and hover on the border lines that separate them
from Amphipholis on the one hand or from Amphioplus on the other.
While many of the species have three oral papilhe more or less equal, others
have the distal papilla distinctly larger, and it mu be very conspicuous.
The species are so numerous and so little known that complete specimens
are necessary for accurate identification and unfortunately the members
of the genus are particularly prone to shedding the disk on very slight
provocation. When roughly handled, especially if the sexual products are
near maturity, the disk is cast off. It is even supposed that in some species
this is the normal method of setting fre the eggs and sperm. This extraor-
dinalry habit is not confined to Amphiodia, it occurs other
Amphiurids (notably Ophionepthys and Ophionema) but it is particularly
noticeable in the West Indian members of this genus. As a result there
are several species, which have been taken in damaged or incomplete con-
dition and it cannot be determined to what known forms they should
he assigned. In the Academy collection there are represented two species
of which this is true. Both are young well as diskless-at least the
small size leads one to suppose they are young. One (Field No. 231 7,
A. -I. N. H. No. 1191) was taken "Cavo (aribe to Cayo Parguera," June
1915, by R. C Osburn ; it has 4 arm-spines and 2 tentacle-scales,
and it is quite possible that it is a very young gi/raspis. The other (Field
No. 2369, A. M3. X. II. No. 11:3) was taken "off the month of Guanica
Harbor, southeast of bell-buoy," July ,v 1! 15, by Ib C. Osburn; it has 3
peculiar, flat, truncate arm-sIpines and 2 tentacle-scales. It may possibly
be a young limbala. The known Amphiodias of West Indian shores are
as follows:


Amphiodia gyraspis H. L. ('lark
Antphipholi. yo. sii II. L. Clark, 1901. Bull. U S. Fish Com.. p. 247. (Non
Ljunginan, 1STI).
Amphiodia gyraspis H. L. Clark, 1915, Mem. 11. C. Z., p, p. 245; P1. 7, figs. 1-4.

This species is known as yet only from Porto Rico. It appears to be
very common at the western end of that island, in water 4.5 to 76 fathoms
deep, the "Fish Hawk" having taken 60 specimens at 9 stations. In
nearly all, the disk is missing but in those in which it is present it reaches
a diameter of 9) mrm. with the arms about ten times as much. As the
largest specimen has the arms 160 nmm. long, it is probable that the disk
of fully grown specimens exceeds 12 mm. The disk is grayish and the
arms brownish in preserved specinme as so often the case in the
Amphiurids. Not having seen specimens of cithe Amtphphol goesii or
gracillinma (which are apparently identical), when I was working up the
"Fish lHawk's" collection, and not being familiar with the very character-
istic month parts of Amphipholis, I determined these Porto Rican speci-
mens as goesii. Greater familiarity with amphiurids convinced me that I
was wrong and that gyraspis is an Amphiodia and not an Amphipholis.
The outer mouth papilla is often distinctly the largest but it does not have
the characteristic form and opercular character of the same papilla in
Amphipholis. The Academy collection contains no example of this spe-
cies, unless as already suggested, the small diskless specimen, No. 1191,
is a young one.
Amphiodia limbata Grulie)

Ophiolepis limbata Grube. 1S57. Arch. fur. Naturg., p. 313.
Amphiodia linbatuh IT. L. Clark, 1915, Memn. M. C Z.. ", p. 247; P1. S, figs. 3. 4.

This specie,' is known from Brazil and from Barbados (rather deep
water) and one small specimen was taken by the "Fish Hawk" in Porto
Rico, in 4-7.5 fins. of water on fine sand, in San Juan harbor. It appear:
to be common in Trinidad as 10 specimens taken there by the Albatross
in 1881, and identified by Koehler (1914, Bull. 84 IT. S. Nat. 2Mus., p. 42,
PI. 8, figs. 1, 2) "Ophiophruntyus a',ndermani," prove on reexaminila-
tion to be this species. When adult, limbala is 9-10 nmm. across the disk
and the arms are 6 times as long. The color of the disk in dry specimens
is pale gray (or white) and the arms are pale cream-color or pale brown
without markings. The species is not represented in the Academy ol-
lection unless as already suggested the small diskless specimen, No. 1173,
is a young one.


Amiphiodia planispina (von Martens)

Amphiura planispina von Martens, 1867, Mont K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. 1er-
lin, p. 347.
Amphiodia planispina Verrill. 1899, Trans. Conn. Acad., p. 313. II. L. Clark,
1915, Men). M. C. Z., xxv, PI. S, figs. S, 9.

This species was originally described from Brazil and there are speci-
mens in the Museum of Comparative Zodlogy from Rio de Janeiro and
Desterro. In 1901, I recorded a diskless Amphiodia from Porto Rico as
this species and a reexamination of the specimen justifies the identifica-
tion; but the record, of course, requires confirmation. In 1921, Mr. A. H.
Clark recorded a diskless specimen from Barbados-again confirmation is
necessary. I collected a large and perfect Amphiodia at the Tortugas
in 1917 which I have reported (1918) as planispina, but it is not typical.
This specirpen is 10 mm. across the disk and has the arms 70 mm. long.
In life, the disk was gray with a yellow tinge and the arms were yellowish-
white with some scanty dusky mottling on the upper surface. In typical
planispina this dusky purplish color is a conspicuous feature of the upper
side of the arms.
Amphiodia rhabdota fH. L. Clark

Amphiodia rhabdota II. L. Clark, 1918, Bull. M. C. Z., 1xii, p. 288; Il. 8, fig. 4.

This species is known only from a single specimen taken in mud and
eel-grass roots, in 2-3 ft. of water at Bush Key, the Tortugas, Florida,
June 18, 1917. It is 6 mm. across the disk and the arms are 40-45 mm.
long. The disk is gray and the arms yellowish-white, with a distinct but
sometimes interrupted dusky longitudinal stripe on the upper surface;
there are also faint, irregular, dusky markings on the upper arm-plates.
Most of the under arm-plates have a median longitudinal dash of brown-
Ainphiodia tymbara H. L. Clark

Amphiodia tymbara II. L. Clark, 1918, Bull. MI. C. Z., 1xii. p. 290; 11. 2, fig. C.

Here is still another of the extraordinary amphiurids living in the
sandy mud of Buccoo Bay, Tobago. Only one specimen was found. It is
8 mm. across the disk while the arms are at least 150 mm. long. Color,
in life and as preserved, variegated gray and white above, nearly white
below. No doubt, at some future date, a spade and a sieve will reveal this
species as an inhabitanlt of many other West Indian islands.


Anipliodia tryclna II. L. Clark
Amphiodia. trychia II. L. Clark, 191S, 1iull. I1. C. Z., 2S9; P1. 3, figs. 1-3.

This- still another species based on single specimen, which was
taken in April, 1916, in sandy mud in 2-3 ft. of water at Sandy Point.
Buccoo Bay, Tobago. It is only 31/) nun. across the disk and the arms
are about 10 times as much. The disk is pale gray, the under surface,
side arm-plates and spines, whitish, the upper surface of the arms
strikingly variegated and barred with white, dusky and deep gray.
Aiphiodia puilhiella (Lymian)
Amphinra puche'lla Lyman, 1869, Bull. M1. C. Z., 337. 1875, Illus. C -1M.
Z.. No. 8, ])t. 2, Pl. 5, tig. 75.
Amphiodia pulcholla Verrill, 1899, Univ. Iow, Bull. Lab. Nat. Hist.

This spe 's is very imperfectly known and it is hard to see why Verrill
should have selected it, as lie did, for the type of his genus Amphiodia.
There is no specimen in the Museum of Comparative Zoology; the fate of
Lyman's type is unknown. Koehlei (19!11) reports specimens from the
Tortugas (neither IIartmeyer nor I found it there), from St. Lucia and
from off Uruguay But he gives no data about them, saying Lyman's de-
scription and figures are sufficient. Lyman's type was a trifle over 3 mm.
across the disk and the arms were about times that. The disk
greenish-gray, in alcohol, the arms lighter.
There is no example of this species in the Academy collection but the
"Fish Hawk" took a damaged specimen at San Antonio Bridge, San
Juan, of what appears to be pulci ella. A reexamination justifies the iden-
tification, but of course the record.needs confirmation, as the condition of
the specimen precludes certainty.
Amphiodia repens (Lyman)
Amphliira repcas Lyman, 1875, 11. C. Z., No. S. p. 18; PI.
figs. 38-40.
Amphiodia repens Verrill, 1899, Trans. Acad., 313.

This small Aniphiodia seems to be comminon throughout the whole West
Indian region. It. is recorded from Bermuda, Florida, and Brazil, and I
have myself taken it at the Tortugas, Jamaica, and Tobago. The bathy-
metrical range appears to be small, down to about 15 fins. It is usually
less than 4 mm. across the disk and the long, slender arms are fully 7-S
times as much. The disk is light gray, the arms whitish.
The Acade collections add this species to the fauna of Porto Rico,
as specimens were taken on two separate occasions. One was collected


June 25, 1913, '"Cayo Caribe to Cayo Plarquera", by It. C. Osburn and
the other July 21, 1914, at Condado Bay. inside Dos Hlermanos bridge,
halfway up the bay, San Juan, by I?. W MAiner. The former has no disk
but the latter is a small, typical specimen, across.

Ophiocieida scabriuiscula (Liilken)
Amphiura scabriuscula Liitken, 1859. Add. nd Hist. Opi., pt. 2, p. 118.
Ophiovnida seabriuscula Lyman, 1635, Illus. Cat. M. C. Z., No. 1, p. 135. II. L.
Clark, 191.5, Mem. -M. C. Z., xxv, P1. 9, figs. 3, 4.

This well-marked species is known from Florida, Tortugas, St. Thomas,
Guadeloupe, Tobago, and Brazil. It is found along shore anid its bathymet-
rical range appears to be small. This is probably the brittle-star which
Grave (1898, Johns IHopkins U Circ., 18, No. 1I:, p. 8) listed as
Amphiura palimeri from Folly Point and East Harbor, Jamaica, tlhe
brief description he gives fits this species fairly well and obviously does
not fit Amphiur Hel says the disk was 9 mm. across and the color wN
light yellow, which :orresponds well with adults of scabriuscula. There
are no records as yet from Porto Rie but it almost sure to be found
Ophiocnida cubllna II.
Plate VII
Ophliocnida cuibaia A. H. Clark, 1917, (9.
This species is known only from a single specimen taken in May, 1914,
by Mr. John B. llende Jr. at Ensenada de Santa liosa, western Cuba.
in 1-3 fins. This individual is obviously measuring less than 5 mm.
across the disk. In the original description it is compj)ared with Ophiioc-
nida filograiea Lyman, which it is quite unlike (and which is considered
by me an Ophiophragmnus), but no reference is made U. '-abris'itula
(Liitken), which it res fatherr obviously. It may b)e only
one of that species.
Aimpnhioplius abditus Verrill
Amphipholis ubdita Verrill. 1S71, Amer. Jour. Sci. (3) ii, p. 182.
Amphiop.lu abdittus Verrill, 18,1), Trt Conn. Acatd., x, 314. Koehler, 1907,
Bull. Sci., xli, p. 11, figs. 24,

It is doubtful whether this species should be included in this report as
its range seems to be confined to the coast of the United State, from
Woods Hole, Mass., to the west coast of Florida, although there is one
record from the coast of Panama (Albatross St. 2146). Ordinarily con-
fined to shallow water along shore, where it lives in mud or muddy sand,


it has been taken in fairly deep water, down to 75 fathoms. As it may
very likely be discovered in the Bahamas and Cuba, if not further east,
it seems pertinent to include it here. Adult specimens are 8-9 mm. across
the disk, with the arms about 10 times as much. The color of the disk is
pale gray, the arms nearly white, but occasionally specimens are col-
lected which are altogether gray or pale brown. There is some reason to
think that the color is associated with the color of the mud in which the
animals are living.

Amphioplus thrombodes' H. L. Clark
Amphioplus thrombodes H. L. Clark, 1918, Bull. M. C. Z., lxil, p. 292; Pl. 7, figs.
1, 2.

This species is based on two specimens taken with the preceding and
following species near a mangrove key at Key West, Florida, in June,
1917, living in sandy mud in 1/2 ft. of water. The disk is 4-5 mm. across,
the arms 40-50 mm. long. The color of the disk is pale gray, the arms
white or nearly so; in the larger specimen many upper arm plates are
obscurely blotched or shaded with light dusky purple.
Amphioplus coniortodes H. L. Clark
Amphioplus coniortodes H. L. Clark. 1918, Bull. M. C. Z., lxii, p. 291; pl.
figs. 3, 4.

This is another species based on a single specimen. The disk is 6-7 mm.
in diameter, the arms 75-85 mm. long. The disk was very pale gray in
life and the arms nearly white with a brown tinge near base; many upper
arm plates were more or less dusky purple of a light shade, nearly always
with a whitish spot at center. The colors of the dry specimen are not very
different. This individual was taken in sandy mud, in 1/2 ft. of water,
near a mangrove key at Key West, Florida, in June, 1917.
Ophiactis algicola' norm. nov.
Ophiactis loricata I. L. Clark, 1901, Bull. U. S. Fish Cor., ii, p. 21-6 (NON
Ophiactis lymin.i IH. L. Clark, 1918, Bull. M. C. Z., lxii, p. 303; P'l. 4, figs. 5, 6.
(NoN Ljungman. 1871. ofv. Kongl. Vet. Akad. Ftir., xxviii, p. 629. NOn
Koehler, 1920, Arkiv ffir. Zool. 1926, 19A, No. 2, p. 21 ; Pl. 5, figs. 1, 2).

It is a curious thing that Dr. Koehler, whose recent death is a most
serious and lamentable loss to the study of echinoderms, published excel-

2 For Ailphiojllus stearnsii Ives of my Porto Rican report (1901), see antca, p. 32.
Alyga-sea weed. colo-to inhabit or dwell in: referring to its habit of living in
coralline algw.


lent photographs of Ljungman's type of Ophiactis lymani, with hardly a
word of comment except to refer his readers to his own notes on that
species, published in 1909. lie apparently overlooked the revision of the
genus Ophiactis, published in 1918, in which many specimens from Tobago
and the Tortugas were referred to lymani and serious doubt was expressed
as to whether Koehler's specimens really were lymani. However, the pub-
lication, in 1926, of figures of Ljungman's holotype proves that my West
Indian specimens are not his species but are an as yet unnamed form for
which the name algicola, in allusion to its favorite habitat, is here proposed.
The characters given in the key to the species of Ophiactis (1918, pp.
298, 299) as applying to lymani, refer wholly to algicola, and with the
photographs given, and the notes on pp. 303, 30 1, will serve for an ade-
quate diagnosis of the species. Ljungman's lymani, judging from Koeh-
ler's photographs, has extraordinary distinctive upper and under arm
plates. It falls in the section of my key with virens, arenosa and brachy-
aspis; in fact it is so near the last that the question arises whether that
species is not based on a specimen of lymani. But this and the question
of the identity of Koehler's specimens from near the Cape Verde Islands
must await the collecting of further material, before reliable answers can
be given. Ljungman's lymani is not included in this report as it is not
known from less than 10 fms.
The little brittle star herewith christened Ophiactis algicola is common
in coralline algae at Tobago and the Tortugas. I have also found speci-
mens from Bermuda in the collection of the Museum of Comparative
Zoblogy. The little Ophiactis taken by the "Fish IIawk" at Mayagiiez,
which I recorded as loricata, appears on rcixamination to be algicola, but
the condition is poor and the identity is not indisputable. It seems prob-
able that algicola will be found throughout the West Indies under suitable
conditions. It is always a small brittle star, the disk rarely exceeding
3 nun., and there are 6 short arms. The color is gray or brown variegated
with lighter and darker shades; there is no green; the arms are banded
with dark gray or reddish; there is generally a distinct dusky spot on the
upper side of two or three of the upper arm spines in each series. This
is very characteristic but unfortunately is not always very obvious.

Ophiactis cyanosticta H. L. Clark
Ophiactis cyanlosticta I1. L. Clark, 1918, Blull. 31. C. Z.. p. P1. 4, figs.
3, 4.
This little six-armed species has the disk 3 mm. across or less, the arms
10 mm. long. The color in life is dull bluish-green variegated with whit-


ish, with irregular spots and markings of dull blue. Preserved specimens
are not conspicuously different. In the coralline algfl of Buccoo Bay,
Tobago, this Ophiactis is abundant in company with 0. algicola and 0.
savignyi. I did not find it at the Tortugas, nor is it as yet recorded from
any other place than Buecoo Bay.
Ophiactis niilleri Liltken
Ophiactis miilUlri Liliken, 1851, Vid. Med., p. 12. II. L. Clark, 1915, Mem.
M. C. Z.. xxv, P1. 11, figs. 5, 6.
Ophiacti./ dispor Verrill, 1899, Univ. low. Bull. Lab. Nat. Hist., No. 1,
p. 31; P1. S. figs. 3-3c.
Ophiactis longibruchia H. Clark, 1901, Bull. Fish Com., p. 2-146, Pl.
14, figs. 1-5.

This is probably the most perplexing and e.-asperating of West Indian
brittle stars for it seems to be impossible to separate young specimens or
even those half-grown from 0. sarignyi, yet adult miulleri are very differ-
ent from adult surignui. To add to the confusion really adult specimens
of iniilleri are so rare that only very few have come into the hands of stu-
dents of the group. They have a disk diameter of 10-15 mrn. (home this
is the largest known species of the genius) and they always have 5 arms.
which are at least 7-8 times as long as the disk-dialneter if the quite
unbroken. The coloration varied but apparently not green' and
white like sau'ignyi, ,t Verrill describes disp tr as green and white: p;
sibll Verrill had both large soarigniy and small i iilleri before him,
when writing. My longibroihio from Porto Itico was almost black on the
disk with the arms purplish-brown ; oral frame and lower surface of basal
part of arms pale yellowish. A large specimen taken at the Tortugas,
which I believe to be miilleri, when alive had the disk gray at center be-
coining rusty-red at margin., and the interbrachial areas below were bright
pinkish-red; interadially on the disk. there was some black and white
variegation; -al surface, white with lddish tinge; upper surface of
arms buff, variegated with black, light and dark brown, and white. In
this specimen, now dry. the red and brown shades have disappeared and
have been replaced b)v an evident greenish tinge. It is not impossible that
these large specimens which I am calling ami lleri are merely fully grown
individuals of sarignyi. They are usually dredged in moderately deep
water (5-75 lms.). Kochler certainly never appreciated the difficulty of
distinguishing vi iilleri and sarignyi. In his paper on West African echino-
dermns (1914, Beitrage Kennt. Meeresfauna Westafrikas: Echinodernia
I, p. 185) he naively remarks (p. 185) that there are two 6-armed species
of Ophiactis on the West African coast, savignyi and milleri, and that


they even be taken at the same stations, but that they may be dis-
tinguished "facilement'" b(ee(' igayi has such large radial shields
and 2 oral papilla-. Alas, the size of the radial shields affords no reliable
character at all, and miilleri. if my under, ending of the spec is correct,
alw< 's has 2 oral papille, while saviytiyi often has 1 or none
In view of this uncertainty as to the nature and limits of the species, it
is futile to discuss the distribution. Koehbler records it from West Africa
and it may occur there. So far as my own knowledge goes I think it is to
he found anywhere between South Carolina and Brazil but generally
water 2 fins. decp) or more. I have never taken it along shore.

Ophiactis savignyi (Miller
Ophiiolepis savigiyl Miille and Trosehel, 1842, Syst. Ast., p. 05.
Ophitrti, sir'iginyi l.jungniui, 18117, Ofv. Kongl. Vet. Akail. Filrh., 23. p. 323.
Lfitken, 1859, Add. ad Iist. Oph., pt. 2, P1. 3, figs. Ta, 7b (as 0. reinhardtii).

Next to A mphipholis squamatl, this is probably the most ubiquitous of
brittle stars, as it is tropicopolitan in its distribution. Moreover, as asexual
reproduction by autotonmy is continually the number of individ-
uals is greatly in excess of those of .1. squintamu. Where conditions are
favorable savignyfi is exceedingly common, but it is ordinarily so small and
so secretive it is easily overlooked. It delights to live in and among
sponges or coralline algae, especially when young. Mature specimens are
found in the crevices and crannies of coral rock. Adults ordinarily have
5 arms, sometimes 6 ; the disk is 5-7 mm. in diameter and the arms are 5
or 6 times as long. The color is variegated green and white, the outer ends
of the radial shields almost always white. In the young, the green may
sometimes be replaced by brown, the white by yellowish, and even in adults
green may be inconspicuous or lacking. The young almost always have 6
arms, in two groups, 3 larger and 3 smaller, or only 2 in one group and 4
in the other. Comet forms, however, such as occur in Linckia guiildingii,
do not occur. Very small young ones of a light color are often found in
the interior of light coloredd sponges, where they seem to be markedly
It is quite natural that the Academy collections contain 62, individuals
of this very common brittle star. They aken at a dozen different
stations which it seems unnecessary to enumerate, there is no doubt
savignyi is to be found anywhere around Porto Rico, where there are
sponges and coral rock. It is perhaps worth mentioning that 3 adults
were taken (apparently dredged) off the mouth of Guanica harbor, south-
east of the bell-buoy, July 4, 1915, by R. C. Osburn. and 45 very small,


light colored ones were collected at Gu, -anilla playa wharf, Ensenada,
.June 25. 1915, by P. W. Miner and I. C. Osburn; these were probably
found in the sponges or other growth on the wharf piles.

Ophiothrix angulata (Say)
Ophiura anigulata Say, 1825, Jour. Phila. Acad., p. 145.
Ophiothrix angulata Ayres, 1852, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., iv, p. 249.
Lyman, 1865, Illus. Cat. M. C. Z., No. 1, Pl. 2, figs. 1-3 (colored).
This is perhaps the most abundant of the typically West Indian brittle
stars. Its range extends from Beaufort, North Carolina, to southern
Brazil. Its bathymetrical range is also considerable for while it abounds
in very shallow water, it has been taken at a depth of 200 fins. off Havana,
Cuba. The color is so varied that no fewer than six varieties have been
named, based on color alone. The ground color is ordinarily brown or
purple of some shade, usually rather light, but sometimes quite dark;
some individuals are distinctly pinkish, reddish or yellowish. Green seems
to be relatively rare and never of a marked tint. But whatever the ground
color, there is, in the vast majority of specimens, a longitudinal stripe on
the upper surface of the arms. In one color variety and in scattered
individuals this is lacking, but there is usually, even in such cases, an in-
dication of it on the distal part of the arm-at least at the very tip. As a
rule, this stripe is white, commonly bounded by a line of color on each
side, but in rare cases it is yellow, red or even black. In such cases the
indications are that the colored boundary lines have crowded out the white,
and coalesced. Whatever the color, angulata can always he distinguished
from the other West Indian species of Ophiothrix by the absence of their
distinctive characters.
The six color varieties of angulata which have been named arc as follows:
1. 0. a. var. atrolineaia II. L. Clark, 1918, Bull. M. C. Z., 1xii, p. 316;
P1. 5, fig. 3.
The dorsal line on the arm is black instead of white, a rare varia-
tion. The type specimen was taken at Buccoo Bay, Tobago.
0. var. megalaspis II. L. (lark, 1918, Bull. M. C. Z., lxii, p. 316;
P1. 8, fig. 3.
The radial shields are large, smooth, triangular, and sharply defined.
The general coloration is pink or rose with the white longitudinal line
on the arm bounded by a dull rose-purple stripe. The known speci-
mens of this variety were taken in 51-101 fms. in the Gulf of Mexico;
evidently it is a deep-water variety.


3. 0. a. var. phoinissa II. L. Clark, 1918, Bull. 3M. C. Z.. lxii, p. 317.
The general color of this variety is deep crimson, with the white
line on the arms limited to the extreme tip, or to regenerating parts, or
even wanting. The specimens on which this variety based were
dredged at the Tortugas in 6-8 fins. of water or were collected at
Coutoy, Cuba.
4. 0. a. var. phlogina 11. L. Clark, 1918, Bull. M. C. Z., lxii, p. 318.
This variety cannot be certainly recognized in preserved material but
when living or freshly killed it is very striking. The color then is uni-
form, brilliant orange-red. It is known as yet only from the Tortugas
in 6-8 fins. In preserved material the color becomes pale pink, purplish
or whitish.
5. 0. a. var. paccila I. L. Clark, 1918, Bull. M. C. Z., 1xii, p. 319.
This is the most difficult to diagnose of all the varieties of angulata,
yet at Tobago it was breeding when typical angulata was not. It is a
small form (disk about 3-5 mm. across) and intergrades not only with
typical angulata but with the varieties phlogina and violacea. Its
colors are varied but the arms are banded and lack (except oftentimes
on the extreme distal part) the longitudinal white band characteristic
of angulata.
6. 0. a. var. violacea Mtiller and Troschel, 1842, Syst. Ast., p. 115.
The German authors regarded this as a distinct species but it has
commonly been treated as identical with angulala. It may however be
considered a variety and in that case the name should be used for speci-
mens in which the ground color is violet or deep blue. Such individuals
are by no means rare.

As for size, angulata is a rather small species, the disk rarely exceeding
12 mm., the arms 5 or 6 times as much. It has been taken, as already
stated, on the United States coast as far north as Beaufort, N. C., and is
very common near Charleston and on the coast of Florida. It is known
from Yucatan and Panama and from many points on the coast of Brazil.
There are records from Bermuda, the Bahamas, the Tortugas, Cuba,
Jamaica, Haiti, Porto Rico, St. Thomas, St. Lucia, Barbados, Tobago,
and Trinidad.
The Academy collection contains 50 specimens from more than 20 sta-
tions, which it is quite unnecessary to list, since there is no doubt that
angulata may be found everywhere on the Porto Rican coast when the con-
ditions are at all suitable.


Ophiothrix suensonii Lilt ken
Ophiothri.r sucnsonii Liitken. 1856, Vid. 16. 1S,9, ad 1Hist. Oph.,
lit. Pl. 4. figs. 2a-c.
This is undoubtedly one of the autiflul West Indit
's and has stirred the enthusiasm of every collector who has been so
fortunate as to find an adult specimen. The arm-spines are conspicuously
long, thorny and glassy, while the disk flat with large smooth radial
shields and a few long spinelets. The ground color ranges from latende
to pink or red, while on the dorsal side of the armn is a conspicuous longi-
tudinal stripe of deep purple or crimson, sometimes so dark as to be almost
black. In very large specimens, the disk may beo nearly 20 nim. in diam-
eter while the are about 120 unm. in length, but most specimens,
even when mature, are much smaller than this.
This fine species lives altogether on gorgonians. Where these occ
abilundance, there suenuounii also abounds. Where there are no gorgonit
suensonii will rarely if ever occur. Its known geographical rt is from
Bermuda, the Bahamas, the Tortugas, the east 'oast of -Mexico, and the
norll coast of South Ameriea to Brazil. It is recorded from Cuba, Ja-
maica, Haiti, Porto Rico, and St. Thomas, as well as from Barbados and
Tobago. The bathviimetrical range is very considerable, from I to 262 fins.
The Academy collectors brought back twenty-one specimens from Porto
Rlico, of which one lot is worthy of note. It was taken one mile soutLh of
('ilo (Gordo Islaind. (unanic Jiune 23, 19)15, by Dario Moreilio;
there are 13 adults, none large, but several are of an unusually dark
purplish color.
Ophiothrix lineata Lyman
Ophiothtrix linata Lyman, 1860. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vii, 201. H. L.
Clark, 10115, Me3 31. Z., xxv, I'1. 12, fig. 4.
This handsome species seems to be confined to southern Florida and the
Tortugas. The t)nly record that I have found of its occurrence elsewhere
is Mr. A. II. Clark's (1921) statement that one specimen aken at
Pelican Islauld, Barbados, in 4 finms. from gorgonians and corals. As 13
specimens of 0. were taken at the same place under like con-
ditions, 1 think this specimen must he a peculiar individual of that species.
All the spe of litnetla, concerning whose habitat the is record,
found in the interior of large sponges, Siphonochalina and similar
forms for this peculiar habitat the brittle star seems particularly adapted.
The color in life is a somewhat purplish-red with a cons0pitcous dark red
line on the upper surface of the arm in large .. this line llay be

*C///('HI1VODEI)_INS 01"

more or le. interrupted; the colors are little altered by preservation.
Fully grown specimens are 12 nim. across the disk and the arms are about
120 imm. long, but I have seen few as large ais that. In smaller specimens
the arms are not only actually but relatively short they in be only
5-6 times the disk diameter.
Ophiotlhrix lirstedii Liilkin
Ophiothri,r irstedii Liitken. 1835C. Vidl. AlMd.. 15. ls59. id Hist.
pt. 2, p. 140; Pl. 4, figs. :a-e.

Although the ground color of 'stedii shows considerable diversity,
ranging from dark grn brown to purple on the hand, or to greens,
greenish-blue or even cobalt blue on the other, the ansverse white lines
on the upp surface of the arms are an infallible mark of this handsome
species. Even when the ground color so strikingly unusual the
variety luilea from Tobago (See II. L. Clark, 1918, hull.BM. '/., xii, p.
311; 1919, Publ. 281 Carnegie Inst. Wash., 'l. 2) these tine transverse
lines of white (or whitish or yellowish sometiines) unmistakable
cline to the species. In size, irslednii ranks a little above anaUula., the
disk may be more thl 14 nmm. in diameter and the arms exceed 0 o mm.
It is not so common as angulata, nor so widespread in distribution. It is
not known from Bermuda nor from the United States coast north of
Florida, nor is it recorded from south of Tobago; but there are records for
the Bahamas. Cuba, Jamaica, Porto Rico, St. Thomas, Barbados and
Tobago. The hathyinetrical large, as have betn
dredged in over 200 fins.
The Academy collection contains 29 specimens from 10 or more localities,
but it seems unnecessary to list these stations as the species is known from
all sides of Porto Rlico and no doubt is present wherever conditions are
Opihiothrix brachyactis II. L. 'lark
Ophiothrir brachyactis It. L. Alurk, 1915, Meom. M.C.Z.. 209; I'1. 12,
figs. 1, 2.
This is a relatively rare species previously known from only two local-
ities, the Tortugas and Tobago. It is small, with the disk less than 5 numn.
across and the arms less than 18 nun. long. The whole animal dis-
tinctly flattened, arms as well as disk. The 'olor bluish-gray or
pearl-gray and the arms may be indistinctly banded with lighter and
darker shades. Because of this inconspicuous coloration and the all
size, there is no doubt that brarhyacris has long been confused with angu-
laia. It is quite probable that it is not so rare a it seen. The Academy



collection contains a notable example of this Ophiothrix-notable because
it is the largest yet found. The disk is 4.5 mm. across and the arms are
nearly 14 mnm. long. The very flattened appearance is striking. This
specimen, the first known from Porto Rico, was taken off (nuanica Harbor
(due south of the bell-buoy), July -1, 1915, by RI. C. Osburn.


Family O iiiociirTONi.:
Opiiionereis olivacea I1. Clark
Ophionercis olihacea II. L. 'lark, 1901, Bull. S. FisLh C p. 24S; Pl.
14, figs. 10-13.
This rare species is known only from the original specimen taken by
the "Fish Hawk" at the eastern end of Porto Rico, in 6 fms., and from a
young individual which I found in 1917 nem Key West, Florida,
coralline algre. The type was 6 mm. across the disk and the arms were
about 33 mm. long. The color is olive-green, spotted on the disk with
yellow the arms are banded with a darker shade of green the oral surface
is very light. The Key West specimen is only a little more than half as
large and lacks the yellow spots on the disk.
Ophionereis reticulata (Say)
Ophiura reticulata Say, 1825. Jour. Pilila. A'cad., v, p. 14S.
Ophioncreis reticulata Liitken, 1859, Add. ad IIist. Oph., pt. p. 110; Pl. 3,
figs. 6a-c.
Ophioncreis dubia H. L. Clark, 1901, Bull. U. S. Fish Com., p. 248. (NON
Miller and Troschel.
This is another of the common brittle stars of the West Indian region,
abundant at Bermuda and ranging thence to Tobago, the northern coast of
South America, and Brazil. It delights in clean sand under coral slabs
and wherever any intensive shore collecting has been done on such bottoms
this Ophionereis has been found. It is also recorded from depths out to
and beyond the 100 fins. line. It is easily recognized by the whitish or
pale yellow arms, with conspicuous narrow bands of brown or blackish,
and the bluish-gray disk which is ordinarily marked with a net-work of
dark lines; but there is no little diversity in the extent and character of
the disk markings. Specimens with no markings whatever on the disk
are not rare. Occasionally specimens are seen in which the ground color
is tinged with red. After reexamination of the specimens, I think the
Ophionereis which I recorded in 1901 from Porto Iico as 0. dubia must
be referred to reticulata. The reddish color is extraordinarily deep but


it is possible that it is more or less artificial. At any rate, the specimens
are not dubia. Adult specimens of reliculata have the disk 10-12 inim.
across, not often more, while the arms may he 7 or 8 times as long.
The Academy collection contains half a dozen specimens of this brittle
star, taken at various points in or around Guanica harbor. Three half
grown specimens and one young one have no lines on the disk, but one
adult and one young individual are typical. The "Fish Hawk" took 21
specimens at seven stations, three of which were at depths of over 20 fins.

Ophionereis squamulosa Koehler
Ophionercis squamulosa Koehlle 1914, Bull. 84 U. S. Nat. Mlus., 44. 1913,
Zool. Jalirh. Suppl., 11, I'l. 21, figs. 4-6 (as 0. .quamata).

This is a small species, the great majority of specimens taken having
the disk less than 4 mm. across; the largest specimen 1 have seen has the
disk 6 mm. in diameter and the arms about 10 inn. long. In life the disk
and arms are a reddish-white (the red tint is lost more or less wholly in
preservation), the disk with scattered spots and blotches of brown or
dusky, the arms with frequent ill-defined but well-marked bands of the
same dark shade; in a typical case every third or fourth upper arm plate
is deep dusky in marked contrast to the plate adjoining it proximally, but
the plate distal to it is quite dusky and the next one may be slightly so;
thus the distal boundary of the band is very indistinct. Occasionally the
ground color of both disk and arms is distinctly brown rather than white.
Koehler's idea that the scaling of the disk is coarser than in reliculata is
not supported by examination of numerous specimens; only in certain
individuals does this hold true. This species is recorded from St. Thomas,
and from the Brazilian coast near Parahiba. It is very common
coralline alga at Tobago and the Tortugas, and will probably be found
throughout the West Indies when suitable areas are intensively searched.

Ophiocoma echinata (Lanmarck)
Ophiura cchinata Lamarck, 1816, Anim. s. Vert., ii, p. 54:I.
Ophioccrmia e(hiinata IL. Agassiz, 1835, Mom. Soc. Set. Nat. Netlch: 19)2.
Liitken, 1859, Add. ad IIlst. Oph., pt. 2, P'l. 4, figs. Ta-d.

These big black brittle stars are among the most common and con-
spicuous animals of the tropical shores of the West Indian region. The
color is more or less nearly black, usually with a brown or gray tinge; the
disk is often conspicuously marked with cream color. In full grown adults
the disk may exceed 30 mm. in diameter and in such specimens the arms



may be 12.-1,50 mm. long. It ranges from Bermuda, the Bahamas, Flor-
ida and the Tortugas, and Panama, to Brazil and the eastern Atlantic.
The bathyimetrical range is insignificant.
The Academy collection contains 32 specimens from various stations
but only one calls for comment. This is a small individual only 3 mnm.
across the disk. It was taken among rocks opposite Fort San Geronimno,
San Juan, July 16, 1914, by II. W Miner and is labeled "0. riisei" The
disk is well covered with granules which would not be th with riisei
at such an age; moreover, the basal pores of the arms have 2 tentacle-
scale., and the color is variegated with whitish, especially orally. The
"Fish Hawk" brought back over one hundred specimens of echinata from
Porto Rico, taken at four shore stations and at one dredging station in 6
fins., where tangles were nsed.
Ophiocoma riisei Litkeiu
Ophiocomna riisec Liitken, 1859, Add. ad Hist. Oph., pt. 2, 141, 143; P1. 4,
figs. Ga-d.
It is really remarkable how constant the characters of this fine species
are, even though it is found under the same slabs of rock with echitnata.
I have never seen a specimen that showed any indication of hybridization
or any variation toward any other species of the genus. It resembles most
closely the Indo-Pacific species schoenleitii, but the latter never shows the
characteristic rusty-red shades of riisei. While adult'specimens of this
West Indian form appear to be quite uniformly black, young ones alw; 's
have a red-brown cast which is particularly marked in very young speci-
mens. In young individuals, moreover, there are irregular markings, on
the disk, of darker and lighter shades of red-brown, and the arms are
faintly banded with the same color. There is never any white in the color-
ation. The bright rust-red tentacles of the arms, especially ne; the disk,
are very characteristic. The largest specimen I have seen is 32 nunm.
across the disk with arms 6.) mm. long. A remarkable feature of this
species the late stage at which the disk-granule.; appear, usually not
until the individual is 5 1nn. 'veen more across the disk. Such spec
mn0ns do seem to be Ophiocomas at all and give great dilliculty in
identification. In Jamaica, riisei breeds in May or possibly earlier, while
ct/hiat(l is not breeding until July. This probably accounts for the ab-
hybrids. There no doubt that .s c though
about as widslprca(ld as rChinml. It does not occur in ihe e; Atlantic
but it is fI'ond in liermuda, on the coast of limdlur; at ('uragao, and in
Brazil. nilo to mention the various West Indian Islands where it has been

E 'I/IJODER.1/.s 01F' P'ORTO Hli'O

The Academy collection Ucmtains 19 specimens from half a dozen pllaes,
of which the most notable is a superb adult 30 nun. across the disk, with
arnus about 175 mnu. long. This specimen w\ taken at the west end of
the reef between Pardas Bay and Harbor Entrance, Ensculada.
Ophiocoma pumila Liitken
Ophiocoma pumila Liitken, 1859, Add. ad Hist. Oph., pt. 2. pp. 141, 146; P1. 4,
figs. 5a-d.

This species is much less conspicuous than thl preceding two but it is
equally common and widespread, ranging from oernudi and Florida to
Brazil and S5io Thom6 in the Gulf of (iuine Verrill records a specimen
from off Havana in 200 fins. but this is certainly exceptional as the usual
habitat of pumila is in nooks and crannies of coral rock or among coralline
algie, close to low water mark. It is particularly partial to alga', amongst
which its greenish and brownish coloration renders it very inconspicuous.
The disk diameter seldom exceeds 15 mm. lint the arms nmay asure 10
times that. Asexual reproduction by autotomuy is characteristic of the
young, which closely resembles Ophiictis -ignyi in having 6 arms and
in being green and white in color. The two species may occur together,
though ordinarily they do not, and it is no easy matter to separate the very
young individuals. The green color becomes le., and hss arked as
puimila matures, and in adult specimen. only brown of various shades,
and white, remain except at the distal ends of the arms where the green
often persists.
The Academy collection contains 16 specimens from a dozen different
places. Most of them are young with 5 rays but a few are full grown.
One very fine one from the outer reef. south of c dancee to (iuanica harbor,
16 mm. across the disk.
Ophiopsila riisei Lfitken
Ophiopsila riisei Ltitken, 1859. Add. ad Hist. Oph.. 1313; P1. figs. 2a-c.

This is a fairly common brittle star at the Tortugas, and Mr. Lymnan
says it is very common at Cape Florida. I have not fou nd it in Janii
or Tolbgo and it is not known from Bermulda. It has 1) n i orded front
the Bahamas, Porto Rico. St. Thomas,. St. liartholomew, the east coast of
Central America, the north coast of South America, and Brazil. It ranges
from low- afterr mark to 200 fins. It does not reach a large size, adults
having the disk 10-12 mm. across and the arms 100-130 mmi. long. The
coloration is very distinctive; the ground color is brown. sometimes gray-
ish. but usually of a reddish shade, sometimes quite a bright red brown;



but the red shades fade out in dry material as a rule. Whatever
ground color, however, the disk above, the interbrachial areas below,
even the basal part of the arms in some individuals, are speckled with fine,
distinct dots of black; in dry material these fade to brown, but they are
almost always obvious. The arms are more or less indistinctly banded.
The Academy collection contains half a dozen specimens, all but one of
which are from the vicinity of Guanic Tilhe other specimen is from
Point Brea. One specimen is immature, the others are typical adults.
The "Fish Hawk" took two specimens at the eastern end of Porto Pico in
20-23 fins.
Ophiopsila vitiata H. L. Clark
Ophiopsila "iltata H. Clark, 1918, Bull. -M. C. Z., 330; P1. 8, fig.

This rare species is based on specimens taken at the Tortugas,
June, 1917. They were dredged in 6-8 fnms., southeast of Loggerhead Key.
No other specimens have yet been reported. The disk is about mm. in
diameter, the arms 75-80 mm. long. The color of the disk is yellowish-
gray, the radial shields white; arms, very pale yellow banded with red-
brown rings; upper arm plates sparsely but regularly spotted along the
lateral margins with minute dots of reddish-brown.
Ophiopsila liartnmeyeri Koehler
Ophiop.ila hartnmyeri Koehler, 913, Zool. Jahrh. 11, 21.
figs. 7, 8.

This is not a common species and occurs usually in water of some depth
(15-88 fins.) but the type was taken on the south coast of St. Thomas,
apparently in shallow water. Adult specimens have the disk 6 mm. across
and the arms perhaps ten times as much. The disk is reddish or orange-
yellow, with the radial shields lighter, sometimes almost white; the uppe
surface of the arms is marked with lines and blotches of purplish or dusky.
This species is known as yet only from Florida, St. Thomn Montserr
Barbados, and Brazil.

Family Ori'imom,
Ophioderma appressum (Say)
Ophiura appressa Say, 1825, Jour. 'Phila. Aead., v, p. 151.
Ophioderma apprcsso Liitken, 1859, Add. ad Hist. Op)h.. 86; PI.
figs. .a-d (as 0. viresccns).

This is one of the commonest of West Indian brittle stars, being found
in practically all places where collections have been made, from Bermuda


to Brazil and the eastern Atlantic (Senegal, Angola). The largest speci-
mens have the disk 25 nin. across and arms about 125 mnm. long, but such
individuals are rare and the great majority ha\e the disk 10-15 amn. in
diameter. The coloration is so diversified as to be of no value for identifi-
ation. .Most specimens are some shade of gray or brown, the arms more
or less distinctly banded with lighter and darker shades. In sonime speci-
mens this banding is very (onspisicons. The most striking variety is one,
variegated bright gree and white, as yet unnamed I believe, although it is
common; in extreme s the disk is wholly white aMn the while arms are
prettily banded with green; all sorts of intergrades occur between this and
uniformly green-or greenish individuals.
The Academy collection has 18 specimens of utppre.mqumt but all save one
young one are dull colored. They were taken at 8 different stations but
offer nothing of special interest. The "Fish HIawk''" anti Mr. Gray found
appressum. generally common.
Ophioderma brevicandunm Iiltlke
OpIhiodcrnta brericaudum LIitken, 1856, Vid(. Med., 1859, Add. ad IIist.
Oph., lit. 2, P1. 1. figs. 3a-c.
This species, which can usually be identified by the short, thick arms,
is also often recognizable by the blue-green and reddish in the variegated
color. But this color distinction shows a regrettable lack of constancy.
Typical specimens have the disk prettily variegated with a rather deep
red and blue-green or greenish-blue; the arms are more or less distinctly
banded and marked with blue or blue green. In some specimens the colors,
excepting red, are retained well by the drying out, and eve alcohol
there may be little change. On the other hand, many specimens lack
bright colors and tend to be rather dull, and alcoholic specimens frequently
become more or less bleached. Large specimens are nearly 20 mm. across
the disk, but 14 mm. is fully adult. The arms are 2.5 to 4 times the disk
diameter. The range of brevica.udiu is from Bermuda and the Bahamas
to the eastern Atlantic. The bathymetrical range is very small, the species
seeming to prefer to live close to low-water mark.
The Academy collection contains 16 specimens of brericanudum from 9
stations. They show very great diversity of color, but none has the bright
blue-green which has just been described as characteristic. The most
notable is a specime from Condado rocks, directly opposite Fort San
Geronimo, San Juan, which has the disk dirty whitish and rose-red ; there
are also 4-6 bands of rose-red on the upper surface of the arms; this must
have been a very pretty brittle star when living.


Ophiodernia brevipinumi (Say)
Ophiura brerispina Say, 1825. Jour. Phila. Acad.. v, p. 149.
Ophiodernma brevispina Ltitken, 1859, Add. ad Hist. Oph., pt. P]. 1. figs. ca-c
(as 0. serpens).
This species is so easily confused with appressmi that it is not ce
whether it occurs as far to the east and south as that species. Verrill says
it appears at the lBermudas but I have seen no specimens from there. In
fact, all the specimens of typical brevispim nlt that I have seen are from
Florida, the Tortugas. Cuba, Jamaica, Ilayti. Porto Rlico, and St. Thomn
I did not find it at Tobago. The plain colored variety, olirace anges
as far north on the United States coast as Buzzards Bay. a very notable
extension of the range of what is a typical tropical genus. In size
brevispinmurn is much smaller than )appressium, most speciine measuring
about 10 mmn. or less across the disk: the largest I have seen is 1 mnm. and
has arms about 70 mm. long. The coloration is as varied and indistinctive
as that of appressint but it is more prevailingly green. Few specimens are
handsomely colored but in a hlt collected at the Tortugas one has the disk
deep purplish-brown in sharp contrast to the arms which are greenish-
white handed with dull greenish, andl in a lot from M1i; Florida, sev-
eral have the disk white in sharp contrast to the dnull green, faintly banded
arms; another has similar arms but the disk is the green-blne of bredi-
caudunm; and a third is notable for a rosy-reddish disk with a few wide
bands of the same shade on the arms. The variety oliivcenum is dull olive-
brown or olive-greo, the disk frequently variegated with lighter and
darker shade. It is an interesting fact that 4-armed and 6-armed speci-
mens of bretispinnm are encountered more frequently than in any other
normally 5-rayed ophinran, so far as my observation goes.
The Academy col!eetion contains only 3 small specimens of brerispinmim,
one fronim Don uis Cayo, Salinas Cove. from ofi the mouth of
Guanica Harbor. and one from a mangrove island at Parquern The
"Fish lHawk'' brought back 21 specimens from actions.
Opihiodernn "aiiuarii LiitkIon
Oph'iodcrmi jniuitarii Liitkeni. IS.6i. Vidi. Med.. 185!). Add. na Hist. Ophi..
pt. 2, Pl. 1, figs. 5a-c.

This is a Brazilian species, included in this report because of its occur-
rence at Tobago, where a single specimen was taken by me in liuccoo Bay.
It is a handsome, active species, with slender, flattened, attenuate arms.
Although it is verve difficult to separate small specimens of januarii from
brevispinum in an artificial key, the two species are quite unlike, especially


in life. The upper surface of the southern species is 'ariegated with
shades of brown or gray; the lower surface is pure white. In the dry
Tobagoan specimen, the gray shades are markedly green, and the lower
surface is no longer white. The disk of an adult januairi measures 15-18
mm. across and the arms are about 5 or 6 times as much. It is hardly
likely that this southern species will he found in Porto Rico.
Ophioderma cinereum M(iller andl Troschel
Ophioderma cinereum MUiller and Trosehel. 18-12, Syst. Ast., p. 87. Lfttken,
1859, Add. ad Hist. Oph., pt. 2, P1. 1, figs. la-c (as 0. antillarumi).
Ophiocryptus he.racan hus H. L. Clark, 1915., Jorn. Ent. ZoMl.. vii, p. 64,
This is a very large species, full grown adults having the disk )5 mm.
across; the arms are relatively short, only 4 times the disk diameter. The
color is dull, varying from a light to a very deep ashy brown light colored
specimens generally have the arms distinctly banded and often have spots
or markings on the disk; dark colored specimens are often unicolor. Like
the other common members of the genus, rin ereum range- from Bermuda
to Brazil, but it is not known from the eastern Atlantic. It is very com-
mon and reaches a large size in Tobago.
The Acade collectionn contains but a single specimen. an adult taken
at the coral reefs at Ballena Point, Ensenada, June 12, 1915. The "Fish
Hawk" brought home 63 specimens from Ensenada Honda (Culebra) and
Puerto Real.
Ophiodermna phceniunm II. L. Clark
Ophioderma phwnium H. L. Clark, 1918, Hull. 31. C. Z., lxii, p. P'l. flgs.
1, 2. 1919, Publ. 2S1 Carnegie Inst. Wash, P1. 3, 1.
This very handsome species is, so far as we know at present, found only
on Buccoo Reef, Tobago. It me, 's 20-23 mm. across 1he disk when
adult, and the arms are about 4 times as much. Typically the disk is red
and the arms green, but some specimens are all red and some are all green
moreover there is no little diversity in the shades, both of the greens and
the reds.
Ophiodermna rubicundum Liitken
Ophioderma rubicutndum Ltitken, 1S56, Vid. Med., S. 1859, Add. ad Hist.
Oph., pt. 2, PIl. 1, figs. 2a-c.
This is a notably handsome species with a wide range but it is far from
common, apparently living normally in water a little too deep for the
shore collector and not deep enough for the dredge. It has been taken at
the Bahamas, Cape Florida, Tortugas, Colon, Jamaics, Porto Rico, St.


Thomas, Guadeloupe, Barbados. and Tobago. Large specimens are 20
mm. across the disk and have arms rather more than 5 times as long. The
color is variegated red and whitish or pale gray; there are usually at least
two shades of red, both with a purple tinge but one deeper than the other;
the mottling of the arms often appears like banding, especially distally.
The markings on the upper arm-plates are often very beautiful when
examined with a lens.
The Academy collection contains a small but typical rubicundumn from
off Onanica Harbor, and there is also a superb spec 15 un,. across
the disk, very richly variegated with shades of deep purplish red and
creamy white, from the Mangrove Island, at Parguera, Ensenada. The
"Fish Hawk" secured three specimens of this species at Ensenada HIonda
(Culebra), Poncc and Station 6097, .5-12.5 fins.
Ophioderma gultatumn Liitken
Ophioderma guttata LDtken, 1859. Add. ad Hist. Oph., 95; P1. 1, figs.
8a, b.

This is one of the rarer members of the genus; originally taken at St.
Thomas, it has since been found only at Jamaica and Tobago. It is fairly
common on Buccoo Reef, Tobago, buitt in Jamaica, only a very few spe
mens have been taken, on the north coast at Port Antonio and Montego
Bay. Full grown adults are nearly 30 mm. across the disk, with arms 150
mm. long. The color is a clear lead gray above, and dull reddish-yellow
or buff underneath.
Ophioderma squamosissimum Liitlkeii
Ophloderma squamiosissiimum Liitken, 1850, Vid. Med., p. S. 1S59, Add. ad
Iist. Oph., pt. P1. 1, figs. b. H1. 1,. Clark, 1918, Bull. 31. C. Z., 1xii, 1y.
335; PI. 4, fig. 1; PI. 6, figs. 3, 4. 1919, Pibl. 2S1 Carnegie Inst. Wash.,
Pl. 3, fig. 2.

It is doubtful whether a more brilliantly colored animal is to be found
West Indian reefs than this gorgeous brittle star. Unfortunately it
seems to be exceedingly 'are for aside from the unique holotype, from
unknown West Indian locality, the only known specimens are the five we
secured at Tobago in 1916. These were all found (but only by long and
intensive searching) on the least exposed parts of HBueoo Beef. They
measure 17-22 rnm. across the disk and the arms are about 4 times as long.
The brilliant vermilion color is very fugacions, and has entirely disap-
peared from the carefully prepared dry specime though it persisted for
some months.


Ophiocryptus dubious II. L. Clairk
Ophiocryptuis dubious II. L. Clark, 1918, Bull. M. C. Z., lxii, p. 330; PI. 3, figs. -1,.
This species is based on a single small brittle star found under a stone
in shallow water in Buccoo Bay,. Tobago. It is .5 innm. across the disk
and the arms are about 12 inin. long. Color in life, pale gray above, nearly
white beneath; upper surface of arms with faint indications of 2 or 3
dusky transfer: bands. It is possible that the genus Ophiocryptus is
based simply on very young Ophiodermas, but only the collecting of more
mate '"l can settle the matter. There seems to be no doubt that my
Ophliocrypits he.raranthus is simply a very young Ophlioderma c 'reum,
and it seems to me highly probable that the same is true of the present
Family Orinmoi.wicunu,
Ophiozona impressa (Liltken)
Ophiolepis impress Liitken, 1859, Add. ad HIist. Oph., pt. 2, p. 101; P1. 2,
figs. 3a, b.
Ophiozona impress Lyman, 1865, Illus. Cat. M. C. Z., No. 1, p. 04.
This is a common brittle star throughout the West Indian region from
Bermuda to Brazil. Its bathymetrical range extends down to 160 fins.
Large specimens are 15 imm. across the disk and the arms are nearly 5 times
as much. The lower surface is white or cream-color while the upper side
is prettily variegated with brown and cream-color or yellowish ; the arms
are distinctly banded with light and dark brown.
The Academy collection contains 3 typical adult specimens, 2 from near
the entrance to Gnanica Harbor and I from near the entrance to Guay-
anilla Harbor. The "Fish Hawk" took 5 specimens at Ponce.
Ophiolepis elegans Litken
Ophiolcpis elegans Liitken, 1S59. Add. ad Hist. Oph., pt. p. 105. Lyman,
1865, Illus. Cat. M. C. Z., No. 1, Pl. 2, fig. 5 (colored).
This handsome and graceful species delights in pure sand and seems to
be particularly adapted, by its very flattened form, to the life it leads. It
is not certainly known from east of St. Thomas and it is quite possible
that it is confined to the northwestern part of the West Indian region. It
is recorded from South Carolina, Florida, Cuba, Yucatan, Jamaica, Porto
Rico, and St. Thomas. The bathymetrical range extends down to about 40
fins. The disk is usually about 10-12 mm. across with the arms only a
little more than 3 times as long, but a large specimen from Charleston,
S. C., is 21 across. This big individual is also very dark-colored
above (all specimens are very white or light colored underneath), a finely


variegated slate gray of two shades. Usiuv the dorsal surface is greatly
variegated with various shades of cream-color and gray and brown; in
small specimens the arms are distinctly banded but in larger individuals
the bands are less and less distinct.
The Academy collection contains 2(; specimens of eleqans. of which 22
are from Condado Bay, San Juan, while the others also appear to be from
San Juan harbor. The "Fish Ilawk" took hut a single specimen and that
a small one dredged at Station 6086 in 1 1\Y1 fins.
Ophiolepis paucispina
Ophittra paucispina Say, 1S25, Jour. Phila. Acad.. v. 1). 149.
Ophiolepi, pancispina IMliller and Troschel, 1842. Syst. Ast., 90. Liitken,
1859, Add. ad Hist. Oph., pt. 2, P'l. 2, figs. 2a,

This little brittle star, be'- of its small size and secretive habits, is
no doubt often overlooked; nevertheless it is recorded from eight place.
from Bermuda to Brazil (inclusive) well as from at least two points in
the Gulf of ()uinei. It lives in the sand under rocks or among sea-weeds,
and its bathyinetrical range be but a few fathoms. The largest
specimen I have ( mrnm. -ross the disk and the arms are about
15 mm. long, but few individuals reach such a size. The colors are very
inconspicuous and harmonize well with the sand. The disk is frequently
more gray than the arms, while the latter are more or less distinctly
banded with brown of two shades.
The Academy collection adds this Ophiolopis to the fauni of Porto
Rico. as the "Fish Hawk" did not secure a specimen. At the coral reefs
and lagoons, four miles east of Talleboa, a typical adult specimen
poaucispina was taken July 29, 1914, by R. W. Miner.


Sea-urchins; sand-dollar, heart-urchins

The littoral sea-urchins are so well known and the line between them
and the deep-water forms is so easy to draw that there is little room for
difference of opinion as to what species should be included in this report.
The only ease regarding which I am in doubt is that of Brissopsis. In my
Porto Rican report of 1901 (p. 254) I record Brissopsis lyrifera from
Fish Hawk station (059, off the west end of Porto Rico in only 7 fins.
Mortenseon (1907, Ingolf Ech., pt. 2, p. 163) has shown that these are
not lyrifera but an undescribed species to which he gave the name elongata.
As he records a specimen from Puerto Cabello, Venezuela. it seems neces-
sary to include the species in this report, although I am inclined to ques-


tion whether the depth recorded for the Porto Rican specimens is correct;
if correct, it must be exceptional, as Brissopsis is really a genus of moder-
ately deep water, especially in the tropics. Even including Brissopsis
there are only 19 species of Echini to be treated and these are dis-
tributed in 15 genera, the use of the ke will afford very little difficulty,
even to a beginner.

A. Mouth provided with jaws; ambitus more or loss circular.
B. 1'eriproct at apical pole; test not flattened; primary,
spicuously big.
C. Primary spines. not more than one to each plate. solid and
stout, abruptly much bigger than all other spines.
l'ucidarix tribuloides
CC. Not as above.
]). Primary. spines ver_ long, slender and hollow, black or
very dark (in young individuals hiandod. light and
dark) ('e trcc hi uis a ttillarunt
D)). Not as above.
E. Ambitus circular; pore-pair. *s of in 3
vertical series.
F. Periproctal plates normally ;: oral primary.
spines with "shiny, pink, vitreous shoes"
Arbacia punctlu la
F'F'. Periproctal plates numerous no "'shoes"
oral primaries.
G. Buccal membrane heavily plated: pore-
p; 's in regular arcs of ;...
Lytcchinu l rariegatus
Buccal membrane not played: pioriferous
are; of ambulacra very wide with
pore-pairs in 3, more or loss distinct,
vertical series. ... .Tripnciestes esca cntus
E Ambitus elliptical ; pore-pairs in arcs of 5 or more.
F', Pore-pairs in ares of (, or even 7 ; noiny spine,
on abactinal system: colors not as In ciri-
dis .......Echiiioctra lucuntacr
FF. Pore-p; *s in arcs of 5; few spines on abacti-
nal system ; primary spines light brownish,
more or less green distally, and with purple
tips ...Rchinometra viridis
BBi. Periproct on oral surface; test more or less depressed. usually
quite flattened ; no noticeable primary, spines.
C. Test without hlnules or marginal notches.
D. Test well arched, with lower surface deeply concave,
its margin thick, at least 25% of test lenglh..
CUlpeaster rosaceus



D)l). ,st flattened, with lower surface flat. its margin rarely
thicker Ihan 10% of test length..Clypcaster subdcprc,
Test with lunules or marginal notches or both.
D. Genital pores 5 ; test very solid.
E. Test elevated equally both anterior and posterior
to aiaclinal system;: interradial lunule very
large ............Encope cmarginata
Test highest back of abactinal system; interradial
lunule inoderatle or small.... .... Encope michlilni
DD. Genital pores .I; test more fragile.
E'. Lunuiles lcl lila qairqi a ii'Yp crforrt1 i
EE. umnules 6 ..... ..Mlliita se.riesperforata
AA. Mouth without jaws; imbitus elliptical ; usul a well-marked antero-
posterior axis.
B. Peristome oblique without a lip; amibulacra not petaloid ; peri-
proct oral, close to peristomne............ Ecchinoncus cyclostomnus
BB, l'eristoine transverse will a well-marked lip on posterior margin
ambulacra petaloid on dorsal surface ; periproct posterior.
C. Subanal fasciole wanting: petals deeply sunken, to an ex-
treme degree ......... ........... Moira atropos
CC Subanal fasciole present; petals not deeply sunken.
I). Ambulacrum Ill more or less distinctly sunkeil and
petaloid dorsally; posterior petals not longer than
anterior .Brissopsis clangata
J)I). Amlbulacrum III not petaloid and little or not sunken;
posterior petals may be much the longest.
E. Anal fasciole, arising from suhanal on each side of
periproct, well marked; primary tubercles and
spines in interambulaera 1 and 4, within peri-
petalous fasciole, very conspicuous............
Plugiobrissus gruIdis
EE. Anal fasciole -aniing; no conspicuous spines or
tubercles in interaimbulacra 1 and 4.
F. Subanal plastron distinct with subanal fas-
ciole complete................. Brissus brissus
FF. Subanal plastron indistinct with subanal fas-
ciole incomplete... ..... Meomna reitricosa


Eucidaris tribuloides (Lamarek)
Cidorites tribuloNids Lamnrck, 1816, Anim. s. Vert., ill, p. 56. A. Agassiz, 1872,
Rev. Ech., pt. 2, l'ls. ld and 2, ligs. 1-3 (as Cidaris tribuloidcs).
dlidris tribuloides Dioderlein, 1887, .lIp. Seeigel, 1). 42.

Although there are several species of Cidaridhe common in the West
Indian region, only this one ever comes into really shallow water. It


sometimes occurs in great numbers but ordinarily it is found singly under
or among' rocks near low-tide level. On one occasion at Port Antonio,
Jamaica, in Feb. 1909, there were hundreds, if not thousands, of Eucid-
aris in shallow water on "grassy" bottom (sandy bottom covered with
short eel-grass) south and southwest of Navy Island. But I have never
seen this abundance repeated either at Port Antonio or at any other place
This sea urchin is of moderate size; the largest of which I have record
is 56 mm. diameter. The primary spines are usually about equal to
the diameter of the test but are often less than that and often are much
more, especially in specimens from water of moderate depth. Such long-
spined specimens are frequently mistaken for one of the deep-water species.
The color of fribuloides is usually a light brown or fawn-color, striped
or shaded with darker brown and often marbled with white ; the primaries
are often encrusted with sponges or bryozo, and similar foreign growths,
concealing their natural coloration. In some specimens there is something
of an olive-green tinge, while in others red is a more or less notable shade.
Eucidaris occurs at Bermuda, near North Rock, but is rare. It is com-
inon in the Bahamas. on the Florida coast, and among the keys. It is
reported from the Carolina coast but not along shore. It occurs in
numbers throughout the Greater Antilles, and is recorded also from St.
Thomas, Antigua, Barbados, and Tobago. It has been taken at Swan
Island, on the east coast of Central America, the north coast of South
America, and Brazil. There seems to be no doubt of its occurrence also
at Ascension and the Cape Verdes, and probably at many other points
the eastern Atlantic.
The Academy collection contains ten examples of Eucidaris, ranging
from 7 to 30 mm. in diameter. Several of these deserve special mention.
The specimen 30 mm. in diameter has the primaries 32 mm. long and
very blunt, practically truncate; it was taken at Ensenada by C. L. Van
Bogaert. A smaller specimen from inside Cayo Maria Langa, near mouth
of Guayanilla Harbor, taken by IV. C. Osburn, June 2.3, 1915, has even
more notable primaries, for many of them actually flare at the tip and
might be called coronate. Another small specimen from Guanica Harbor,
due south of the bell-buoy, taken by R. C. Osburn, July 4, 1915, also has
coronate primaries. Two small adults from rocks opposite Fort San
Geronimo, San Juan, are notable for their short, thick primaries; in one
case, these are overgrown with soft, fine alga'. A specimen from Condado
Rocks, opposite Fort San Geronimo, San Juan, 27 nim. in diameter, has
spines 35 min. long, strikingly banded with deep dull purplish-red and
dark dull yellow. A specimen from just outside Guanica Harbor is 20


mm. in diameter, while the primaries are 25-29 mm. long; they are thick-
est 3-4 mm. from the base, and then taper to a more or less blunt point;
a typical one is 28 mm. long, more than 2 mm. thick at base, 3 mm. thick
4 mm. from base, and less than 1 mm. at tip. The contrast between such
a spine and the coronate primaries already mentioned is so striking as to
warrant the supposition that they belonged to different species!
The "Fish Hawk" brought back many specimens of Eucidaris from
Arroyo and Mayagiiez where it seems to be common. It w,. also dredged
at three stations in water 6-14 fins. deep.

C('entrechinus antillarium (L'hilippi)
Cidaris (Diadema) antillarum Philippi, 1845, Arch. fiir. Naturg. 11 (i), p. 355.
Centrechinus antillarum H. L. Clark, 1918, Univ. Iowa: Bull. Lab. Nat. Hist.,
vii, No. 5, p. 24. Nutting, 1895, Univ. Iowa: Bull. Lab. Nat. Hist., iii, p.
224, unnumbered plate, fig. 1 (young Centreehinus labelled "Aspidoflia-
dema sp.").
This conspicuous big sea-urchin, which is nearly or quite black when
alive, deep purple-brown or red-brown with almost black spines when
dry, is one of the best known of West Indian echinoderms. Adults may
be 100 mm. in diameter with spines 300-400 mm. long. These spines
are slender, hollow, covered with crowded whorls of microscopic spinelets,
pointing distally, and terminate in needle-like points, which pierce human
skin without the slightest difficulty. As the mucus on the spines is
irritant poison the effect of touching one of them is much like being stung
by a hornet, but is even more painful to many persons. The tip rl' the
spine breaks off in the wound and is ultimately (in normal cases) ab-
sorbed. The pain decreases after a few minutes and ordinarily disappear,.
in half an hour or less. There is no swelling accompanying the wound.
Of course the degree of poisoning and of pain varies with the person af-
fected. Stories are told of serious injury, and even the death of small
children, resulting from falling into a group of these urchins and thus
receiving multiple wounds. It is probable that such stories are exaggera-
tions; nevertheless anyone who has once suffered from a single spine finds
it easy to believe that death would result from too many such wounds!
This sea-urchin ranges from Bermuda, the east coast of Mexico and the
north coast of South America, to Tobago, Brazil, and the eastern Atlantic.
Closely allied species occur on the west coast of Mexico, in Hawaii and
throughout the I ndo-Pacific region clear to the Red Sea and Mozambique.


All were formerly considered a single species (Diadema selosunt) but
there is no doubt that the West Indian form is quite distinct. In some
places, as at Buccoo Reef, Tobago, it is exceedingly abundant and hun-
dreds, perhaps thousands, occur in groups of half a dozen to twenty or
more. While not really active, they move about freely. More commonly,
they are found a few together beneath or close to some large rock frag-
ment or coral head. They are particularly fond of the vicinity of growing
corals. Young specimens are much lighter colored than adults, often a
purplish-red, and the spines are conspicuously banded with white. These
banded spines are found on individuals sometimes as much as 40-50 mm.
in diameter, but the spines are usually uni-color and very dark when that
size is reached. Albino or partially albino individuals are occasionally
The Academy collection contains from San Juan, Guayanilla and Bal-
lena Point, Ensenada, seven young specimens with banded spines. There
are no adults, presumably because the adults are so common, so well
known, and such a nuisance to collect and prepare. The "Fish Hawk"
brought back Centrechinus from Ponce, Mayagiiez and Arroyo.

Family ARIuAcmnD
Arbacia punctulata (Lamarclk)
Echinus punctulatus Lamarek, 1816, Anim. s. Vert., iii, p. 47.
Arbacia punctulata Gray, 1835, Proc. ZoMl. Soc. London, p. 38. A. Agassiz,
1872, Rev. Ech., pt. 2, P1. 2, fig. 4.
One of the best known of sea-urchins, this species has a remarkable
range. It does not appear north of Cape Cod but it is common, and in
some seasons abundant, in the Woods Hole region. Thence it ranges
southward to Florida, the north coast of Cuba, and Yucatan. It is not
known from Jamaica or Porto Rico or any of the Lesser Antilles until
the southern end of the chain is reached, where it occurs at Tobago and
Trinidad. It seems possible, if not probable, that this far-southern group
has reached its present home via the northern coast of South America
and not via the Antilles.
Northern specimens as a rule have shorter spines than those from the
south but there are many exceptions and I do not find it feasible to sepa-
rate a southern variety. As a rule, punclulata is 40-50 mm. in diameter
when fully grown; Jackson, in his interesting and important memoir on
Arbacia (1927, Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., viii, p. 448) gives 53 Dmm.
in dianmete the maximum size. As regards the spines, the extremes
may be represented by two specimens, one -10 mm. in diameter, with


spines about 15 mm. long and 1. thick at base, the other 21 nunm. in
diameter, with spines 24 mm. long and less than .75 mm. in diameter at
base. Similar extremes in color also occur. While northern specimens
have the test commonly a deep brown, with a reddish cast, and the spines
lighter and often a dull brownish red, in the south there are two extremes;
on the one hand, the test is a light wood-brown, with the spines very
light (a dingy cream-color) at base becoming dull reddish-purple at
tip, and on the other, test and spines are deep reddish purple, or almost
black in certain individuals. Both these extremes are observed in speci-
mens from Florida. Specimens from Cuba, Yucatan, and Tobago, are
very dark and have slender, relatively long, spines.

Lytechinus variegatus (Leske)
Cidaris varicgata Leske, 1778, Add. ad Klein, p. 85.
Lytech.inus variegatus A. Agassiz, 1S63, Bull. NI. C. Z., i, p. 21. 1872, Rev. Ech.,
pt. 2, Pl. 2, figs. 5 and 6; Pl. 4a, figs. 4 and 5 (as Toxopneusfes variegatus).
This sea-urchin is notable as one of the few echinoderms in which it is
possible to recognize geographical subspecies. It has a wide range from
Bermuda and the Carolina coast to the east coast of Mexico and Central
America and thence throughout the West Indies to Brazil. A form also
occurs in the Cape Verde Islands (see I[. L. Clark, 1925, Cat. Rec. Ech.
B. 3M., p. 121). The typical form is that which occurs in the greater
Antilles and is abundant in Jamaica and Porto Rico. Its coloration is
green and white but the proportions of the two colors is very variable;
either one may be predominant to a marked degree. Jackson (1914, Publ.
182 Carnegie Inst. Wash., p. 148, unnumbered plate, figs. 8 and 9) has
described and figured a very handsome form of this green and white
Lytechinus, which he found at Montego Bay, Jamaica. Even in Jamaica.
however, individuals are found in which the primary spines and some-
times their tubercles also arc tinged with rose-red or purple. On the
southeastern coast of the United States this tendency to a rose-red or
purplish-red coloring becomes very marked and is often associated with
thicker, coarser spines, so that typical specimens are very different in
appearance. More than seventy years ago, Ifolmes (1860. Post Plio.
Foss. So. Car., pl. fig. 2), and three years later Mr. Agassiz (1863,
Bull. M1. C. Z., i, p. 2-1) designated this form as a distinct species to which
the name carolinus was given; but intergradation with the West Indian
form is so complete it can only be considered a sub-species at best. In
Bermuda, evolution has been working along a different line and here we


find the vast majority of specimens have slender primary spines and a
deep red-violet or purple coloration, entirely unlike either Jamaican or
Carolinian specimens. This form was described by Mr. Agassiz (1863,
Bull. M. C. Z., i, p. 24) as Lylechinus allanticus, but again intergrada-
tion with the West Indian form is complete (some Brazilian specimens
cannot be distinguished from typical allanticus) and we must therefore
consider the Bermudan form as, at best, a subspecies.
In size, the subspecies seem to run a little smaller than the typical
form ; the largest a, llanlicus I have seen is 75 1mm. in diameter, the largest
carolinus is 80 nun., while typical specimens from Jamaica and Tobago
run up to 85-87 mm.
While rariegat/s is often found under and among rocks, especially when
young, and is often taken even on mud, the habitat it prefers is a "grassy"
bottom (i. e. a rather firm sandy bottom covered with short col or turtle
grass) in shallow water. On such bottoms it often abounds to such an
extent that it is difficult to walk about without stepping on the urchins.
As they generally cover themselves partially or sometimes wholly with
bits of grass and similar material, they are not alwh, s easily seen. Ap-
parently this foreign material is held in position in part by pedicellarihe
and in part by the tube feet. Whether it is for concealment, a sort of
protection from enemies, or for protection from the rays of the tropical
sun, or for some other purpose, we have no knowledge as yet.
As already stated, variegatus seems to be abundant in Porto Rico. The
"Fish Hawk" brought back 28 specimens from half a dozen ports (Ponce,
Arroyo, Boqueron Bay, San Juan, Catano and ITucares). The Academy
collection contains 23 specimens, ranging from yvoun ones only 5 or 6
mm. across to adult 65 mm. in diameter. One of 3 small adults from
Maria Langa Cayo, near the mouth of Guayanilla Harbor, is notable for
having the primaries quite white. Other specimens from seven -al stations
approach carolins in coloration. Besides localities already mentioned,
the Academy specimens come from the following place Pargue E
senada; Ballena Point. Ensenada; Gu -a.
Tripneustes esculentus (Leske)
Cidaris esculenta Loske, 1778, Add. ad Klein. p. xvii.
Tripneuslcs esculent-us Bell. 187!. Proc. Zol. Soc. London. p. 657. A. Agassiz,
1872, Rev. Ech., pt. 2, P1. Ga, figs. 1 and 2 (as Hippono cesculenta).
This is the largest of the regular Echini of the West Indian region,
specimens from Bermuda and the Bahamas running up to a diameter of
145-150 mm. Conditions at Bermuda seem to be very favorable to Trip-
neustes as the finest specimens I have ever seen are from there. The dis-


tribution of this urchin is similar to that of the preceding species but it
seems to range farther south and east. It has been taken at Trinidad
Island in the South Atlantic and at Ascension, well as the West
Coast of kfrica. The spines in life are almost uniformly white, but the
test is often dark purplish in contrast to them occasionally the test is
brown, sometimes quite pale, and rarely the aboral part shows a dis-
tinctly yellow-green tinge.
Young individuals live under rocks and in out of the :ranni
hence very small specimens are rarely seen. Adults live out in the open
on grassy bottoms along with Lytechinus. Wherever Tripneustes is com-
mon in the West Indies, sexually mature adults are used more or less ex-
tensively for food by the natives. Of course the only edible portion is the
"roe" (gonads), and it is customary to take the roe .of several individuals
and bake them in a half of the test of one. Whe fresh and properly
seasoned and cooked, the result is as palatable as any fikhl roe, and bette
than many. The name "sea-egg" very commonly applied to Tripneustes
(as well as to other sea-urchins) does not, however, refer to the food value,
but is probably based on the appearance and texture of the bleached, hare
test after the have fallen off, following death. Such "','-'' are
naturally always empty In Barbados, it has been necessary to pass laws
regulating the gathering and sale of s,.-,-.:_-. for the persistent demand
threatened the local extinction of Tripnenstes.
Jackson (1914, Publ. 182 Carnegie Inst. Wash., pp. 119-151) lh
published a very interesting study of this species in which lie demons rates
that it shows a tended to break up into recognizable groups associated
with locality, as indicated by the character of the abactinal system. Given
500 specimen ;, it would be possible simply by examining the oculo-genital
ring to determine whether they -aame from liermuda, the Bahamas,
Florida or Jamaica. It not practicable, however, to designate such
groups by name, since it would not be possible to determine to which
group a single individual (or even a dozen) belonged. But they may
well be "incipient species" and their discovery by Jackson is most interest-
ing and important.
The Academy collection eont, but 5 specimens of Tripneustes: a
small one, 23 mm. in diameter, taken among rocks, at the eastern side
of the harbor entrance, under the lighthouse, Ensenada, June 14, 1915,
by IP. W\. Miner and II. Mueller; a half-grown individual from the west
end of the reef between Pardas Bay and harbor entrance, Ensenada,
June 18, 1915; and 3 adults about 120 mm. in diameter, with no data.


The "Fish Hawk" brought home 15 specimens of Tripneustes from Ponce,
Arroyo, Aguadilla, and Gianica.
Ecllitnometra, liuncnier i Linnius)
Echi mus leucuitcer IAinnus, 175S. Sy.-. Nat., ed. 10, 1). 6(1
Echinomectra Huuceiter Loven. 1887, Bilh. Svensk. Vet.-Akad. Handle xiii (4),
No. 5, p. 157. A. Agassiz, 1872. Rev. Ech., pt. P'l. 10a. figs. 2-4 (as E.

The -oimmonest of West Indian sea-urchins, rivalled possibly by
Lylechinus variegatus, is this "rock-boring" species, which is found. often
in vast numbers, wherever suitable coral rock occur. .ackson (1914,
I'ubl. 182 Carnegie Inst. Wash., pp. 154-157) has published some interest-
ing observations on it. made at Montego Bay, .Jamaica. It is 'riuns
fact that, in Jamaica and Porto Rico, lucunter does not reach nearly so
large a size as in either Bermuda or Brazil. Just what is lacking in the
West Indian area it is difficult even to guess. But the fact remains that
whereas Bermuda specimens are frequently 85-88 in length (the
ambitus in Eehinometra is elliptical not ular) Brazilian speci-
mens may measure 83 amn., I have seen no specimens from the West In-
dies or Florida which were over 65 nim. long. The largest specimen I
have measured is from Bermuda; it is practically 90 mm. long, 75 inmm.
wide and 47 mm. high. There is great dive 'sitv in lucimler in the relative
thickness of the primary spines and in their actual length; the two ex-
tremes may be represented by spines 27 mm. long and 1.. in diameter,
and 25 mum. long and 3 mnm. in diameter. As regards color there is very
great diversity the shade, though-.the general appearance life
ordinarily red-brown, the red more or less in evidence in different speci-
At one extreme are light-colored individuals, nearly white on the
cal membrane, becoming cream-color nearer the ambitus and thence
passing into a very pale brown with a reddish tinge, the distal parts of the
spines quite pink or red, though of a dull light shade. At the other ex-
treme are individuals which, although the buccal membrane may be light,
are very dark, in in; cases almost black. It is not a true black, however,
blt a very deep brown, purple or green. One interesting color formn has
the primary spines quite green, usually of an olive shade, with the tips
in many cases more or less markedly purple. Individuals of this type
have not rarely been labelled "'dis" solely because of the color, but they
are c artainly not that species, nor in any sense connecting links with it.
The distribution of lunieter is even wider than that of the West Indi,


Lytechinus and Tripneustes, for it ranges from Bermuda, Florida, the
east coast of Mexico and the north coast of South America, to the West
Coast of Africa and even to St. Helena. These urchins cling closely to
surf-beaten rocks and live in all sorts of cavities and crannies in their
surface. Apparently they have some power of rock-boring and in some
places fit quite snugly into the cavities they have deepened and modified,
if not actually excavated. They prefer very shallow water and on certain
reef-flats covered by only a few inches of water at low tide, they are often-
times excessively abundant.
The Academy collection contains 101 specimens of lucunter from San
Juan, Ensenada, Guayanilla, Montalva Bay, Parguera, between Pardas
Bay and Ensenada, Guanica, Ponce, the beach at Playa opposite Talleboa
Station, four miles east of Talleboa, and Caja de Muertos Island. They
show great diversity size and color, but none is notable in any w,
The "Fish IHawk" brought back 105 specimens, equally diverse, from
Ponce, Arroyo, Boqueron Bay, Fajardo, San Juan and \guadilla.

Erhinometra viridis Agassiz
Echinometra riridis A. Agassiz, 1863, Bull. M.C.Z.. 1. p. Liilken. 1S(64, Vid.
Med. f. 1863. PI. 1, figs. 1 (five figures of E. michelini).
There has been some doubt expressed as to the validity of this species,
because of the unfortunate figure given by Mr. Agassiz in the Revision
(1872, Rev. Ech., pt. 2, Pl. 10a, fig. 1), which is a photograph of the less
ommnon thick-spined form. Typical specimens of viridis look very dif-
ferent from this. LUitken's figures of E. michielini are not much better, as
viridis usually has the ambitus more nearly circular. A particularly fine
specimen from Jamaica has the test (35 nnm. long, 32 mm. wide.and 17."
mm. high) a rather dark purpli.dh-brown, with the large buccal area
lighter; the secondary spines and the base of the primaries are a light
brown or fawn-color with a reddish tinge; the primaries rapidly become
greenish and distally are bright olive green, terminating rather abruptly
in deep violet or purple tips. The primary spines are more than 30 mnm.
long and less than 2 nam. thick at base, whence they taper rapidly at
first and then gradually to a very slender but truncate tip. A stout-spined
specimen from the Tortugas (42 mm. long by 36 mm. wide) is the largest
viridis I have seen; the primaries are only 15 mnn. long and are 2.25 nun.
thick at base; they taper little on the basal half, but abruptly near tip.
The coloration is typical. There are but pore-pairs in the arcs com-
posing the poriferous areas of both these large specimens, whereas, as


already stated in the key, in lucunier, even when small, the abactinal
have 6 pore-pairs.
At the Tortugas viridis is rather rare and the few specimens found
were not associated with lucunter but were under rocks on the reef-flat by
themselves. At Jamaica it is oinore common and at Tobago we did not
find it at all. There are several specimens in the Museum of Compara-
tive Zodlogy, from Key Biscayne, Florida, and one from IIayti. The
"Fish Hawk" took two specimiiens at Playa de Ponce, Porto Rico, and
Liitken's specimens of E. michoifni were from the Danish West Indies and
Puerto Cabello, Venezuela. There are no trustworthy records from east
of those points. Kiikenthal and Hartmeyer took specimens at Coral Bay,
St. John, U. S. Virgin Islands, at Port cenderson, Jamaica, and on Bird
Key Reef, Tortugas, but not at Barbados. Apparently then, viridis is
found only west of longitude 64 E, but it is not yet known from either
Mexico or Central America; and the only record for Cuba is the one men-
tioned by Mr. Agassiz in the Revision (p. 117). There is no specimen
from Porto Rico in the Academy collection.


Clypeaster rosaceus (Linnieus)
Echinus rosaceus Linnaeus, 1758, Sys. Nat., ed. 10, p. (115.
Clypeaster rosaceus Lamarek, 1801, Anima. s. Vert., p. 349. A. Agassiz, 1872,
Rev. Ech., pt. 2, P1. lid, figs. 1, 2 (as Echinalthius rosaccus.).
This is probably one of the best known of the marine invertebrates of
the West Indies, sharing with the sea-star, Orcaster, the popularity of
curio shops and the general collectors' shelves. Whether with the spines
on or with the bare test bleached, it is a striking object, the five large
petals making an attractive pattern on the upper side. The color in life
is a reddish, yellowish, or greenish-brown, usually rather bright but some-
times quite dark. The largest specimen I have ever seen is in the British
Museum, from St. Vincent, and measures 150 mm. in length, 127 mm. in
width and 50 mm. in height. There is great diversity in form; some
specimens have the width 85% of the length while others have it as little
as 73%; a specimen 130 mnm. long is only 45 nmm. high (about 35%)
while another, 123 mm. long, is 55 mm. high (about 45%).
The range of rosaceus is from South Carolina and the Bahamas to
Barbados, but it does not seem to be common east of the Greater Antilles
and we did not find it at Tobago. It is not known from the Mexican or


South American coast, nor has it vet been found in Bermuda. The
Academy collection contains a single typical specimen from San Juan,
while the "Fish Hawk" brought back a single specimen from Fajardo.
Clypeaster subdepressus (Gray)
Echinanthts sibdepressa Gray, 1825, Ann. Phil. xxvi, p. 427.
Clypc ster sitbdcpre.t'.nus. Agassiz. 1V 0, 1Mem. Soc. Sei. Nat. Neilchatel. 187.
A. Agassiz, 1872, Rev. Ech., pt. 1, Pl. 11b, figs. 1 and 2.
Less common than the preceding species, this Clypeaster is still well
known, its large size and very flat test making it a noticeably interesting
object. The color in life is yellowish or reddish, or very deep, brown, and
there is little change in preservation. Normal adult specimens are 150-
175 rmm. long by 120-140 mm. wide; the greatest width is posterior to the
middle. A specimen in the Museum of Comparative Zoology from an
unknown locality, 248 mm. long by 21-1 nun. wide, is only 25 mm. high;
it is thus not only extraordinarily large but exceptionally wide propor-
tionately, and exceptionally flat. There is considerable diversity the
thickness and solidity of the test Specimens from the Tortugas seem to
be considerably more solid than those from farther east.
No specimens of subdepressus are known as yet from Porto Rico. but
since there arc records from Cuba, Jamaica and St. Thomas, it is almost
certain that this Clypeaster will sooner or later be found at Porto Rico.
There are records from Swan Island and Brazil, and even from the eastern
Atlantic, but none from Bermuda, Bahamas or the more eastern West
Indian Islands.
Encope emarginata (Leske)
Echinodiscus emtarginalus Leske, 1778, Add. ad Klein, p. 130.
Encope emnarginata Agassiz, 1841, Mon. Ech., lMoin. Scut., p. 47, PIs. 7 and 8
(as E. valcncienntqsii) and 10.
The Encopes are so solid it is hard to believe there can be much living
activity in such a stony object, but the West Indian species, especially the
present one, are less heavy than one or two of those from the Pacific
coast of Mexico. The genus is strictly tropical American, with four of
the six species found on the Pacific side. The present species is known
from the northern and eastern coasts of South America, as far south as
Uruguay. There are records from Trinidad and Martinique. which seem
reliable, but other reports from Nicaragua and South Carolina are quite
improbable. It is very unlikely that any species of Encope occurs in
Porto Rico.


In color, emicrginWta is not unusual; nothing is recorded of its appear-
ance in life; dry specimens are dull brown, often very (dark. There is
extraordinary diversity in the form of the test and in the size and form
of the lunules. A typical Venezuelan specimen is 125 inmm. long by 115
wide and the lunules are big and wide, the interradial one being 40
mm. long by 15 wide. The largest specimen I have seen is 141 x 126 m11m.
and the lunule is 30 x 10 nmm. On the other hand, another specimen,
88 mm. long, is 93 mm. wide, and the lunule is only 18 x 5 mm. The
marginal lunules are commonly quite closed in, but they are often widely
open, and are sometimes only deep, wide notches.
Encope michelini Agassiz
Encope michelini Agassiz, 1841, Mon. E'ch., Mon. Scut., PIl. igs. 9
and 10.
This species seems to be confined to the Gulf of Mexico, as all trust-
worthy records are from Florida, the Tortugas. Alahl a and Yucatan.
It is not found along shore as a rule. but is fairly common in 5-10 fins.
The color in life is a deep violet-brown which is little altered by preserva-
tion. The largest specimens at hand are from Tampa Bay, Florida ; the
maximum size is 138 x 136 m1m.. with the interradial hmnule, 15 x 4 inin.
In this individual, the anterior marginal lunules are represented only by
very shallow depressions, but the posterior pair are 10 nunm. deep and
only 2-3 1mn. wide. In a specimen from Alabama, 135 x 136 nun., the
anterior lunules are notches 15 mm. deep and 2-4 nnm, wide, while the
posterior pair are 18 x I mm. The test is not always so nearly equal in
length and breadth as these two big specimens indicate. A fine specimen
from Yucatan is 98 mm. long and only 92 nmm. wide. As a rule, the p, ed
lunules are not closed in, but remain as deep. narrow notches: in no
specimen at hand are the anterior pair (much less, the posterior) closed,
but in one Florida specimen they are very near that condition and it
probably is a rare variant.
Mellita quinquiesperforata (Leske)
Echioildisci.s quiiiuqiiesp('rforatus Leske. 1778, Add. ad Klein. p. 133.
MoTlita quinquiesperforata Meissner, 1904, Bronn's Thierreichi. ii, p. 1384. A
Agassiz, 1872, Rev. Ech., pt. 1, PIl. 12c, figs. 1 and 2 (as IM. testndinata).
The common "key-hole urchin" of the Florida coast is too well-known
to require any description. The test is always very flat but shows some
diversity in the relative length and width. It is occasionally as long as
wide but only very rarely does the length exceed the width; ordinarily
the width is markedly greater than the length, often by as much as ten


per cent. The largest specimens I have seen are Pleistocene fossils from
South Carolina, about 150 mm. long by 160 mm. wide. No recent speci-
mens that I have seen approach this size; the largest one is 106 x 108
mm.; specimens exceeding 100 mm. in either length or breadth are rare.
There is no satisfactory information about the color in life, but dry speci-
mens show considerable diversity, as some are pale yellow-brown, some
are gray with or without a decided violet tinge, and some have a markedly
greenish cast.
Oddly enough, qjuinquiesperfarata is not known from Bermuda or the
Bahamas, though the dead tests are dredged as far north as Nantucket,
and the species is abundant on the Carolina and Florida coasts. It is
present in Cuba and Jamaica, on the eastern coast of Central America,
the northern and eastern coasts of South America, and at Trinidad, but
has yet to be taken at any of the Lesser Antilles.
The Academy collection contains no example of this species, but the
"Fish Hawk" brought back ten specimens from Ponce, Arroyo, Mayagiiez,
Puerto Real and near San Juan.
Mellita sexiesperforata (Leske)
Echinodiscus sexiesperforatus Leske, 1778, Add. ad Klein, p. 135.
Mellita sexiesperforata Meissner, 1904, Bronn's Thierreich, il, p. 1384. Agassiz,
1841, Mon. Ech., Mon. Scut. Pl. 4, figs. 4-7; Pl. 4a, figs. 11, 12 (as M.
Although perhaps rather more fragile than the preceding species,
xiesperforala has a somewhat wider range, as it appears at Bermuda
and in the Bahamas as well as on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the
United States and the eastern coasts of Mexico and Central America;
thence it ranges clear to Uruguay with intermediate stations at Cuba,
Jamaica, St. Christopher, Martinique, Barbados, St. Vincent and Tobago.
It is more common for the length to exceed the width in this species than
in the preceding, but individuals wider than long undoubtedly predomi-
nate. The largest specimens I have seen are from Bermuda; three typical
specimens measure 100 x 96 mm., 110 x 115 mm. and 115 x 116 mm. The
color in life. when young. is a lovely silvery gray but with growth this
becomes more brown and adults seem to be pale fawn-color or yellowish-
brown. In preserved specimens, green tints often predominate, as is true
of nearly all Clypeastroids.
There are no specimens of Mellita in the Academy collection but the
"Fish Hawk" brought home a specimen of this species from Arrovo and
dredged I smaller ones in 11 fms. off the eastern end of Porto Rico.


Echinoneus cyclostonius Leske
Echinoneus cyclostomus Leske, 1778, Add. ad Klein, p. 109. Westergren, 1911,
Mein. M. C. Z., xxxix, No. 2, Pls. 1-5.
From the point of view of the evolution of sea urchins this is probably
the most interesting of West Indian echini for it seems to be one of the
last two living genera of IHoleetypoids that flourished in Jurassic and
Cretaceous times. The presence, as shown by A. Agassiz (1909, Amer.
Jour. Sci. (4) xxviii, pp. 490-192; pl. 2), of jaws in very young indi-
viduals (under 1 min. in length) and their rapid and complete resorption
so that they are wholly wanting in individuals 5-6 mm. long is the most
extraordinary characteristic of this curious echinoid. It is a very sluggish,
inconspicuous animal, living buried in coral sand under rocks on the reef-
flats of the tropics throughout the world. The largest recorded specimen
is in the British Museum and measures -14 mm. in length, 36 mm. in width,
and 21 mm. in height. Most specimens are 20-30 mm. long; the propor-
tions are very variable. The color in life is very light, almost a pale cream-
color tinged with reddish or a reddish-yellow, with the tube-feet bright
red in marked contrast. Preservation completely alters this coloration,
both spines and tube-feet becoming brown of some shade. A complete
monograph on Echinoneus was published by A. M. Westergren in 1911
(Mem. M. C. Z., xxxix, No. 2) with numerous illustrations, including a
colored plate, showing the appearance of the animal in life.
There is no specimen of Echinonens in the Academy collection, nor
did the "Fish Hawk" bring back even one specimen. But Mr. Agassiz
records it in the "Revision" as from Porto Rico, the material being in the
Copenhagen Museum. It has also been taken at St. Thomas. It is com-
mon in Jamaica and there are records from Bermuda, the Tortugas, Cuba.
Hayti, Antigua, Guadeloupe, Barbados, and Tobago. As already stated,
it is also found throughout the tropics of the old world.

Moira atropos (L.amarek)
Spatangus atropos Lamarek. 1816, Anim. Vert., iii, p. 32.
Moira atropos A. Agassiz, 1872, Rev. Ech., pt. 1, p. 146; P1. 23.
In some particulars, notably the depth to which the petals are sunken
into the dorsal surface of the test, this remarkable urchin is one of the
most highly specialized inembers of the class. It is particularly adapted
to its life buried in soft mud or muddy sand, the great compression of the


entrance to the petals enabling the animal to maintain currents of water,
from which the sediment has been strained, over the tube-feet of the
petals, which probably perform respiratory and excretory functions. Noth-
ing has been published as to the appearance in life of 1Moira, but it is not
at all likely that preservation alters it much. The color of dried speci-
mens is dirty-white or very pale brown, or grayish. The largest speci-
men of atropos seen is 57 mm. long, 46 mm. wide, and .13 mnm. high.
But proportions vary greatly. Another specimen mm. long is 51
nmm. wide and only 38 mim. high. The height is usually 70-80% of
the length, but a specimen in the British Museum, 40 mm. long, is only
23 1mm. high. Moira is common on the Carolina coast and around the
Florida peninsula, along the Gulf Coast to Texas. It is also recorded
from Jamaica, St. Thomas, St. John and Guadeloupe. The Academy
collection adds this interesting species to the known fauna of Porto Rico,
for an excellent specimen, 30 mm. long, was taken by R. C. Osburn, June
29, 1915, off Guanica Playa.

Brissopsis elongata Mortensen
Brissopsis elongata Mortensen, 1907. Ingolf Ech.. lit. 2, p. 16:; PI. 3, 14,
15, 19; Pl. 4, figs. 1, 4, 13.
Brissopsis lyrifera H. L. C('lark, 1901, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm.. 254 (Nxo

Nothing is known of this heart-urchin beyond Mortensen's account.
He examined the "Fish Hawk" material and being familiar with the
European Brissopsis was able to point out the well-marked characters
which distinguish the West Indian species. IHe also recorded specimens
in the Copenhagen Museum, from Puerto Cabello, but from what depth
is not known. His largest specimen (as figured) is about 50 x 43 x 26
nmm. and the color would seem to be very light.
The "Fish Hawk'.- specimens are labelled as from Sta. 6059, which
is off western Porto Rico, in 7 fins. on a bottom of sticky mud. It seems
as though some mistake in the station number had been made since the
depth of 7 fins. is so inconsiderable for a tropical Brissopsis. There is no
Brissopsis in the Academy collection.
Plagiobrissus grandis (Gmelin)
Echinus grandi.s Gmelin, 178S, Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. 13, i, pt. 6, p. 3200.
l'lagiobiisusts grandis II. L. Clark, 1917, Mem. 31. C. Z., xlvi, p. 207. A. Agassiz,
1872, Rev. Rci., pt. 1, P1. 21, figs. 4 and 5 (as Metalia pectoralis).

90 SCIh.


There is no doubt that this is the finest of the West Indian spataugoids,
and it might well claim to be the most remarkable and perhaps the hand-
somest of all West Indian echini.
There is no record of the color in life but the best dry specimens, fully
clothed with spines, are uniformly pale reddish-brown. The largest at
hand measures 220 mm. long, 160 nmm. wide, and 60 mnm. high; the
long spines of the dorsal surface are mostly 60-80 inm. long, but some
exceed 90 num.
If not extremely rare, Plagiobrissus must be remarkably local, for very
few specimens are known except those taken in the Bahamas, near Nassau,
chiefly by C. J. Maynard. There is a specimen in the British Museum
from Dominica and fragments of a specimen taken by the "Challenger"
on the Brazilian coast. There is a specimen from Tampa, Florida, and
a small specimen from Bahi, Brazil, in the Museum of Comparative
Zodlogy. Mr. Agassiz records specimen from "Mexico" in the Revi-
sion. And that is all. There is no evidence that this splendid animal
occurs in either Porto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Brissus brissus (Leske)
Spatangus brissus (var. uileolor) Leske, 1778, Add. ad Klein, pp. xx, 182.
Brissus brissus II. L. Clark, 1917, Meme. M. C. Z., xl, p. 218. A. Agasslz. 1872.
RIev. Ech., pt. 2, PI. 22, figs. 1 and 2 (as Brissun unicolor).
This is another of the very few echinodernis which are found both in
the Mediterranean Sea and in the West Indies. The distribution has
been given as "from Malta to Jamaica, from the Azores to St. Helena"
In the West Indian region it ranges from Bermuda, the Bahamas, and
the Tortugas, to Barbados and Tobago. Oddly enough it has not yet
been recorded from Porto Rico or the Virgin Islands, but there can be
little doubt that it will be found there, as it is common in Jamaica and is
known from IIayti. It is not yet known from Brazil but probably occur,
In the West Indies, e en when quite large, Brissus lives buried in sand
under rocks, very commonly in company with Echinoneus, and hence it
easily escapes the observation of the casual collector. It is a remarkable
fact that West Indian specimens are only about half as large as those of
the eastern Atlantic. The largest West Indian specimen I have seen is
20 nnm. long, 55 mm. wide and 38 mum. high, while many specimens
from the eastern side of the Atlantic are 115-120 mm. long and one in
the British Museum from Malta measures 135 x 100 x 65 mini. It would
be interesting to know why West Indian conditions are not favorable to


full growth. The color of Brissus in life is pale brown and preservation
produces very little change.

Meonia ventricosa (Lamarck)
Spatangus vcntricosus Lamarck, 1816, Aninm. s. Vert., iii, p. 29.
Mcomna ventricosa Liitken, 1864, Vid. Med. f. 18063, p. 120. A. Agassiz, 1872,
Rev. Ech., pt. 2, Pl. 20, fig. S; PI. 22, figs. 3 and 4.
This big spatangoid is a striking feature of the bottom fauna on sand
near reefs and cays in water a fathom deep or more. The color in life
is reddish-brown of a lighter or darker shade; preservation alters the
color but little. Most adult specimens are about 125 mm. long but the
largest individual I have seen is one in the British Museum from the
Bahama Islands; it is 188 mm. long, 158 mm. wide, and 100 mm. high.
There is not a great deal of diversity in the form and proportions of the
test. Apparently Moeoma is confined to the northwestern portion of the
West Indian region. It is common in the Bahamas, around southern
Florida, in Jamaica, and in the Virgin Islands. There is an old specimen
from Honduras in the Copenhagen Museum and one from Guadeloupe
in Paris. There are no other records of which I know. The Academy
collection contains no specimen and the "Fish Hawk" failed to find
Meoma in Porto Rican waters. It probably will be found there ultimately,

HIolothurians; sea-cucumbers
The preparation of this section of the present handbook has been greatly
facilitated but somewhat complicated by the publication of Dr. Deich-
mann's recent admirable report on "The Holothurians of the Western
Part of the Atlantic Ocean" (1930, Bull. MI. C. Z., lxxi, No. 3) including,
as it does, all of the West Indian region. In my paper on "The Distribu-
tion of the Littoral Echinoderms of the West Indies" (1919, Publ. 281
Carnegie Inst. Wash., p. 73), I listed 24 holothurians but Dr. Deichmann
gives more than twice that many, which appear to be littoral in the
strictest sense, from the region covered by this report. The question natu-
rally arises whether all of these should be included herein.
After a careful examination of the list, I have decided that nine species
are of such uncertain validity either as species or as littoral members
of the West Indian fauna, it will be best to omit them from the body of
the report, although including them in the key. One of these is Holo-
ihuria imperator Deichmainn, which is known as yet only from the original


material taken on the coast of Yucatan; the depth at which these speci-
mens were collected is not recorded, and as none is yet known from Florida
or the West Indies, imperator may well be omitted from further considera-
tion. A very similar case is that of Phyllophioruts dobso i Bell based on a
single specimen in the British Museum from the Bay of lHonduras. Two
species of Cucumaria are scarcely qualified for a place in the West Indian
list; one is C. pulcherrimaa (Ayres), which Dr. Deichmann records from
both north and south of the West Indian region and designates as '-un-
doubtedly a tropical form" ; but I doubt very much if it occurs as a littoral
species in the region covered by this report : the other is C. ricaria Sluiter
which is a dubious species based on a single very small specimen (13 nmn.
long) from Barbados, depth unknown. Of Thyone there are I species.
which I am unwilling to include without further and more satisfactory
evidence; fusus (0. F Miiller) European species whos West Indif
occurrence rests dubiously on 4 very small and youthful Thyones from
Tobago; pervicax Th6el, described from a single specimen from Brazil.
and stated by Dr. Deichmann to range 'from Bahi: to Florida" and
"found also in Vineyard Sound" but very imperfectly known and proh-
ably not littoral in the West Indies; genmmala ( Pourtals ), similar
to percica.r, almost certainly not a littoral West Indian spec' saban-
illa'nsis Deicihmann known only from two specimens taken in 1884 at
Sabanilla, Colombia, "shallow water" Finally there is Pseudocolochirus
mysticus Deichmann, the type of which is from deep water off Alligator
Reef, Florida, while specimens arc in the National Museum from Al-
batross Station 2691, 10 fins.; it has not yet been collected at a lesser
From the key, as well as from the body of the report, I am omitting the
small and undoubtedly youthful holothurians which Sluiter (1910) re-
corded from Bird Key Reef, Tortugas, as Holothuria magellani Ludwig
and Deichmann (19.26) listed from Falmouth Harbor, Antigua, Meso-
thuria verrilli Theel. These individuals, like Stichopus ernomiius II. L.
C. from Montego Bay, Jamaic,, are obviously too youthful to show specific
or even generic characters clearly. When we know the growth changes of
the various West Indian species of Aspidochirota, it is possible we shall
be able to assign such young individuals to their proper species. Mean-
while, in a report of the present nature, it is best to ignore them.
The following key, then, includes 50 species of holothuri. of which
9 will not be found in the body of the report. It is unfortunate that the
identification of these echinoderms is possible only by means of the com-
pound microscope, with which the minute calcareous particles or deposits


in the skin must be examined. A small bit of skin dissolved in
caustic ("Zonite" particularly satisfactory) will vield the necessary
deposits for examination. As a rule iclt;ion of 90 diameters will
answer but there are many cases where it is ne qssarv to magnify 4 or
times as much as that. The terms used in referring to the important par-
ticles are curiously arbitrary and often quite inappropriate, but as they
are firmly established in literature it would be difficult to avoid their use.
The following brief descriptions will help beginner to understand to
what the variouss names, here arranged alphabetically, ret'e It should
be understood of course that the character of the deposits is fairly con-
stant, but by no means perfectly so, for any given species.

ANCIIORS-deposits which are actually minute anchors in form; they have
normally two arias which mi hle eithe smooth or serrate on the outer
side; the erte.r is where these arms unite with each other and with the
shaft; the stock is the expanded, opposite end of the shaft.
ANCHIIOR-.PLATES-)perforated plates, more or less concave on one side, which
accompany the anchors ; the latter lie lengthwise of the plates on their outer
surface; the long axis of both plate and anchor is at right angles to the
long axis of the animal. Usually the end of the plate ne: the stock of
the anchor is narrower than the other. and in many cases it is crossed
by a curved arch called the bridgec"
BASKETS-curious, concave (or convex) bodies, commonly consisting of Lwo
curved rods crossing each other at right angles with their ends united by a
ring of calcareous material ; this ring usually carries teeth which may point
either vertically or horizontally. Other projections on either ring or cross-
rods may complicate the structure greatly. Baskets may be so shallow
as to be hardly more than concave plates or so deep as to become nearly
BuTTONs-perforated plates of a very definite character but rarely resembling
any normal button! A typical button is an elliptical, relatively thick,
smooth plate, narrowed at each end. about twice as long as wide. with
three pairs of perforations passing through it. These perforations show
great diversity in size--they may lie very small hole. or the. ny occupy
two-thirds (or more) of the button. In mn case. buttons are much
longer and have as many as 0 pairs of holes; at the other extreme are
short, reduced buttons with only ,. 3 or 2 perforations. Again, many
buttons, instead of being smooth, have knobs on the surface and these
knobs may be conspicuously developed on both surfaces; in extreme cases
the button thus becomes transformed into a swollen, irregular ellipsoid.
Buttons often incomplete or irregular in shape, and in a few cases it
is hard to s. whether a given deposit Is more properly called a button
or a perform: *d plate.
C-SIAPED BODIES-as the name indicates are delicate curved rods shaped like
the letter C:; as :a rule the terminal points are acute.


MILIARY GRANULES -a terni employed to cover all the ve small particles, in
the booy wall, with non-distinctive forms, often occurring in large, some-
times in incredibly large, number. In the simplest form, they are liter-
ally granules-splerical or ellipsoidal-but they are often more elongated
and appear as short rods with rounded ends; these rods may lie notched
along the sides, or orminiented by surface sculpturing; or they may be-
come more elongated, curved, with flattened and expanded ends, which
may be perforated or not; or the rods may he widened and flattened into
little disks which may be perforated, forming the so-called "doughnut-
shaped" bodies, or these may be incompletely formed, giving rise to short,
stout C-shaped particles. The one unfailing character of military granules
is their small size, which ranges from to 50 microns.
PERFORATED T'AS--as varied in form and size as ni: be; on the one hand
they pass into military granules, while on the other they become scales, a
millimeter or more across, easily visible to the unaided eye. They may be
flat or concave; thick thin with entire or undulated, or notched, or
serrate dentate iargiins; tie perforations may he large or small,
regular or irregular, with entire (smooth) or dentate margins. We may
group here as irregular plates, the Ilattened rods, sometimes branched,
which have the ends and other pnio'ecling parts expanded and often per-
forated. These are sometimes very characteristic of a species, 'specially
if they are the only deposits present.
lROSETTES-a particular form of plate, fundamentally made up of a rod whose
ends have divided dichotomously, Ihlie ends thus arising, again dividing
in the same way. The branches are usually somewhat curved and their
tips ver, blunt and rounded. If the tips coalesce, an ordinary perforated
plate of small size is formed. Many roseltes are so small as to be really
military granules, but in some cases they are good-sized plates.
TABLES-tihe most inappropriate naine applied to calcareous particles, for it
is only when considered upside down that these objects bear any resem-
blance to a table! "Tables" are, except perforated plate, and military
granules, the most widely distributed form of holothurian spicule, and
their size and shape is correspondingly varied. Typically they consist of
a disk and spire, the disk being a perforated circular or squarish plate
from which arise 4 vertical rods (pillars) connected at middle and top /
by horizontal bars, composing the spire: the tip of the spire often carries
sharp projections or teeth, both vertical and horizontal. These tables lie
in the skin with the spires pointing outward ; they may be so numerous
as to form a layer, the disks overlapping one another and the projecting
spires making the skin of the holothurian rough to the touch. From
this typical form, diversity proceeds either toward greater simplicity or
greater complexity. The cross-bar, connecting the vertical pillars dis-
appear, the pillars themselves reduce, and finally all that is left of the
spire are two or more knobs on the outer surface of the disk. Or reduc-
tion of the disk may occur, until it is merely a calcareous ring supporting
the base of the spire, and in a few cases even this ring has disappeared.
On the other hand, the disk may enlarge until it contains a hundred per-
forations, or the spire may be made up of six or eight pillars bearing


numerous leeth not only at the top but on the sides also. Increase of
disk may be associated with reduction of spire, or increasing complexity
of spire may be associated with a reduced disk.
WnEELS-deposits of truly wheel-like appearance, usually with 6 spokes.
They are found in only a very few holothurians and show relatively little
diversity except in size.

The following key is compiled very largely from Dr. Deichmann's report
but differs slightly in the arrangement of the species and in the emphasis
placed on certain details:
A. Pedicels (tube-feet) present, more or less abundantly the ventral,
and usually also on the dorsal surface.
B. Tentacles peltate, the branches all arising near the tip and form-
ing a circular disk there.
C. Only a single tuft of gonadls present, that on the left side;
body form and deposits very diversified.
I). No large, conspicuous calcareous teeth at anus.
E. I)eposits in the form of buttons present.
1F Buttons and tables present; buttons knobbed.
G. lButtons regular and complete .
H. Tables very complicated as reticu-
lated spheres...... Holothuria cutbana
IIII. Tables with knobbed margin but not
specially complicated..H. pscudofossor
Buttons irregular, often incomplete.
H. Near tip of appendages are some
relatively gigantic tables with
long, solid conical spires.. .H. princeps
IIl. No such tables......... (If. imperator)
FF Buttons smooth.
0. No marked difference between dorsal
and ventral sides; general form more
or less cylindrical; no calcified anal
II. Tables 'arge; disk squarish, with 9
subequal perforations; appendages
more like papillbe than pedicels;
skin rough...... ..... 11. impatiens
IIII. Not as above.
I. Pedicels small, scattered, mostly
on ambulacra........II. arenicola
II. Pedicels large, abundant; nu-
merous papillae also on dorsal
surface ..... HII. densipedes
GG. Ventral surface flattened, with numer-
ous pedicels; dorsal side with few ap-


pendages; calcified anal papilhe often
present; color bright brown... .11. parvula
EE. No buttons.
F. Tables wanting; only branched rods with
curved ends, in skin.............H. glaberrima
FF. Tables present, but lack disk altogether.....
H. surinamensis
FFF. Tables present, normal, but disks may be
small; other deposits, rosettes or perforated
G. PerforaLed plates with 24 large holes
and blunt teeth on margin collected in
little heaps visible to the naked eye; 1
stone canal; color variegated, with
pedicels yellow.................H. grisea
GG. Not as above
IH. Rosettes abundant, distinctly in
heaps ................... H. floridana
HH. Rosettes wanting; but numerous
small, perforated plates, scattered
in skin; color, dark above, yellow-
ish or light red (in life) beneath.
II. mcxicana
DD. Five large, conspicuous anal teeth; deposits rosettes,
granules or short rods............. Actinopyga agassizii
CC. A tuft of gonads on each side of dorsal mesentery; body
more or less quadrangular, the flattened ventral side with
very numerous pedicels.
D. Tables present; also C-shaped bodies.
E. C-shaped bodies small about as long as tables are
high ........................Stichopus badionotus
EE. C-shaped bodies large, twice as long as tables are
high .........................S. macroparentheses
DD. Tables wanting.....................Astichopus multifidus
BB. Tentacles dendritic, the branching quite irregular.
C. Tentacles more than 10, normally 20.
D. Deposits, thick discoidal bodies with serrate margins,
few perforations and a number of minute conical
knobs ......................... (Phyllophorus dobsoni)
DD. Deposits, tables, or plates derived from table disks.
E. Tables with 4 central, and about 12 marginal, per-
forations in disk....................P. seguroensis
EE. Table disks more or less elongate with 2 subequal
central perforations.
F. Margin of disk, dentate; spire often reduced
to 4 knobs.....................P. occidentalis
FF. Margin of disk smooth.
G. Posterior prolongations of calcareous ring
long and well-developed.... P. daestichadus


GG. Posterior prolongations of calcareous ring
H. Disks of tables oval, with 8 large
and 2 small perforations; spire
well developed............. P. parvus
HH. Disk margin undulating; 4 perfora-
tions; spire rudlinentar ..... P. tritus
CC. Tenitacles 10.
D. Ventral side not flattened into a distinct sole nor dorsal
side covered partly by scales.
E. l'edicels numerous all over the body.
F. Tables present in body-wall proper.
G. Spire of 4 pillars; disk irregular with 7
or 8 perforations......... Thyoec briareus
GG. Spire of 2 pllar.
H. Disk thin with 4 large perforations
(often 4 small ones also) spire
high with tapering pill: 's ending
in a few small teeth ...... (T. fusus)
HH. Disk thick with only 4 perfora-
tions; spire low with thick pillar,
ending in numerous stout teeth..
T. psecudofusus
FF. No tables in body- 'all proper, though they
may be found in pedicels as supporting
rods, or in the introvert.
G. Supporting rods of pedicels often like
tables; knobbed buttons present.....
T. micropunctta
GG. Supporting rods not like tables.
H. Deposits elongate, perforated, nearly
smooth plates............. T cognata
HHI. Deposits mostly 4-holed. knobbed
I. Tentacles of equal size; pedi-
cels with distinct end-plates.
J, Skin soft; buttons few, with
large perforations ; bas-
kets few, often incom-
plete ...T. sispecta
JJ. Skin stillff; buttons numer-
ous ; baskets large, well-
formed ....T. anrinamncosis
II. Ventral tentacle. smaller; end-
plates of pedicels reduced or
J. Pedicels uniformly spread
over body, usually

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