NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands
VOLUME XIV-Part 1
Insects of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands
Odonata or Dragon Flies-Elsie Broughton Klots
PUBLISHED BY THE ACADEMY
INSECTS OF PORTO RICO
AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS
ODONATA OR DRAGON FLIES
BY ELSIE BROUGHTON LOTS
Introduction .......................... ........................ .... 3
Material studied ................................................. 3
H historical ......................................... ........... 4
Acknow ledgm ents ......................................... ...... .
Distribution list of W est Indian species............................
Plan of paper .................................................... 31
Desiderata .................................... .............. 12
Systematic account of the species ..................................... 12
JEschnide ........................................ .............. 13
Libellulidie ....................................... ............ 24
Ctenagrionidie ................................................... 74
The dragonfly material accumulated in the course of the Scientific Sur-
vey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, and deposited in the American
Museum of Natural History, has served as a basis for the present study.
Additional material to which I have had access has been, altogether, of
sufficient amount and geographical extent to warrant undertaking a
preliminary review of what is known of the Odonate fauna of Porto Rico
and its relation to that of the West Indies as a whole.
Some 900 specimens belonging to the American Museum (abbreviated
A. M. N. H. in the distribution records given in this paper) have been
examined. They represent collections made in practically all sections of
Porto Rico, ten different points in Cuba, five in Jamaica, eight in Haiti.
four in the Dominican Republic, and at least one each in St. Croix, St.
Thomas, St. John, Martinique and Guadeloupe; they include thirty-one
genera and forty-five species. In these expeditions of the American
Museum the following individuals participated: F. E. Lutz, H. E. Cramp-
SCIENTIFIC' SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
ton, J. IT. Grossbeck, F. E. Watson. C. W. Leng, L. B. Woodruff, A. J.
Mutchler and H. G. Barber.
At Cornell University (abbreviated C. U. in the distribution records
given in this paper) there is material collected by James G. Needham in
Cuba, Haiti and Porto Rico; by W. T. IM. Forbes in Porto Rico, Vieques
Island, and St. Lucia; by J. Chester Bradley and by 1'. P. Babiy in St.
Lucia: and a few specimens by Mel '. Cook in Cuba, and C(. Carb in
Porto Rico. Since the present work was begun, valuable material has
been received from Julio Garcia-Diaz and M1. D. Leonard in Porto Rico;
L. D. Stores in Martinique: and II. L. Dozier in Haiti. A collection made
by 0. Querci in Cuba was loaned by The Academy of Natural Sciences,
Philadelphia. Professor Xeodhani collected a large number of nymplhs
during his short stay on the islands in the spring of 1029. These have
furnished some valuable additions to our knowledge of the immature
The first work on the West Indies which included descriptions of
Odonata 1 was that of Sir Hans Sloane, Bart.. in 1' 25, in which lie noted
five species of Libellula: Hufa Major, NHufa Minor, Malr ia crrrulea, ant
riridis, purp'irea, and minor cavrlalei. The first of these is described ai
having "2 large Hemispherical eyes a thorax large
and covered all over with a reddish rusty colored hair or wool "
The last is described as having an abdomen "not much bigger than two or
three Iog Bristles joined together, all of a blue color:" So one is inclined
to credit Sir Hans with the first description of Orthemin ferrugirea and
the first Emdlagmo. from the West Indies.
1 Early works including reference to Odonata in the West Indies are in part:
1500. Acosta, Jose de, Hlist. Nat., iv.
1654. Tertre. J. B. du, lHst. generals de S. Cristopher, de la Guadeloupe,
de la Martinique Paris.
1681. Rochefort, C. de, Iist. not. aux iles Antilles Rotterdam.
1722. Labat, P., Nour. Voyage anx iles d'Amerique .Paris,
1725. Sloane, Sir Hans, Bart., Voyage to the islands of .Madeira, Barbados, Nieves,
St. Cristopher, andl Jamaica, ii. London.
1750. HIlghes, G., Nat. Hist. of Barbados. London.
1S09. liesCourtilz, M1. E., Voyage d'un naturaliste Cuba et a St. Dom.
1810. Ledru, A. P., Voyage aux miles St. Thomas Paris.
1848. Schomburgh, Sir It. II., A hist. of Barbados .. London.
1S51. P'oey y Aloy, Felipe, Mernorias sobra In hist. nat. .
1801. Poey y Aloy, l'elipe, Couspectus.
1878. Marshall, T. A., Notes on the entomology of the Windward Islands. Proc.
Ent. Soc. London, pp. xxvii-xxxviiii.
ISS2. Stall, A., Iaunan Puerto ]ico San J aln.
KLOTS. ODOXATA OF 'ORTO RICO AND TIE VIRGIN ISLANDS 5
In 1857, Iamnon Sagra's Ilistori fiscia politics y natural de la Isla de
Cuba included a section on Odonata contributed by the Baron Edmonde
de Selys Longehamps, who listed from the island thirty-five species, of
which four were described as new.
In 1866, Scudder reported to the Boston Society of Natural History on
a collection of Odonata from the Isle of Pines. His account was followed
by one by Hagen in 1867 on a collection from Cuba, and one by Uhler the
same year on Haiti. In 1889, Kirby described a collection, in the British
Museum, from Jamaica, and in 1894, one from St. Vincent and Grenada.
Other papers which deal exclusively with the dragonflies of the West
Indies are included in the Bibliography. Special attention should be
drawn, however, to that of Kolbe in 1888, in which note is made of the
distribution of dragonflies in the West Indies, with special references to
those from Porto Rico; also to that of Gundlach in 1893 on the fauna of
Three catalogues have been published: Carpenter's (1893) for Jamaica,
showing the island to have exclusive neotropical affinities, with a prepon-
derance of South American species, and giving some biological notes;
Walcott's (1923) for all the insects of Porto Rico, listing twenty-one
species of Odonata as reported by Kolbe, Gundlach, and Stahl; and
Gowdy's (1926) for Jamaica. References to the last two have not been
included in the synopsis of each species, except in a few rare instances
when the reference stands as the sole record for the locality.
A report on the Odonata collected by the Scientific Survey of Porto
Rico was undertaken by the late Mr. Lewis B. Woodruff, but had proceeded
at the time of his death only to a partial sorting of material. The writer
is indebted to the authorities of the American Museum for the opportu-
nity to study this material; to the authorities of Cornell University for
the use of material contained in the collection of that institution: and to
all those who have loaned or given specimens.
The figure of the nymph of Bracliynesia was drawn by Mr. Gideon
I)STIHr I UTION LIST OF EES'r INDIAN StPECIES
x, Ilitherto reported. X. recorded in the study for this paper.
Aphylla produced ....................
Comphoides integra ..................
serenus .. .. ... ..........
Asshna cornigera ....................
c. dom inicalna..............
Anax amazili ......................
junius .. .......... ...... .
Acanthagyna ereagris. ................
Gynacanlha sepima. .................
Brachymesia furcata. .................
Brechmorhoga grenadensis ............
i. funerca. ..................
Celithemis eponna ..................
Dythemis ruf inervis. .................
1. cubensis. .................
Erythemis atala. ....................
credula ................... .
hIr qtnlotq'c q ..............
U 4 0
S *0 o, gg 0 ; J ^ ^ E
< <. I E 1 C t I .2 : I
0 0 0 CO U 4 ^ CO .5 4 > CO C H > CO
jju~ ~m~~~~~S' ~ 0
x .... .
. ... .X
c~ us C
S . .
. . . . . .
.... ... .... .... ....
x.. .... .. .. ... .
.... .... ....
Erythrodiplaxb. nava............... x .. x ... xX x xX .... I .... .. ... X ... ... .... . .
fra ern a................. .... .... .. .. x x x . . .. . . . .... ... ..
c. jusliniana .............. ... .. ... .. xX x xX X X .... X .... xX .... .... ... X .... .... .... .... .... .... .....
m inuscula............... x x x x x x ... ... x .... . .. .. .. ..
o. ochracea ................ .. ... x x xX x x .... ... .. .. ... ... .... .... ... ... ... .... .... ... .... ....
urbrata .................. x x x x xS x x x x .... XX X xX X ........ X x xX xX x x x x
Lepthemisvesiculosa ................ x x x x xX x xX xX xX .... xX .... x xX .... X .... xX xX .... x x x
.ibellula auripennis ................ x x .... x .. .. ..... .....
Mlacrodiplax ballteata ............... x x .... .. x ........ X ... ... .....
Mlacrothemis celeno .............. .... ... .. .... xX x xX xX xX .... x .... xX X... .. .. ... .. .... .... ... .... .
M. iathyria marcella...... .. .. x x xX .... x .... .. xX .. .. .... .... ... ....
sim plex .................. .. .. .... x x x ....C... .... .. .. .. .. .. ..
Alicrathyria qualis ................. x x x x x x x x .. . x .... x .
debilis... ............... x xX ... .. . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. *.. .. ..* .. .
didyma ... ... .........x x .xX x xX .... xX .... x .. .... .... .... ... X ... ... .. .... x
dissocians x .. .. xX x .... .... X .... xX .... . .... ... ... .. .. ... .... .... .. ..
hageni .................... .. x x .... xX ..... x .... xX .... xX .. .. .. ... .. ... ...
Orthemis ferruginea ................. x x x x xX x xX xX xX X xX .... xX X X X X x .... xX .... x x x
Pantalafllavescens................... x x x x xX x xX xX X .... xX .... xX .... ........ X ........ X .... x .... ...
hymenea................. .. x x x x x .... ... .. .... .. .... .. ..... .... .
Perithemis domitia.......................... x x x x xx x x x x .... x ........ ..... .... .... x .
m oomna.................... .... .... .... .... .... ... x ..... ... .. ... .... .... ... ..
Scapanea frontalis ............................... .... xX x x xX xX x ... X .. ..................................... ...
Tauriphila australis................. .. x x xX .... .... .... ....... .... .... .... .... .... ....... .... ......... .... ... ... ...
Tholymis citrina ........................... x x .... x .... xX ...... ....... ....... ........ .... ........................ .... .... ...
Tramea abdominalis ................. x x x x xX x xX x xX x xX .... xX .... ........X X xX xX x X .... x
binotata.................... x .... x x xX x xX x xX .... X ....................................... xX .....
cophysa ................... .... ..... x x x x i . .. ... .. . . ..... .. ...... ..
onusa ..................... x x x x .. ... .... X .... x X ............ .... x ... ..... .. ..
A m phiagrion saucium ............... .... x .... .... x . .. ... .. . .. .... .. ..
Anomalagrion hastatum.............. x x x x xX x xX xX X .. .xX ... .... ...........................
Argia insipida ...................... ....... ... .. .. ... ....... ... ... ...... .. ........... x x
Argiallagma minutum ................ x .... x ... x x .. .. .... .. .... ...... ... ... .. .
Ceraturacapreola................... ...... x x xX x x ... ... .... xX .......................... xX xX .X. .. ....
Enallagma cacum ..................... x x x .... ? x xX .... .... xX .... x .. ... X X .......... ........ ..
c. cardenium............ ... x ............ xX ? .... ? ............... .... ............ .... ............ ..... .... ....
civil ................... .... x x x xX x x x .. xX ... x .......... ..... .. ......xX. ... .. ........ .... ..
cultellatum ..................... x x .... x .... x x .... .... ... ........ ... ... ...... .. .. .. .. . .
doubledayi................. x ... ..... .... x .... x .......... .... .... ............ .... .... .... .... ........... ....
truncatum......... .. ....... .... .... .... x ... .. ........ ........ ...
Ischnura ramburii.................. x x x x .xX ... .... ........ ............ ............ ........ ....
r. credula. ................. x x xX ... ..x x .... X .... xX X ........ X .... .. xX .... x x x
Leptobasis vacillans.................. ........ x x xX ............. X .. x ........ .... .... ... ..... .. .. .... .... .... .... .... .. ..
DISTRIBUTION LIST OF WEST INDIAN SPECIEs-Continued
x, Hitherto reported. X, recorded in the study for this paper.
N ehellenia sp....................... .... .... .... .... .... X x .... ..
Telebasis domini canum ............... .... .... .... x xX .... x xX xX .... xX i
nera a ................ .... .... ........ X .... ... xX .
el n ma crogasl er ................. .... .... .... .. .. ? .... x .... .... .... .... .... ... .. .. .. .. . .
H ele na luteola ... ................. .... .... x x .... .... x... .... .... .... .... .... .. ... .... .... .... .... .... x ... .... .
t ilia .. .. . .. . . . x x x . . .. x . . . . . . . . . . . . .
e e a ra ... . .. . . . . . . .. . . .
train latis ................... .... .. .... . x ..
itro te nus s c ataus ................ .. .... .... x ... ... X. .. ... x .
icroneur a caliga ................. .... .... .... .... x .. .. ..X .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ........ .... ........
Neoneura arnatica.... ................ .... .... .. .. x x .... ... x . . . . . .
esthearia .................... .. .... .... x .. .. .... .. .. .. .... ... .. .... ... .. .. .... .... ... .. .. .... .... ....
trina ........................ ........ .... ............ ............ .. .... ....
roonur aa illaris ............... ...... ...... .. .. ... xx .. ... .... .. .. .... .. ..
ecs togastr ama lia. ................ .... .... x. ... .............................. .......
Alecistogas er amalia.......................... .... x ................. ..... x .... .... ... .... .... .... .... .. .... .... .... .... .... .... ....
mria................................. X.... .....
dlcIcistagasfer amalia ................. ....I.....................a.....................................
LOTS, ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 9
The preceding table shows the following groups of species:
1. Endemic genera:
Scapa lnea Hypolestes
Scapanea, a monotypic genus, has hitherto been known from the Greater
Antilles only. If the nymph which I have described as Scapanea in the
following pages is correctly associated with this genus, the range is ex-
tended to Trinidad. It belongs to a generalized group of the Libelluline:
a group which is somewhat Corduline in appearance, with rather abundant
venation, but with a few very specialized features. IIypolesles, with two
closely related species, is marked as a genus of archaic relationship by
the presence of lateral gills on the abdomen of the nymph. Mlirronenura,
with one species, recorded from Cuba only, is apparently not common. It
is unknown to me.
2. Endemic species of non-endemic genera:
Gom phoides integer Lestes scalaris
Gomiphoides serelns Lestes spumarius
Acanlhagyna ereagris Protonaetra capillaris
Brech morhoga grenadensis Telebasis rulnerata
Macrothemis celeno Telebasis macroyasler
Perithemis 00mooma Etnallagma truncaltum
Lestes and A(anthagyln. are widely distributed genera; the former is
found in all regions of the world and the latter in all but Nearctic and
Palearctic. The others are more restricted. The original description of
B. grenadensis is the only record for the genus in the West Indies, and
that is for Grenada only; it is strongly South American in it, affinities.
Both Brechlnorhoga and Macrotheris are closely related to Scapanea.
Perithemis is unlike the others in that it is probably of more recent origin;
the species intergrade and are extremely variable. The identity of
mooma. as a species is still uncertain; it may be lut one of the many
varieties of the females of a more widely distributed species.
3. Endemic subspecies of non-endemic species:
A phJlla producfta caraiba Erythrodipla.x conmala
zEshnia corntiera dorn inicainc fraterna
Cannaphila intiular bi insular4 Ery/throdipla. conmifa
Ephidatia logiypes cubenrsis justin.iaina
I have not seen the first two. Both A. producla and A. caraiban are
from Cuba; the Cuban records may all be caraiba. E. cubensis is the
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
Cuban form of E. longipes, and is found nowhere else in the West Indies
except the Isle of Pines. Erythrodiplax is a genus of many species and
one which shows considerable variation in characters usually regarded as
generic. The species, too, are variable and plastic; they are probably of
4. Non-endemic species:
These number seventy. Of these, Dythemnis rufinervis and Enallagna
doubledayi are known only from the eastern U. S. (although Florida has
twenty-seven species in common with the West Indies), and Telebasis
doominicanum exclusively from South America. All the others are re-
corded from Central America with the exception of Macrodiplax balteala,
which is from Florida and Texas.
From this it would appear that our characteristic Antillean fauna is
most nearly allied to that of Central America, and that it arrived probably
at the time of the late Tertiary connection with Central America, when
all our present families of Odonata were in existence. Several species are
common to Jamaica and Haiti and are not found on the other islands,
and four have been reported only from Jamaica; one of these is Uracis
imtbuta, a primitive genus in which the female possesses a long ovipositor.
Such localization is not inconsistent with the belief in the secondary land
bridge via the east-west mountain chain fom Haiti through Jamaica to
Honduras, in addition to the Yucatan-Cuba connection.
But it must be borne in mind that dragonflies are strong fliers (thirty-
five of these herein discussed are dispersed over all of Central America,
and widely in South America); they are known to migrate in large
numbers; they are easily carried by the wind; and coursing up and down
the streams as they do, might well become attached to some carrier and be
borne across considerable distances. Furthermore, the distribution of
2 For information regarding the flight and migration of dragonflies see:
1019-1921. Allison, V. C., Dragonflies of southeastern Kansas. Trais. Kans. Acad.
Set., xxx, pp. 45-5S.
1910. Osburne, Raymond C., A migratory flight of Dragonflies. Journ. N. Y. Ent.
Soc., xxiv, pp. 90-92.
1879. Sclhaupp, F. G., Flight of Le!idoptera in mid-ocean. Bull. Brooklyn Ent.
Soc., ii, p1. 72.
1920. Shannon, Howard J., Journal N. Y. Ent. Soc., xxxiv, p. 199, 1926.
1917. Tillyard, R. .., A study of the Odonata of Tasmania. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. 11.
Sidney, xxxvii, pp. 404-470.-(in his Biology of Dragonflies. Cambridge,
1917, p. 3 :33.)
18"O. Torrey, Bradford, Migration of Dragonflies. American Naturalist, xiv, pp.
1920. Williamson. C. B., Some records of dragonfly migration. The Entoindlogist.
lxii, pp. 145-14S.
KLOTS, ODONATA OPI' PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 11
dragonflies is restricted by the presence or absence of permanent waters,
and the existing species by the type of water, whether lotic or static,
whether with sandy or rocky bottom ; it is not affected by geologic strata or
soil conditions. Cuba, with its lakes and ponds, and its abundance of
rivers and their many small tributaries, is naturally rich in Odonata.
In Porto Rico, breeding places are scarce and the species are fewer. The
fact of Cuba's longer association with the continental land mass and of
Porto Rico's earlier isolation, has comparatively little to do with this
abundance or scarcity. Many of the small islands are completely void
of Odonate life, whereas others offering some opportunity for develop-
ment are inhabited by species of greatest vitality. Such species, once
established, maintain their dominance by their superior vigor (as is the
case with the currently evolving species of Erythrodiplax and Micra-
thyria), or by continual repopulation made possible by their stronger
powers of flight (as in Lepthemnis, Orthemis, Tramea, and Pantala).
PLAN OF PAPER
The purpose of this paper has been to prepare a survey of the regional
material by means of which the reader may quickly and easily determine
what is known from Porto Rico, what he has, and what type of collect-
ing is most needed.
In the systematic account which follows, keys have been given to all
genera reported from the West Indies, and to all species of genera re-
ported from Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. The genera and species
which are not regional are included in brackets. Descriptions have been
given for all regional species; these have been taken from Porto Rican
specimens unless otherwise stated or unless the distributional list for the
species shows that no material has been at hand. In the subfamily
Libellulincr, keys to both genera and tribes have been included. Under
each tribe is another key to the genera, in which, so far as possible, differ-
ent characters have been employed.
In the bibliographic accounts of each species, references have been
made: to the original descriptions, to records of distribution within the
islands, to records of specimens actually collected in the West Indies, and
to the entry of the species in the Catalogue of the Odonata of North
America by Richard A. Muttkowski, (Bull. of the Public Museum of the
City of Milwaukee, May, 1910, i, art. I) or, in the case of the subfamily
Libelluline, in Lib'ellulinen by F. Ris (Cat. Coll. Selys, Fase. ix-xvi, 1909-
1913), which has a more nearly complete bibliography. Additional refer-
ences of importance have occasionally been included. Additional syn-
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
onyms are sometimes mentioned but complete synonymy of the species
has not been deemed necessary.
Previous volumes of this series should be referred to for discussions of
the geology or geography of the islands,
The venational nomenclature used is that of the Comstock-Needham
system. The terminology of the anal area of the Libelluline follows
Needham and Broughton ('27); as: gaff, Cu,-A, from the hind angle
of the triangle to their forking; sole, A, from its separation from Cu,
to its conjunction with the midrib of the loop at the toe ; a: b, proportions
of distances from base of A. to midrib of loop and from the midrib to the
hind angle of the triangle. Measurements are given in millimeters and
represent the extremes when the variation is great, and the mean when
it is small.
The two principal needs are: the preservation of Zygopteran pairs taken
in copula, and the rearing of nymphs. Females of the genera Lestes and
Elallagma are virtually indeterminable. The finding and rearing of
nymphs will, aside from completing our knowledge of their life histories,
throw valuable light on the correct position in our system of classification
of several genera. Of the 89 species here listed, the nymphs of 11 genera
and about 50 species remain unknown. Of the 7 genera and 9 species
described here for the first time only one, Lepth emis vesiculosa, has been
SYSTEMATIC ACCOUNT OF THE SPECIES
The adults of this suborder are usually rather large, stout-bodied insects.
Eyes large, never separated by a distance greater than their own diameter,
often meeting on the top of the head. Males with two superior anal ap-
pendages and one inferior. Females with superior appendages but no
inferior, and with or without an ovipositor. Wings held horizontally or
depressed when in repose. Hind wing broader at the base than the fore
wing. Discoidal cell differentiated into triangle and supertriangle.
Radius brianchled its sector commonly considered as crossing over two
branches of media.
The qi iph.l are robust and variable ini form. Gills internal. Anus
closed by three spine-like appendages.
KLOTS, ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE IIRGIN ISLANDS 13
KEY TO FAMILIES
1. Triangles equidistant from the arculus in fore and hind wings and similarly
shaped ; antenodal crossveins of the first and second series not continuous
with one another, except the first one and one other ........... : selcidne
Triangle nearer the arculus in the hind wing than in the fore wing and the
two dissimilar in shale, that of the fore wing transversely elongated
and that of the hind wing longitudinally elongated; antenodal erossveins
of the first and second series continuous with one another .... Libellulidte
1. Labium flat, or nearly so ................................... Eschnidwc
Labium spoon-shaped, covering the face up to the base of the antennae.....
Triangles of fore and hind wings similar in shape and equidistant from
the arculus. Antenodals of the first and second series not continuous
across vein Sc except the first one and usually one other; these two are
thickened. Stigma with brace vein at proximal end. Anal loop, when
present, rounded. Aurieles nearly always present on the 2nd abdominal
segment of the male and sometimes of the female. Labium with well
developed median lobe; lateral lobes with movable hook and end hook.
Xympths usually somewhat elongated, but of various shapes. Labium
flat, never spoon-shaped.
KEY TO THE SUBFAMILIES IN THE WEST INDIES
1. Eyes widely separated on the top of the head.................. [Gomphlne]
Eyes meeting on the top of the head ............................. Esclininme
1. Antennae of four segments; tarsi 2-2-3 segmented; burrowers.. [Gomphinie]
Antennre of seven segments; tarsi 3-3-3 segmented ; climbers..... Eschnln'e
These are large, strong-flying dragonflies. The eyes meet in a line on
the top of the head. Median lobe of labium incised or notched. Ab-
dominal segments with longitudinal lateral caring. Triangles of both
I Tarsus of first leg consisting of two segments ; that of second leg, of two segments:
that of third leg, of three segments.
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
wings elongated in the axis of the wing and subequal. All triangles with
many crossveins. Anal loop compact.
The nymphs are climbers on submerged vegetation. Body elongate.
Legs slender, placed well forward on the body; tarsi three-segmented.
Antenne seven-segmented, the segments of about equal size and length.
Labium flat; sette usually absent; lateral lobes narrow; long movable
hook present; median lobe cleft.
KEY TO WEST INDIAN GENERA
1. Sectors of the arculus springing from above the middle of the arculus..
Sectors of the arculus springing from the arculus at or below its middle 2
2. Radial sector forking below the middle of the stigma; outer end of radial
planate gently curved forward...................... Coryph(lrscl
Radial sector forking before the stigma ; outer end of radial planate bent
forward abruptly ............................................... 3
3. Hind wing with two rows of cells between Cu, and Cu, beyond the anal
loop; supplementary loop usually present; fore wing with 2-3 cross-
veins under the stigma; 10th sternite of the female rounded, with two
very small spines ........................................ s(Ic na
Hind wing usually with one row of cells between Cnu and Cu, beyond the
anal loop; usually four crossveins under stigma of fore wing; 10th
sternite of female usually forked into two or three long slender
branches ........................................................ 4
4. Two rows of cells between M, and M, beginning under the stigma ; 10tl
sternite of the female with three prongs................ Gyincantha
Two rows of cells between MI, anrd 31, beginning at, or proximal to, the
stigma, at least in the hind wing; 10th sternite of the female with
two prongs ...................................... .. Acanthafln y
1. Lateral lobes of labium with strong raptorial soet.e.... .Araithangya (?)
Lateral lobes of labium without raptorial seta ........................ 2
2. Ilind angles of head strongly rounded............................. 3
Hind angles of head angulate .......................... Cor( ph sclhIiI
3. Lateral spines on segments 7-9 ........................ ...... .. A
Lateral spines on segments 6-9.............................. Xschla
I)iaf nosis.-This genus is at once distinguished from all other genera
in the New World by the shortness of the upper piece of the areulus, the
upper sector rising much nearer vein R than the lower sector does to Cu.
KLOTS, ODONATA OF 1'ORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 15
Fore wing: median basal space without crossveins; several cubito-anals
present; triangle very elongate, the anterior side slightly longer than the
outer side and three times as long as the inner; stigma long and slender,
strongly braced at its inner end and surmounting 2-4 crossveins; apical
sector not distinct, rising half way between the stigma and the apex of the
wing; Es not distinctly forked but bearing 4-6 sectors; radial planate sub-
tending 5-7 (rarely 4) rows at the widest point and bearing usually about
4-7 sectors; median planate subtending 4-6 rows at the widest point; two
rows of cells between Cu, and the outer side of the triangle; two rows of
cells for a short distance between Cu, and Cu0. Iind wing: anal border
rounded, with no anal triangle; membranule not quite reaching the anal
angle; anal loop large, truncate posteriorly, followed by a supplementary
loop; Cu, beyond this loop with 2-4 sectors.
Eyes contiguous for a distance twice as great as the length of the occi-
put; frons with a distinct ridge separating the anterior surface from the
top and sides. Legs stout and long, 3rd femora reaching to the middle
of the 2nd abdominal segment. Hind femora with no long spines but
with two rows of very short stout spinules. Abdomen without auricles
but with supplementary transverse caring on segments 7-10 at least. In-
ferior appendage of male short, not divided.
Xymphs.-Hind angles of head rounded. Lateral lobe of labium trun-
cate or rounded and with the inner margin finely crenulate; cleft of
median lobe open or closed. No dorsal hooks; lateral spines on seg-
KEY TO WEST INDIAN SPECIES
1. Frons with no dark markings............................. [longipes]
Frons with dark markings above.................................. 2
2. Frons above with a circular spot of brown surrounded by a ring of yellow
and then a ring of blue ................................... .ju its
3. Frons above with a triangular spot of brown not wholly surrounded by
blue .................................................... am azil
Nymphs (After Byers '27)
1. Lateral lobes of the labium tapering to a hooked point. Basal projection
of the superior appendage of the lallf as long as the inferiors; no
teeth on the men tum on either side of the median cleft.............. 2
Lateral lobes of the labium squarely truncate, a little rounded on the
superior angle; small teeth on the mentum on either side of the median
cleft: basal projection of the superior abdominal appendage of the
male one third as long as the inferiors...................... amarili
it ~ C
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY 0O' P'OIRTO IICO
2. Lateral abdominal appendages half as long as the superior; superior
margin of the superior appendage very convex ............ [longipes]
Lateral appendages less than halt as long as the superior; superior
margin of the superior appendage not extremely conovex......junius
Anax jnnius (Drury)
1773. Eshnai junta Drury, 111. Exot. Ins., i, p. 110, PI. xlvii, fig. 5.
1857. Ainar junius Selys, in Sagra. [list. nat., vii, p. 194.
1867. Anax junti. Hagen. I'roc. Boston Soc. Nat. Iist., xi, p. 201.
1SSS. Anax ju ius Kolbe, Archiv. ffir Naturg., liv, p. 157.
1888. Ana.l, juni s Guudlach. Contrib. Cuba, p. 235.
1890. Ai~m junius IIagen, Psyche. v, p. :305.
1910. Anmr junius Mluttkowski, Cat. Odon. N. Am.. p. 105.
1919. Anua junius Calvert. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc.. xlv, p. 357.
1931. Jlana junuils Dow, Proe. Biol. Soc. Wash., xliv, p. 57.
Dia)nosis.-Male. Face and lips yellow. Top of frons with a median
basal brown spot surrounded at a distance by a ring of blue. Vertex dark
brown with a transverse streak of yellow on the top. Thorax green, hairy.
Legs long, black beyond the reddish femora. Wings hyaline. often tinged
with amber; costa and stigma yellow. Basal segments of the abdomen
greatly swollen; segment 1 green, with white hair which is especially thick
in a mat on each side of the dorsium; 2 as far as the first transverse carina
green; rest bright blue; remainder of abdomen brown, apex of dorsum
of 10 paler. Rear margin of 10 with a median notch. Appendages
almost as long as 9 10.
Female. Like the male. Wings more often amber-colored.
Size.-Abdomen 47-50 +- 8-9 mnm.; hind wing 46-56 nu1.
Type locality.-- ew York.
Distributi on.-Cosmopolitan. West Indies: Cuba, Jamaica, St.
Thomas, Martinique. Porto Rico: Aibonito, July 14-17; Adjuntas, Aug.
13; (A. 1. M H.). Northern coast, flying to light, Oct. 27 (Garcia-
Diaz). Rio Piedras, July 19, in coita, (Garcia-Diaz). St. Thomas: Nov.
28 (A. M. x. 11.).
Nymph.-(Cabot, Mem. M3. C. Z., 1881, viii, p. 38. Calvert, Univ. Iowa
Studies, 1928, xii, p. 12.) Length 50-64; hind fenmur 11-12; width of
abdomen : of head 7. Top of head flat: eyes large : hind angles rounded
and setose. Median lobe of labium with a median open cleft lateral lobes
rolmindd to an incurmved hook; movable hook long and strong, finely hairy.
Abdomen with no dorsal hooks but with a group of small middorsal black
dots on 1-9. Lateral spines on segments 7-9. Superior appendage nearly
KLOTS, ODONATA OF I'ORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 17
as long as the inferior; its end truncate and produced into a long spine
on each side; laterals less than one-half the length of the superior.
Anax amazili (Burmeister)
1S39. Xschna arazili Burmeister, Handb. Ent., ii, p. 841.
1867. Anax amazili Hagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, p. 291.
1867. Anux amiazili Hagen, Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien., xvii, 1). 38.
1890. Anax amnazill Hagen, Psyche, v, p. 307.
1905. Anax amazili Calvert, B. C. A., p. 177.
1910. Anax amazili Muttkowski, Cat. Odon. N. Am., p. 105.
Diagnosis.-Male. Face yellowish, labrum margined with black; top of
frons with a triangular black spot surrounded by yellow and with a triangu-
lar blue spot each side. Thorax bright green. Feet dark brown, anterior
femora paler beneath. Membranule brownish black with white base.
Antenodals 16-18. Costa yellowish green, stigma brown, long and slender.
Base of abdomen swollen. Segments 1-2 blue-green; 3-10 brown with a
broad black dorsal band, narrower at the middle of each segment; 3-7
with a pair of blue or green spots each side; 9-10 obscure. Appendages
Size.-Abdomen, 70-74 mm., hind wing 48-52 mm.
Type locality.-South America.
Distribution.-Mexico to Brazil; Galapagos. West Indies: Cuba, Mar-
tinique. Porto Rico: (Garcia-Diaz, nymph).
Nymph.-(Garcia-Diaz in unpublished thesis in C. U., 1927; Byers,
Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc., 1927, xxxv, 67; Calvert, Univ. Iowa Studies,
1928, xii, p. 14.) Length 53; hind femur 9; width of abdomen 10.5.
Antenna with segment 3 longest and about equal in length to the three
succeeding ones. Median lobe of labium slightly elevated and with a small
median cleft; lateral lobes cut squarely and with a strong, well developed
hook, distal border of lateral lobe serrated; movable hook strong, well
developed, with hairs on its upper surface. Abdomen widest on segment 7.
Diagnosis.-Fore wing: median basal space without crossveins; several
cubito-anal crossveins present; triangle elongate, the anterior side usually
longer than the outer and two or more times as long as the inner; stigma
braced, surmounting 2-4 crossveins; apical sector weak, rising usually
beyond the stigma; fork of Rs unsymmetrical, rising before the stigma or
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
under its proximal end; radial planate subtending 3-4 cell rows; trigonal
planate present and often forked. Hind wing: anal angle of male ex-
cavated, with an anal triangle of 2-3 cells; supplementary anal loop usually
present; usually two cell rows between Cu, and Cu,. Tenth sternite of
male rounded, with two very small spines.
nymphs.-Hind angles of head broadly rounded. Lateral lobe of
labiur usually squarely truncate and with the inner margin finely crenu-
late; terminal hook minute or wanting. Dorsal hooks wanting: lateral
spines usually present on 6-9; superior appendage deeply excavated.
Eslhna cornigera Brauer
1865. Eschna cornigera Brauer, Verh. ZooI.-bot. Ges. Wien., xv, p. 906.
1910. Eschna cornigera Muttkowski, Cat. Odon. N. Am., p. 110.
Diagnosis.-Face blue-green with the lower border of the labrum red-
dish brown, and with a suggestion of yellow on the front-clypeal suture
and on the anterior margin of the postelypeus; anteclypeus with a median
spot of blackish. Top of frons with a median brownish stripe, not reach-
ing the eyes; T-spot clearly defined with a clear yellow spot on either side
of the stem. Vertex black: occipital triangle yellow. Front of thorax
brown with an antehumeral green stripe on each side, wide, distinct,
slightly constricted just below the upper end and narrowly separated from
large, transversely elongate, double pale spot in the interalar sinus. Sides
of thorax brown with a slightly sinuate, wide yellow band on the mesepi-
meron, widened above. There are evidences of an indistinct second band
under the hind wing. Wings hyaline; costa yellow; anal triangle of
three cells. Abdomen slender, swollen on 2, constricted on 3; brown,
marked as follows: 2 with basal green touches and a dorsal green line;
3-8 with two basal blue spots, median black touches and apical yellow
spots; a black dorsal line on all the segments, widened on 8-10; sutures
black. Segment 10 bears a small black dorsal tubercle.
Size.-Abdomen, 46-48 mm., hind wing, 39-45 mm.
Distribution.-Mexico, Lower Calif., to Uruguay. West Indies: Cuba.
Porto Rico: Adjuntas, June 8-13 (A. M. N. IT.).
Remarlss.-The tips of the appendages of the specimen which I have
from Porto Rico have been broken off and, although they seem to differ
somewhat from the figure in Martin (1909, p. 44), other characters agree
so well with Martin's characterization and that of Dr. Calvert in the
B. C. A. that I have determined it as this species. The color on the
abdomen was too indistinct to discern at all. The above description was
taken from Martin.
KLOTS, ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 19
Distribution.-Neotropical into Gulf strip.
Diagnosis.-Fore wing: antenodals 20-21; median basal, space without
crossveins; 4-6 cubito-anals; inner side of triangle less than half as long
as the outer side; stigma surmounting three crossveins as well as a strong
brace-vein; apical sector originating far beyond the stigma; Rs forking
under the middle of the stigma (exceptions rare) and with two or three,
rarely four, rows of cells between the fork; radial planate subtending 4-8
rows of cells; median planate subtending 3-4 rows; one row of cells
between the outer side of the triangle and Cui except at the level of the
extreme tip of the triangle. Hind wing: anal angle angulate and exca-
vated, with an anal triangle of two cells; anal loop usually of three vertical
rows and supplementary loop of two rows or wanting; one row of cells
between Cu, and Cu,, occasionally two rows for the proximal half.
Eyes contiguous for a distance about equal to or a little less than the
combined anterior-posterior dimensions of the frons and vertex : anterior
surface of the frons separated from the flat upper surface by a carina
which does not quite reach the fronto-clypeal suture on the sides. Legs
stout; third femora not reaching the apex of the 1st abdominal segment.
Abdomen of the male with auricles on the 2nd segment. No supple-
mentary transverse carinae. Superior appendages long and narrow, with-
out teeth or hooks and with only low keels. Segment 10 of the male with-
out dorsal teeth. Appendages of the female long.
Symph.-(C. ingens dese. by Kennedy, Ent. News, 1919, xxx, p. 105,
and Byers, 1930). Head flat; eyes narrow and linear; rear of head
square cut. Labium reaching well beyond the metacoxwe : its anterior
margin with a wide open. shallow, median cleft with a long sharp spine
on either side; lateral lobes sloping abruptly to a sharp, incurved, internal
hook; movable hooks long. Abdomen with lateral spines on 0-9 but
with no dorsal hooks. Appendages of nearly equal length, the superior
square-cut, not bifid.
KEY TO WEST INDIAN SPECIES
1. Hind wing 40-43 mm........................................adnera
Hind wing 50 mm. or more .......................................... 2
2. Dorsum of thorax mainly brown; inferior appendage of male one-half
as long as the superiors .................................. [ingens]
Dorsum of thorax mainly green: inferior appendage of the male three-
fifths as long as the superiors............................[rircis]
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
Corypheschna adnexa (Hagen)
1861. -Eschia (du(c.ra Hagen. Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 127.
1SSS. Xscltna adtncsxa Gundlach, Contrib. Cuba, p. 237.
1903. CoryphlieslIna tddncx Calvert, Ent. News, xiv, p. 9.
1905. A's/a adlcxa Calvert, B. C. A., p. 188.
1908. -Eslna adncea Martin, Cat. Coll. Selys, xviii, p. 75.
1910. Corypl/rschlna adnx.ra Muttkowski, Cat. Odon. N. Am., p. 115.
1916. Corypha'schna aductr Kalil, Ann. Cam. Mus., x, p. 523.
1919. Coryphl(rscltta adnccxa Calvert, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., slv. p. 357.
Synonym .-macromia Braner.
Diagnosis.-Face bright blue, anterior margin of labrum slightly con-
cave with a brownish border and fringed with hair; antcclypeus with a
median apical spot of blackish ; lower lateral margins of postclypens paler;
fronto-clypeal suture with a narrow greenish band. Lower part of the
vertical portion of the frons blue; across the superior transverse groove
or crest a brown band connected medianly across the green top of the
frons with the blackish brown band at the base, this connecting piece
widening anteriorly. Vertex and occiput dark brown, the latter with a
triangular pale spot on the rear border. Thorax green, marked with
brown as follows: a narrow band along the middorsal suture (the carina
remaining green) and crest, connected above with a narrow band on the
humeral and 3rd lateral sutures and below with the brown of the venter.
All very hairy. Legs black, paler basally. Fore wing slightly suffused
with fuscous medianly. Abdomen dark brown marked with green as
follows: segment 1 except the carinml; 2 with a narrow middorsal longi-
tudinal band and an apical transverse band widened laterally to include
three-fourths of the segment; 3-5 with the middorsal line dilated at the
middle and at apex to form a wedge-shaped streak each side, the apical
one bordered with yellow on the inside. Rest of abdomen brown. Seven
with a narrow apical ring and ventral margins yellow. Appendages brown.
Inferior appendage reaching to two-fifth's the length of the superiors.
lRemarks.-Another male (flying to lights in a train on the northern
coast. Oct. 27, and collected by Julio Garcia-Diaz) shows no differences
ts to appendages but differs in color as follows: pale areas of face greater;
frons with more brown ; thorax entirely reddish brown marked with green,
a baud on the middle of the niesepisternnm, indistinct below but ter-
minating above in a distinct spot within the crest, a large superior spot
behind the funeral suture, narrowly separated from a smaller one before
the :3rd lateral suture, a band abbreviated above and below just back of the
3:rl lateral suture, and a yellow spot on the anterior ventral portion of
LOTS, ODONATA O' P'ORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 21
the metepimeron. Legs black, paler basally. Wings fuscous. Abdomen
47 + 5.5, hind wing 41. This would seem to be a different species, but I
have too little material to be sure.
Size.-Abdomen, 46 +- 6.5 mm., hind wing, 42 mm.
Distribution.-Mexico to Brazil. West Indies: Cuba, Isle of Pines,
Haiti, San Domingo. Porio Rico: Rio Piedras, south of aqueduct hill,
March 24 (Garcia-Diaz).
Distribution.-Cosmopolitan except Nearctic and Palearctic.
Diagnosis.-Fore wing: antenodal crossveins variable; 16-39, though
in species in this fauna seldom over 30; median basal space with no cross-
veins; cubito-anals 5-10; triangle with its superior side two and a half
times as long as the proximal side; arculus with its sectors rising at or
below the middle; stigma thick, sometimes quite long, surmounting 4-8
crossveins; apical sector rising before or under the proximal end of the
stigma;: s forked, the fork beginning more than halfway out from the
nodus to the stigma; radial planate subtending 3-7 cell rows; median
planate subtending 3-7 cell rows; 2-3 rows of cells between outer side of
triangle and Cu,. Hind wing: anal margin angulate in the male, ex-
cavated, with an anal triangle of three cells: anal loop large, sometimes
with a supplementary loop or loops on its outer side posterior to Cu;;
1-2 cell rows between Cu, and Cu,.
Eyes contiguous for a distance greater than the anterior-posterior
dimension of the frons and vertex combined, and three or four times the
length of the occiput. Frons with no distinct ridge separating the flat-
tended upper surface from the anterior. Hind femora not reaching the
apex of the first abdominal segment. Auricles present on the 2nd ab-
dominal segment of the male. Tenth segment of the male with no dorsal
tuft or well developed carina. Posterior part of hamule high and ver-
tical or subvertical, divided by a deep sulcus. Apical expansion of superior
appendage of male about one-half the length of the appendage. Tenth
sternite of the female with two long spines on the ventral process.
Remarks.-As far as I can ascertain, no type has been set for this genus.
I am unwilling to set one, for I have not been able to study all the species
of the genus. Eambur (1842) described the genus Gyoacanllh with seven
species; de Selys (1873) set aside three of those species as a new genus
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
Trincanhliagyna with trifida as the genotype; but Kirby (1890) set
trifida as the type of Gynacantiha Rambur. He thereby made Triacau lhal-
yna a synonym of Gynacantha and gave himself the opportunity of apply-
ing a new name, Acanthagynca, to those not congeneric with the Triacan-
thagyna, group. Muttkowski, following Karsch (Ent. Nach. 1891, x, p.
281) and others, did not recognize generic differences and thus rightly
grouped them all as Gynlacantha. Williamson (1923), however, has seemed
to give sufficient evidence for their separation. If we are to consider them
as two separate genera they must be termed according to Kirby, for when
de Selys (1873) said of Gynacanitha Rambur: "Types: G. T. nigrumn Selys.
-nervosa, R. -gracilis, R. -subbinterrupta, R. -bispina, R.," he was not set-
ting the type, and Kirby's action, though to be regretted, was quite legal
(Opinion 62, Int. Rules Zod. Xomen.).
Nymph.-(As Gynacantha, Garcia-Diaz in unpublished thesis in C. U.,
1927.) Length 19; hind femur 3; width of abdomen 4; of head 4.5.
Eyes large; 2nd joint of antennut longer than the 1st, the 3rd the longest
of all. Iind margin of head rounded. Median lobe of labium elevated
and with a median cleft which has thickened, approximated margins with
a rounded tooth on either side at a distance about equal to the width of
the base of the tooth; margin of median lobe fringed. Lateral lobes
squarely truncate, with a strong well-developed tooth and with the inner
margin serrate; lateral setse 6; movable hook well developed, two times
the length of the outer margin of the lobe and with 4-5 spines on its mid-
dorsal line. Lateral spines present on abdominal segments 6-9, small on
9 and increasing in size posteriorly, that of 9 two-thirds as long as seg-
ment 10. Superior appendage about equal to the inferiors; laterals two-
thirds the inferiors.
This nymph has not been reared. It may, of course, be Gynacantha..
The nymph of A. rosenbergi has been described by Tillyard (Journ.
Linn. Soc. of London, Zoilogy, 1916, xxxiii, p. 71,) from Australia.
KEY TO WEST INDIAN SPECIES
1. Legs Ille above, l:d rker beneath ........................... [tibiatal
Legs uIlifornll]y pul,. ............................................... 2
2. Segment 3 of the :alhlon(in greatly constricted as seell in the dors;l
view ..................................... ...... [cr..... c ris]
8egmnll t 3 slightly or inot ;t all coinstricted ................... .ncrvuos
LOTS, ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 23
Acantlagyna nervosa (Rambur)
1842. Gynacantha nervosa Rambur, Ins. Neur., p. 213.
1SSS. Gynacantha nerrosa Kolbe, Archiv fiir Naturg., liv, p. 168.
18SS. Gynacantha gracilis Gundlach, Contrib. Cuba, p. 212.
1S93. Gynacantha nervosa Gundlach, Ann. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., XXII, ii, p. 269.
1893. GyUacautha n crosa( Cockerell, Journ. Inst. Jamaica, i, p. 258.
1910. Gynacantha ncrvosa Muttkowski, Cat. Odon. N. Am., p. 107.
1916. Gynacanthaa nervosa Kahl, Ann. Carn. 3Ius. x:522.
1919. Gynacuntha nervosa Calvert, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., xlv, p. 350.
1931. Gynacantha nervosa Dow, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xliv, p. 57.
Diagnosis.-Face yellowish brown; top of frons greenish with a black
T-spot; occiput pale green; vertex black with a pair of small green spots.
Thorax greenish, more brownish on the side, darker just before the
humeral suture. Legs yellowish. Wings slightly tinged and margined
with yellowish brown, deeper between C and Sc; antcnodals 25, the 1st
and the 8th usually thickened; two supplementary anal loops. Abdomen
brown marked with paler as follows: small, dorsal, apical transverse stripe
on 1 ; middorsal longitudinal green line on 2, with three transverse stripes
interrupted on the midline; 3-8 similar but without the longitudinal
stripe and with the transverse ones reduced posteriorly; 9-10 indistinct.
Superior appendages longer than 9 + 20. The pale color on 1-2 is bluish;
on 3-8 yellow or greenish.
Size.-Abdomen, 50+ mnm., hind wing, 48 mm.
Distribution.-Southern U. S. to Brazil. West Indies: Cuba, Isle of
Pines, Jamaica, Haiti. Porto Rico: (Kolbe, Gundlach, 1893).
Diagnosis.-Differs from Acanthagyna as follows: two rows of cells
between 31, and ML beginning under the stigma; fork of Rs near the
proximal end of the stigma (except in trifida) ; hamular process low, more
or less horizontal, with no deep sulcus dividing it from the anterior part:
ventral process on 10th sternite of the female with three prongs: apical
expansion of superior appendage of the male two-thirds the length of the
Nynmph.-See A can.thagyna.
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
KEY TO WEST INDIAN SPECIES
1. Top of frons with a dark T-spot...........................septinia
Top of frons with no distinct T-spot............................ trifida
Gynacantha trifida Rambur
1842. Gynacantlia trifida Rambur, Iis. Neur., p. 210 (and part of satyras).
1857. Gynacafthti trifida Selys, in Sagrn, Hist. nat, vii, p. 194.
1861. Gynacantha trifida Hagen, Syn. Neur. N. Am., ix, p. 131; after Selys.
1867. Gynacantha trifide IIagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, p. 291.
1882. Gynacantla trifida Stahl, Fauna Puerto Rico, p. 207.
1888. Gyiiacantlh trifida Kolbe, Archiv fiir Naturg., liv, pp. 160. 168.
1893. Gynlacatha trifida Gundlach, Ann. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., xxii, ii, p. 269.
1S96. Gynacan)lh trifida Carpenter, Journ. lust. Jam., ii, 3, p. 261.
1905. Gijyacuirtha trifida Calvert, B. C. A., p. 191.
1908. Triacanethagyyn trifida Martin. Cat. Coll. Selys, xix. p. 14S.
1910. Gynacantiha trifida Muttkowski. Cat. Odon. N. A., p. 10S.
1919. Gynacanthia trifida Calvert, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., xlv, p. 358.
1923. T'riacantliagyUin trifida Williamson, Univ. Mich.. Misc. IPul.., Mus. Zoo.,
No. 9, pp. 10, 24.
Diagnosis.-Male. Face green, sometimes more yellowish in the mid-
dle, becoming brownish on top and appearing suffused with the T-spot on
the top of the frons; labium yellow. Occiput green. Thorax green
marked with brown as follows: a middorsal triangle, more or less parallel-
sided for its upper half, then strongly widened; a broad band on the
humeral suture, parallel-sided except for a rectangular widening to rear-
ward above: a narrow band on the 2nd lateral suture and a short spur on
the upper end of the 3rd. Legs brown ; black at the knees. Wings tinged
with brownish. Abdomen brown, constricted on segment 3; sides of 1
and 2 mainly green, with the usual median dorsal band and median and
apical transverse spots; 3-7 with the median and apical spots; 8-10 with
only the apical ones discernible.
Female.-Top of frons pale brownish with only the crosspiece of the
Size.-Male. Abdomen, 42-45 mm., hind wing, 41-43 mm. Female.
Abdomen, 47-50, hind wing, 44-47.
D)i. slibitio t.-Southern U. S. to Bolivia. West Indies: Cuba, Ja-
maica, Haiti, San Domingo. Porto Rico: (Stahl, Kolbe, Gundlach).
Triangles of the fore and hind wings dissimilar, that of the fore wing
transversely elongated and somewhat distal from the arculus, that of
KLOTS, ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 25
lhe hind,wing longitudinally elongated and close to the arculus. Ante-
nodals of the first and second series continuous across Sc. Subtriangle of
the fore wing well developed and often reticulate, that of the hind wing
wanting. Anal loop present. Eyes united on the top of the head, crowd-
ing the occiput back into a small area. The vertex is a vesicle with the
ocelli grouped around it. Labium with a small triangular median lobe
closed in by large lateral lobes which have no movable hook. Ovipositor
of the female reduced to a pair of simple valvular vulvai or a single scale
(except in Uracis).
Xymphs have a rather broad oval body. Antennms 7-segmented. La-
bium spoon shaped, covering the face up to the base of the antennae;
lateral lobes greatly enlarged and meeting on the mid-line in a series of
Fore wing triangle usually rather narrow. Anal border of hind wing
rounded in both sexes. Anal loop present, usually elongated and boot
shaped. IInmeral snture with a distinct double curve just below the
KEY TO TRIBES IN TIIE WEST INDIES
1. Anal loop with midrib bent at ankle more than 300.................. 2
Anal loop with midrib hent at ankle less than 30 ; reverse vein
strong .................. .......................... Cclithemti i
2. Stigma with ends parallel... ................. .................. 3
Stigma trapezoidal; ends divergent forward ................. Traecini
3. Last antenodal of the fore wing continuous across Sc....Libellulii *
Last antenodal of the fore wing incomplete......................... 4
4. Anal loop bent at ankle from 30-50 .................. ... Synmpetrini
Anal loop bent at ankle from 50-GO.................. Mhcrotheicniniia
ARTIFICIAL KEY TO WEST INDIAN GENERA
1. Extra bridge crossveins present (i. e., more than one).............. 2
No extra bridge crossveins....................................... 4
2. Fore wing subtriangle of one cell...................... [Epiidatia]
Fore wing subtriangle of more than one cell......................... 3
4 Does not apply to all exotic genera.
'a The genus I'racis runs to this point in the key but is not a Macrothemine. Need-
ham and Broughton ('27) have placed it in the Orchithemini on the strong outward
bend of the discoidal triangle of the fore wing. Although the anal loop is well developed,
many primitive features have been retained, such as: the position of the arculus beyond
the second or third antenodal. the inward position of the anal crossing with extra eubito-
anal cross veins beyond, and the possession of a long ovipositor. The nymph, as yet un-
known, should bring out Its affinities.
SCIEA'TIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
3. Iind wing triangle of 2 or 3 cells........................ [Libellula]
Hind wing triangle of one cell ........................... .firathyria
4. Last antenodal crossvein continuous across Sc ...................... o
Last antenodal crossvein incomplete (not continuous).............. 8
5. Hind wing with 2 cubito-anal crossveins; Cu, rising from outer side
of triangle ..................................... [Cannu phila]
Ilind wing with one cubito-anal; Cu, rising from hind angle of triangle 6
G. Radial planate subtending one cell row............................ 7
Radial planate subtending 2 cell rows......................Orthen, is
7. Hind wing 20 mnl. or less .................. ..............Perithemis
IIind wing 30 mm. or more........................... [Macrodiplax]
S. Fore wing triangle of one cell ......................... ............
Fore wing triangle of 2 cells............... .. .............. 10
9. Fore wing subtriangle of one cell......................... iathyria
Fore wing subtriangle of 2 cells........................Macrothemis
10. Hind wing Cun rising from outer side of triangle.................... 11
Hind wing Cu, rising from hind angle of triangle .................... 12
11. Radial planate subtending one cell row..................Erytl eilis
Itadial planate subtending 2 cell rows..................... Lepthenis
12. Hind wing with more than one cubito-anal crossvein................ 13
Iind wing with only one cubito-anal.............................. 14
13. Arculus beyond the second antenodal; anal crossing before origin
of A, ..................... .......... ............. ........ [ 'r is]
Arculus before the second antenodal; anal crossing not before origin
of A. ................................... ............... P. 'n ala
14. Ends of stigma a parallel ............................ ............... 15
Ends of stigma convergent. making it a trapezoid.................... 20
15. Anal crossing before the origin of A .................. Erythrodiplux
Anal crossing opposite, not before. A2 .............................. 16
16. Wings golden; midrib of anal loop nearly straight....... [Celithe is]
Wings not golden ; midrib of anal loop strongly bent at ankle......... 17
17. Discoidal field of fore wing of two cell rows radial planate subtending
one cell row ....................... ........... [Brechniorhoyal
Discoidal field of fore wing of three cell rows; radial plnnate subtend-
ing two cell rows ............................................... 18
18. Third femora of the male with a row of fine saw-like teeth; caudal
appendages of the female shorter than segment 10................. 19
Third femora of the male with no row of fine saw-like teeth: canudal
appendages of the female longer than segment 10..... Brachr!lliesia
19. Teeth of third femora of tile male directed distally: 1I, distinctly
undulate ................................... ......... Dytemis
Teeth of the third femora of the male directed proximally; M only
slightly undulate: abdomen clubbed, especially in the male.Sreaupanca
20. Vein MSf sharply bent in a double curve............................. 21
Vein Mi smoothly curved or with a slight undulation ..... [Tholylis]
21. Radial and median planates subtending on" cell row.......... Tromca
Itudial and median planates subltending two cell rows.... [T7'(riphil/u]
KLOTS, ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGI- ISLANDS 27
1. Inferior abdominal appendages decurved .......................... 2
Inferior abdominal appendages straight............................ :1
2. Lateral seta S or 9 ...................................... Erythe tis
Lateral setter 11 or 12 .................................... Lepthcis
3. Eyes more lateral than frontal ..................................... 4
Eyes more frontal than lateral................................... ..
4. Median lobe of labium crenulate ........................... Orthem is
Median lobe of labium evenly contoured .......................... 5
5. Dorsal hooks present ........................[Libellula auripcen is]
Dorsal hooks wanting ............................... Brauclhymsia
6. Dorsal hooks present ............................................. 7
Dorsal hooks wanting ...................................... ..... 12
7. No dorsal hook on segment 9 .......................... [Celithemis]
Dorsal hook present on segment 9 ................................
S. Dorsal hooks long and cultriform .................................. .
Dorsal hooks shorter and straight................................ 10
9. Lateral sete 5; appendages short .........................Perithc'mis
Lateral sethe 8: appendages long ......................... Miathyria
10. Lateral setr 0, mental S; crenullations of lateral lobe high.........
.............. ............................. ..... o. M tc oll'thr m is
Lateral sete 7, mental 9-10........................ .............. 11
11. Mental sete 10; cronulations of lateral lobe shallow........ Dythcoemis
Mental sette 9; crenulations of lateral lobe high............ SRcapanc
12. Spines of 8 and 9 long and similar................................ 13
Spines of 8 and 9 not longer than appendages......................
.................................. Erythrodiplax and Mlicrathl yria
13. Crenulations of lateral lobe obsolete ......................T. .Trtnca
Crenulations of lateral lobe higher than wide ................Pantalla
Unknown [ Brecihmorhogal], [Ephidaitiul, [iMacrodiplas], [Toliriph ilt], [ Urais]
The genera of this tribe are characterized by the possession of a very
elongate anal loop, of antenodals in excess of 12, the last one continuous
across Sc, and of a very long stigma, surmounting three or more cross-
veins. Vein lM is usually undulate. The sole line of the anal loop is
directly perpendicularly to the long axis of the wing, or outward.
KEY TO WEST IINDIAN GENERA
1. Fore wing with extra bridge crossveins: hind wing triangle of two or
three cells .......................... .. ............. ..... [L ibell
Fore wing with no extra bridge crossveins: hind wing triangle of
one cell .................................. .......................
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY 01' PORT RICO
2. Hind wing with Cu, rising from the hind angle of the triangle..Orthlemis
Hind wing with Cu, rising from the outer side of the triangle.........
.................................................... [Ce annaph ilaa]
(PI. I, Fig. 1)
Distribution.--eotropic and Nearctic.
Diagnosis.-Wings long and relatively narrow. Fore wings: arculus
usually at the 2nd antenodal or between the 2nd and 3rd; sectors of the
arculus on a long stalk; antenodals 15-26, the last complete; stigma very
large and swollen, surmounting 5 or more cells; triangle crossed, its an-
terior margin less than one half the proximal side; subtriangle of 3-5
cells; discoidal field of 3-4 cell rows, narrowed at the wing margin; Cu,
rising from the anal angle of the triangle; vein M, undulate, usually
separated from Rs at the margin by 2-4 cell rows; apical sector rising
under the basal third of the stigma; radial planate bent forward towards
Rs enclosing 2-3 cell rows; median planate weak, subtending one cell row;
reverse vein scarcely discernible; no extra bridge crossveins. Hind wing:
triangle retracted to or not quite to arculus, without crossveins and with
Cu1 rising from its hind angle; one cubito-anal which is at or a little distal
to A,; 3-4 cell rows between A, and the hind margin of the wing; anal
loop long, surpassing the end of the triangle by 3-4 cells: a : b as 1: 3 or a
little less; gaff longer than the sole and the sole about perpendicular to
the long axis of the wing. Frons rounded, flattened on its upper surface;
frontal carina distinct in the male, less so in the female. Vertex variable,
usually notched. Lobe of the prothorax very small, lying in a flat arc.
Genital plate of female small.
Xymph.-See 0. ferruginea.
Orthemis ferruginea (Fabricius)
(Plate II, Fig 3)
1775. Libellila ferruginca Fabricius, Syst. Ent., p. 423.
1842. Libcllula tnmaerostigm-, Rambur, Ins. Neur., p. 57.
1857. Libellula discolor Sclys, in Sagra, Hist. nat. vii, p. 1SS.
1861. Ortlemis discolor Hagen. Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 100.
C'anaphlila is considerably more primitive than other members of this tribe. It has
two elbito-anal crossveins: the anal crossing is before the origin of A2 instead of opposite;
the distance between the origin of A2 and the midrib of the loop is equal to that between
the midrib and the hind angle of the triangle, whereas it is one-half or less in others of
Iho tribe; the median planate is wanting; the frons lacks a carina. Needham and Brough-
ton (19271 place it in the primitive tribe Orchitlhemin on the outward bend of the fore
wing triangle. Its position will be uncertain until its nymph can be studied.
KLOTS, ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 29
1867. Orthemis discolor IIagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. iist., xi. p. 292.
1867. Libcllula discolor IIagen, Stett. ent. Ztg. xxviii, 1). 9).
1867. Orthemis discolor Uhler, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xi. p. 297.
1868. Orthemais discolor Hagen, ibid, xxix, p. 279.
1888. Orthemis discolor Kolbe, Archiv fiir Naturg., liv, pp. 161, 168.
1889. Orthenmis discolor Gundlach, Contrib. Cuba, p. 262.
1889. Orthemis ferrnginea Kirby, Trans. Zoo. Soc. London, xii, p. 286.
1894. Orthemis fcrruginea Kirby, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) xiv, p. 264.
1896. Orthemis ferruginca Carpenter, Journ. Inst. Jamaica, ii, p. 260.
1906. Orthemis ferruginca Calvert, B. C. A., p. 234.
1910. Orthemis ferruginea His. Cat. Coll. Selys, xi, p. 282.
1911. Orthemis ferruginca Wilson, Johns Hopkins Univ. Circ. 2, no. 232, p. 50.
1916. Orthemis ferruginca Kahl, Ann. Carn. Mus.,, x, 523.
1919. Orthcmis fcrruginca Calvert, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., xlv, p. 366; on
1931. Orthcmis ferrugioca Dow, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xliv, p. 58.
Diagnosis.-Male. Face tawny except the anterior margin of the lab-
rum which is black. Frons flattened on the top and bilobed, with the
lobes rounded and flat. Vertex olivaceous with a cone on each promi-
nence of the lobes. Prothorax pale yellow. Collar of the synthorax black
with a pale yellow spot on the middorsum at the top. Rest of synthorax
tawny, very hairy, with pale yellow markings as follows: a band on the
lower half of the humeral suture, a band on the 2nd lateral suture, incom-
plete above, and an elongate wedge-shaped spot just back of the 3rd
lateral suture, and a band on the rear margin of the metepimeron.
Spiracle black. Venter pale. Legs pale brown, darker on the tibim and
black on the tarsi. Wings hyaline, sometimes with brownish tips, and
with brown veins and stigma; antenodals 19-20; 6-7 crossveins under the
stigma; radial planate subtends 2 cell rows; 2 cells between the mid-
rib of the anal loop and the hind angle of the triangle. Abdomen yellow,
lateral margins finely black. Superior appendages dark brown, paler
basally. Mature specimens become wholly plumbeous.
Female. The lateral margins of the 8th abdominal segment are ex-
panded into rounded leaf-like lobes.
Size.-Abdomen, 31-33 rmm., hind wing, 38-40 mm.
Distribution.-Florida to Arizona to Chile. West Indies: practically
all. Porto Rico: (Kolbe, Gundlach) ; Aibonito, July 16; Adjuntas, July
23-27; Cayey, May 30-31 (Lutz and Mutchler); Barros, June 4
(Lutz and Mutchler) ; Arecibo, June 25 (Lutz and Mutchler); Juana
Diaz, Feb. 11 (Lewis B. Woodruff, in A. 31. N. H.). Rio Piedras
Jan. 26; July 19, resting on electric light wires; Lake Tortuguera
SCIEXNTFIC RURI'EY OF PORTO RICO
swamp, March 22; Fajardo, Las Cabezas, Jan. 26; Pueblo Viejo Catafio,
April 2 (W. T. M. Forbes). St. John: March 4-8 (L. B. Woodruff, in
A. M. N. 11.). St. Croix: Feb. 27, March 1-7 (F. E. Lutz, in A. M. N. H.).
April 6-7 (L. B. Woodruff, in A. 2M. N. H.). Aug. 25 (N. Y. Zoological
Soc., in A. M. N. H.). St. Thonmas: Feb. 24 (F. E. Lutz, in A. IM.
N. H.). Feb. 25-28, March 13 (L. B. Woodruff, in A. M. N. H.).
Nymph.-(Needham, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xxvii, p. 702; Calvert,
Univ. Iowa Studies Nat. Hist., 1928, xii, 2, p. 19.) Total length 21-25.5;
of hind femur 5.5; width of head 4.8-5.5; of abdomen about 7. Iliid
margin of the head slightly concave; bulging hind angles rounded.
Lateral lobes of labium with 9 crenulations on the distal margin ; lateral
setic 8-10; mental setm 11-16. Wing pads reaching to the 5th or 6th
abdominal segment. Divided setwe are present on the tibia of the first leg
and on all three tarsi. Lateral spines of 8 and 9 about .3 min. long.
Superior appendage about as long as the inferiors; laterals about one-third
as long as inferiors. (P1. IV, Fig. 3.)
Dr. Calvert (1928) has described this nymph in great detail. Speci-
mens which I have agree except in the number of lateral sete which in
all cases save one are 8 in number; one exuvia from Porto Rico has 9 on
the right side.
Collected by Professor Needham and in the C. U. collection: several
mature nymphs, Coamo Springs Reservoir, April 4, and many exuviie,
April 5; two small nymphs, Las Cruces, April 4; two exuvise, Damlien,
Haiti, April 2.
The genera of this group have in common the straightness of the mid-
rib of the anal loop. This midrib is bent less than 300 at the ankle. The
wings are often highly colored and have a rather dense'reticulation. The
wings of Ephidatia, Macrodiplax and Miathyria, however, are conspicuous
in the openness of their venation and the development of rather strong
sweeping sectors, and are less extensively colored, often with only a basal
spot. The reverse vein is well developed, extraordinarily so in Macro-
diplax and Ephidatia, less so in Miathyria.
KEY TO WEST INDIAN GENERA
1. Fore wing triangle about as wide as long................... I'rithieis
Fore wing triangle twice as long as wide............................ 2
2. Hindl wing gaff shorter than sole; fore wing subtriangle of three or
more cells ................ .................................... 3
KLOTS, ODONATA'OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIX ISLANDS 31
Hind wing gaff longer than sole; fore wing subtriangle of one cell.... 4
3. Fore wing triangle of two or more cells.................. [Celithemis]
Fore wing triangle of one cell ......................... [Macrodiplax]
4. Ends of stigma parallel; apical planate wanting .......... [Ephidatia]
Stigma trapezoidal; apical plannate well developed ..........Miath!ria
Distribution.-Nearctic and Neotropic.
Diagnosis.-Wings short and rather broad, usually highly colored with
gold or brown. Fore wings; arculus strongly aslant, between the 1st and
2nd antenodals, its sectors separate at origin (stalked in the hind wing) :
antenodals 7-8, the last one incomplete and the first two more widely
separated than the others; stigma large, surmouting 3 crossveins; triangle
with its anterior side longer than the proximal side, placed almost at
right angles to the longitudinal axis of the wing, crossed or open; sub-
triangle crossed or free; Cu, rising from the anal angle of the triangle;
discoidal field of 2 cell rows increasing to 3, but the area itself narrowing
gradually toward the margin; vein M, smoothly curved; apical planate
rising under the basal third of the stigma; radial planate with its origin
more or less indistinct, subtending one cell row; median planate present
as a more or less straight vein running out to the margin; several extra
bridge crossveins usually present. Hind wing: triangle retracted to or
beyond the arculus, crossed or open, with Cu, rising from its hind angle;
anal crossing directly opposite the origin of A,; two cell rows behind A,
at its base; anal loop long, its toe almost resting on the wing margin, its
midrib very straight; a: b as 1: 2, anal field large. Head small; eye seam
short; frons moderately rounded with no distinct frontal carina; fork
deep. Lobe of prothorax large, erect, notched in the middle and clothed
with long hairs. Legs long and slender. Abdomen short, depressed, the
segment with a supplementary transverse carina. Hamules of the male
very small; genital plate of female long and rounded at the end.
Nyph.-Clean, smooth and quite active. Head widest across the eyes
and slightly concave on the rear margin; posterior angles rounded. Eyes
rounded, their hind margins reaching three-fourths of the way from the
antenna to the rear of the head. Abdomen broad, depressed, widest across
segment 7. Dorsal hooks on 3-9, forming a regularly descending curve;
seen laterally, like a section of a circular saw. Lateral spines on 8-9 short,
of 8 less than segment 9, of 9 rudimentary or almost wanting.
SCIENTIFI(' SURVEY OF PORT RXI'O
KEY TO WEST INDIAN SPECIES
1. All triangles and subtriangles free............................ [mooma]
At least one of the triangles and subtriangles crossed.............. donitia
Perithemis domitia (Drury)
(P1. II, Fig. 1)
1773. Libellula domitia Drury, Ill. exot. Ins., ii, p 93.
1839. Libellula domitia Burmeister, IIandb. Ent., ii, p. 855.
1857. Libellula metella Selys, in Sagrn, Hist. Nat., xii, p. 190.
1801. Perithecmis domitia Hagen, Syn. Neur. N. Am., pp. 185, 319.
1861. Perithemis domitia var. iris(?) Hagen, ibid., p. 185.
1866. Peritheiis domitia Scudder, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Iist., x, p. 198.
1867. Perithenmis metclla Hagan, Stett. Ent. Ztg., xxviii, p. 98.
1867. Perittemis domitia metella Hagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, p.
1873. Perithemis metella IIagen, ibid., xv, p. 375.
1888. Peritliheis domitia Kolhe Archiv. fir Naturg, liv, p. 168.
1888. Perithemis domitia Gundlach, Contrib. Cuba, p. 200.
1889. Perithemis domitia Kirby, Ann. Mag. Nat. list. (6), iv, pp. 232, 233.
18S9. Perithemis domnitia var. pocahontas Kirby, ibid., p. 233.
1889. Perithemis domitia Kirby, Trans. Zoo. Soc. London, xii, p. 325.
1896. Perithemis domit.ia Carpenter, Journ. Inst. Jamaica, ii, p. 260.
1896. 'eritheinis domnitia var. porcaontas Carpenter, ibid., p. 260.
1898. Perithemis dornitia Calvert, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., xxv, p. 75.
1907. Perithemis domitia Calvert, B. C. A., pp. 310, 312.
1907. Perithemtis domitia var. iris Calvert, ibid., pp. 310, 313.
1910. Perithemis domitia Ris, Cat. Coll. Selys, xi, p. 333; pars moon.
1910. Perithemis domitia var. iris Ris, ibid., p. 335.
1910. Perithemis domitia var. pocahontas Ris, ibid., p. 337.
1910. Perithemis domitia Kahl, Ann. Carn. Mus., x, p. 523.
1919. Perithlernis domlitia domitia Calvert, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc.. xlv, p. 372
1930. Peritliemis domitia Ris, Misc. Publ. no. 21, Univ. Mus. Zoo., p. 36.
1931. Perithemiti donitia Dow. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xliv, p. 59.
DX;. ., .. '. -Male. Labium dull yellowish brown; labrum dull yellow;
clypeus light greenish gray: frons light orange anteriorly, greenish gray
above and on the sides: vertex yellowish green, darker at the base.
Thorax dark reddish brown on the dorsum, this color sometimes purplish.
Antehumeral bands dull olive green, narrowed and abbreviated above,
about one-third as wide as the mesepisternum and nearer the middorsal
than the humeral suture. Sides dull olivaceous, the purplish of the
dorsum extending slightly over the humeral line; a diffuse narrow band,
incomplete above, passing through the spiracle; another one on the 3rd
LOTS, ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 33
lateral suture, abbreviated below. Legs dark brown or black, the outer
side of the tibirm yellow. Wings yellow, deeper along the costa and in the
cubital space of the hind wing. Venation darker; stigma long, deep red.
Abdomen dull yellowish brown with caring narrowly black. Sides of 3-8
with a blackish brown longitudinal band. Segment 10 and appendages
Female. Paler in color. Wings variable.
Remarks.-I have seen no females from Porto Rico. Dr. Ris ('30)
describes four main types of wing color.
1. Hyaline, with yellow rays on C and Sc to 1-4 cells beyond the nodus,
cubital and anal fields diffusely yellow to the triangle and hind margin
in the forewing and to the triangle and A3 in the hind. Apex of fore
wing narrowly and diffusely yellow; of the hind wing more deeply brown.
2. Wing bases yellow to the triangle. Apex of hind wing narrowly
3. Like (1) with a diffuse transverse band, distal to the nodus, 3-4
4. Wing bases rich golden yellow to two cells distal of the triangle in
the fore wing and to the nodus in the hind wing. Brownish bands at the
triangle and in the hind wing at the nodus also.
He also states that the Antillean specimens are somewhat smaller and
paler than the continental forms, and "In Cuban females a form is pre-
dominant with yellow color to the nodus or one or two cells distal in the
fore wing, and two to four cells distal in the hind wing, and to the ptero-
stigma or nearly so in the costal space of both wings; apex brown only in
the hind wing, maximally to basad of ptcrostigma None of the
Antillean females show the dark markings of the form (4)."
One female which I have seen from Sierra Maestra, Cuba (June 9,
O. Quercia coll. in Phil. Acad. Sci.), is like the above Cuban form de-
scribed by Dr. Ris, but the yellow color extends to half way between the
nodus and the stigma and along the hind margin as well.
Dr. Ris found that the females from San Domingo had the yellow in
the forewing reaching to the stigma or one to two cells beyond, in the
hind wing the same or to the apex. Apex of hind wing brown, sometimes
also narrowly on the fore wing.
Size.-Abdomen, 12.5-15 mm., hind wing, 16-19 mm.
Distribution.-Mexico to Venezuela and Colombia, Trinidad. West
Indies: Cuba, Isle of Pines, Jamaica, San Domingo, Haiti, St. Croix.
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
Porto Rico: (Kolbe, Gundlach, 1893) ; Rio Piedras, Jan. 4, east of Uni-
versity Farm (Garcia-Diaz, in C. U.).
iymph.-(Needham, Bull. 47, N. Y. State Mus., p. 513.) Length 15,
hind femur 5.5, width of abdomen 6, of head 4.5. Lateral setm 5-6,
mental 9-11, the fifth from the outside the longest. Crenulations of the
lateral lobe of the labium 9, with 2-3 spinulcs on each. Superior ap-
pendage as long as segment 9, shorter than the inferiors; laterals one-
half as long as the inferiors. (P1. V, Fig. 1).
Several nymphs of this species were collected at Rio Piedras, April 4,
by Professor Needham, and are now in the C. U. collection.
(PI. I, Fig. 4)
Diagnosis.-Wings broad. Fore wing: arculus moderately aslant, be-
tween the 1st and 2nd antenodals, its sectors stalked; antenodals 7-8. the
last one incomplete, the first two more widely separated than the others;
stigma small, surmounting one or two crossveins; triangle without cross-
veins, its anterior side less than half the length of the proximal: subtri-
angle without crossveins; Cu, rising from the anal angle of the triangle
which is anterior to the posterior angle of the subtriangle; discoidal field
of two cell rows, the area narrowing toward the margin; Ms smoothly
curved; radial planate subtending one cell row, its outer end turned
forward to join Es enclosing about 3-7 cells; median planate wanting
(present in the hind wing) ; reverse vein moderate; no extra bridge cross-
veins. Hind wing: triangle retracted to the arculus, without crossveins,
and with Cu, rising from its anal angle; anal crossing opposite origin of
A,; 3 cell rows behind A,, increasing; a:b as 1:4. Head large, eyes
contiguous for a distance a little greater than the length of the occipital
triangle. Frons rounded moderately, divided, with indications of a
frontal carina; vertex with its superior margin bilobed. Lobe of the pro-
thorax very small. lying in a low are. Legs quite long and stout; 3rd
femora with many very small spines varying in position. Abdomen
rather short and slender. Genital plate of the female small.
Nymph.-See 3M. imarcella.
Miathyria nmrcella (Selys)
(P1. 1, Fig. 4)
1857. Libllulha niarclla Selys. in Sagra, Hist. Nat., p. 452.
1861. Tramea simplex Hagen,'Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 146; teste IIngen '67.
KLOTS, ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AYD THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 35
1861. Tracna mnorcella IIagen, ibid., p. 316.
1867. Tranea marcella IIagen, Stett. Ent. Ztg., xxviii, p. 227.
1867. Tramec marcella Hagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, p. 292.
1S75. Tranca mnarcella Hagen, ibid., xviii, p. 66.
1889. Tramea marccella Gundlach. Contrib. Cuba,. p. 252.
1896. Miatlyria marcclla Carpenter, Journ. Inst. Jamaica, ii, 3, p. 260.
1906. Mlathyria marcella Calvert, B. C. A., p. 294.
1911. liathyria marceln l Wilson, Johns Hopikins Univ.. Circ. 2, p. 50.
1913. Miatliyria marcella Ris, Cat. Coll. Selys xvi, p. 1009.
1919. Miathyria marcclla Calvert. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., xlv, p. 363.
1931. Miathyria marcella Dow, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xliv, p. 5S.
Diagnosis.-Male. Labium brownish, lateral lobes paler; labrum yel-
lowish, darker on the anterior margin. Face, frons and vertex olivaceous.
When mature, the face is reddish brown and the top of the frons and
vertex violet metallic, darker at the base of the frons. Thorax brown. A
broad yellow longitudinal band beginning just anterior to the lower end
of the humeral suture and ending at the upper end of the 3rd lateral
suture; posterior to this a similar but wider blackish band, diffuse to
rearward and overspreading the 3rd lateral suture for its entire length;
two clear yellow spots just back of the spiracle, one slightly above and
but little separated from the other which continues down the side, bor-
dered in front by the 2nd suture; a yellowish band covering the rear of
the metepimeron. Legs black, femora paler basally. Wings with golden
venation and brown stigma ; membrane slightly tinged with yellowish. In
the fore wing there is a faint basal spot of yellow; in the hind wing a
diffuse golden spot reaching to the first antenodal, almost to the triangle
and back to the hind margin. This spot becomes brown back of vein Cu
from the membranule almost out to the midrib of the loop and along some
of the cross veins distalward; it does not reach the hind margin of the
wing, and on the margin at the end of the membranule shows a cleared-
out hyaline spot 5-6 cell rows wide. Radial planate subtending 5-7 cells
in the fore wing, 6-7 in the hind; postnodals of the fore wing 7-8. Ab-
domen golden brown; segment 5-10 with a broad dorsal band of black,
on 10 covering nearly the entire dorsum. Appendages black.
Size.-Abdomen, 24 mm., hind wing, 33 mm.
Distribution..-Mexico to Argentina. West Indies: Cuba. Jamaica.
Porto Rico: Manati, June 27-29 (A. 31. N. H.).
Nymph.-(Supposition.) I have a single nymph collected at Coamo
Springs, April 4, by Professor Needham and several from Georgetown,
April 17, which I believe to be of this species. It is allied to those of
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
Perithemis and Celithemis by the presence of rather long lateral spines
and the row of long dorsal hooks, for which reason I have grouped this
genus with the Celithemini rather than the Trameini (Xeedham and
Broughton, 1927) with each of which tribes the adults have much in
Length 21, hind femur 7.3, width of abdomen 7.1, of head 5.3 (largest
specimen almost full grown). This is a rather clean nymph with very lit-
tle vestiture. tHead widest across the rear margin of the eyes: rear angles
rounded and setose. Eyes projecting slightly to rearward, their hind
margins reaching back more than half the distance from the antenna, to
the rear of the head. Length of antennal segments 1 : 1 : 2 : 1.5 : 1.3
1.3 : 1.2. Anterior margin of the median lobe of labium obtuse angulate
in the middle and sparsely spinulose; lateral lobes deeply crenulate on
the distal margin into 10 lobes, each of which bears one long and one short
seta: lateral seta 8; mental seta, 9. Labium reaching to one-third t-e
length of the mesothorax. Legs hairy, femora twice-banded: length of
tarsal segments as 1 : 2.5 : 3; divided setme are present on all tarsi and
the 1st and 2nd tibim. Abdomen widest on segment 7. Dorsal hooks
on 2-9, strong; of 8 reaching to one-half of the length of segment 9 of 9
reaching to the end of segment 10. Lateral spines on 8-9 ; of 8 half as long
as segment 8; of 9 two-thirds as long as segment 9. Terminal appendages
long. hairy; appendages plus segment 10 equal in length to segments
8 9. Superior appendage a little shorter than the inferiors: laterals
a little less than one-fourth as long as the superiors. (P]. 1, Fig. 1:
P1. V, Fig. 2.)
(PI. I, Fig. 2)
Vein 21, smoothly curved or with a very slight undulation ; less than 12
antenodals usually, the last one incomplete: less than 3 crossveins under
the ;tigma. The anal loop is well developed but of moderate length, with
extra cells at the heel and with its sole line usually directed inward.
Planates well developed.
KEY TO WEST INDIAN GENERA
1. Hind wing with anal crossing before the origin of A,................. 2
Iind wing with anal crossing opposite origin of A,.................... 3
2. Fore wing with extra bridge crossveins................. Micrathyria
Fore wing with no extra bridge crossveins .............. 1rythlrodiplao.
LOTS, ODONATA O' PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 37
3. Hind wing with vein Cu, rising from the outer side of the triangle...... 4
Hind wing with vein Cu, rising from hind angle of triangle. Bracl/ IlmesIa
4. Forewing radial planate subtending one cell row ....... ....Erythcmis
Forewing radial lplnate subtending two cell rows ......... Lceptheinis
(Pl. I, Fig. 2)
Distribution.-Neotropic into Nearctic.
Diagnosis.-Wings moderate. Fore wing: arculus variable, between
the 2nd and 3rd antenodals, under the 2nd or between the 1st and 2nd,
its sectors on a long stalk; antenodals 7-12, the last one incomplete;
stigma moderately large, surmounting 2 crossveins; triangle moderately
wide, with or without crossveins; subtriangle variable; discoidal field of
2 cell rows, occasionally 3 next the triangle, increasing to 3 at or before
the level of the nodus; M. in a smooth low arch or a convex curve;
apical sector rising under the basal third of the stigma; radial planate
subtending one cell row; median planate wanting; reverse vein scarcely
distinct; extra bridge crossveins present. Hind wing: triangle retracted
to the arculus, without crossveins and with Cu, rising from its outer side;
one cubito-anal which is the anal crossing and is basad of the origin of
A,; 1-3 cell rows between A3 and the border; anal loop variable, usually
rather broad, gaff longer than sole, sole pointing inward ; a : b as 1 : 1 or
1 : 2. with or without the extra cell between the midrib and the anal
angle of the triangle. Head rather large; eye seam short; frons' small,
rounded, with frontal carina; furrow moderately deep; vertex rounded.
Lobe of prothorax large, erect, with a notch in the middle and fringed
with long hairs. Legs long; 3rd femora of male with a row of many small
teeth increasing in size distally and terminating in a long spine. Abdomen
slender in the male, segments 6-8 often considerably expanded laterally;
genital lobe of female usually erect.
ymplih.-See 3M. dissocians.
KEY TO WEST INDIAN SPECIES
1. Hind wing. 18 mm.; thorax with four lateral stripes (obscured by
pruinosity in very mature specimens) ; subtriangle of one cell.......
Hind wing, 25 mm. or over; thorax with three lateral stripes; subtri-
angle of 2 or more cells .......................................... 2
fCIEI TIIC S'URUE'Y OF I'ORTO RICO
2. Sides of thorax with 3 unforked lateral black stripes; discoidal field of
the hind wing with no cells running through from MI, to Cur..didylnu
Sides of thorax with 3 lateral dark stripes, at least one of which is
forked: discoidal field of the hind wing with at least one cell running
through from T, to Cu ........................................... 3
3. One cell between hind angle of triangle and midrib of loop. [srqualis]
Two cells between hind angle of triangle and midrib of loop ............ 4
4. Male superior appendages with points converging; abdominal segment
6 with some yellow ......................................... hugrni
Male superior appendages with points diverging; abdominal segment 6
all black .............................................. dissocmins
Mierathyria didyma .
(P1. II, Fig. 19.)
Three forms of this species are usually recognized. One only is known
from the West Indies and differs from the others in having the fore wing
triangle crossed, and a subtriangle of 3 cells.
Micrathyria didyma didymna ( Selys)
1842. LibellHla phyne Ramnbur, Ins. Neur., p. 121.
1857. Libellula lidymi Selys, in Sagra, Ilist. Nat.. vii. p. 191.
1861. Dythcemis dicrota Hagen, Syn. Neur. N. Am.. p. 166.
1866. lesothcmis par'li Scudder., Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist.. x, p. 194.
1867. Dythentis dicrota Ilagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, p. 202.
1867. Dythemis dicroto Hagen. Stetr. Ent. Ztg., xxviii, p. 98.
1867. Dythemis dierota. Scudder, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xi. p. 300.
1873. Dytlhenis dicrota IIagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist.. xv, p. .374.
1875. Dythemis didyina Iagen, ibid., xviii, p. 75.
1889. flythemis dicrota Gundlach, Contril. Cuba.. p. 269.
1889. Micrathyria didlymn Kirby, Trans. Zoo. Soc. London, xii, p. 304.
1894. Mlicrathyria pruinosa Kirby, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6). xiv, p. 267.
1896. Mlicrathyria didyima Carpenter, Journ. Inst. Jamaica, ii, 3, p. 261.
1906. Micrathyria didyma Calvert, B. C. A., pp. 221. 223.
1911. Micrathyria didiyma didymfa His, Cat. Coll. Selys, xii. p. 430.
1911. Mirrathyria didymoa Wilson, Johns Hopkins Univ., Circ. 2 (232) p. 50.
1916. Micrathyria didynma Kahl, Ann. Carn. Mus., x, p. 524.
1919. Micrathyria didyma Calvert, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., xlv. p. .369.
1931. Micrathyria didymla didyma Dow, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash.. xliv, p. 57.
Diagnosis.-Male. Lips and face yellowish white; labiunm with a
median longitudinal streak across the median lobe and extending along
the inner margins of the two lateral lobes. Top of frons with a quadrate
metallic green blue spot. not reaching the sides. Vertex and occiput
metallic blue green, the latter with a pair of yellow triangular spots on
thle rear border. Prothorax black, the rear margin with a fringe of very
'a If L. phyne is a synonym of this species (Hagen '75) the name has priority over
KLOTS, ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE YIRGIN ISLANDS 39
long yellowish hairs. Front of synthorax metallic green marked with
pale yellowish green as follows: a median spot on the collar; the mid-
dorsal carina; within the lateral arms of the crest; a very narrow ante-
humeral band divergent below and incomplete above; and a very narrow
band bordering the humeral suture and continuing at right angles across
the front of the sinus to the level of the antehumeral, slightly constricted
at the angles. Sides greenish with three metallic bands, one on each
of the three sutures and all connected above and below and with the
black of the venter, isolating a roundish spot on the mesinfraepisternum.
Legs black. Wings hyaline; fore wing triangle of 2 cells, subtriangle of
3; hind wing triangle of one cell and with 2 rows of cells in the discoidal
field; 2 cells between the hind angle of the triangle and the midrib of the
anal loop, and 3 rows of cells behind the loop; 9-11 antenodals in the fore
wing; radial planate subtending one cell row. Abdomen black marked
with pale greenish as follows: a spot on the sides of segment 1 and 2, and
pair of basal spots on 3; 7 with the double spot three-fifths of the segment
Female. Resembles the male. Basal paired spot on abdominal seg-
ments 3-7. on 3 almost the entire length, on 4 three-fourths of the seg-
ment, on 5 one-half, on 6 one-third, on 7 wider and three-fifths the length
of the segment. Ventral plate of the 8th segment reaching not quite to
one half of 9, V-shaped in the center.
Remarls.-In a male from Guadeloupe a narrow projection of the 2nd
stripe on the side of the thorax at the level of the spiracle meets the 3rd
lateral stripe. The humeral band is, in this case, almost obliterated. A
few Cuban specimens have but one cell between the hind angle of the
triangle and the origin of the midrib of the loop.
Distribution.-Miexico to Ecuador; West Indies: Cuba, Isle of Pines,
Jamaica, San Domingo, Guadeloupe. Porto Rico (Gundlach).
Micrathyria dissocians Calvert
(PI. II, Fig. 1S)
1906. Mlicrathyria dissocians Calvert, B. C. A., pp. 222, 226.
1911. Micrathyria dissocians Ris, Cat. Coll. Selys, xii, p. 540.
1916. Micrathyria dfissociaiis Kahl, Ann. Carn. Mus., x, p. 524.
1931. licrathyria dissocians Dow, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xliv, p. 57.
Diagnosis.-Male. Lips and face whitish; base of frons brownish, be-
coming blue green metallic, and forming a large roundish spot on the
middle of the top of the frons; vertex brown, becoming metallic like the
frons; occipnt dark brown to blackish. Prothorax black. Front of syn-
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
thorax brown becoming green metallic, marked with yellowish green as
follows: the basal three-fourths of the dorsal carina; a pair of ante-
humeral stripes, divergent and narrowed below, incomplete above; a band
bordered by the humeral suture to rearward and continued forward in a
fine line beneath the wing sinus at right angles to the dorsal carina, but
not reaching it. Sides yellowish green with a dark band on the humeral
suture and one on the 2nd lateral suture, both forked above and anasto-
mosing; a third band on the 3rd lateral suture, forked at the upper two-
thirds, the rear spur traversing the metepimeron. Legs black with a
streak of green on the inside of the first femora. Wings slightly suffused
with yellowish, especially on the costal border as far as the nodus, and
with a small basal spot of orange. Eight to nine antenodals; fore wing
triangle without crossveins; hind wing triangle with one crossvein; sub-
triangle of 3 cells; 2-3 cell rows in the discoidal field of the fore wing;
usually 2 cells between the midrib of the anal loop and the hind angle
of the triangle. Abdomen brownish black; sides of segment 1 greenish;
segment 2 with a pair of large basal spots one on each side of the dorsum,
and a small lateral spot; 3 with the paired longitudinal dorsal spots three-
fourths of the segment length, widely separated on the middorsum and
each in turn divided by the transverse carina; these spots decreasing on
4 and 5; entirely wanting on 6; on 7 three-fourths of the segment length
and extending almost to the lateral margins; 8-10 and appendages black.
Adult specimens with the bases of the wings, the area between, and most
of segments 1-3, pruinose.
Female. Resembles the male. Abdomen with the following parts
yellow: all of 1-2 except the carinTe, a median transverse band on 1 and a
longitudinal dorsal one on 2; lateral spots of 3 almost full length; on 4
four-fifths of the segment length; on 5 three-fifths; on 6 very small; on
7 as in the male. Ventral plate of 8th segment deeply lobed and extending
one-fourth or less of the length of segment 9.
Rema rks.-There is some variation in the band on the 3rd lateral suture
of the thorax. It is distinctly forked, the rear spur quite distinct, in the
males from Porto Rico and in one from Cuba; the rear spur is not present
in 4 other Cuban specimens and in 3 from San Domingo. The female
shows even more variation. One from Porto Rico and two from Cuba
have only the 2nd lateral stripe forked above; another from Cuba has the
humeral and the 2nd stripes forked, but not the 3rd.
Size.-Abdomen, 25 mm., hind wing, 25-26.5 mm.
Type locality.-Vera Cruz, Mexico, and Mayagiiez, P. R.
Distributiotn.-Mexico. West Indies: Cuba, Isle of Pines, San Domingo.
KLOTS, ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 41
Porto Rico (Calvert, Ris); Manati, July 27-28; Caguas, May 28-29
(A. M. N. IH.). Panzardi's Place, Rio Piedras, July 19 (Garcia-Diaz).
Nymph.-(Supposition). Length 16, hind femur 5.2, width of ab-
domen 6, width of head 4.8. Body smooth; a few seta on the rounded
hind angles of the head and a few minute ones on the anterio-lateral angles
of the prothorax. Head widest across the eyes and narrowed behind
them. Eyes lateral, their hind margins reaching two-thirds of the way
from the antenna to the rear of the head. Rear margin of the head more
or less straight. Antennm pale except the 6th segment, which is brown;
proportionate length of segments as 2 : 2 : 4.4 : 2.6 : 3.6 : 3.6 : 5.
Median lobe of labium with 13-14 mental setae. Distal margin of lateral
lobes with 12 crenulations, each bearing one long seta and 1-2 minute
set,; lateral seta 10-11. Prothorax with a longitudinal brown band nar-
rowly divided on the mid-line. Sides of synthorax mainly brown below
and light above with a brown pattern. Abdominal segment 1-5 mainly
yellow with a band of brown dots, on each side, which continues down
to 9; a broad band of brown on either side of the middorsum of 6-9,
the two separated narrowly on 6 and increasingly wider on 7-9; some-
times this brown broken up into dots; lateral margins with or without a
brown spotted band. Lateral spine of 8 equal to about one-fourth of the
segment length; that of 9 one-third of 9. Appendages as long as 8 9
on the dorsum; superior not so long as the inferiors; laterals a little
longer than half the superior; superior hairy on the sides, inferiors
spinulose within. (P1. III, Fig. 4, P1. V, Fig. 5.)
A large number of these nymphs was collected by Professor Needham
at Coaino Springs, April 4, and at El Caney, Cuba, April 20, and are now
in the C. U. collection.
I mistook this species for Erythrodiplaa, umbrata, so closely does it
resemble that genus in general appearance and that species in mental and
lateral setTe; but several nymphs show the venation of the wings so clearly
that its association with M. dissocians is evident. One extra bridge cross-
vein is present in all cases where the venation is at all developed; the
following characters indicate the species: radial planate subtending one
cell row; two cells between midrib of loop and hind angle of triangle;
one cell running through from M4 to Cu, in the discoidal field of the
Micrathyria hageni Kirby
1861. Dythemis didyma Hagen, Syn. Neur., p. 165.
1867. Dythemis didyma Hagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, p. 292.
1875. Dythenis dicrota Hagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xviii, p. 75.
C('IEXTIFIC S'URIEY OF PORTO RICO
1896. licrathyria hugeui Carpenter, Journ. Inst. Jamaica, ii, p. 261.
1906. Macrathyria hageni Calvert, B. C. A., p. 222.
1911. Macrathyria hageni Ris, Cat. Coll. Selys, xii, p. 438.
1931. Murruthyria hugeni Dow, Proc. Bio. Soc. Wash., xliv, 1). 57.
Diagnosis.-Lips whitish. Face yellowish. Frons with a basal metallic
blue spot on the top. Vertex also blue metallic. Front of thorax brown
with blue metallic reflections, with a broad, oval, yellow antehumeral band,
incomplete above. Sides greenish with a dark band on the humeral suture,
another one through the spiracle which forks above, one branch fusing with
the humeral band and the other with the broad band on the 3rd lateral
suture. Wings diffusely yellowish; hind wings with a golden brown basal
spot reaching barely halfway to the anal crossing; 8 antenodals in the fore
wing, C in the hind.
Size.-Abdomen, 22 mm., hind wing, 28 mm.
Type locality.-Cuba; Mexico.
Distribu tion.-Texas, Central America. West Indies: Cuba, Jamaica,
San Domingo. Porto Rico (Kolbe).
Distribution.-Neotropic into Nearctic.
Diagnosis.-Wings relatively broad. Fore wing: arculus between the
1st and 2nd antenodals, its sectors stalked; 8-11 antenodals in the
fore-wing, the last incomplete; stigma rather large, surmounting 2 cross-
veins; triangle more or less at right angles to the long axis of the wing,
moderately wide, crossed; subtriangle of 1-3 cells, discoidal field of 2-3
cell rows, slightly narrowed toward the middle and wider at the margin;
Ms variable; apical planate rising under the basal third of the stigma;
radial planate subtending 1-2 cell rows; median planate subtending one
row or lacking; reverse vein distinct; no extra bridge crossveins. Hind
wing: triangle retracted to the arculus without crossveins; origin of Cu,
variable; anal crossing basad to origin of A2; anal loop of moderate size,
gaff not much longer than sole, sole pointing inward, often very concave;
a : b as 1 : 2 or 1 :3. Head moderately small; eye seam short; frons
rounded, variable, with or without a frontal carina; vertex small, variable.
Lobe of prothorax variable. Legs long and moderately slender.
Nymph.-Body rather smooth except for the long hairs on the sides
of the prothorax. Head widest across the eyes; eyes reaching back of the
middle of the head ; hind angles of head rounded off. Mandibles with four
teeth in the apical series and 2-3 proximal teeth, with or without the
KLOTS, ODOXATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 43
intermediate denticle (Calvert, '28). Labium with anterior margin of
mentum crenulate, obtuse angulate in the middle. Lateral lobes with
11-15 crenulations on the distal margin, each crenulation further divided
and setigerous; posterior margin finely crenulate and setigerous. Legs
hairy; all tibise and tarsi with some divided sets. Abdomen widest at the
6th segment. No dorsal hooks but sometimes with middorsal tubercles
bearing dense tufts of hair. Lateral spines on 8-9, that of 9 less than the
length of the segment. Appendages slightly curved ventrally.
KEY TO WEST INDIAN SPECIES
1. Radial planate subtending 2 rows of cells ................... umrbrata
Radial planate subtending a single row of cells....................... 2
2. Hind wing with but one cell between hind angle of triangle and midrib
of loop ................................................ minuseula
IIind wing with 2 cells between hind angle of triangle and midrib of loop 3
3. Wings wholly hyaline ..................................... bereniee
Wings with some yellow or brown............................... 4
4. Male genital lobe expanded at the end ; female genital plate half or
two-thirds as long as segment 9 .................................
Male genital lobe not expanded at end; female genital plate as long as
or longer tllan segment 9 ................................ conata
5. Frons metallic blue above.......................... [ilninlaculata]
Frons not metallic above................................. [oclracea]
1. Lateral seta. S; mental sete 12 ............................ minuscule
Lateral setma 9-10; mental sette less than 12 or more than 13.......... 2
2. Lateral sette 9-10; mental setie 10-11 .................. ............ 3
Lateral setle 10-11; mental sette 13-14....................... .mbrata
3. Crenulations of lateral lobes with 3-4 sette each................ berenice
Crenulations of lateral lobe with one seta each (sometimes a second
minute one) .......................................... c. jtistin1iiu
Erythrodiplax unbrata (Liannms)
175S. Libcllula minbrata Linn., Syst. nat., p. 545.
1S39. Libcllula tripartila Burmeiste, Hanb. Ent., ii, p. S56.
1839. Libellula ruralis Burmeister, ibid., p. 856.
1842. Libellula urmbrata Rambur, Ins. Neur., p. 73.
1842. Libellula flaricens Rambur, ibid., p. 87.
1857. Libellrla numbrata Selys, in Sagra, Hist. nat. vii, p. 189.
1861. Libelliua umbrata Hagen, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 158.
1867. Libelliula umbrata IHagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, p. 292.
1867. Libellila oumbrata Hagen, Stett. Ent. Ztg., xxviii, p. 99.
1867. Libellula umbrata Uhler, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist.. xi, p. 297.
1808. Libellula iubrata Hagen. Stett. Ent. Ztg., xxix, p. 274.
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
186S. Erytihrodiplur unmbrata Brauer, Zool. Bot. Wien., xviii, p. 723.
1888. Libellula. ambrata Kolbe, Archiv fiir Naturg., liv, pp. 160, 167.
1893. Trithemis umnbrata Cockerell, Journ. Inst. Jamaica, i,p. 257.
1894. Trithemis umbrata Kirby, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), xiv, p. 263.
1896. Thithenlis utnbra ta Carpenter, Journ. Inst. Jamaica, ii, p. 260.
1906. Erythrodiplax uinlbrata Calvert, B. C. A., pp. 248, 251.
1911. Erythrodiplax unbrata Ris, Cat. Coll. Selys, xii, p. 484.
1911. Erythrodiplaxr unibrata Wilson, Johns Hopkins Univ. Circ. 232, ii. p. 50.
1916. Erythrodiplax uiibrata Kahl, Ann. Carn. Mus., x, p. 525.
1919. Erythrodiplax umbrafa Calvert, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., xlv, p. 3(4.
1928. Erythrodiplax uilbrata Calvert, Univ. Iowa Stud. Nat. Iist., xii, 2. p. 3.
1931. Erytthrodiplar umbrata Dow, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xliv, p. 58.
Diagnosis.-Male. Face in very young specimens wholly reddish, in
older ones washed with shining brown or black as follows: the labrum,
except the anterior border, which is yellow; a spot on either side of the
midline of the anteclypeus; the central portion of the postclypeus; the
frons except the lateral margins; and the vertex. The color on the labrum
and the frons is the first to appear. Prothorax pale brownish, yellow
across the center. Rest of thorax dull olivaceous; lips of spiracle black
and a spot on the suture just above it also black. Legs brown, paler at
the base and on the inside of the femora. Wings with a diffuse yellowish
spot at the base, larger on the hind wing, and with a broad brown cross-
band extending from the nodus to the base of the stigma, rarely to the
middle. This band varies from a faint yellowish wash in very young
specimens to a deep brownish black in mature ones. Stigma brownish,
swollen in the middle, paler apically, large, surmounting 2 crossveins.
Radial planate subtending 2 cell rows. Abdomen dull yellowish brown,
black on the venter; segments 2-3 with supplementary transverse carina;
all carinT black. Four to seven with a large black apical spot on the
lateral margins, on 5-7 confluent broadly above on the apical border with
a broad middorsal band. This band is scarcely discernible on 4, slightly
so on 5, distinct on 6, narrower on 7, on 8-9 confluent with the black of
the sides, thereby covering the entire segment, except for two small basal
longitudinal dashes, the dorsal one of which on 9 is round. Segment 10
short, yellowish, except for a black basal and apical border and a diffuse
blackish region of the dorsum. Appendages pale, extreme tips darker.
The mature male has the face entirely black except a narrow border
on the front margin of the labrum. Body entirely blue black, slightly
pruinose; only the appendages pale. Stigma dark brown; wing mark-
The homochromatic female resembles the male except that it is gen-
erally lighter in color and the wing markings are more diffuse.
KLOTS, ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIS ISLANDS 45
The h eterochromatic female differs only in the color of the wings. The
basal yellowish spot of the hind wings is slightly larger. The cross-band
is not present. In both wings the basal yellow continues along Sc and P
to the stigma; the apex of the wings is slightly brownish to the stigma.
Size.-Abdomen, 25-30 mm., hind wing, 25-31 mm.
Distribution.-Ga. and Fla. to Texas to Argentine. West Indies: all
islands. Porto Rico.: (Kolbe. Calvert 1906, Ris) ; from nearly all parts
in all seasons. St. Thonuma: (Burmeister, Selys 1857, Calvert 1906,
Ris); series (A. 31. N. II.). St. Johln: series (A. M. N. H.). St. Croix:
series (A. M. N. H.).
Nymph.-(Calvert, Univ. Iowa Studies Nat. Hist., 1928, xii, 2, p. 25.)
Length 14, hind femur 3.9, width of abdomen 5.5, width of head 4.8.
Labium reaching to chase of second legs. Lateral lobes dotted with
brown; mentun with sides largely brown and dotted on the anterior
margin. Lateral seta 10-11: distal mnarg'n of lateral lobe'with about
11-12 crenulations each with 2 seta (and sometimes a minute 3rd one),
one long and one short. Femora twice banded and 1st and 2nd tibia
three times banded with broken; hind femur reaching to the end of the
6th segment. Wing pads reaching across segment G. Abdomen pale
basally, increasingly dark apically; a pale yellow middorsal long:tudinal
band on 6-10 and extending across the superior appendage; a small brown
dot near the mid length of 1-9 about two-fifths of the way from the mid-
line to the lateral margins; on 7-9 this dot bordered externally by a pale
yellow spot, small on 7. Lateral spine of 8 and 9 about one-half their
segment lengths. Appendages dark except for the apical third of the
inferiors, apical two-thirds of laterals and apical third and the middorsal
band of the superior. (P1. V, Fig. 3.)
One nymph collected by Professor Needham at Camagfiey, Cuba, April
13, and now in the C. U. collection.
Erythrodiplax miniusrula (Ramlbur)
1842. Libcllula, iii lscneul Ramibur, Ins. Neur., p. 115.
188S. ?Diplax portoriceun Kolle. Archiv fiir Naturg., liv, 1. 168.
1896. ?Diplax portoricona Car enter, Journ. Inst. Jamaica, ii, p. 261.
1906. Erytl7rodiplax minuscule/ Calvert, B. C. A., pp. 249. 267.
1911. Erythirodiplax nminuscwlL Ris, Cat. Coll. Selys, xii, p. 524.
1916. Erythrodiplax minuscula Kahl, Ann. Carn. Mus., x, p. 524.
Synonym.-- paraguayensis F6rster. Also as Diplacodes, Tnrthemis,
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF IORTO RICO
Diagnosis.-Male. Lips and face brownish; clypeus paler. Top of
frons and vertex metallic greenish black. Occiput brownish black. Tho-
rax and abdomen all dark pruinose blue. Legs blackish. Base of hind
wings with a small yellow or brown spot reaching to the anal crossing
and 2-3 cells beyond the membranule. Radial planate subtending one
cell row; subtriangle of fore wing of one cell; Cu, of the hind wing
usually rising from the outer side of the triangle.
Female. Lips and face whitish. Base of frons and the vortex coppery
green. Dorsum of thorax brown with a diffuse yellow band on the mid-
dorsal suture and another on the humneral; sides of thorax yellow with
indistinct dark lines. Abdominal segments 1-6 yellow; 3-6 with black
dorsal markings; lateral margins with a blackish spot on the posterior
half; 7-10 black. Appendages whitish. Genital plate as long as seg-
ment 9, erect.
Size.-Abdomen, 13-17 rmm., hind wing, 15.5-21 nm.
Type locality.-North America.
Distribullon.--W. Va., Ky. to Fla. and Tex. to Argentine. West
Indies: Cuba, Jamaica, Isle of Pines. Porto Rico: (Kolbe).
ymph)/.-(Needham, 1904, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xxvii, pp. 7-9.)
Length 12; hind femur, 3.5 ; width of abdomen, 4; Lateral setm, S; mental
sete about 12, the fifth from the outside the longest. Abdomen oval;
lateral appendages three-fourths the length of the superior.
Dr. Calvert (1906) and Shortess (1929) have done extensive statis-
tical work on this species in regard to color and venational variations in
relation to geographic distribution, and have found that there is a south-
ward tendency towards decreased wing venation. On the basis of this,
Dr. Calvert has distinguished 2 subspecies: (nwva, having 25 or fewer
marginal cells between the stigma and \l, of the fore wing, and the
typical berenice, having 35 or more. Only the former is known from
the West Indies.
Erythrodiplax erenice nweva (IIagen)
(P1. I, Fig. 6)
1SG1. Dythcmis nwrva Hagen, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 167.
1807. Dythcmis nrra Hagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, p. 293.
1889. Dythemis narvL Gundlach, Contrib. Cuba, p. 271.
1893. lri-rathyria bcrelice Calvert, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., xx, p. 201.
10(0. Erythrodiplax berenice wnrva Calvert. B. C. A., pp. 249, 270.
1911. Erythrodiplax berenice nwrva Ris, Cat. Coll. Selys, xii, p. 523.
LOTS, ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 47
1916. Erythrodiplax berenice Cwrca Kahl, Ann. Carn. Mus., x, p. 524.
1919. Erythrodiplax berenicc awuva Calvert, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., xlv, p. 369.
Diagnosis.-Male. Face and head mostly shining metallic blue; in
young specimens, marked with yellow as follows: lateral lobes of labium
except along the median margins, the labrum except for the anterior
border and a basal median indentation postelypcus (anteclypeus is more
brownish); a spot on the rounded prominence of the frons narrowly
separated on the median line, and two spots on the lateral margins next
the eyes, one confluent with the pale of the postelypens and the other
more or less confluent with the spot on the top of the frons; a spot on
the middle of the prominent vertex and a small spot at the rear base of
each side of the vertex. Rear of head black, sometimes spotted with
yellow. Thorax yellow striped with black as shown (Pl. I, Fig. G). This
pattern may be, at times, much less extensive. Legs black except the
inside of the 1st femora. Wings wholly hyaline. Antenodals 7-8;
radial planate subtending one cell row; often 2 cells between the midrib
of the anal loop and the hind angle of the triangle: Cu, rising from the
outer side of the triangle in the hind wing. Abdominal segments 1-2
yellow with black carinme; 3-6 yellow with lateral margins broadly black,
an apical ring as well as a narrow middorsal line black; on 7 the lateral
band is absent but the apical one covers two-thirds of the segment length.
In well colored specimens segments 3-7 appear black with a triangular
yellow spot on each side of the midline, reaching not quite to the apex
on 3-6 and one-third of the way on 7 where it also extends down to the
lateral margins. Eight to nine have a touch of basal yellow on each side.
Ten and appendages pale. Adult males become wholly pruinose blue,
the thorax and base of abdomen whitish.
Female. Like the young male but lighter and the pale color more
extensive. Wings with a minute yellow fleck in the fore wing and a
slightly larger one in the hind wing which reaches to the 1st antcnodal
and the anal crossing. Genital plate of the 8th segment large, erect,
standing at right angles to the abdomen, longer than segment 9.
Remark's.-Dr. Calvert (1906) notes homo- and hetero-chromatic
females for this species. The material that is before me shows but the
Size.-Abdomen, 20-23 mmn., hind wing, 23-25 mm.
Distribution.-Florida, Bahamas, Panama; lWest Indies: Cuba, Isle of
Pines, Jamaica. Porto Rico: Santurce, Aug. 3, and San Juan, July 1-5
(A. N. .H.). St. Croix: March 5, April 5 (A. M. N. H.).
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
Nymph.- (Calvert, 1904, Ent. News, xv, p. 174.) Total length 14.
Distal margin of lateral lobe of labium with 11-12 shallow crenulations
each bearing 3-4 setat. Lateral setaw 9-10; mental seta 10-11, the fourth
to fifth from the outside the longest. Abdomen elongate, hairy; dorsal
hooks replaced by tufts of hair. Lateral spines on 8-9, short, about one-
half the length of the segments, incurved. Lateral appendages about two-
thirds the length of the superior.
Dr. Ris (1911) includes under this species 7 subspecies, 3 of which
are from the West Indies.
KEY TO WEST INDIAN SUBSPECIES
1. Face and frons of adult male red ........................... [fnsca]
Face and frons of adult male black....................... ......... 2
2. Basal spot of the hind wing extending but a little beyond the anal cross-
ing ................. .................... ............. [frit c'n a ]
Basal spot of the hind wing larger, extending to the 2nd antenodal, to
the triangle and back to the anal angle of the wing ....... jutstiinana
Erythrodiplax comiata justiniana Selys
(Pl. 2, fig. 12.)
1842. Libcllla miniuscula Rambur, Ins. Neur., p. 115; in pars (teste Selys).
1857. LibellMla jiustiniana Selys, in Sagra, IIist. Nat., vii, p. 190.
1861. Diplax juistiniana i IIngen. Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 181.
1866. Diplax justinina Scudder, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., x, p. 197.
1867. Dipla.r jinstiniaina and ambuilista IIagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Listt, xi,
1867. Diplax jislini na Hagen, Stett. Ent. Ztg., xxxiii, p. 9S.
1ST7.. Diplar justiniana Hagen, Proc. Soc. Nat. Hist., xv, p. 37i.
1T75. Diplax jsitinian ad nl ambusta IIagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist.,
xviii, p. 81.
18S8. l)ipla ambrtsita Kolbe, Archiv fiir Naturg., liv, p. 108.
1S91. Diptla.t mnbusta and jitstiniana Gundllclh, Contrib. Cuba, p. 279.
1890. Trithesnis justinian a and ambusta Kirby, Cat. Odon., pp. 19, 20.
1896. Trithcemis justiniana Carpenter, Journ. Inst. Jiamaica. ii, p. 200.
1906. Erytlhrodiplaxl connata form f' Calvert, B. C A., p. 266.
1911. Hrilthrodiplo.rs cannot jistiniana Ris, Cat. Coll. Selys, xii, p. 509.
1911. Erytlrodiplai connata jilstiniana Wilson, Johns Iopkins Univ. Circ.
(232), ii, p. 50.
1916. Erytirodiptil.r con intaU juslitilana Kahl, Ann. Carn. Muls., p. 524.
1919. Erythrodiiploi conwtla jllstinian Calvert, Trains. A En. Ent. Soc.l, xl., p.
1931. Erytlirodiplax connata justiniana Dow, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xliv, p. 58.
LOTS, ODONATA OF 1'POTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 49
Diagnosis.-Male. Face ochraceous; labrum brighter, vertex darker.
Thorax ochraceous. Legs brownish with femora pale on the inside. Wings
with a golden brownish spot in the hind wing extending to or a little be-
yond the 1st antenodal, to the arculus and the inside of the triangle.
Abdomen ochraceous, segments 1-3 with black caring and an indistinct
brown line on each side; 4-10 with a black triangular spot on the posterio-
lateral margins and an indistinct brownish area along the middorsal
carina. Appendages pale.
Mature males have the face black, except for a narrow yellow border
along the labrum; frons and vertex with metallic blue reflections; thorax
and legs black; abdominal segments 1-7 pruinose, 8-10 and appendages
Female. Similar to the young male but lighter in color.
Remarks.-There is some variation in the depth and extent of color of
the wing color. A male from St. Croix has the minimum, the color ex-
tending only half way to the first antenodal, three-quarters of the way to
the arculus and barely reaching the triangle. Specimens from Jamaica
and Haiti have, as a rule, more than those from Porto Rico; whereas one
male from Cuba has the brown extending beyond the 2nd antenodal, well
beyond the arculus and over the triangle. The male from St. Croix is the
largest: abdomen 19, hind wing 22; the ohe from Cuba is the smallest:
abdomen 15, hind wing 18.
Size.-Abdomen, 16.5-18.5 mm.; hind wing, 18-22 mm.
Distribution.-Greater Antilles. Porto Rico: (Hagen, 1875); Martin
Pifia, Jan. 14; Aibonito, June 1-3; Coamo Springs, June 5-7; Barros,
June 4; Adjuntas, June 8-13; Caguas, May 28; San Juan, July 9-12;
Guayanilla, July 22 (A. M. N. H.). Rio Piedras, April 13 (Forbes). St.
Thomas: (Calvert) ; March 13 (A. M. N. H.).
/ Nymph.-(Supposition). Length 10.5, hind femur 3.8, width of abdo-
men 3.2, width of head 4.3. Rear margin of head rather straight and with
rounded angles, setose. Lateral seta 7-8; distal margin of lateral lobes
with 10 obsolete crenulations, each with one long and sometimes one short
seta; median lobe sparsely spinulose; mental seta 9-10. Prothorax with
sett on the anterior-lateral angles and in a middorsal clump; synthorax
with minute ones on the extreme dorsal surface. Wings reaching to the
6th segment. Spines on 8 and 9 about one-third their segment length.
Superior appendage almost as long as the inferiors; laterals three-fourths
of the superior; superior with a few hairs each side. (PI. V, Fig. 4.)
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
One nymph collected in Camagiiay, April 13, by Professor Needham.
The only reason I have for considering it this species is its small size, and
the fact that adults were collected in the same place.
Diagnosis.-Fore wing: arculus between the first and second antenodal
crossveins, its sectors rising from a single point, scarcely stalked; ante-
nodals 9-11, the last one incomplete; stigma moderate, surmounting two
crossveins; triangle elongate, crossed, directed inward; subtriangle of
three cells; discoidal field of three cell rows, narrowed at the margin;
radial planate subtending 1-2 cell rows; median planate subtending two
cell rows; no extra bridge crossveins. Hind wing: triangle retracted to
the arculus, without crossveins and with Cu1 rising from its hind angle;
anal crossing opposite the origin of A,; three cell rows between A. and the
hind margin with the peculiar arrangement shown in P1. 1, Fig. 14; gaff
longer than sole; sole line directed slightly inwards; a: b as 1 : 2 or 1 : 3.
Eyes contiguous for a distance equal only to the posterior anterior dimen-
sion of the vertex; vertex high, globose; frons swollen, deeply lobed, with
no frontal carina. Lobe of prothorax emarginate in the middle, erect and
fringed with long hairs. Anal appendages of male longer than segment 10.
Remarks.-Professor Needham, in his Handbook (1928), placed B.
furcata in the genus Sympetrum and thus restored the name Caanacria
for herbida and gravida, and in a later paper (Ent. News, 1930, li, p. 254)
gave his reasons for so doing. The peculiar little character noted above 6
in the anal area of the hind wing of the three species indicates, after all, a
possible closer connection. This arching of the crossvein is not significant
in itself-it might easily happen by the chance dropping out of a cross-
vein-but its constant presence in both wings of all the specimens I have
examined (five of furcata, sixteen of herbida, and four of gravida), is, I
think, significant. The unusual length of the anal appendages of the fe-
male is another peculiarity which these species have in common. The
finding and rearing of the nymphs should help considerably in determin-
ing their true relationship.
Nymph.-In the Cornell University collection there is a partly grown
nymph collected by Dr. M. D. Leonard, Rio Piedras, April 4, and several
collected by C. F. Baker in Cuba, which, if my other attributions are cor-
SI'resent also in many genera of the Celithemini. In Crocothemis the arrangement is
almost identical with that found here.
KLOTS, ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 51
rect, must belong to this genus. I have, however, no other means of de-
termining them; they are not fully grown and the venation of the wing
pads is not developed. They are most easily recognized by the hairy body
and the peculiar eyes (P1. IV, Fig. 1.).
Length 14, hind femur 4.2; width of head 4.7, of abdomen 4.4. Body
uniform reddish brown, very hairy. Head widest across the front of the
eyes; hind angles rounded; hind margin convex. Eyes small and on the
superior surface of the head; anterior margin of head with a long fringe
of hairs beneath the antennae. Labium reaching only to the fore coxm;
5 lateral sete ; 3 mental seta on the outer margin each side and 8-10 very
short ones clustered each side of the median line. Rear of head hairy, the
hair continuing up in distinct areas to the eyes; frons and vertex hairy.
Prothorax with long tufts on the prominent lateral angles. Legs appar-
ently held close to the body, short, stout and very hairy. Wing pads reach-
ing to the 7th segment. No dorsal hooks, but with median tufts of short
hairs. Lateral spines on 8-9 sharp, short, that of 9 slightly inturned.
Appendages as long as 8 9 on the mid line; superiors shorter than the
inferiors; laterals one-fourth shorter than the superiors.
Brachymesia herbida (Gundlach)
1867. Libcllula herbida Hagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Listt, xi, p. 292; nomen
1875. Libellula herbida IIagen, ibid., xviii, p. 74.
1889. Libellula herbida Gundlach, Contrib. Cuba, p. 261.
1889. Cannacria bates Kirby, Trans. Zoo. Soc. London, xii, p. 341.
1907. Clanlcria bates Calvert, B. C. A., p. 326.
1910. Brachynicsia bates Muttkowski, Cat. Odon. N. Am., p. 169.
1912. BrachyUncsia bates Ris. Cat. Coll. Selys, xiv, p. 736.
1916. BrachymUiesi batesi Kahl, Ann. Carn. Mus.. x, p. 525.
1919. Brachyt esia herbida Calvert, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., xlv, p. 365; on
1931. Brachyniesia herbida Dow, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washl., xliv, p. 59.
Synonym.-f umipennis Currie.
Diagnosis.-Male. Labium yellow; labrum pale orange with a narrow
black front border; clypeus yellow; frons and vertex olivaceous, blackish
in the depths of the suture between. Rear of eyes spotted with yellow.
Prothorax dark brown, the rear margin with a long fringe of tawny hair.
Synthorax yellow, turning to olivaceous; the crest black. Legs blackish,
hairy, paler basally and on the inside of the first femora. Wings slightly
suffused with yellowish especially between Sc and R and between the sec-
tors of the arculus in the fore wing; in the hind wing deeper between Cu
and A, over the triangle and supertriangle and extending slightly beyond
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
the latter. Abdomen yellow marked with black as follows: a pair of small
anteapical transverse dashes on 2, one on either side of the middorsal line;
a longitudinal band on the middorsal on 4-9, widening apically on each
segment to 9 where it covers nearly the entire dorsum. Ten yellow except
for a narrow basal line and a small middorsal band. Appendages oliva-
ceous to blackish.
Female. Similar to the male. Wings with a varying amount of color
but usually considerably more than in the male.
Remarkss.-In some females, notably those from Jamaica, the wings are
almost entirely golden brown, deeper in the anterior half between the
triangle and nodus. All those from Porto Rico are more normal.
Size.-Abdomen, 31-33 nmm., hind wing, 34-35 mm.
Distribution.-Central America to Brazil; West Indies: Cuba, Jamaica,
Haiti, Barbados. Porto Rico: Arecibo, July 30-Aug. 1 (A. M. N. H.);
Toa-Baja, April 15 (G. Garb, in C. U.) ; Dessengafio, Dec. 23 (C. U.);
flying to lights in train, northern coast, Oct. 27 (Garcia-Diaz, in C. U.).
Distribution.-Nearctic and Neotropical.
Diagnosis.-Wings long, rather broad. Fore wing: arculus between the
1st and 2nd antenodals, its sectors on a long stalk; antenodals 11-15, the
last one incomplete; stigma large, surmounting 2 crossveins; triangle very
slender, crossed, directed inward; subtriangle of 3 cells; discoidal field of
2-3 cell rows, widened at the margin; AM smoothly curved; apical sector
rising under the basal third of the stigma; radial and median planates sub-
tending one cell row; reverse vein distinct, moderately aslant; no extra
bridge crossveins. Hind wing: triangle retracted almost to the arculus,
without crossveins and with Cu, rising from its outer side: anal crossing
distal to the origin of A,; 3 cell rows between A. and the hind margin of
the wing; anal loop large; gaff but little longer than the sole; sole pointing
inward ; a: b as 1: 3. Head small, eye seam very short; frons swollen,
rounded, with no frontal carina; fork quite deep; vertex high with its
upper border undulate. Lobe of prothorax large, erect, fringed with long
hairs; with a very small concavity in the middle. Legs stout: 3rd femora
of male with 16-20 small spines and with 3-4 large ones at the distal end.
Abdomen with the genitalia of the male small and the genital plate of the
KLOTS, ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 53
Nymph.-The nymphs (Pl. IV, Fig. 4) of this genus are rather smooth,
short and somewhat stocky, with short decurved appendages. The eyes
are prominent and bulging. The mandibles with 3-4 teeth in the apical
series and 2-3 in the proximal, with 1-2 intermediate deticles (Calvert
'28). Abdomen widest across the 6th segment. Dorsal hooks wanting;
on the transverse apical carina there are coarse hairs and on the apical
ventral margin of the 9th segment a long brush of them. Lateral spines
present on 9 only and then usually very small. Appendages decurved, the
inferiors the most strongly.
KEY TO WEST INDIAN SPECIES
Adults (After Ris '11)
1. Discoidal field of the fore wing with two cell rows, except next to the
triangle; discoidal field of the hind wing with at least one cell run-
ning through from \IM to Cu ................................cred la
Discoidal field of the fore wing with three cell rows: of the hind wing
with no cells running through from I.N to Cu ...................... 2
2. Abdomen slender; segment 4-6 as long as wide : basal segments swollen 3
Abdomen stout; segment 4-G twice or less than twice as long as wide.. 4
3. Darkish antehumeral stripe present..........................plelicij
No darkish antehumeral stripe present; abdomen bright red when
mature ........................................... [h a tol n ogister]
4. Base of hind wing hyaline ........................... [si plicicollis]
Base of hind wing colored .......................................... 5
5. Basal spot of hind wing reaching but half way to the cubito-anal cross-
vein, and liut a few cells beyond the membrannle ........ [perurianor]
Basal spot of hind wing reaching beyond the cubito-anal crossvein ,ind
extending to the hind margin of the wing........................ 6
6. Thorax and abdomen red ...................... ........ [initliroidcs]
Thorax and abdomen brown or black, or with yellow markings.. [attfla]
Nymphs (After Calvert '28)
1. Lateral set;e 11: set-e of the anterior row of second and third segment
of the mid-tarsus divided................................ credula F
Lateral sets 8: setie of second and third segments of mid-tarsus simple 2
2. Lateral spine on 9 sharply decurved................................. 3
Lateral spines on 9 wanting or nearly straight.........[s'implicicollis]
3. Lateral spine of 9 measuring .16-.30 mm......................plebeja
Lateral spine of 9 measuring .45-.50 mm. ........................... 4
4. Total length 14.5-15 mm .................................. [attal?]
Total length .13-.13.5 mm............................. [peruvi tna?]
Erythemis credula (Hagen)
1861. Diplax credula Hagen, Syn. Neur. N. Am., pp. 184, 318.
1907. Erytllcmis credula Calvert, B. C. A., p. 339.
1911. Erythemis credula Ris, Cat. Coll. Seyls, xiii, p. 597.
NCIESTI FIU S'URFEY OF P'ORTO RICO
Diagnosis.-Male. Labium yellow, brown in the middle; lalruil
black: clypeus and frons olivaceous, the latter with a greenish yellow
band across the top. Thorax yellowish brown, indistinctly marked with
dark brown and with pale greenish middorsal band bordered with brown.
Legs black. TIind wing with a small yellowish basal spot reaching only
to the cubito-anal crossvein and a little beyond the membranule. Ab-
dominal segments 1-2 swollen, olivaceous; 3-7 with a diffuse iniddorsal
longitudinal brown band and with black caring.
Female. Resembles the male, but paler in color. Middorsal band on
abdominal segments 4-10. Genital plate very small.
Mature specimens become pruinose blue.
Size.-Abdomen, 24-28 mm., hind wing, 27-30 mm.
Di'trtibution.-Brazil. West Indies: Barbados, Antigua. It. Thomas:
Nyminph.-(Supposition. Calvert, Univ. Iowa Studies Nat. Ilist.,
1928, p. 34). Length 11.5-12.5, hind femur 4.3-4.8, width of abdomen
4.5-5.18, width of head 4.09-4.44. Proportionate length of antennal seg-
ments about as 2.6 : 3 : 7 :4.4 :4.5 : 6 : 6. D'stal margin of the lateral
lobes of the labium with 13 weak crenulations, the larger ones bearing 1-5
sete and with 5-6 minute crenulations. Abdomen with pale yellowish
middorsal longitudinal stripe on 6-9. Superior and inferior appendages
of about the same length; laterals about one-third. Long marginal sete
on segments 8-9.
Erythelmis plebeja (Burmeister)
(PI. II, Fig. 9.)
1839. Libcllula plebeja Burmeister, Handb. Ent., ii, p. 856.
1861. Lepthemis verbenata Hagen, Syn, Neur. N. Am., pp. 162, .10.
1875. Lcpthemis attala pars Hagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist.. xvii, p. 74.
1889. Lcptheiiis attala Gundlach, Contrib. Cuba, p. 265.
1899. Lepthemis rerbenata Calvert, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. (3), i, p. 406.
1907. Erythelmis rcrbcnata Calvert, B. C. A., p. 336.
1911. Erythemis verbenata Wilson, Johns Hopkins Univ. Circ. 2, no. 232, p. 5C.
1911. EryUlhmis plebeja Ris, Cat. Coll. Selys, xiii. 604.
1916. Erythiemis verbenata Kahl, Ann. Cam. Mus., x, p. 525.
1919. Erytmcinis rerbenata Calvert, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., xlv, p. .867.
1931. Erythemis verbenata Dow, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington., xliv, p. 59.
Diagnosis.-Male. Lower lip pale brown, darker on the sides. Upper
lip brown with anterior border and median cross-band black. Clypens
brownish. Frons pale yellow with a black band across its anterior surface,
vertex yellow. Dorsum of thorax pale olivaceous, the pale color contigu-
ous with the brown antehumeral band. Sides olivaceous. Legs brown,
darker on the insides, toward the knees, and on the tarsi. Abdominal
KLOTS, ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 55
segments 1-3 brown; 4-7 with small basal rings and with the apical half
black; 8 dark brown with lateral pale streaks; 9-10 dark brown. Append-
ages pale. Iind wing with brown basal spot reaching half way to the
1st antenodal and to, or a little beyond, the anal crossing, and two or
Three cells over the membranule.
Female. Colored like the male. Genital plate large, nearly as large
as segment 9; erect.
Mature specimens are almost wholly black.
Size.-Abdomen, 35-36 mm.; hind wing, 32-36 mm.
Type locality.-South America.
Distribution.-Texas, Mexico to Paraguay. West Indies: Cuba, Ja-
maica, San Domingo, Haiti. Porto Rico: Ponce, July 20-22, and Arecibo,
July 30-Aug. 1 (A. M. N. 11.).
Nyimph.-(Calvert, Univ. Iowa Studies Nat. Hist., 1928, xii, 2, p. 34.)
Length 14.5-15. Lateral seta 8. Lateral spine on segment 9, 16-30 mm.
long, and strongly decurved.
Dist ribut io.-Neotropical.
Diagnosis.-Wings moderately long but narrow. Fore wing: arculus
between the 1st and 2nd antcnodals, its sectors on a long stalk; 14-16
antenodals, the last one incomplete; stigma large, surmounting 2 cross-
veins; triangle very narrow, directed inward, crossed; subtriangle of 3
cells; discoidal field of 3 cell rows, widened at the margin; vein M2 rather
smoothly curved; apical sector rising under the basal third of the stigma;
radial planate subtending 2 cell rows; median planate subtending one;
reverse vein moderately aslant; no extra bridge crossveins. Hind wing:
triangle retracted to the arculus, without crossveins and with Cu, rising
from its outer side; one cubito-anal, the anal crossing, placed opposite the
base of A,; 3 cell rows between A. and the hind margin of the wing;
anal loop large, gaff longer than sole, sole pointing inward; a:b as 1:4.
Head quite large, eye seam very short; frons greatly swollen, flattened
in front and with a frontal carina, furrow deep; vertex high, divided
into two lobes terminating in a little hooklet. Lobe of prothorax large,
erect, fringed with long hair, with a slight concavity in the center. Legs
very long and stout; 3rd femora with a row of about 32 very small,
distally directed teeth, with 3-5 long spines at the distal end. Abdomen
with basal segments greatly swollen and slightly compressed; constricted
on segment 3; the rest long and slender.
yinyplh.-See L. resictlosa.
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
Lepthemis vesiculosa (Fabricius)
(Pl. II, Fig. 6.)
1775. Libellula vesiculosa Fabricius, Syst. Ent., p. 421.
1857. Libellula vesiculosa Selys. in Sagra. Hist. Nat., p. 187.
1861. Leptlhemis vesiculosa Hagen, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 161.
1867. Lepthemis resiciilosa Hagen, Proe. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, p. 292.
1867. Lepthcmis vsicculosa Uhler. ibid., p. 297.
1875. Lcpthemis vesiculosa Hagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Iist., xviii, p. 73.
1888. Lepthenis resiicilosa Kolbe, Archiv fiir Naturg., liv, p. 168.
1889. Lepthemi s vesiculosa Gundlach, Contrib. Cuba, p. 264.
1894. Lepthemis vesiculosa Kirby, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), xiv, p. 268.
1896. Leptlemis resiculosa Carpenter, Journ. Inst. Jamaica, ii, 3, p. 260.
1907. Leptlemis vesic losa Calvert, B. C. A., p. 330.
1911. Lepthemis r'esic1ulosa Ris, Cat. Coll. Selys, xiii, p. 607.
1911. Lepthemis vesicdlosa Wilson, Johns IIopkins Univ. Circ. (232), it, p. 50.
1916. Lcpthemiis crsiculosa Kahl, Ann. Carn. Mus., x, p. 525.
1919. Lepthemis resiculosa Calvert, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., xlv, p. 366.
1931. Lepthieiis vesiculosa IDow, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xliv, p. 59.
Diagnosis.-Male. Lips yellow: face, vertex and occiput clear, trans-
lucent green, the last covered with brownish hairs. Rear of eyes pale,
with brown mottlings. Prothorax pale. greenish yellow, its fore and
median lobes mottled with brown: rear lobe rather straight across the
top, with a slight depression in the center, and with long, erect pale
hairs, longer than the depth of the lobe. Synthorax light, bright green
throughout, the lateral margins with very long pale hairs and the dorsnm
clothed with pale brownish hairs. The underneath parts tend to become
brownish. Legs long, femora black on the anterior surface, and tibim
and tarsi black. Tibie with 5-6 very strong, black spines. Wings hyaline
with the merest touch of yellow at the extreme base of the fore wing, and
a spot on the hind wing between C'u and A extending as far as the anal
crossing, then tapering to the end of the inembranule; membranule
smoky brown. Abdomen large and swollen on segments 1-3, suddenly
constricted on the base of 4, then parallel-sided. Color green, the dorsal
and apical carinT of segment 3 black, and a middorsal apical spot brown-
ish; remainder marked as follows: the apical fifth of 4, half of 5-6. fifth of
7; all of 8-10, diffusely; a narrow band along the middorsal and lateral
carinse of 4-10, and the supplementary caring of 4; a lateral streak on
5-6, wider on 7 and fused laterally with the base which is narrowly black
on all segments. Appendages white.
Size.-Abdomen, 38-43 mm., hind wing, 35-41 mm.
LOTS, ODOXATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 57
Distribution.-Florida and Texas to Paraguay; West Indies: all the
islands. Porto Rico: (Kolbe, Gundlach); large series from Mayagiiez,
Caguas, Ponce, Santurce (A. MI. N. H.); series from Rio Piedras, Coamo
Springs, Fajardo, Las Cabezas, and flying to lights in train, northern
coast (Garcia-Diaz). St. Thomas: (Hagen, 1861). March 1 (A. M. N.
H.). St. John: March 9 (A. M. N. H.). St. Croix: (A. M. N. H.).
Symnph.-Length 18.5, hind femur 7, width of head 5.2, width of
abdomen 6. Body stout and thick; rather smooth, except when young.
Head widest across the front, but little narrowed behind the eyes. Eyes
capping the anterio-lateral angles, rather more frontal than lateral,
though larger and more prominent than in the Libellulini group; their
hind margins reaching scarcely beyond the middle of the head. Region
of the ocelli paler, with a black spot at the anterior end of each lateral
ocellus, continued diffusely to the base of the antenna. Proportionate
lengths of the antennal segments as 2 : 2 : 4 : 2.5 : 2.7 : 3.2 : 2. Rear
of head with 8 paler bands continuing up from the rear to the paler area
of the top of the head covered with bristles as they round the hind mar-
gin of the head. Labium with 15-16 mental setie on each side, with a
few scattered ones in the middle, the Gth to the 7th from the outside
the longest. Lateral seta 12 (occasionally 11) with several scattered
small ones near the hinge of the lateral lobe. Distal margin of lateral
lobe without crenulations, the seta, in about 12 tufts of 3-5 each. Pro-
thoracic spiracles prominent and high. Wing pads reaching on to the
8th segment. Fore and middle femur with two indistinct brown bands,
posterior surface and whole of tibim dotted with brown; tarsi with an
apical ring. Legs hairy, 3rd pair with many small spines. All setm of
second and third segments of 1st and 2nd tarsi divided; 1st and 2nd
tibire with divided setT on the apex. Abdomen paler on the mliddorsum
and with a dot on each segment, either side of the dorsum, and with a
wide, basal pale spot and a narrow, apical black spot on the lateral mar-
gin. Anterior margin of the venter of the mesothorax, and lateral mar-
gins of the venter of the metathorax, blackish. Venter of abdomen
spotted. Dorsal hooks wanting, but with medium dorsal tuft of long
hair on the apex of 7-9. Lateral spines on segment 9 one-fourth the
length of 9 or rudimentary, downcurved. Appendages, especially the
inferior, downcurved; superior as long as the inferiors; laterals about
one-half the inferiors (P1. IV, Fig. 2.).
Reared by Professor Julio Garcia-Diaz, Rio Piedras, April and May.
Series collected by Professor Needham at Coamo Springs Reservoir and
Coamo town, April 4; Damien, Haiti, April 3; and El Cano, Cuba,
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
(P). I, Fig. 3)
Anal loop usually rather long and well developed; its midrib bent
strongly at the ankle at an angle of 500 or more. Antenodal crossveins
variable but usually more than 10. Crossveins under the stigma fewer
than 3. Hind femora of male with a row of small, fine saw-like teeth.
KEY TO WEST INDIAN GENERA
1. Discoidal field of the fore wing of two cell rows; radial plnnate sub-
tending one cell row .............................................. 2
Discoidal field of the fore wing of three cell rows; radial planate sub-
tending two cell rows ........................................... 3
2. Fore wing triangle crossed; subtriangle usually of three cells........
Forewing triangle open; subtriangle usually of two cells..M larothemis
3. Spines of the 3rd femora of the male directed distally; MI distinctly
Spines of the 3rd femora of the male directed proximally; M. only
slightly undulate; abdomen clubbed, especially in the male..Sceapawa
Diagnosis.-Wings broad; nodus considerably nearer the apex than the
base. Fore wing: position of the arculus variable, often between the 2nd
and 3rd antenodals, or under the 2nd, its sectors stalked ; antenodals 11-
16, the last one incomplete; stigma short, surmounting 2 crossveins; tri-
angle directed inwards, without crossveins and with 2 cell rows in the
discoidal field ; subtriangle of 2 cells; MAl smoothly curved ; apical sector
rising under the basal third of the stigma ; radial planate subtending one
cell row ; median planate not differentiated; reverse vein present; no extra
bridge crossveins. Hind wing: about 8 antenodals triangle retracted to
or beyond the arculus, without crossveins, and with Cu, rising from its
hind angle; anal crossing opposite the origin of A,; 3 cell rows behind
A, anal loop long with midrib sharply bent at the ankle and sole line
directed inwards a: b as 1: 3 or 4. Frons rounded with no frontal carinam;
furrow broad, quite deep; vertex slightly arched. Rear margin of pro-
thorax in a low are. Legs variable; 3rd femora of male with a row of
many 3-4 angled teeth directed proximally. Abdomen variable, usually
slender, and in the male with a slight widening on the basal segments and
on -!9. (enital plate of the female not distinct; 9th ventral plate keeled
LOTS. ODOXATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 59
in the basal third, with 2 short booklets, the apical part deeply keeled,
bent ventrally and surpassing the 10th segment.
XIymph.-See M. celeno.
Macrothemis celeno (Selys)
(Pl. II, Fig. 22)
1857. Libellula celeno Selys, in Sagra, Hist. Nat., vii, p. 192.
1861. Dythemis pleurosticta Hagen, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 165.
1S66. Dythemiis pleurosticta Scudder, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. IIist., x, p. 194.
1867. Dythenis pleurosticta Ilagen, Stett. Ent. Ztg., xxviii, p. 98.
1867. DythFemis pleurosticta Hagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, p. 292.
1S67. D)ythemis pleurosticta Thler, ibid., xi, p. 294.
1868. Macrothemis celeno Hagen, Stett. Ent. Ztg., xxix, p. 2S3.
1873. Dythemiis pleurosticta Hagen, Proe. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xv, p. 375.
1888. Macrotheonis celeno Kolbe, Archiv fiir Naturg., liv, p. 10S.
1889. Macrotlhemis celeno Gundlach, Contrib. Cuba, p. 273.
1896. Macrothenlis celeo Carpenter, Journ. Inst. Jamaica, ii, p. 260.
1898. Macrothemis celeno Calvert, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xxviii, p. 325.
1911. Macrotliheis celeno Wilson, Johns Hopkins Univ. Circ. 2, no. 232, p. 50.
1913. Macrothermis celeno Ris. Cat. Coll. Selys, xv, p. 879.
1916. Macrothlemis celeno Kahl, Ann. Carn. Mus.. x, p. 526.
1919. JMacrothemis celc/o Calvert, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., xlv, p. 370.
1931. Macrothcmis celeno Dow, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xliv, p. 57.
Diagnosis.-Male. Face variable. Labrum usually black with two
basal pale spots which are sometimes confluent; anteclypeus pale brown,
rarely black : postclypens white, or greenish brown, sometimes with lateral
pale spots. Frous brilliant metallic greenish blue with a broad white
stripe across the base. Vertex metallic: occiput dark brown, paler in the
center. Thorax dark brown, marked with pale greenish as follows: a pair
of opposed 7-marks, the cross pieces of which are about as wide as the
stem and do not reach the carina; on the sides a large oval spot between
the humeral and the 2nd suture below, another larger one on the third
suture above the spiracle, expanded anteriorly; and on the metepimeron a
constricted one above and an oval one below. A small spot is sometimes
discernible beneath the spiracle. First pair of legs brown, second and
third black: all paler basally. Wings hyaline with usually a small golden
brown fleck at the base of the hind pair. Subtriangle rarely of 3 cells.
Antenodals 12-15. Abdomen slender, brown, marked with yellow as fol-
lows: a small basal pair of dorsal spots on one; these spots larger on 2-3
and divided by the middorsal carina; reduced on 4-7; larger on S; very
small on 9 and indistinct on 10. Sides of 2-9 with a pair of pale spots
which are sometimes obscured. Appendages brown.
Female. Like the male. Apex of the fore wing brownish.
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
Remaarks.-In specimens from St. Croix, St. Thomas and St. John the
pale spots on the base of the labrum are so large and confluent as to cover
all but the front border. Most of the Porto Rican specimens have the
postclypeus wholly white. The basal golden spot of the hind wings ex-
tends in some of the Cuban specimens as far as the anal crossing. The
extent of the brown on the apices of the fore wings of the female reaches
a maximum in the Porto Rican females, in which it is sometimes as far
as half way from the stigma to the nodus.
Size.-Abdomen, 30-32 mm., hind wing, 30-32 mm.
Dislribution.-Greater Antilles and Virgin Islands. Porto Rico:
(Kolbe) ; Juana Diaz, Feb. 11; Mameyes, Feb. 19; Caguas, May 28; Cayey
May 30; Barros. June 4; Ensenada, June 14-19; Adjuntas, June 8-13;
Tallaboa, near Ponce, July 23; Aibonito, July 13; Coamo Springs, Dec.
28 (A. M. N. II.). Coamo Springs Reservoir, April 4 (Ncedham in C. U.).
St. Thiomaus: (Hagen 1868, Calvert 1898, Ris 1913); Feb. 28 (A. M.
N. H.). St. John: March 4-9 (A. M. N. H.). St. Croi.r: Christiansted,
June 4: April 2-6 (A. 2I. N. H1.).
Nymph.-(Supposition) There are nymphs in the C. U. collection,
taken by Professor Needham in El Cano, Cuba, on the 30th of April, in
Camagiiey, Cuba, on the 18th, in Damien, Haiti, on the 3rd, and in Coamo
Springs, P. R., on the 4th, and one from Las Cruces collected on the same
day. I believe them to be of this species, for the venation of the Las
Cruces specimen shows all the characteristics of this genus.
Total length 14.5, hind femur 4, width of head 4.6, width of antennM
5.6. Head marked with brown and yellow; antennae ringed with black
and with black tip. Labium reaching to rear of middle coxie, marked
with brown spots; lateral setae 6; mental seta 8; crenulations of distal
margin of lateral lobe rather deep, 8 in number, and each bearing usually
3 sette, one of which is very long. Prothorax pale with a median band of
brown, forking at the beginning of the pronotum to form two bands, one
on either side of the dorsum. Mesothoracic spiracle black. Legs con-
spicuously banded with brown; hind femora reaching not quite to the end
of segment 6; all tibike and the third tarsus with about one divided seta.
Abdomen depressed, widest on segment 6; dorsal hooks on 3-9, small,
decreasing in size posteriorly, on 9 minute; lateral spines on 8-9 short.
Color mottled brown with two rows of small black dots on segments 1-8,
a pair just beyond the middle of each segment, as far apart as the inner-
most one is from the mid-line. Lateral spines on 8-9, on 8 about one-
KLOTS, ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AND TIE VIRGIN ISLANDS 61
third the segment length, on 9 reaching just beyond the lateral, terminal
appendages. Appendages shorter than segments 8-9; superiors almost as
long as the lateral. Appendages and spines black tipped. Venter of
abdomen with a basal and subapical pale spot on each side beyond the
lateral impressions of the segments 2-8 ; a pair of black dashes, one on each
side of the middle of 2-7; an apical marginal pale spot on 2-9. (P1. III,
Fig. 2; P1. V, Fig. 8.)
Type.-rufinervi s Burmeister.
Distribution.-Nearctic and Neotropic.
Diagnosis.-Wings long. Fore wing: arculns at the 2nd antcnodal or
more distal, its sectors stalked; antenodals 11-19; the last one incomplete;
stigma large, surmounting 3 crossveins; triangle directed inward, crossed,
with 3 cell rows in the discoidal field and with Cu, rising from the hind
angle; subtriangle of 3 cells; M, undulate; radial planate subtending,
usually, 2 cell rows; median planate rather poorly developed at times;
reverse vein present; no extra bridge crossveins. Hind wing: about 11
antenodals; triangle retracted to the arculus, without crossveins, and
with Cu, rising from its hind angle; anal crossing opposite origin of A,;
3-5 cell rows between A, and the wing margin; anal loop with mid-rib
bent sharply at ankle and sole line pointing in; a :b as 1 : 2 or 1 : 3.
Frons rather small, slightly rounded, with no frontal carina; furrow
deep; vertex a little rounded. Rear margin of the prothorax small,
slightly erect, in a low arch with a slight depression in the center. Legs
long; 3rd femora with a row of many small teeth directed distally with
several long spines at the end. Abdomen variable. Genital plate of the
female scarcely discernible; 9th ventral plate keeled, with 2 very small
Nymnph.-Professor Needham (1904, Proc. U. S. Nat. [Mus., xxvii, p.
699) has described two species of this genus: D. velor and D. f~gar. They
are smooth-bodied with depressed head and abdomen. Head sloping for-
ward to the antennae; strongly narrowed behind the eyes to the nearly
straight hind margins. Labium large, reaching to the middle of the
mesothorax; crenulations of the distal margin of the lateral lobe more
or less obsolete. Dorsal hooks on 3-9 in a regular even series, thin, flat and
sharp; that of 9 bent downward at tip. Lateral spines on 8-9, thin and
flat. Appendages slightly longer than segment 9; laterals a little longer
than half the length of the others.
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
KEY TO WEST INDIAN SPECIES
1. Venation red ; abdomen red ; hind wing with 4-5 cell rows between A. and the
Venation black; abdomen black; hind wing with 3-4 cells between A. and the
border ....................................... ............... velox]
Dythemis rufinervis (Burmeister)
(P]. II, Fig. 21)
1839. Libellida rufinervis Burmeister, Handb. Ent., ii, p. 850.
1842. Libellula conjuncta Rambur, Ins, Neur., p. 91.
1857. Libellula rufinervis Selys, in Sagra, Hist. Nat., vii, p. 187.
1857. Libellula conjuncta Selys, in Sagra, ibid, p. 187.
1861. Dythemis rufinervis Hagen, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 162.
1866. Libellula vinosa Scudder, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., x, p. 192.
1867. Dythemis rufinervis Hagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, p. 292.
1867. Dythemis rufinervis Hagen, Stett. Ent. Ztg., xxviii, pp. 98, 99.
1867. Dythemis rufinervis Uhler, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, p. 297.
1873. Dythemis rufinervis Hagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xv, p. 374.
1875. Dythemis rufinervis IIagen, ibid, xviii, p. 74.
1888. Dythemis rufinervis Kolbe, Archiv fir Naturg., liv, p. 168.
1889. Dythemis rufinerris Gundlach, Contrib. Cuba, p. 206.
1895. Dythemis rufinervis Calvert, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. (2), iv, p. 523.
1896. Dythemis rufinervis Carpenter, Journ. Inst. Jamaica, ii, p. 260.
1898. Dythemis rufinervis Calvert, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xxviii, p. 310.
1898. Dythenzis rufinervis Calvert, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., xxv. p. 67.
1911. Dythemis rufinervis Wilson, Johns Hopkins Univ. Circ. 2, In. 232, p. 50.
1912. Dythemis rufinervis Ris, Cat. Coll. Selys, xiv, p. 840.
1916. Dythemis rufinervis Kahl, Ann. Cam. Mus., x, p. 525.
1919. Dythemis rufinervis Calvert, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., xlv, p. 368.
1931. Dythemis rufinervis Dow, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xliv, p. 58.
Diagnosis.-Male.' Face, frons and vertex yellow to reddish: labium
with median lobe and mesal margins of lateral lobes black; corners of
labrum black; frons clother with long black hairs. Prothorax dark brown-
ish with a median dorsal pale band. Front of synthorax clothed with long
pale hairs; color yellowish, marked with metallic red brown hands as fol-
lows: a pair on the dorsum separated by the pale middorsal carina: an
antehumeral band more or less parallel-sided, slightly narrowed and ab-
breviated above; a wide band, the sinuate front border of which is mar-
gined by the humeral suture; a short midlateral one not reaching the
wing sinus above, and extending down only to the spiracle; and a third
lateral stripe lying behind the 3rd lateral suture, widened and forked
above to include a yellow spot, and continued below, across the metin-
KLOTS. ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 63
fraepisternum onto the hind coxa. Legs beyond the trochanters black;
inside of 1st femora paler. Wings with a faint yellowish or golden tinge;
veined with red. The basal yellow spot of the fore wing reaching to the
1st antenodal and extending to the anal border, with a dark streak be-
tween Sc and R reaching two-thirds of the way to the 1st antenodal. The
full width golden spot of the hind wing reaches the 2nd antenodal and into
the triangle, with the dark streak filling the space between Sc and R to
the 2nd antenodal, and the space between C and A to half-way between
the anal crossing and the triangle. Membranule pearly gray. Abdomen
reddish yellow with black band on the sides of 8-10, and the middorsal
carinme black. There is also a blackish brown band on the sides of the
basal segments as far as the median transverse carina of 3; on 2 this is
confluent, by means of a streak on the transverse carina with a spot just
above the hamules.
Female. Labrum and labium yellow, with the median lobe of the
latter black; face, frons and vertex olivaceous. Old specimens become
dark reddish brown with two complete yellow bands on the sides, one on
the 2nd suture and the other in the posterior border on the metepimeron.
Size.-Abdomen, 25-30 mm., hind wings, 29-33 mm.
Type locality.-St. Domingo.
Distribution.--West Indies: all islands south to St. Croix and St. John.
Porto Rico: Cayez, May 30-31; Mameyes, Feb. 19; Aibonito. June 1-3;
San Juan, July 1-3; Coamo Springs, July 11-19 (A. 31. N. H.). Juan
Mendez Creek, east of Univ. Farm, Rio Piedras, April 1 (Garcia-Diaz);
Rio Piedras, April 1 (Forbes). St. John: (Hagen, 1867) March 7-9
(A. MI. N. H.). St. Croir: April 6 (A. LI. N. H.).
Nymph.-(Supposition) Total length 15.5; or hind femur 4.5: width
of head 4.5; of abdomen G. Head large; labium reaching to middle of
mesothorax, spotted on its ventral surface; mental seta, 10; lateral setr 7;
crenulations of the distal margin of the lateral lobes shallow, 9 in number,
each bearing 4 spines. Antenna ringed with black. Prothorax with a
brown band on either side of the middorsum and another one on each side
extending across the meso- and metathorax. Tibiae and tarsi, except the
1st tarsus, with divided sete. Abdomen brownish with a row of pale
spots on each side of the middorsum of 4-9, each spot margined with
black on the posterior margin; lateral margins mottled. Wing pads
reaching to segment 7. Center with a small black dash on either side of
the mid-line on 1-7, paler around them; pale areas on the outer sides of
the lateral depressions, followed by a darker region on each margin. Dor-
sal hooks sharp and slender on segments 3-9, decreasing in size pos-
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF 1'ORTO RICO
teriorly, small on 9. Lateral spines on 8-9, short, on 9 slightly in-
curved. Superior appendage shorter than inferiors; lateral ones three-
fourths of the superior. (P1. V, Fig. 7.)
In the C. U. collection there are two nymphs of this species from Las
Cruces and several from Coamo Springs collected by Professor Needham
on the 4th of April, and others collected in Camaguey, April 18. They
differ from the other described species of this genus in having shorter
spines and hooks and in having only 7 lateral sete instead of 9-10, but the
venation leads me to attribute them to this genus.
(PI. I, Fig. 3.)
Type.-fro ial is Burmeister.
Diagnosis.-Wings long and of moderate breadth. Fore wing: arculus
usually between the 2nd and the 3rd antenodal, occasionally between the
1st and 2nd, its sectors stalked ; antenodals 15-16, the last one incomplete;
stigma small, surmounting 2-3 crossveins; triangle crossed, directed
inwards, with 3 cell rows in the discoidal field; discoidal field narrowed
at the border; Cu, rising from the hind angle of the triangle; subtriangle
of 3 cells; vein M1, undulate; apical planate rising under the median third
of the stigma; radial planate subtending 2 cell rows; median planate
subtending 1 cell row; reverse vein discernible; no extra bridge crossveins.
Hind wing: about 11 antenodals; triangle retracted to or beyond the
arculus, of one cell only, and with Cu, rising from its hind angle; anal
crossing opposite the origin of A,; 3 cell rows between A, and the wing
margin; anal loop rather large with its midrib bent sharply at the
ankle and the sole line pointing in; a:b as 1: 3. Frons rounded, with
no frontal carina; furrow quite deep; vertex rather small and truncate;
face and frons very hairy. Rear margin of the prothorax small, low,
with a shallow depression in the center. Legs long, stout; 3rd femora
with 10-12 triangular teeth directed proximally, with a long spine on
the end. Abdomen slightly wider on the basal segments; segment 4-6
slender and cylindrical; 7-9 widened to form a flat oval club.
Nymph.-See S. frontalis.
Scapanea frontalis (Bnrmeister)
(PI. II, Fig. 23.)
1839. Libelula fronlalis Bnrmeister, Handb. Ent., p. 857.
1857. Libellula fronlalis Selys, in Sagra, IIist. Nat., vii, p. 191.
1861. Libellild frontolis Hagen, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 154.
KLOTS, ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 65
1866. Libellula frontalis Scudder, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., x, p. 103.
1867. Libellula frontalis Iagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Iist., xi, p. 292.
1867. Libelldla frontalis Uhler, ibid., xi, p. 298.
1889. Dythemis frontalis Gundlach, Contrib. Cuba, p. 267.
1911. Scapanea froutalls Wilson, Journ. Inst. Jamaica, ii, 3, p. 50.
1913. Scapanea frontalis Ris, Cat. Coll. Selys, xv, p. 848.
1919. Scapanea froitalis Calvert, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., xlv, p. 368.
1931. Scapanea frontalis Dow, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xliv, p. 58.
Diagnosis.-Male. Labium black; clypeus white; frons metallic blue
fading to pale brown on the fronto-clypeal suture and to yellow on the
sides before the eyes. Vertex bifid; metallic blue. Occipital triangle
black. Thorax brown, hairy, marked with greenish yellow as follows: a
pair of opposed 7 marks which approach but do not reach the middorsal
carina; a stripe on the mesepimeron, separated from a spot above; a nar-
rower sinuate stripe on the metepisternunm separate from a spot above;
and on the metepimeron a wider strip expanded superiorly, the rear por-
tion of this expansion sometimes constricted or entirely cut off. Legs
black except the 1st femora, which are yellow externally. Wings hyaline.
Abdomen slender, cylindric as far as 7, where the last four segments be-
come suddenly widened and depressed, nearly oval in outline. Color dark
brown to black, marked with greenish as follows: a pair of dorsal spots on
1, larger on 2 and divided by the carina on 2-3, seldom visible on 4-6, but
when present appearing as a pair of narrow longitudinal stripes, one on
each side of the middorsal carina and divided by the supplementary
transverse carina, shorter on 6, distinct again on 7 but small, slightly
larger on 8; 7 and 8 with suggestions of paler areas on the sides of the
expansion. Sides of 1-3 variously spotted, 4-6 with narrow basal rings.
Appendages black. Accessory appendages and genital lobe of 2nd segment
Female. Color lighter. All femora paler basally. Abdomen slightly
more robust and with the apical expansion less noticeable. Wings each
with a golden basal fleck, which in the fore wing reaches nearly to the
arculus. Sometimes the entire wing membrane is suffused with brownish.
Remarks.-The males which I have seen from Cuba and Jamaica show
an opalescent band across each wing just before the stigma. Dr. Ris ('09)
has likewise noted it in his Cuban male. It is present in none of the
Porto Rican or Haitian specimens which I have seen. It may be that we
have two races.
Wilson (1911) found this species in Jamaica: "Common along the
rivers in the Blue Mountains, even at considerable elevation (4500) above
the sea; also found along the dead water at sea level."
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
Size.-Abdomen, 31-33 mm., hind wing, 32-35 mm.
Type locality.-San Domingo.
Distribution.-WVest Indies: Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti. Porto Rico:
Caguas, May 28-29; Cayey, May 30-31; Adjuntas, Jnne 8-29; Aibonito,
June 1-3; Mayagiiez, June 21-28 (A. M. N. H.).
Nymph.-(Supposition.) I have a rather large number of nymphs
collected by Professor Needham in a creek near Port-au-Spain, Trinidad,
which I believe to be this species, although Scapanea has never been re-
ported from there and no nymphs resembling these were collected in
regions where Scapanea adults were flying. It resembles Dythenis and
Macrothemis in the general form of dorsal hooks, lateral spines and
terminal appendages, but differs strongly from them in the stoutness of
the body; the head is not narrowed behind the eyes and the prothorax is
wide and deep. One nearly full-grown nymph shows the venation clearly:
the anal loop is elongate and strongly bent at the ankle; antenodals 14-15
in the fore wing and 11 in the hind; postnodals 12 in the fore wing;
triangle elongate, bent inward, crossed once; subtriangle of 3 cells; rows
in the discoidal field 3; the area slightly narrowed toward the margin; M,
slightly undulate; radial planate subtending two cell rows; median
planate subtending one.
Total length 26.3; hind femur 4; width of abdomen 6.1; of head 5.3.
This is a stout-bodied clean nymph with a conspicuous color pattern.
Head large, not narrowed behind the eyes; hind margin slightly concave.
Eyes large, their outer hind angles reaching to two-thirds the distance
from the antenna to the rear of the head; the inner hind angle to one-half
the same distance. Labium reaching to the middle of the hind cox.e.
Median lobe of mentum prominent, with 9 setme; lateral lobes with 7 lateral
set.e; 8 deep crenulations on the distal margin, each bearing 3-4 spinules;
movable hook short. Antennm short; proportionate lengths of segments
as .9 : 1.3 : 2 : 1 : 1.2 : 1 : 1. Prothorax covered more or less uniformly
with minute brown dots, and a transverse elongate spot across the fore
border on the mid line. Thorax spotted and mottled. Femora thrice
banded and tibia twice; tarsi with the apex of each segment brown, the
brown on the 3rd segment covering one-half of its length; claws long,
brown tipped; setoe of tibiae and tarsi few, stout and not divided. Wing
pads reaching to segment 7; hind femur reaching to segment 6. Abdomen
spotted and blotched with brown as in figure (P1. Ill, Fig. 3). Dorsal
hooks on 2-9, largest on 5-6; all rising from a ridge on the elevated median
line of the abdomen. Lateral spines on 8-9 short, about one-fourth of the
LOTS, ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 67
segment length. Superior appendage a little shorter than the inferiors;
laterals equal to one-third of the superior. (P1. III, Fig. 3; P1. V, Fig. 6.)
(Pl. I, Fig. 5.)
This tribe includes some of our largest and strongest-flying dragon-
flies. They are extremely specialized in the expansion of the anal angle
of the hind wing and the narrowing of the apex. The strengthening of
the sectors is accompanied by a marked reduction in venation. The stigma
is small, with sides converging anteriorly, thereby becoming trapezoidal
in shape. The base of vein A, is straight for some distance and the
patella may include 2 or more cells.
Three of the four genera reported from the West Indies are cosmopoli-
tan : Trainea, a large genus known the world over; Tholymis, an equatorial
genus of 2 species, one from the New World and one from the Old;
Panltala with two species, one of which is itself circum-equatorial; Tauri-
phila, more restricted and known only from the New World tropics.
KEY TO WEST INDIA GENERA
1. Vein 31, sharply bent in a double curve.............................. 2
Vein M1, smoothly curved or with a slight double curve.............. 3
2. Fore wing: cells in row surrounding subtriangle 1-2...... [Talriphila]
Fore wing: cells in row surrounding subtriangle 1-4 ............ Tramea
3. Hind wing with only one cubito-anal crossvein............ [Tholymis]
Hind wing with more than one cubito-anal....................I'antala
1. Crenulations of lateral lobe of labium shallow................ Tramea
Crenulations higher than wide .............................Pantala
Diagnosis.-Wings long and broad, the hind wing with a basal brown
spot. Fore wing: arculus between the 1st and 2nd antenodals, its sectors
stalked; antenodals 11-12, the last one incomplete and the 1st and 2nd
more widely separated; stigma surmounting two crossveins; triangle point-
ing inward, elongate, usually with two crossveins; Cu, rising from its
hind angle; discoidal field with 4 cell rows, this area widening toward the
Margin; subtriangle of many cells, its proximal border usually indis-
tinct; apical sector rising from under the basal third of the stigma;
Fraser. (1010, Rec. Ind. Mus., xvi. p. 460.) has described the nymph of Tholymis til-
larga from India.
SCiEXTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
radial planate subtending 2 cell rows and then bent forward to join Rs;
MI straight, then curved down to the margin; median planate with its
origin indistinct, subtending 2 cell rows and then bent forward to join
MI,; reverse vein moderate; no extra bridge crossveins. Hind wing:
antenodals 7; triangle retracted to the arculus, without crossveins; Cu,
rising from the hind angle; one cubito-anal crossvein; anal crossing
opposite the origin of A,; toe of anal loop very long; a: b as 1: 3-4; patella
long and well developed, usually of two cells.
Frons broad, rounded, usually with a distinct frontal carina; vertex
large, posterior lobe of the prothorax small, rounded, slightly erect. Legs
long and slender; 2nd and 3rd femora with many fine spines; tibial spines
long and slender. Abdomen long, its base slightly widened. Anal ap-
pendages long; 8th sternite of the female with an elongate genital plate.
Xymph.-Smooth-bodied with large head and exceedingly prominent
eyes and immense labium. Eyes more lateral than frontal. Mandibles
with 4 teeth in each of the two groups and denticle on the posterior
margin (Calvert, 1928). Divided setm present on all tiba and tarsi except
the 3rd tarsal segment on the 3rd leg. Abdomen depressed; without
dorsal hooks. Lateral spines on 8-9, long; that of 8 longer than that of 9
and extending beyond the caudal margin of segment 9. Superior append-
age suddenly contracted beyond the basal third.
KEY TO VEST INDIAN SPECIES
1. Thorax with two broad lateral pale bands ................. [cophysa]
Thorax with no broad lateral pale bands ............................ 2
2. Basal spot of hind wing not reaching to the triangle ................. 3
Basal spot of hind wing reaching to or beyond the triangle .... on itan
3. Frons of adult male metallic, of female with a broad basal black
band .................................................... bbiotlta
Frons of adult male and female red .....................abdominalis
1. Lateral sette 9; crenulations on lateral lobe 11............... [cophiyso]
Lateral sette 10-1 .................................................. 2
2. Lateral sete 10; crenulations 13; superior appendage as long as the
laterals ............................................. bdominalis
Lateral sette 11; superior appendage shorter than the laterals. .omsta
I Distinguished from lacerate by having the basal spot of the hind wing brown instead
of black, and from carolina in having the hamule of the male higher than the genital lobe
instead of equal to It. These two species, lacerata and corolina, have not been reported
from the West Indies, though both are present in Florida.
From Calvert ('28). Dr. Calvert has shown, however, that it is quite impossible to
distinguish the species of this genus.
LOTS, ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 69
Tranlea onusta Hagen
1S57. Libcllula carolina Selys, in Sagra, Iist. Nat., vii, p. 185; pars.
1S61. Tramca curolina Hfaien, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 144.
1S67. Tromcn omusla Hagen, Stett. Ent. Ztg.. xxviii, p. 222.
1S67. Tramca unilstal Hlagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, p. 292.
1S75. Tratinm ownusta Hagen, ibid., xviii, p. 65.
1900. Trojnmr onasta Calvert, B. C. A., p. 305.
1913. Trumni onusta Ris, Cat. Coll. Selys, xvi, p. 996.
Diagnosis.-Male. Lips and face yellow; labrum with a median black
spot on the anterior margin. Top of frons reddish with a brown basal
band. Vertex brownish, paler across the top. Thorax olivaceous. Legs
dark brown, paler basally. Fore wing with 12 antenodals. Ilind wing
with basal brown spot reaching to or beyond the 2nd antenodal, to the
distal end of the triangle, but between Cu, and Cu, extending two cells
farther and in A, to the midrib back to within a cell of the margin of the
wing. On the anal angle back of the melnbranule a hyaline spot which
is as wide or wider than the brown beside it. The space between ii and
the upper sector of the arculus also hbaline. One row of cells between
Cui and Cu, in the hind wing. Abdomen yellow; 8-10 with a middorsal
black spot; lateral margins of 5-10 brownish beneath. Superior ap-
pendages pale, darker apically: inferiors brown with a yellow streak on
Female. Like the male.
Remarks.-- have seen no specimens from the West Indies. Dr. His
(1913) has noted a specimen from St. Thomas, which has the basal spot
of the hind wing reaching to the 3rd antenodal and one to one and a half
cells beyond the triangle.
Size.-Abdomen, 29-31 mm., hind wing, 36-38 mm.
Distribution.-South and mid-west. V. S. to Panama. West Indies:
Cuba. Guadeloupe. St. Thomas: (Hagen 1861, 1875. Ris). St. John.:
March 4-10 (L. B. Woodruff, in A. M. N. H.).
2ymph.-(Byers, 1927, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc., xxxv, p. 72). Length
24, length of abdomen 15 : width of abdomen 9, of head 8. Fourth segment
of antenna two-thirds as long as the third. Lateral seta 11; mental
seta 14-16, the sixth the longest. Superior abdominal appendage one-
sixth shorter than inferiors; laterals one-third shorter than superior and
one-fifth shorter than inferiors.
Tramea abdominalis Raibur
1839. Libcllula basalis Burmeister, Handh. Ent., ii, p. 852.
1842. Libellhla abdominalis Rambur, Ins. Neur., p. 37.
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
1857. Libellula basalis Selys, in Sagra, Hist. Nat., vii, p. 185.
1861. Tramea abdominalis Hagen, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 145.
1866. Tramea insularis Scudder, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., x, p. 191: (pars.
1867. Trantea abdoiitalis Hagen, Stett. Ent. Ztg., xxviii, p. 223; pars.
1867. Tramea abdoninalis IIagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, p. 292.
1875. Tramne abdoninalis Hagen, ibid., xviii, p. 65.
1888. Tramea abdominalis Kolbe, Archiv flir Naturg., liv, p. 167.
1894. Tramea abdomilalis Kirby, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), xiv, p. 262.
1896. Tramea abdoniinalis Carpenter, Journ. Inst. Jamaica, ii, 3, p. 259.
1897. Tramea abdomnialis Kirby, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), xix, p. 599.
1906. Trameca abdominalis Calvert, B. C. A., pp. 300, 304.
1911. Tramea abdoaminulis Wilson, Johns Hopkins Univ. Circ., ii, p. 50.
1913. Tramea abdominalis Ris, Cat. Coll. Selys, xvi, p. 994.
Diagnosis.-Male. Labium yellow; labrum orange with a line of black
on the middle of the anterior margin. Face red, yellowish on the sides.
Frons and vertex deep red. Thorax golden brown. Legs brown, paler
basally. Hind wing with a basal brown spot reaching to or a little be-
yond the anal crossing and back along A, to the rear margin. Just below
the membranule on the anal margin is a narrow paler area. Antenodals
12-15; radial planate subtending 2 cell rows. Abdomen red with a mid-
dorsal black spot on 8-10. Appendages brown, as long as 9 + 10; red
Female. Body olivaceous to brown. Genital plate as long as segment 9;
divided into two oval lobes which are closely approximated.
Size.-Abdomen, 30-32 mm., hind wing, 38-42 mm.
Distribution.-Tenn. to Florida. West Indies: generally. Porto Rico:
(Kolbe). Desengafio, Dec. 23 (Cornell University). Ensenada, Feb. 12
(L. B. Woodruff, in A. M. N. H.). Manati, June 27-29 (Lutz and
Mutchler, in A. 31. N. II.). San Juan, July 10 (F. E. Watson, in A. 31.
N. H.). Coamo Springs, July 17-19 (F. E. Watson, in A. M. N. H.).
Aibonito. July 14 (A. 3M. N. H.). St. Thomas: (Ris). Feb. 26 (Lewis B.
Woodruff, in A. M. N. I.). St. Croix: March 25, Fredericksted, (C. U.).
Feb. 27 (F. E. Lutz, in A. M. N. H.). April 6 and 10 (l. B. Woodruff,
in A. MA. N. H.).
i7, .-(Cabot, 1890, Mem. M. C. Z., iii, p. 45, Colo. Univ., Iowa
Studies, 1928, xii, p. 26). Differs from the preceding species by the char-
acters in the key.
Tramea binotata (Rambur)
1842. Libellula binotata Rambur, Ins. Neur., p. 36.
1861. Tramea insulutris Hagen, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 146.
KLOTS, ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 71
1S66. Trainea insullaris Scudder, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., x, p. 191.
1867. Traiumea insularis Scudder, ibid., xi, p. 299.
1867. Tratlea insularis Uhler, ibid., xi, p. 206.
1867. Trarmea instlaris Hagen, Stett. Ent. Ztg., xxviii, pp. 98, 224.
1875. Tranica insularis Ilagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xviii, p. 65.
1896. Trainea brasiliana Carpenter, Journ. Inst. Jamaica, ii, p. 260.
1906. Trainee insularis Calvert, B. C. A., p. 303.
1913. Trainea binotata Ris, Cat. Coll. Selys, xvi, p. 991.
1916. Tranea itsalaris Kall, Ann. Cam. Mus., x, p. 526.
1919. Tranime insularis Calvert, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., xlv, p. 362.
1931. Trainea binotata Dow, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xliv, p. 59.
Other synonyms.-subbinotata Brauer, longicauda Brauer, paulina
Diagnosis.-M3ale. Labium yellow with the median lobe black; labrum
black with diffuse yellow corners. Face olivaceous; postelypeus blackish
in the middle. Frons violet metallic, vertex blue metallic. Thorax red-
dish brown, darker on the dorsum and covered with long gray hairs; sides
with a dark metallic band through the spiracle, connected below with one
back of the humeral suture and with one on the front part of the metc-
pimeron : not visible in the darker color of mature specimens. Hind wing
with a basal spot extending to or not quite to the anal crossing and back-
ward to the hind margin or to the end of the mcmbranule; this spot
blackish brown sometimes more or less hyaline in the middle. Abdomen
reddish brown; 8-10 black on the dorsum.
Female. Labrum orange with a black border. Face olivaceons. Frons
orange with a blue black basal band. Vertex brown. Appendages about
as long as segments 9-10. Genital plate divided into two broadly oval
lobes not quite so long as segment 9.
Size.-Abdomen, 31-34 mm.. hind wing, 38-43 mm.
Distribution.-Fla., Mexico to Brazil. West Indies: Greater Antilles.
Porto Rico: Manati, June 27 (Lutz and Mutchler, in A. M. N. H., det.
by Dr. Ris.).
(Pl. I, Fig. 5.1
Diagnosis.--Wings long and broad. Fore wing: arculus between the
1st and 2nd antenodals, its sectors stalked for a considerable distance;
about 14 antenodals, the last one incomplete, the first two slightly further
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
apart than the others; crossveins under the stigma two; stigma small,
trapezoidal; triangle of medium length, with but one crossvein, and very
slightly directed inward, almost perpendicular to the long axis of the
wing; discoidal field of 3 cell rows, increasing to 4, narrowed toward the
margin; Cu, rising from the anal angle of the triangle; subtriangle not
always distinct, usually of 4 cells; M, with a distinct double curve; apical
sector rising under the basal third of the stigma; radial planate turned
forward to join l-s, subtending 2 cell rows; median planate rather weakly
developed, subtending one cell row; no extra bridge crossveins. Hind
wing: triangle retracted to or beyond the arculus; Cu1 from the anal
angle of the triangle; 2 cnbito-anal crossveins. Hind wing; triangle
retracted to or beyond the arculus; Cui from the anal angle of the
triangle; 2 cubito-anal cross veins, the anal crossing basad of the origin
of A,; As very straight at the base, with a patella of 2 cells; anal loop
long, usually of 2 cell rows, with a-long toe reaching to within a cell row
of the wing margin, and pointing outwards; a: b as 1: 3; Ai, with a sharp
bend toward M1, just beyond the end of the median planate. Frons broad
and swollen, bilobed; vertex broad, rounded. Lobe of prothorax very
small and low. Legs long and slender; 3rd femora of the male with
about 24 small spines, those on the distal third longer and farther apart;
2nd femora with 10-12 spines, gradually increasing in length; tibial spines
long and stout. Abdomen stout, wider at the base: supplementary trans-
verse carinm on 2-5. Genitalia of 2nd segment of the male and the
genital plate of the female small.
Nymph.-The nymphs of this genus are smooth and depressed, with
large heads and wide labial masks. Labium with distal border of lateral
lobe deeply cut into prominent teeth which are as high as wide; lateral
setae 12-15; mental seta 15-16; movable hooks short. Mandibles with 4
teeth in the apical row and 2-3 in the posterior, with or without the mar-
ginal denticle (Calvert, 1928). Dorsal hooks wanting or very minute;
needlelike on 3-4. Lateral spines on 8-9. Superior appendage as long as
KEY TO ~'EST INDIAN SPECIES
]. Anal field of the hind wing with a pale yellow spot..............flavesccns
Anal field of the hind wing with a dark brown spot.............. [hymenea]
1. Lateral sette 12-14....................... .....................flavescens
Lateral sette 15 or more..................................... [hmenea]
KLOTS, ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 73
Pantala flavescens (Fabricius)
1798. Licbllula flavescens Fabricius, Suppl. Ent. Syst., p. 2S5.
1857. Libcllla flavescens Selys, in Sagra, Ilist. Nat., p. 186.
1801. Pantala flacesecos IIngen, Syn. Neur. N. Am.. p. 142.
1867. Pantnla flavcscens Hagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. H-ist.. xi, p. 291.
1867. Pantala flurcsccens Hagen, Stett. Ent. Ztg., xxviii, p. 215.
1875. Pantala flarescems IIagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Iist., xviii, p. 63.
18SS. Pantalu flavcscens Gmndlach, Contrib. Cuba, p. 245.
1SSS. Panltala flaccsccns Kolbe, Archiv fiir Naturg., liv, p. 167.
1893. Paitala flavescens Gundlach. Ann. Soc. Esp. Nat. IIist., xxii, 2, p. 269.
1894. Pantala fluccscecns Kirby, Ann. lMag. Nat. list. ()., xiv. p. 262.
1S96. Pantala flavesccns Carpenter, Journ. Inst. Jamaica, ii, 3, p. 259.
1906. Pantala flavescens Calvert, B. C. A., p. 307.
1911. Pantala flarescens Wilson, Johns Hopkins Univ. Circ., ii, p. 50.
1913. Panitala flavesccis Ris. Cat. Coll. Selys. xv. p. 917.
1916. Pantala flacescens Kahl, Ann. Camn. ius.. x, p. 526.
1919. Pantala flavescens Calvert, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., xlv, p. 360.
Synonynms.-viriddua Palisote de Beauvais; amolis Burm., terminalis
Diagnosis.-Male. Face and head yellow, sometimes with a tinge of
reddish on the middle of the face. Occiput greenish brown. Thorax
greenish or yellowish brown, lighter and more bluish on the sides and with
black spurs oi the lower ends of the sutures. Legs black, femora paler
basally. Wings usually hyaline with an apical spot of yellow on the in-
ferior margin; costa, nodus and stigma orange, as are the antenodal cross-
veins of the first series, the cubito-anals, the arculus and some of the
crossveins beyond the triangle. Wing membrane often suffused with pale
yellow. Apices of one or both wings often with a small spot of pale
brown. Abdomen yellowish to reddish brown, the caring distinctly darker;
segment 3 with a reddish triangular spot expanded across the apical
third; this spot is larger and darker on the succeeding segments, forming
on 5-7 an indistinct dorsal band which on 8-10 becomes black and distinct.
Sides of 4-7 with dark markings. Appendages as long as segments 9 + 10,
yellow, darker apically.
Female. Resembles the male in color but is less reddish and the ab-
domen, as a rule, is darker. Eighth sternite keeled, scoop-shaped, but
not projecting; one-third as long as segment 9 ; with a pair of stylets, each
set in a deep notch on either side of the mid-line at about one-third of
the segment length.
Nymph.--(Cabot, 1890, Mem. MI. C. Z., iii, 43.) Length, 25 mm., ab-
domen 15, hind femur 7; width of abdomen 8, of head 7. Body clean and
smooth. Lateral setm 12-14, mental setae about 15, the nine outer ones
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
the longest. Lateral spines of 8 and 9 a little incurved; that of 8 reach-
ing to the apical border of the 9th segment; that of 9 reaching beyond the
tips of the lateral appendages. Superior appendage equal to or a little
longer than the inferiors; laterals one fifth shorter.
These are slender insects with the fore and hind wings of similar size
and shape. When at rest they hold their wings together above the back or,
as in most Iestines, obliquely upward. The head is transversely elongated
with the eyes far apart and projecting laterally. The anal appendages of
the male are in two pairs, superior and inferior. Between the bases of
the superior pair there is a long, rudimentary protuberance which is homol-
ogous with the single inferior appendage of the Anisoptera. The female
possesses a well-developed ovipositor. The bases of the wings are either
narrowed or petiolate. The discoidal cell is known as the quadrangle;
the anal vein terminates in Cu, at its angulation just back of its point
of separation from Cu1.
The nymphs are long and slender with three caudal plate like gills,
one median dorsal and two lateral ventral. The head is the widest part
of the body.
KEY TO WEST INDIAN FAMILIES
1. Antenodal crossveins five or more........................... [Agriotidrr]
Antenodal crossveins two................................. Canagrionidre
1. First antennal segment as long as the remaining ones together; lateral gills
triquetral ............................................... [Agrionide ]
First antenna segment not longer than the remaining ones together; lateral
gills flat ................. .... ....................... Cmnagrionide
Wings narrow and stalked at the base. Stigma present and usually with
a well-developed brace vein at its inner end. Quadrangle trapezoidal, its
anterior side shortened and its outer angle pointed; without crossveins.
The nymphs are usually slender with tapering bodies. Basal segment
of the antenna not longer than the succeeding ones; labium entire or, if
cleft, the cleft closed.
KLOTS, ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 75
KEY TO WEST INDIAN SUBFAMILIES
1. Vein MI, rising nearer the arculus than the nodus; supplementary sec-
tors present between Rs and MI, and between M3 and M,.......Lestinw
Vein M, rising nearer the nodus than the arculus...................... 2
2. Vein Cu, reduced to a crossvein ending in the margin of the wing.....
Vein Cu, not reduced to a crossvein one cell long ..................... 3
3. Stigma wanting or, if present, of several cells, irregular in shape and
unbraced ................. ..................... Pse dostigmatinc
Stigma present, small .................. ............ Ccinagrioninw
1. Gills strongly constricted ............................. I'rotoneitrinwma
Gills not constricted ........................ ..................... 2
2. Gills with axial subsegmentation ; labium with a median closed cleft..
Gills without axial subsegmentation; labium entire................. 3
3. Gills simple with curved margins..................... Cwnagrioniw
Gills stalked; distal portion foliaceous............Pscdostigmatinmc 9a
(PI. I, Fig. 11)
Aside from the characters in the key this subfamily is distinguished
by its large stigma which is well braced and surmounts two or more cells.
The wings are distinctly petiolate. The arculus is from one-third to one-
half the way from the base to the nodus.
The nymphs are very slender, with long slender legs. Median lobe of
labium with a short closed cleft; lateral lobes trifid, with a large move-
able hook bearing 2-3 setae. Gills nearly parallel-sided, blunt-tipped and
with indications of a segmentation along the axis.
KEY TO WEST INDIAN GENERA
1. Quadrangle widened distally with the anterior side more than one-half the
length of the posterior.................................. [Hypolestes] "g
Quadrangle not widened distally, the anterior side scarcely one-half the
length of the posterior ......................................... Lestes
1. Gills lateral and terminal ................................... [Hypolestes]
Gills terminal only .......................................... .. Lestes
"a Nymphs of West Indian species not known.
9" It is highly probable that a careful study of this genus and its close relatives will
result in a change in its position in our system, removing it from the Lestiue and placing
it closer to such genera as Pseuldopler or Cori.
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
(Pl. I, Fig. 11)
Type.-sponi s (HTansemann).
Distribution.-Cosmopolitan except Australia.10
Diagnosis.-Quadrangle of fore and hind wings similar, narrowed dis-
tally, thereby becoming triangular. Sectors of the arculus rising near its
upper end; one or more sectors between Us and MA and between I1, and
l,: one row of cells between MI, and Cun,i wings petioled to or nearly to
the anal crossing: stigma surmounting two or three cells, usually three
or more times as long as wide and with a good brace vein: 2l, rising several
cells beyond the nodus. A transverse ridge on the level with the fore
ocellus and just back of each antenna: back of the inner portion of this
ridge and vertical to it a series of striations; between the ridge and the
antenna a small plate-like structure, usually elongated crosswise.
Remarks..-Considerable color variation is noted in all members of this
genus and among individuals of the same species. As Dr. Calvert has
stated (1928) this variation probably has no significance geographically
but is due to postmortem changes, individual variation, and variations
due to age and ontogenesis. I have found no dependable way for deter-
mining females. I have included figures of the pectoral markings and,
although they show some variation within a species, they may serve as a
help in identification.
Xymph.-Exceedingly long and slender. Head twice aq wide as long;
hind angles rounded; antenna longer than width of head; labium very
long and slender; the mentum reaching to or surpassing the hind coxe,
linear for a long distance at its base then dilated abruptly; medium lobe
with a close medium cleft extending as far back as the level of the base
of the lateral lobes; lateral lobes bent sharply at base, distal portion
bilobed. Wing cases short, elevated. Legs very long and slender. Ab-
domen cylindrical, lateral margins keeled with minute apical spines on
varying numbers of segments. Gills long, parallel-sided, abruptly
rounded at the end : with axial subsegmentation and usually with irregu-
lar cross-bands of brown.
KEY TO WEST INDIAN SPECIES
1. Inferior appendages more than half as long as the superiors ............ 2
Inferior appendages half as long as the superiors.......... [tenuatis]
Unless one regards it in the sens lat. and includes Austrolestes.
KLOTS, ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 77
2. Abdomen 26 mm.; hind wing 17-18; superior appendages with no ser-
rated margin after the basal tooth..........................scalaris
Abdomen 30-40 mm.; hind wing 21-24; superior appendages with a
serrated margin ................................................. 3
3. Abdomen 30 mm.: hind wing 21 ............................ forficlul
Abdomen 39 n1ln., hind wing 24 mm....................... sp.ilareius
Lestes forficula Rambur
(Pl. VI, Fig. 1)
1842. Lestes forficula Rambur, Ins. Neur., p. 247.
1861. Lestes forficula IIagen, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 68.
1867. Lestes forficula Hagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, p. 289.
1862. Lestes forficula Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. (2), xiii, 4, p. 308.
1SSS. Lestes forficula Gundlach, Contrib. Cuba, p. 213.
1901. Lestes forficula Calvert, B. C. A., pp. 50, 352.
1910. Lestes forficula Muttkowski, Cat. Odon. N. Am., p. 3S.
1918. Lestes forfieula Ris, Archiv fiir Naturg., 82 A, ix, p. 62.
1919. Lestes forfleula Calvert, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., xlv, p. 346.
1928. Lestes forficula Calvert, Univ. Iowa Studies, Nat. Hist., xii, 2, p. 5.
Diagnosis.-Male. Labrum, geun and anteclypens pale green; rest of
face and head dark blue or black except for a pale line around the out-
side of each ocellus. Rear of eyes powdery blue over dark brown, yellow-
ish toward the roots. Prothorax brown with an elongate dark spot on
either side of the mid-line of the median lobe. Synthorax chestnut brown
with a pair of dark green metallic stripes bordered with black and sepa-
rated by the brown middorsal carina. Sides and venter reddish brown
with evidences of a narrow metallic green stripe after the humeral suture,
abbreviated above and below. A third stripe, of black, lies on the fore-
part of the metepimeron. Legs pale; femora with two longitudinal dark
lines, tibiae with one. Spines long, those of the tibiaw, except the apical
ones, twice as long as the intervening spaces. Claws of tarsi with 2 teeth.
Wings with black stigma, at least one-half as wide as long. Abdomen
almost wholly obscure brown or black, except in young specimens which
are marked as follows: segment 1 pale, darker on either side of the mid-
dorsal line; 2-6 dark metallic green dorsally, yellow on the sides, this
yellow invading the color of the dorsum at the base and apex of each seg-
ment; on 6 this apical invasion is surrounded and cut off to form a paired
spot; 7 metallic green above, the yellow of the sides very much reduced;
8-10 all dull green, slightly pruinose, 9 distinctly so; 10 with a small
apical lateral spot on each side. Appendages black.
Female. Resembles the male although lighter in color.
Size.-Abdomen, 29-31 mm., hind wing, 19 mm.
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
Type locality.-Unknown; "perhaps North America."
Distribution.-Texas, lex., Brazil; West Indies: Cuba. Haiti, Mar-
tinique, Antigua. Porto Rico: Tortuguero Lake, Manati, Feb. 20; Que-
bradillas, Jan. 3; Martin Pifia, Dec. 31 (A. M. N. II.). Desengafio,
Dec. 23. (C. U.). Panzardi's Place, Rio Piedras, July 19. at 6 P. IM.
Remarks.-Mature specimens of this species are often hard to identify.
Two mature males from Porto Rico and two from Cuba have the thorax
entirely pruinose blue, except for the metallic green stripes on the dorsum
and a trace of the posthumeral band. One from Porto Rico has the ab-
domen brilliant metallic green except for the powdery 9th segment. Two
from Martinique are almost entirely black with only the dorsal thoracic
stripes showing metallic green; these stripes are about one-third as wide as
the metepisternum. The chestnut brown antehumeral area and a trace of
the posthumeral green have remained visible. There seems to be no uni-
formity in the width of the stripes from any one place. The abdomen
at times is wholly obscure brown or black with segment 1 pruinose. Selys
described this species as somewhat larger than I have found it to be.
Nymph.-(Calvert, 1928, Univ. Iowa Studies Nat. Iist., xii, 2. p. 8.)
The nymph of this species has been described in great detail by Dr. Cal-
vert. I have a nymph collected by Dr. M. D. Leonard in Las Cruces,
March 28. Length 16.5-8; length of hind femur 4.75. Labium with
submentum reaching beyond the hind coxa; lateral setm 3; mental setm 5.
Lateral spines on segments 6-9. Gills with the cross bands (as figured by
Dr. Calvert) in evidence only along the margins, rather uniformly pale in
color; axis and trachea pigmented. (P1. VII, fig. 1.)
Lestes spumarius Selys
(P1. VI, Fig. 3)
1862. Lestcs sp maria Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. (2), xiii. p. 309.
1863. Lestes spimnaria Hagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, p. 289.
1888. Lcstcs spumaria Gundlach, Contrib. Cuba, p. 215.
1896. Lestcs spimaria Carpenter, Journ. Inst. Jamaica, ii, 3, p. 262.
1901. Lestes spumarius Calvert, B. C. A., p. 50.
1909. Lcstes spunmarius Calvert, Ann. Cam. Mus., vi, p. 97.
1910. Lcstes spumarius Muttkowski, Cat. Odon. N. Am., p. 39.
1919. Lestes spiumarius Calvert, Trans. Am. Ent. Soe., xlv, p. 346.
Diagnosis.-Genr, postgenm and eyes pale ashy yellow; labrum pale
greenish blue with a fine black border on the front margin; anteclypeus
pale in its anterior half, the black of the base running down in a point in
the center and two rounded lobes on either side; rest of face dark brownish.
KLOTS, ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 79
Vertex black, metallic green next to the eyes, lighter around the base of
the antenna. Rear of head pale. Prothorax pale with obscure brownish
markings. Synthorax pale yellow; the metallic green stripe on the dorsum
superimposed upon chestnut brown which is divided on the mid-line by
the clear yellow carina; a second band of green covering nearly the whole
of the mesepimeron, likewise bordered with brown though narrowly, the
brown continuing down across the mesinfraepisternum and onto the pro-
thorax; a brownish black area covering the extreme upper part of the
metathorax and extending down a little onto the 3rd lateral suture. Legs
pale, lined with black. Wings with stigma surmounting two cells; twice
as long as wide. Abdomen ashy yellow beneath, dorsally dark brown with
a pale basal ring on 3-7: 9-10 more metallic green than brown. Appen-
Female. Differs from the male (Selys, 1862) in having the prothorax
lighter, a fine yellow carina on the 2nd abdominal segment, appendages
brown, valvules medium, not visibly denticulate, and the last segments
with no metallic band.
Size.-Abdomen, male. 39 mm., female, 34, hind wing, 24 mm.
Type locality.-Porto Rico.
Distribution.-West Indies: Cuba, Jamaica. Porto Rico: (Selys);
Arecibo Aug. 30 (A. M. N. H.).
Lestes scalaris Gundlach
(P.1. VI, Fig. 4)
1867. Lestes scalaris Hagen, Proe. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, p. 289; nomen
1888. Lestes scalaris Gundlach, Contrib. Cuba, p. 216.
1909. Lestes scalaris Calvert, Ann. Carn. Mus., VI, p. 93.
1910. Lestes scalaris Muttkowski, Cat. Odon. N. Am., p. 39.
1919. Lestes scalaris Calvert, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., xlv, p. 347.
Diagnosis.-Male. Face and frons light brown; when mature the
labrum becoming pale blue, its anterior margin yellow, and the gene below
the frons also blue. Vertex dark metallic green. Thorax yellowish brown;
each mesepisternum with a metallic stripe; mesepimeron with an irregu-
lar stripe composed of two elongate spots, the upper the larger, connected
by a line. These stripes are bluish brown in young specimens, becoming
darker metallic green. Legs pale blue or yellow; femora with two black
lines, tibim with one; tarsi black. Stigma brown. Eight to ten postnodals
in the fore wing, 8-9 in the hind. Abdomen metallic blue or green on the
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
dorsum; sides paler centrally; 3-7 with interrupted basal pale rings. Old
specimens often becoming blackish.
Size.-Abdomen, 26-27 mm., hind wing, 17-18 mm.
Distribution.-WVest Indies: Cuba. Porto Rico: (Calvert 1909 and
Remarks.-I have seen no example of this species. The above descrip-
tive notes are from Calvert (1909).
(PI. I, Fig. 12)
These are small, delicate, slender insects with narrow wings. Stigma
short, usually trapezoidal; nodus one-fourth to one-third of the way out
on the wing length; Cu, represented by a crossvein only or lacking; anal
vein greatly reduced: no intercalary sectors except the postnodal one.
The nymphs, so far as known, are rather short with short legs; labium
flat without setT, gills strongly constricted, lamellar or saccoid.
KEY TO WEST INDIAN GENERA
1. Vein A reduced to the anal crossing, not extending beyond............ 2
Vein A not reduced to the anal crossing but extending beyond.......
2. Nodus oblique so that Sc ends before the level of the base of Ma; legs
short, femora not compressed.........................Protoneura
Nodus not very oblique, so that Sc ends beyond the level of the base of
MA; legs long, femora compressed .................... [icronelure]
(PI. I, Fig. 12)
Diagnosis.-Vein Cu, wanting; Cun ending at less than half the length
of the wing; M 1 rising nearest the 5th or 6th postnodal in the fore wing,
the 4th or 5th in the hind; Mia usually rising 3 cells beyond M2; 3 cross-
veins beyond the stigma; 9-14 postnodals in the fore and 7-12 in the hind.
Anteelypens very small and vertical. Median lobe of labium bifid in its
apical half or two-fifths.
KLOTS, ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 81
Protoneura capillaris (Rambur)
1842. Agrion capillare Rambur, Ins. Neur., p. 280.
1857. Protoneura capillaris Selys, in Sagra, Hist. Nat., xii, p. 200.
1860. Protoneura capillaris Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. (2), x, p. 461.
1861. Protoneura capillaris Hagen, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 73.
1867. Protoneura capillaris Hagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, p. 290.
1886. Protoneura capillaris Selys, Mem. Cour., xxxviii, p. 212.
1888. Protoneura capillaris Gundlach, Contrib. Cuba, p. 218.
1888. Protoneura capillaris Kolbe, Archiv fir Naturg., liv, p. 170.
1893. Protoneura capillaris Gundlach, Ann. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., (2), xxii, 2,
1896. Protoneura capillaris Carpenter, Journ. Inst. Jamaica, ii, 3, p. 261.
1909. Protoneura capillaris Calvert, Ann. Cam. Mus., vi, p. 212.
1910. Protoneura capillaris Muttkowski, Cat. Odon, N. Am., 73.
1916. Protoneura capillaris Kahl, Ann. Cam. Mus., x, p. 521.
1919. Protoneura capillaris Calvert, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., xlv, p. 349.
1931. Protoneura capillaries Dow, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xliv, p. 56.
Diagnosis.-Male. Face yellowish white except the labrum and post-
clypeus and a small spot at the rear of the base of the antennae, which are
violet black; anterior border of labrum usually yellow. Vertex and occi-
put violet. Rear of eyes black metallic (sometimes greenish). Eyes whit-
ish. Prothorax above, the mesepisternum and anterior two-thirds of the
mesinfraepisternum, black metallic; rest of thorax and coxe of legs white
except for a narrow black line before the 3rd lateral suture and along the
top of the mesepimeron. Legs white marked with black as follows: tarsi,
apices of tibiae, femora outside and tibia within. Abdominal segments
1-2 blue green metallic with a large pale yellow spot on the side margins;
3-7 dark blue or bronze with a basal light blue ring, on 3 two-fifths of
the segment length, on 4-6 a narrow basal ring, on 7 covering the entire
segment except for a narrow apical ring which extends up the inferior
margins; 8-10 and appendages dark brown. Inferior appendages and
apical plate of 8-9 yellow. Tenth segment with a medium apical notch.
Female. Similar to the male. Labrum metallic violet, postclypeus
metallic blue, top of frons and vertex iridescent. Abdomen metallic green
black, sides yellow; a narrow basal pale band on 3-4, connected with the
pale of the venter; on 5 separated from the ventral pale color; on 6-7
reduced to a pair of dorsal blue spots; 9 with a kidney-shaped spot on
each side. Prothorax black, extreme margins yellow; posterior lobe tri-
Size.-25-26 mm., hind wing, 15-18 mm.
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
Distribution,.-W est Indies: Cuba. Isle of Pines, Jamaica, Martinique.
Porto Rico: (Selys, 1886).
Remarks.-The abdomen of this species is remarkably long and slender;
segment 3 is two and two-thirds as long as segment 1 -- 2.
(P1. I, Fig. 13)
These are mostly clear-winged damsel flies and are often rather small.
Stigma short, surmounting usually one cell; M, rising nearer the nodus
than the arculus; no supplementary sectors between Rs and M3 or between
M, and M4.
The nymphs are slender and usually greenish. Median lobe of labium
entire; lateral lobes with one or two end hooks; lateral and mental setae
present; gills simple, usually lanceolate and pointed.
KEY TO WEST INDIAN GENERA
1. Tibial spines twice as long as intervening spaces.................... 2
Tibial spines scarcely longer than intervening spaces................
2. Four or more crossveins beyond the stigma.................. [Argia]
One crossvein beyond the stigma..................... [Argiallagma]
3. No postocular pale spots.......................................... 4
Iostocular pale spots present...................... ............... 6
4. Cu, ending beyond the level of L,, .................... [Amphiagrion]
Cu, ending before the level of M,..................................... 5
5. Wings not petioled beyond the anal crossing; abdomen usually red....
Wings, at least one of them, petioled beyond the anal crossing; abdomen
not red, but very slender............................. Leptobasis
6. Arculus rising as far beyond the 2nd antenodal as the upper section of
the arculus is long ..................................... Ceratitra
Arculus not rising so far beyond the 2nd antenodal .................... 7
7. Cu, ending beyond the level of 3M,,; three or more crossveins beyond
the stigma ..................................................... 8
Cu, ending before the level of M31,; one or two crossveins beyond the
stigm a ........................................................ 10
S. M1, rising between the 3rd and 4th postnodal; Cu, ending beyond 1,.. 9
M3 rising between the 5th and 6th postnodal; Cu, ending before 1,..
9. Stigma of male dissimilar in the two wings.................. schnl ra
Stigma of male similar in the two wings............... [Crnagrion I
31 West Indian record doubtful.
KLOTS, ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 83
10. Postocular spots of male fused with the rear of the head; female
valves longer than segment 10..........................Leptobasis
Postocular spots of male not fused with the rear of the head; female
valves not longer than segment 10................................ 11
11. Stigma of male in the fore wing not touching the costa. .Anonalugrton
Stigma of male in the fore wing touching costa.......... [Nehellenia]
1. Gills half as broad as long; no mental setm..................... Argia
Gills not more than one-third as broad as long; mental setae present..... 2
2. Hind angles of head angulate ...........................Anphiagrion
Iind angles of head broadly rounded............................... 3
3. Gills tapering to a slender point .................................... 4
Gills ending in an acute angle....................................... 6
4. M mental seta 1 ...................................... ..... Nehellenia
M ental setm 3 or m ore ............................................. 5
5. Axis of gill with alternating dark and light areas..........Ischnura "
Axis of gill uniformly colored......... ................ Anomalagrion
G. Mental sete 1; lateral setae 3.............................. Telebasis "
Mental sete 2; lateral sete 4..............................Cerature "
Mental setae 3-4; lateral seta 4-0........................... Enallagma
Distribution.-Neotropical and Nearctic.
Diagnosis.-These are slender reddish damsel flies. Wings not petioled
beyond the anal crossing. Mia rising one or two cells before the stigma;
M2 rising at or near the 4th postnodal; Cu, ending before the level of
the base of MA,; two crossveins beyond the stigma. Postocular pale spots
wanting. Tarsal claws with a small inferior tooth.. Eighth sternite of
the female with no apical spine. No apical dorsal'spile on segment 10.
Nymplh.-The nymph of T. salva was described by Dr. Needham (Proc.
U. S. Nat. Mus., xxvii, p. 716, 1904) from reared material. Head de-
pressed, hind angles low; antenna shorter than head is wide; labium
short, hardly reaching mesothorax; lateral seta 4-5, mental sete 3. Ab-
domen cylindrical, 10th segment a little shorter than the others. Gills
oblanceolate, widest at three-fourths their length and suddenly narrowed
to an obtusely rounded apex marked with a few distant faint brown spots
and with trachetm more or less pigmented. In the same paper (p. 718)
Dr. Needham described Leptobasis sp. from Catafio, Porto Rico. It an-
swers in every way the description of a large number of nymphs which I
have from Las Cruces and Coamo Springs, Porto Rico; Vento, Cuba.
12 No good way has been found of distinguishing these two genera. The figures of the
gills on Plate VII should help for the species known from the West Indies.
13 See discussion under genus.
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
and Damien, Haiti. Adults of Telebasis dominicanum were taken in abun-
dance at the same time and place in Haiti and are also reported abun-
dantly in Porto Rico and Cuba, whereas. Leptobasis is apparently rather
rare. I am of the opinion that the nymph described by Dr. Needham as
Leptobasis sp. is that of Telebasis dominicanum and am describing it
as such under that species. With the exception of the number of mental
and lateral seta it is not otherwise inconsistent with the nymph of T.
salva. Adults of Enallagma ccecum were flying abundantly at the same
place in Coamo Springs and at Damien, but Byer's description of E.
cardenium is so different that I cannot believe the two are conspecific.
KEY TO WEST INDIAN SPECIES
1. Abdomen bronze above............................... macrogaster"
Abdomen mainly reddish above ..................................... 2
2. Black stripe of 3rd lateral suture of thorax complete.... dominicanum
Black stripe of 3rd lateral suture of thorax incomplete.........vulnerata
Telebasis dominicanum (Selys)
(P1. VI, Fig. 12.)
1857. Agrion dominicanum Selys, in Sagra, Hist. Nat., xii, p. 198.
1861. Agrion dominicanum Hagen, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 86.
1861. Agrion vulneratum var. 9 Hagen, ibid., p. 86.
1867. Erythragrion dominicantum Hagen, Stett. Ent. Ztg., xxviii, p. 99.
1867. Erythragrion dominicanum Uhler, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, p. 295.
1876. Erythragrion dominicanum Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg., xlv, pp. 958, 961.
1888. Erythragrion dominicanum Kolbe, Archiv fiir Naturg., liv, p. 172.
1888. Agrion (Erythragrion) dominicanum Gundlach, Contrib. Cuba, p. 229.
1896. Telebasis dominicanum Carpenter, Journ. Inst. Jam., ii, 3, p. 262.
1910. Telebasis dominicanum Muttkowski, Cat. Odon, N. Am., p. 62.
1911. Telebasis dominicanum Wilson, Johns Hopkins Univ., Circ. 2 (232), p. 49.
1919. Telebasis dominicanum Calvert, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., xlv, p. 354.
1931. Telebasis dominicanum Dow, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xliv, p. 56.
Diagnosis.-Male. Labrum red; postclypeus light brownish; remainder
of face yellowish or reddish, including the first three segments of the an-
tenne, though the second is sometimes darker; vertex coppery black with
14 The species T. macrogaster differs from the other species of the genus in the color of
the abdomen. This species was first described by Selys as Agrion but was later referred
to his genus Leptobasis. Carpenter ('97) showed that macrogaster had small but distinct
accessory claws on the tarsi and therefore could not be a Leptobasis and so transferred
it to Telebasis. Subsequently ('02) Dr. Calvert has shown that L. vacillans, designated
by Kirby as the genotype, also has a small Inferior claw on the tarsus. It remains for
someone who can obtain sufficient material to study the relationship of these species and
determine the true characters of the genus.
LOTS, ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 85
a yellow dash extending from each lateral ocel] is half way to the antenna;
rear of occiput yellow; rear of eyes black except for the region bordering
the ventral anterior margin. Prothorax bronze black above, sides yellow
as are also the elevated rear margin and most of the fore lobe except a
median dorsal transverse spot. Rear border of prothorax smoothly curved,
slightly depressed in the center. Synthorax bronze dorsally as far as the
2nd lateral suture, with a complete narrow yellow stripe on the humeral
suture, the black of the mesepisternum extending down on to the mesin-
frapisternum. Sides yellow, marked with bronze as follows: a band just
back of the 2nd lateral suture ending just above the spiracle and fused
for its upper half with the bronze of the dorsum; a narrow complete band
on the 3rd lateral suture and usually another isolated band lying mid-
way on the metepimeron; ventral posterior corner of the metepimeron
with a small blackish spot. Legs all yellow except for a minute black spot
at either end of the femora, a ring at the apex of the tarsus and the tips
of the claws. When fully mature the outsides of the femora are black.
Abdomen red on the dorsum, the yellow of the sides and venter forming
a basal ring on 3-6; 8-9 sometimes with a pair of obscure blackish subbasal
areas on either side of the mid-line; 10 less than half as long as 9 and
with a slightly elevated triangular notch on its apical margin.
Female. Differs from the male as follows: base of labrum and ante-
clypeus obscure, deeper in color; postclypeus black; rest of face yellow
except for a diffuse blackish spot on the middle of the frons. First two
segments of the antennae blackish within. Vertex black with a crescentic
yellow transverse spot extending laterally just in front of each lateral
ocellus. Occiput with a yellow wedge-shaped spot on each end of the mar-
gin. Prothorax blackish except the fore lobe; the margins of the depres-
sions in the center of the rear lobe elevated and produced forward to form
two contiguous yellowish erect projections at the point of division of the
median lobes. The parallel antehumeral yellow stripes continuing along
above the suture between the mesinfraspisternum and the mesepimeron,
joining the yellow to rearward. Abdomen bronze black above with an in-
terrupted basal pale ring on 3-7; apex of 8-9 pale brown, as is most of 10.
Sides of 1-3 with a more or less distinct blackish longitudinal streak of
black in the midst of the yellow. Appendages pale. The 8th sternite
lacking the spine.
Size.-Abdomen, 25 mm., hind wing, 15 mm.
Type locality.-St. Domingo.
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
Distribution.-Guiana; West Indies: Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, San Do-
mingo. Porto Rico: (Kolbe) ; Caguas, May 28-29; Adjuntas, June 1-13
(A. M. N. H.). Rio Piedras, April 13 (Forbes).
Remarks.-I have seen no females of this species from Porto Rico. The
median spot on the metepimeron is lacking in the one I have from Cuba
but is present in the one from Haiti.
Aymph.-(Supposition. Needham, Proc. U. S. N. M. 1901, xxvii, p.
718, as Leptobasis sp.). Length 10.5 + 4.3. Hind femur, 2.8; width
of head, 2.7. Hind angles of head broadly rounded and slightly setose.
Proportionate length of antennal segments 8 : 8 : 10 : 6 : 4 : 2 : 1.
Labium reaching the middle of the 2nd coxm; lateral seta 3, mental one
(P1. VII, Fig. 3A.). Abdomen cylindrical, sides slightly keeled with a
small apical spine on 3-8. Wing pads reaching on to 5th segment. A
narrow middorsal pale band lined with darker on each side; this darker
color deepens into a spot at the apex, thereby giving each segment a pair
of dorsal apical black spots; wanting on 10; on 8 the paired dark line is
expanded and darkened and each of these dark spots encloses a small round
pale spot at one-half the segment length. Gills as in Plate VII, Fig. 3B.
Specimens of varying sizes (the above given measurements are from
the largest one) from Las Cruces and Coamo Springs, Apr. 4; from
Damien, Haiti, Apr. 3, and Vento, Cuba, Apr. 20.
Telebasis vulnerata (Hagen)
(P1. VI, Fig. 11.)
1861. Aqrion rul.crata Hagen, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 86.
1867. Pyrrhosoma ruiitlnerata Hagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, p. 290.
1876. Eflhfiragriod :ulnertata Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg.. p. 960.
1888. Agrion (Pyrrhosoma) vulnerata Gundlach, Contrib. Cuba, p. 228.
1893. Erytharg.riou, .uliterata Gundlach, Ann. Soc.,Esp. Nat. Hist., p. 268.
t1JO. Telebasis viulnerata Muttkowski, Cat. Odon. N. Am., p. 63.
1919. Telcbasis vulnerata Calvert, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., xlv, p. 354.
Diagnosis.-Male. Differs from dom inicanum as follows: (1) Post-
erior lobe of prothorax cut off more obliquely on the sides, that is, the
curve of the border is hollowed out, making the 1:.1.- more or less triangular.
(2) The black stripe on the 3rd lateral suture incomplete, abbreviated
below. (3) Inferior appendages pointed at the end, not truncate. (4)
Segments 8-9, in general with some color differences. Usually a pair of
subbasal spots of black, on 8 often reduced, sometimes scarcely discernible,
on 9 more distinct and often fused. Segment 10 with a basal blhck ring.
Female. Differs from dominiicanum as follows: (1) Labrum, post-
elypeus and basal segment of antenna reddish-ellow.' (2) Posterior'lobe
KLOTS, ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 87
of prothorax with the rear margin pale and the region of the median
depression black. Margin elevated and produced forward to form two
erect flaps which extend two-thirds across the median lobe. (3) Thorax
and abdomen resemble the male.
Size.-Abdomen, 28-30 mm., hind wing, 18-20 nml.
Type locality.-Porto Rico, Cuba, Essequibo in Guiana.
Distribution-West Indies: Cuba, Haiti. Porto Rico: (Hagen).
Jayuya, Jan. 5; Coamo Springs, Jan. 7; San Juan, Feb. 1-14; Cayey, May
30-31; Aibonito, June 1-3; Barros, June 4: Adjuntas. June 5-26 (A. M.
N. H.). Mayagiiez (C. U.).
Remarks.-- ariations in the color pattern of the last abdominal seg-
ments of dominicanum and vulneratum were hard to differentiate. They
at length were arranged in four groups as follows: (1) 8 with two black
spots, 9 with one distinct spot, 10 with a basal ring,-6, male vulnera-
turn; (2) 9 with two spots, 10 with the basal ring,-4 male vulneratum;
(3) 8-9 with very indistinct blackish areas-7 male dominicanum; (4)
8-10 almost entirely unmarked-6 male dominicanum and 1 male vul-
Diagnosis.-One or both wings petioled to or beyond the anal crossing.
MA, isin~ nearest the 5th postnodal in the fore wing, the 4th in the hind:
M[a rising about two cells before the stigma; two crossveins beyond the
stigma; Cu., ending beyond M,. Postocular spots usually absent, if
present confluent with the rear of the head. Apical margin of 10th ab-
doininal segment of the male with no dorsal process. Eighth sternite of
the female with or without an apical spine; genital valves of the female
very long, surpassing the tips of the abdominal appendages. Tarsal claw
with aninute inferior tooth.
Leptobasis vacillans Selys
(Pl. VI, Fig. 10)
1807. Agrion racillans Hagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist.. xi, p. 291, nomen
1877. Lcptobasis racillaus Selys. Bu.1l. Acad. Belg. (2). xliii, p. 101.
1888. Leptobasis racillaps Kolbe, Archiv fir Naturg., liv, p. 172.
5 See discussion of nymph of Telebasis.
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
1888. Agrion (Leptobasis) vacillans Gundlach, Contrib. Cuba, p. 231.
1893. Agrion (Leptobasis) vacillans Gundlach, Ann. Soc. Esp. Nat. Hist. (2),
xxii, 2, p. 268.
1902. Leptobasis vacillans Calvert, B. C. A., p. 120.
1902. Leptobasis vacillans var. atrodorsum Calvert, B. C. A., p. 121.
1909. Leptobasis vacillans Calvert, Ann. Cam. Mus., vi. p. 200.
1910. Leptobasis vacillans Muttkowski, Cat. Odon. N. Am., p. 64.
1919. Leptobasis vacillans Calvert, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., xlv, p. 355.
1931. Leptobasis vacillans var. atrodorsum Dow, Proc. Bio. Soc. Wash., xliv,
Remarks.-The representatives of this species which I have seen have
the vertex blackish with a pale postocular spot each side confluent with
the pale of the rear of the head, thereby answering the description of var.
Diagnosis.-var. atrodorsum. Male. Face yellowish; labrum orange
with a midbasal impressed spot of brownish; anteclypeus brownish; post-
clypeus brown with a narrow black spot and a basal band; superior half of
the frons black; vertex black; first segment and basal part of second
segment of antennae black; rear of eyes greenish white. Postocular spots
present but broadly fused with the rear of the head. Thorax and legs
yellow, the former with a black middorsal band and a black humeral band;
the antehumeral pale stripe between them one half the width of the
humeral black. Tarsal claw with an exceedingly minute, scarcely discerni-
ble inferior tooth. Abdominal segment 1 and basal part of 2 yellow with
a middorsal blackish band extending full length on 1 and most of 2,
though diffuse apically. Rest of abdomen reddish orange, yellow ventrally,
with narrow apical and basal black rings on 3-6; a dorsal band, black
and diffuse on the apical fifth of 5 and basal fifth of 6, then bronzy green;
interrupted at the suture between 6 and 7 and becoming diffuse on the
apical half of 7; 8-10 and appendages red.
Female. Resembles the male. Valves longer than segment 10, extend-
ing as far beyond 10 as 10 is long. Segment 8 with no ventral spine, only
a slight protrusion of the margins of the segment at that point.
Size.-vacillans, abdomen, 25-29 mm., hind wing, 15-17 mm.
atrodrosum, abdomen, 24 mm., hind wing, 14-15 mm.
Type locality.-vacillans, Cuba.
Distribution.-vacillans, Mexico, Guatemala. West Indies: Cuba.
Porto Rico: (Kolbe, Gundlach, 1893).
atrodorsum, Mexico, Panama. West Indies: Cuba, San
LOTS, ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 89
(P1. I, Fig. 13.)
Diagnosis.-Easily recognized by the position of the arculus which is as
far beyond the 2nd antenodal as the upper limb of the arculus is long.
M2 rising at or near the 3rd postnodal; Mia rising two cells beyond M2;
two crossveins beyond the stigma; Cu, ending in front of the level of the
origin of Mi,; Cu2 rising as far in front of the submedian crossvein as
this crossvein is long; Cu2 ending before M2 ; coastal side of stigma greater
than proximal or distal sides. Postocular spots present, those of the
female often confluent with the rear of the head. Apical margin of the
10th abdominal segment with an elevated dorsal process. Eighth sternite
of female with an apical spine.
Nymph.-Unknown. Dr. Needham has in his collection a nymph col-
lected at Wismar, British Guiana, April 13, 1930, which he has referred
to Ceratura because of its small size. Its total length is 7.5 + 1.75 mm.
Head flat, its hind angles spinulose and rounded. Mental setfe 2, laterals
4. Wing pads reaching to three-fourths of segment 5. Abdomen with
lateral keel, bearing small spines at the apex of segments as far as the
8th. Gills nearly parallel-sided, about one-fifth as wide as long, but
slightly narrowed at the base and abruptly rounded at the tips; color uni-
form .brownish mottled.
Ceratura capreola (Hagen)
(El. VI, Fig. 8.)
1861. Agrion capreolus Hagen, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 78.
1867. Agrion capreolus Hagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, p. 290.
1876. Ceratura capreola Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg., xli, p. 252.
1888. Agrion (Ceratura) capreola Gundlach, Contrib. Cuba, p. 233.
1888. Ceratura capreola Kolbe, Archiv fiir Naturg., liv, pp. 160, 165.
1896. Ceratura capreola Carpenter, Journ. Inst. Jamaica, li, 3, p. 261.
1903. Ceratura capreola Calvert, B. C. A., p. 131.
1910. Ceratura capreola Muttkowski, Cat. Odon. N. Am., p. 72.
1911. Ceratura capreola Wilson, Johns Hopkins Univ. Circ. 2, No. 232, p. 49.
1916. Ceratura capreola Kahl, Ann. Carn. Mus., x, p. 520.
1918. Ceratura capreola Ris, Archiv fiir Naturg., 82 A, 9, p. 135.
1919. Ceratura capreola Calvert, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., xlv, p. 381.
1931. Ceratura capreola Dow, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xliv, p. 56.
Diagnosis.-Male. Labrum light bluish green, slightly metallic, with a
black basal border projecting medianward; clypeus darker metallic green-
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF 1ORTO RI'O
ish black; frons and gene dull light green. Vertex metallic black.
Postocular spots round and widely separated from the pale posterior
border of the occiput. Rear of eyes light blue, black at the roots. Thorax
pale green marked with black as follows: top of prothorax except a central
spot on the fore lobe and a marginal spot on each side of the crest of the
rear lobe; front of synthorax as far back as the 2nd lateral suture above,
and halfway between it and the humeral below. A narrow complete ante-
humeral stripe remaining green; as well as a fine line on the crest above
and a small spot just back of the humeral suture above. Top of the 3rd
lateral suture with a black spot narrowly continuous with the black of the
front; base of the suture with another smaller spot. Legs pale; outside
of femora and a streak on the tibie towards the knees black as well as
a touch on the apex of each tarsal segment. Stigma of wings pale, darker
in the middle. Five to seven postnodals before the stigma and 2-3 beyond
it. Abdomen dark dorsally (on basal segments black, on median bronze,
and on apical bluish metallic), pale green ventrally, and pale on sides of
1-2 and base of 3 ; remainder of abdomen yellow, this yellow forming basal
rings, interrupted dorsally, on 3-7; segment 8 bluish black above on the
basal two-thirds, remainder (a) all light blue, or with (b) a median apical
spot, or (c) with this spot expanded into a ring, or (d) with this ring
fused broadly on the dorsum with the basal black (P1. I, Fig. 7). Seg-
ment 9 is all light blue; 10 black above, bright blue beneath. Posterior
border of 10 elevated dorsally to form a projecting fork, the branches of
which are divaricate and inclined downward.
Female. The typical female differs from the male in having the bluish
green labrum broadly bordered with yellow on the anterior margin. Pro-
thorax light brownish, the median lobe elevated transversely into two
prominent cones, and the rear lobe deeply notched. Sides of4synthorax
pale greenish or yellowish; antehumeral pale stripe broader'than' in the
male and the black of the dorsum not extending to the 2nd larail suture.
Abdomen entirely bronze, dorsally, on 1-8 except for the. u ally pale
basal rings; 9-10 light blue. Rear margin of 10 slightly elcyated in the
m iddle. '"' ..
The orange female, in which all the pale color 'is light 6raingc, differs
from the typical female in having the face all pale (p.t1 '. .I; somewl~t
darker) except for three black points at the base of thel.abrumn and possi-
bly a reduced basal line, and a black.line on the, fronto-clypeal suture.
Prothorax normal. Thorax bright orange except the black middorsal band
which covers a little more than one-half of each niesepisternum and con-
tinues uninterruptedly onto thep,.1rothorax except ,for a trace of orange
KLOTS, ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 91
on the sides of the rear elevation. Humeral suture with a fine line of
black visible in its depths. Femora and tibim all pale. Black band of
dorsum of abdomen very much reduced on segments 1-2. Segment 9 some-
times with a pair of black spots.
The citrine female differs from the typical female in having head and
thorax all bright yellow except for three basal points on the labrum, all of
the postclypeus, vertex and antennae except the basal segment of the last.
Median dorsal suture of the thorax with a small black spot at its extreme
base; inner borders of the antealar crest also with a spot of black. The
abdomen differs in having segment I all yellow and 10 dark on the apex
of the dorsum. Appendages black. Ovipositor reaching to the tip of the
Size.-Abdomen, 17-19 mm., hind wing, 10-11 mm.
Distribution.--Mexico to Brazil. West Indies: Cuba, Isle of Pines,
Jamaica, St. Lucia, Martinique. Porlo Rico: (Hagen, 1861).
Remtarks.-The variation of color pattern on segment 8 of the males
seems to have no correlation with the geographic distribution. I have
specimens from Cuba representing all types. Dr. Hagen's Porto Rican
material was like (d).
Nymph.-Unknown (see generic description).
Diagnosis.-This genus is most easily recognized by the dissimilarity of
the fore and hind wing stigma. Vein M1, usually rising between the 3rd
and 4th postnodal in the fore wing and the 2nd and 3rd in the hind; Cu,
ending beyond a ,,; Cu, ending beyond MI, Mi, usually rising two cells
before the stigma: four crossveins beyond the stigma; two vertical series
of crossveins between the quadrangle and the level of the nodus. Postocu-
lar spots present, sometimes confluent with the rear of the head in the
female; apical margin of 10 elevated dorsally into a bifid process. Eighth
sternite of the female with or without an apical spine. Colors of the male
characteristically black and blue or green: females with two color forms.
Nymiph.-Lateral lobes of labium bifid, denticulate; movable hook
without hairs, lateral seta 5-6. Median lobe entire. Gills narrow, not
more than one-third as broad as long, lanceolate, tapering, without dis-
tinct color pattern generally.
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
Ischnura ramburii (Selys) 15
1850. Agrion ramburii Selys, Mem. Soc. Sci. Liege, vi, p. 186, nomen nudum.
1857. Agrion tuberculatum Selys, in Sagra, Hist. Nat., vii, p. 198.
1857. Agrion ramburii Selys, in Sagra, Hist. Nat., vii, p. 199.
1861. Agrion iners Hagei, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 75.
1861. Agrion tuberculatum Hagen, ibid, p. 76.
1861. Agrion credulum Hagen, ibid, p. 80, [=var. credula, teste Calvert '02].
1861. Agrion defixum Hagen, ibid, p. 80, [= var. credula, teste Calvert '02].
1867. Agrion iners Hagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, p. 290.
1876. Ischnura ramburii Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg., xli, p. 272.
1888. Agrion (Ischnura) ramburii Gundlach, Contrib. Cuba, p. 223.
1888. Ischnura ramburii Kolbe, Archiv fiir Naturg., liv, pp. 161, 170.
1893. Ischnura ramburii Calvert, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., xx, p. 240.
1895. Ischnura ramburii var. credula Calvert, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2) iv,
1896. Ischnura ramburit Carpenter, Journ. Inst. Jamaica, ii, 3, p. 261.
1902. Ischnura ramburi and var. credula Calvert, B. C. A., p. 124.
1907. Ischnura ramburi Calvert, B. C. A., p. 388.
1910. Ischnura ramburii and subsp. credula Muttkowski, Cat. Olon. N. Am.,
1911. Micronympha ranwburii 'Wilson, Johns Hopkins Univ. Circ. 2, No. 232,
1919. Ischnura ramburii Calvert, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., xlv, p. 356.
1931. Ischnura ramburii Dow, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xliv, p. 56.
Diagnosis.-Male. Face up to and including the anterior half of the
first antennal segment beautiful pale green marked with black as follows:
a basal band on the labrum, sometimes broad and sometimes narrow, with
an irregular front border; the horizontal postclypeus which sometimes
overhangs the vertical anteclypeus. Vertex black, sometimes metallic.
Face clothed with long sparse hairs; occiput with a thin fringe. Postocu-
lar spots subcircular and near the eyes. Rear of head pale. Prothorax
black marked with pale as follows: a spot on either side of the middorsal
line of the fore lobe (sometimes connected across the middle) ; the lateral
margins of the median lobe and a trace on the lateral and rear margins of
the fore lobe. Front of synthorax metallic black to half way between the
humeral and the 2nd lateral suture, with a narrow incomplete ante-
humeral green band. Sides green with a narrow spur of black on the
top of the 2nd suture and a complete fine line on the 3rd, wider above,
very narrow below, and continued along the anterior suture of the mesin-
fraepisternum. Rear margin of metepimeron sometimes with a fine line.
"* The name tuberculatum has page priority over ramburii. Enough confusion has
already been attached to this species to Justify my dissenting to the revival of a name
so little involved.
KLOTS, ODONATA OF PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 93
These all connected with each other above. Legs black, pale green on the
inside of the femora, and with tarsi and base of tibim paler. Wings with
brown veins; stigma of fore wings black in the center, paler on the margins
inside of the veins, especially on the costal and apical sides; that of the
hind wing uniformly pale brown. Abdominal segment 1 black as far as
the transverse carina and with a small median spot; 2-7 metallic black on
the dorsum with a basal pale ring on 3-7 narrowly interrupted on the mid-
line; the black of 7 extends farther down onto the sides. The pale color
of 1-2 and the basal part of 3 green, the remainder of the pale color of 3-7
yellow. Segment 8 brilliant turquoise blue with a very narrow basal band
of black across the dorsum, slightly projecting to rearward on the mid-
line; 9-10 black dorsally, blue on the sides though less broadly on 10.
Apical margins of 10 elevated into a projecting bifid dorsal process. Ap-
pendages brown, inferiors black apically and pale basally. The superiors
from the dorsal view are short and broad, obliquely truncate, the longer
side the outer; the inner side then projects ventrally a distance greater
than the dorsal length of the main horizontal portion. The inferiors are
curved at the tip and about three-fourths as long as the 10th segment.
Female. Typical female similar to the male. Orange female differing
in having the blue or green replaced with orange. Small pale spots some-
times present anterior to each ocellus; postocular spots large and con-
fluent with the rear of the head; rear border of the occiput pale; median
lobe of prothorax more broadly yellow on the sides and with a fine line
on the rear margin on either side of the mid-line. Synthorax orange
yellow with a single mid-dorsal black band continued across the pro-
thorax, extending not quite half way from the dorsal carina to the humeral
suture. Third lateral suture with a faint trace of brown at the top. Legs
paler than in the male. Stigma of both wings uniformly pale. Ab-
domen yellow marked with black or metallic green as follows: segment
2 with a large anteapical spot broadly fused with the narrow apical ring
and extending on the mid-line in a parallel-sided thin streak to the base of
the segment le; dorsum of 3-9, the black of 3-7 constricted at the base and
extending down on the sides at the apex; basal half of the dorsum of 10.
Eighth ventral segment with an apical spine.
Remarks.-I. ramburii credula differs from the typical ramburii only
in the color of the 9th abdominal segment which is blue with irregular
black transverse bands, at least on the apex. Dr. Calvert (1902) has found
that those from the West Indies were mostly of this variety. All that I
have seen are blue with the bands of varying width, narrow or wanting at
la For variations see Plate I, fig. 8.
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF P'ORTO RICO
the base, wider across the apex, but both enlarged on the mid-line, the
apical one sometimes produced into a triangle, half or more of the segment
length (P1. I, Fig. 9). Of the four males which I have from Cuba three
have these bands connected on the median line. Might they not then be
the typical ramburii? One male does not, and yet it seems to have been
caught with the others although there are no data accompanying them
other than "Havana, coll. Baker." The one female which was with these
males differs from the other orange females in having the black of the
dorsum of 9 tending to be separated diffusely into an apical and a basal
band, and in having 10 mostly yellow. The female from Porto Rico has
9 and 10 all black above.
Size.-Abdomen, 23-24 mm., hind wing, 14-18 mm.
Distribution.-I. ramburii ramburii.-Quebec to Florida. Texas, C.
Am. to Chile and Paraguay; West Indies: Cuba.
I. ramburii credula.-Northern California to Lower California, Cen-
tral Amer., Fla.; West Indies: (Cuba?), Jamaica, Haiti, Martinique, Bar-
bados. Porio Rico: Arecibo, March 1-4; Caguas, May 28-29; Coamo
Springs, June 5-7; San Juan. June 9-12; Mayagiiez, Nov. 14; Martin
Pifia, Dec. 31 (A. M. N. H.). Fajardo, Las Cabezas, Jan. 26; Lake Tor-
tuguero, swamp at west end, March 22; Panzardi's Place, Rio Piedras,
Nov. 18 (Garcia-Diaz in C. U.). St. Thomas: (Hagen 1861) ; Nov. 23-
28 (A. M. N.H.). St. John: March 8 (A. M. N. H.). St. Croi.r, March
7-April 7 (A. M. N. H.).
Nymph.-(Calvert, Univ. Iowa Studies Nat. Hist., xii, no. 2, p. 11.)
Length 15-17 + 4.5-5.5, maximum width of gills 1.5. IIead oval, wider
than long; sets on hind angles short. Antenne with 1st and 2nd segment
and proximal third of the 3rd dark, the rest pale. Labium reaching
slightly beyond the precoxe, lateral setme 6, mental seta 4-5.-: Femora with
preapical rings of brown. Gills with long tapering points; axis alter-
nating brown and white. Ovipositor as long as segment 10. (P1. VII,
Specimens from Coamo Springs, April 4, and Damien, Haiti, April 3,
collected by Professor Needham, and one from St. Domingo collected by
K. P. Schmidt in 1916.
Diagnosis.-Face pale, except the postclypeus which is sometimes
black; a broad black band passing through the ocelli covering the vertex
LOTS. ODONATA OFPORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIX ISLANDS 95
and occiput; postocular spots present and often contiguous with the pale
rear margin of the occiput. Prothorax usually black with a transverse
pale spot on the fore lobe and a pale rear margin to the median lobe.
Thorax pale with a black middorsal stripe, a humeral stripe of varying
width, and often with reduced markings on the 2nd and 3rd lateral
sutures. Tenth abdominal segment of the male slightly emarginate but
not elevated into a tubercle. Eighth sternite of the female with a needle-
like vulvar spine on its apical margin. Venationally resembling Ischnura;
its chief difference being in the origin of M, which rises between the 4th
and 6th postnodals in the fore wing. Stigma alike in both wings; usually
four or more crossveins in the costal area beyond the stigma; Cu, ending
on a level with the origin of Mia; petiolation not extending to the anal
Remnarks.-These dragonflies are reported everywhere conspicuous by
their number and by their brilliant colors of turquoise or azure blue and
black, though some forms are yellowish and black.
Nymphs.-Body smooth; head wider than long, elliptical, widest
across the eyes. Submentum of labium reaching the precoxm; lateral
setm 4-6, mental 3-4. Abdomen with well developed lateral keels with
small apical spines. Gills variable but not with long tapering points as
KEY TO WEST INDIAN SPECIES
1. Black stripe on 3rd lateral suture of thorax........................... 2
Never more than a superior spot on the 3rd suture...................... 4
2. Postclypeus black ...................................... [trutiatuul ]
Postclypeus pale; abdominal segment 2 with a horse-shoe shaped spot
of black .......................................................... 3
3. Superior appendages not bifid: abdominal segment 3 more black dorsally
than blue ........................................... [culltellatum]
Superior appendages bifil: segment 3 more blue than black...... caclum
4. Black stripe on tibi:e incomplete................................civile
Black stripe on tibinm complete.......................... doublcdayi]
1. Gills with three irregular cross bands of brown ................ rc(rcJu
Gills with no pigmented cross bands .................. ............... 2
2. Marginal spines on gills extending less than half the length of the gill;
small trachea pigmented .................................... civil
Marginal spines on gills extending more than half of the segment length ;
without pigmentation .............. ...........[....[doubledayi]
96 SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
Enallagma ccecum (Hagen)
(Pl. VI, Figs. 5, 6.)
1861. Agrion coecum Hagen, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 84.
1866. Ischnura ccecum Scudder, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., x, p. 189.
1867. Agrion ccecum var. cardenium Hagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xi,
1876. Enallagma cacum Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg., xli, p. 528.
1876. Enallagma cacum race? cardenium Selys, ibid., p. 530.
1888. Agrion (Enallagma) ccecum Gundlach, Contrib. Cuba, p. 224.
1888. Enallagma cecum Kolbe, Archiv fiir Naturg., liv, pp. 165, 170, 172.
1888. Enallagma krugii Kolbe, ibid., p. 171.
1893. Enallagma krugii Gundlach, Ann. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., (2) xxii, 2, p. 267.
1893. Enallagma cecum Gundlach, ibid., p. 267.
1893. Enallagma cccum Cockerell, Journ. Inst. Jamaica, i, p. 256.
1902. Enallagma ccecum Calvert, B. C. A., p. 112.
1910. Enallagma cecum Muttkowski, Cat. Odon. N. Am., p. 56.
1910. Enallagma coecum race cardenium Muttkowski, ibid., p. 56.
1911. Enallagma cacum Wilson, Johns Hopkins Univ. Circ., No. 2, (232), p. 49.
1916. Enallagma cardenium Kahl, Ann. Cam. Mus., x, p. 520.
1919. Enallagma cwcum Calvert, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., xlv, p. 350.
1919. Enallagma c(ecuni race cardenium, Calvert, ibid., p. 351.
1931. Enallagma cardenium Dow, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xliv, p. 56.
Diagnosis.-Face pale except for a small spot of black on the lateral
hinges of the labrum and a narrow fronto-clypeal band slightly projecting
on either side. Postocular spots large but not reaching the rear border
and narrowly separated from the pale occipital border. Rear of eyes pale
except at the roots and the narrow rear margin. Black humeral stripe of
thorax slightly narrower than the pale antehumeral. Second lateral
suture with a trace of black at its top, which is connected above with the
humeral and with the line on the 3rd suture; this line on the 3rd suture
reaches only to the level of the spiracle. Legs black; tibiae pale externally
and apically. Abdominal segments 1-3 as in P1. I, Fig. 10; 4-7 black
except for a narrow basal pale ring interrupted dorsally; 8-9 entirely blue
dorsally except for the black preapical sete and a very narrow basal ring.
Sides broadly marked with black; 10 all black except for the pale latero-
ventral margins. Entire venter pale; 8-9 with some traces of black.
Superior appendages black, pale basally and ventrally; inferiors pale
except their black tips.
Female. Labrum and postclypeus black. Stripe of 3rd lateral suture
of thorax abbreviated below. Abdominal segments 1-2 like the male; ante-
apical ring fused on the mid-line with the apical one. Dorsum of 3-7
metallic green black with interrupted pale basal rings; sides and venter
LOTS, ODONATA OF' PORTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 97
pale; 8 pale above, the black apical ring one-fourth to one-fifth the seg-
ment length and fused with the black of the sides. Nine to ten black
above. Appendages black; ovipositor pale, about as long as segment 10,
the tips of the booklets reaching to the tip of the appendages; ventral
spine on 8 present.
Remarks.-Enallagma cardenium as discussed by Williamson (1922)
and Byers (1930) I treat here as a race of cacum. The appendages of
all my Cuban material shows the differences pointed out by Selys and Dr.
Calvert. Other variations indicated by Dr. Calvert are also in agreement.
E. ccecum cardenium differs from the typical ce(cum as follows: (1) The
inferior branch of the superior appendages of the male is wider than that
of cecumm. Its width is greater than and even two times as great as its
length, thereby making the notch between it and the stalk less deep. (2)
Smaller size. (3) Dorsal thoracic band is slightly wider.
The following table shows the results obtained by measurements of
Locality Length in mm. Width in mm.
post. oc. dors. Notch
abdomen h. w. stigma spots stripe in app.
P. R. (21)" 26-28.5 17-19.5 .33-.38 .28-.45 .60-.88 deep
St. Thomas (1) 26 17 .38 .38 .69 deep
St. Croix (8) 25-28 16-18 .30-.38 .38-.44 .69 medium
Haiti (5) 25-27.5 17-18 .35-.46 .30-.40 .60-.73 medium
Cuba (10) 23-24.5 14.5-16.5 .26-.29 .32-.46 .44-.55 shallow
Due to the kindness of Herr Doktor Giinther Enderlein of the Zoblog-
isches Museum der Universitat, Berlin, I have been able to examine
Kolbe's type of Enallagma krugii. It is a true E. ccecum ccecum, showing
the characters of the other specimens that I have seen from Porto Rico.
Size.-E. ccecum cacum: Abdomen, 25-28.5, hind wing, 17-19.5 mm.
E. ccecum cardenium: Abdomen, 23-24.5, hind wing, 14.5-16.5
Type locality.-E. caecum cecum: St. Thomas and Cuba. E. ccecum
Distribution.-E. ccecum ccecum: Calif., Central Amer. to Brazil. West
Indies: Isle of Pines (?), Jamaica, Haiti. Porto Rico: (Selys 1876,
Gundlach 1893, Kolbe) ; Mameyes, Feb. 19; Caguas, Feb. 10, and May 28;
Jayuya, Jan. 5; Cayey, May 30-31; Barros, June 4; Ensenada, June 14-
19; Adjuntas, June 8-26; Aibonito, July 14-17; Coamo Springs, June
5-7, July 18, and Dec. 27 (A. M. N. H.). Coamo Springs, April 4 (Need-
ham, in C. U.); Cidra, March 28, 1300 ft. (M. D. Leonard in C. U.).
17 Number in parenthesis indicates number of specimens examined. /C'
SCIENTIFIC SURVEY OF PORTO RICO
St. Croix: Christiansted, June 4-March 3 (A. Mf. N. H.). St. Thomas:
(Hagen 1861), (Gundlach 1893), April 5 (A. M. N. H.).
E. ccecum cardenium: Florida, West Indies: Cuba.
Nymph.-(cardeninum after Byers, 1930, Univ. Fla. Publications, I, 1,
p. 194.) Total length 9 + 5. Lateral seta 4, mental sete 3. Lateral
keels of abdomen well developed, bearing sets in clumps. Gills broad, leaf-
like, with pigment in the axis and trachea, and in three irregular cross
Enallagmia civil (Hagen)
(Pl. VI, Fig. 13.)
1861. Agrion civil Hagen, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 8S.
1867. Agrion civil Hagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, p. 290.
1876. Enallagma civile Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg., xli, p. 514.
188. Agrion (Enalllagma) civil Gundlach, Contrib. Cuba, p. 226.
188S. Enallagnma cirile Kolbe. Archive fiir Natnrg., liv. p. 170.
1893. Enallagma civil Gundlach, Ann. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., (2) xxii, 2, p. 267.
1902. Enallagina civile Calvert, B. C. A., p. 110.
1909. EDallagma civil Calvert, Ann. Carn. 3ns., vi, p. 158.
1910. Enallagma cirile Muttkowski, Cat. Odon. N. Am., p. 56.
1911. Enallagnma civil Wilson, Johns Hopkins Univ. Circ., 2, No. 232, p. 49.
1919. Enallagma civil Calvert, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc.. xlv, p. 354.
Diagnosis.-Male. Face pale blue except the postclypeus which is
black with a blue border. Postocular spots wide, narrowly separated from
the narrow occipital border. Eyes and rear of head pale blue. Dorsum of
prothorax black except for the usual transverse spot on the fore lobe
and the narrow elevated margin of the rear lobe and a pale spot on each
side. Synthorax with the usual middorsal black stripe and the humeral
stripe, both narrow. Third lateral suture with a spur of black at the top
more or less connected with the humeral stripe. Posterio-lateral margin
with a black spot. Femora black streaked with pale on the outside;
tibite pale, with an incomplete black line internally; tarsal segments
black apically; claws long, black tipped. Abdomen conspicuous tur-
quoise blue with black as follows: a small middorsal spot and a narrow
apical ring on 1 ; segments 2-7 with an anteapical spot narrowly connected
with an apical half ring, on 4-5 increasing in size and more broadly con-
nected, on 6-7 broadly fused with the ring, on 6 three-fourths of the seg-
ment length, on 7 four-fifths. Eight to nine all pale with extremely min-
ute basal rings; 10 black on the dorsum. Superior appendages black;
inferiors black at tip only.