Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Mammals of Porto Rico, living and...
 Mammals of Porto Rico, living and...
 The birds of Porto Rica and the...
 The birds of Porto Rica and the...
 Index for Volume IX
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Title: Scientific survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00091487/00002
 Material Information
Title: Scientific survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands
Alternate Title: Scientific survey of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands
Physical Description: 19 v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: New York Academy of Sciences
Jay I. Kislak Reference Collection (Library of Congress)
Publisher: The Academy,
The Academy
Place of Publication: New York N.Y
Publication Date: 1927
Copyright Date: 1927
Frequency: completely irregular
Subject: Scientific expeditions -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Periodicals -- Puerto Rico   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Periodicals -- Virgin Islands of the United States   ( lcsh )
Natuurlijke historie   ( gtt )
Geologie   ( gtt )
Expedities   ( gtt )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Puerto Rico
United States Virgin Islands
Summary: Includes bibliographies.
Ownership: Provenance: Gift of Jay I. Kislak Foundation.
Statement of Responsibility: New York Academy of Sciences.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, pt. 1-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased with vol. XIX, pt. 1.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 18, pt. 4 (1952).
General Note: Kislak Ref. Collection: Vol. 18, pt. 2 (1941)-pt. 4 (1952).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00091487
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01760019
lccn - 2002209050


This item has the following downloads:

VID00002 ( PDF )

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    List of Illustrations
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
    Mammals of Porto Rico, living and extinct -- chiroptera and insectivora
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 4a
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Mammals of Porto Rico, living and extinct -- rodentia and edentata
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
    The birds of Porto Rica and the Virgin Islands -- colymbiformes to columbiformes
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 250a
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
        Page 396
        Page 397
        Page 398
        Page 399
        Page 400
        Page 401
        Page 402
        Page 403
        Page 404
        Page 405
        Page 406
    The birds of Porto Rica and the Virgin Islands -- psittaciformes to passeriformes
        Page 409
        Page 410
        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 413
        Page 414
        Page 415
        Page 416
        Page 417
        Page 418
        Page 419
        Page 420
        Page 421
        Page 422
        Page 423
        Page 424
        Page 425
        Page 426
        Page 427
        Page 428
        Page 429
        Page 430
        Page 431
        Page 432
        Page 433
        Page 434
        Page 435
        Page 436
        Page 437
        Page 438
        Page 439
        Page 440
        Page 441
        Page 442
        Page 443
        Page 444
        Page 445
        Page 446
        Page 447
        Page 448
        Page 449
        Page 450
        Page 451
        Page 452
        Page 453
        Page 454
        Page 455
        Page 456
        Page 457
        Page 458
        Page 459
        Page 460
        Page 461
        Page 462
        Page 463
        Page 464
        Page 465
        Page 466
        Page 467
        Page 468
        Page 469
        Page 470
        Page 471
        Page 472
        Page 473
        Page 474
        Page 475
        Page 476
        Page 477
        Page 478
        Page 479
        Page 480
        Page 481
        Page 482
        Page 483
        Page 484
        Page 485
        Page 486
        Page 487
        Page 488
        Page 489
        Page 490
        Page 491
        Page 492
        Page 493
        Page 494
        Page 495
        Page 496
        Page 497
        Page 498
        Page 499
        Page 500
        Page 501
        Page 502
        Page 503
        Page 504
        Page 505
        Page 506
        Page 507
        Page 508
        Page 509
        Page 510
        Page 511
        Page 512
        Page 513
        Page 514
        Page 515
        Page 516
        Page 517
        Page 518
        Page 519
        Page 520
        Page 521
        Page 522
        Page 523
        Page 524
        Page 525
        Page 526
        Page 527
        Page 528
        Page 529
        Page 530
        Page 531
        Page 532
        Page 533
        Page 534
        Page 535
        Page 536
        Page 537
        Page 538
        Page 539
        Page 540
        Page 541
        Page 542
        Page 543
        Page 544
        Page 545
        Page 546
        Page 547
        Page 548
        Page 549
        Page 550
        Page 551
        Page 552
        Page 553
        Page 554
        Page 555
        Page 556
        Page 557
        Page 558
        Page 559
        Page 560
        Page 561
        Page 562
        Page 563
        Page 564
        Page 565
        Page 566
        Page 567
        Page 568
        Page 569
        Page 570
        Page 571
        Page 572
    Index for Volume IX
        Page 573
        Page 574
        Page 575
        Page 576
        Page 577
        Page 578
        Page 579
        Page 580
        Page 581
        Page 582
        Page 583
        Page 584
        Page 585
        Page 586
        Page 587
        Page 588
        Page 589
        Page 590
        Page 591
        Page 592
        Page 593
        Page 594
        Page 595
        Page 596
        Page 597
        Page 598
        Page 599
        Page 600
        Page 601
        Page 602
        Page 603
        Page 604
        Page 605
        Page 606
        Page 607
        Page 608
        Page 609
        Page 610
        Page 611
        Page 612
        Page 613
        Page 614
        Page 615
        Page 616
        Page 617
        Page 618
        Page 619
        Page 620
        Page 621
        Page 622
        Page 623
        Page 624
        Page 625
        Page 626
        Page 627
        Page 628
        Page 629
        Page 630
        Page 631
        Page 632
        Page 633
        Page 634
        Page 635
        Page 636
        Page 637
        Page 638
        Page 639
        Page 640
        Page 641
        Page 642
        Page 643
        Page 644
        Page 645
        Page 646
        Page 647
        Page 648
        Page 649
        Page 650
        Page 651
        Page 652
        Page 653
        Page 654
        Page 655
        Page 656
        Page 657
        Page 658
        Page 659
        Page 660
        Page 661
        Page 662
        Page 663
        Page 664
        Page 665
        Page 666
        Page 667
        Page 668
        Page 669
        Page 670
        Page 671
        Page 672
        Page 673
        Page 674
        Page 675
        Page 676
        Page 677
        Page 678
        Page 679
        Page 680
        Page 681
        Page 682
        Page 683
        Page 684
        Page 685
        Page 686
        Page 687
        Page 688
        Page 689
        Page 690
        Page 691
        Page 692
        Page 693
        Page 694
        Page 695
        Page 696
        Page 697
        Page 698
        Page 699
        Page 700
        Page 701
        Page 702
        Page 703
        Page 704
        Page 705
        Page 706
        Page 707
        Page 708
        Page 709
        Page 710
        Page 711
        Page 712
        Page 713
        Page 714
        Page 715
        Page 716
        Page 717
        Page 718
        Page 719
        Page 720
        Page 721
        Page 722
        Page 723
        Page 724
        Page 725
        Page 726
        Page 727
        Page 728
    Back Matter
        Page 729
        Page 730
        Page 731
        Page 732
        Page 733
        Page 734
        Page 735
        Page 736
        Page 737
        Page 738
        Page 739
        Page 740
        Page 741
        Page 742
        Page 743
        Page 744
        Page 745
        Page 746
    Back Cover
        Page 747
        Page 748
Full Text




Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands




T itle-lpage ............................................... ......... i
C ontents .............. . .............. .............. iii
D)ates of Publication of Parts ........................................ iii
List of Illustrations ................................................. iv
Mammals of Porto Rico, Living and Extinet-Chiroptera and Insectivora.
By II. E. ANTHONY ............................................. .
Mammals of Porto Rico, Living and Extinct Iodentia and Edentata.
By II. E. ANTIHONY ............... .. ............................ D7
Tile Birds of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands Colymbiformps to
Columbiforins. By ALEXANDER WVETMORE ............ ............... .24:
The Birds of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands-Psittaciformes to
Passeriformes. Bly ALEXANDER WETIMOIE. ........................... 40)
Index ......................... .............. 7


Part 1, November 27, 1925.
Part 2, January 80. 1920.
Iart 3, November 12. 1!)27.
Part 4, December 22, 1927.



Yoclilio leporbius wnuslirlM-s X:2/1 ; (ld Loiza. Porto tico ............... 14
Chilontclcris parnclli poororicensis X3/1; adult & ; Trujillo Alto, Iorto
Rico ................................................................ 1
Chiloyiactcris fiiginosa inflalta X3/1 ; adult 8 : Pueblo Viejo, Porto Rico 22
.lorioops blaintrillii XS/3; adult ; Trujillo Alto, Porto Rico.......... 20
.lormoops bluinviltii X4/I ; adult S ; Trujillo Alto, Porto Rico.......... 27
Moiophyllus l porloriceisis X3/1: adult $ ; Pueblo Viejo, Porto Itico..... 30
ionoophylnlus frcler y,2/1 ; type: Morovis, Cueva Catedral, Porto Rico.... 33
Braclhyphlla carerconur X2/ ; adult 9 ; Pueblo Viejo, Porto Rico..... 36
Sienodernma rufus. Skull figures X3/1 ; dentition l14/?3; Morovis, Cueva
Cathedral, Porto Rico. A, crown view of maxillary looth-row; B,
crown view of m:andibular tooth-row. .............................. 40
Artibcus junaaicensis jnatnicenlsis X2/1; adult 8 ; Utuado, Porto Rico... 45
I'hyllonyelcris major X2/3: type; Morovis, Cncuva Catedral, Porto Rico 49
Eropihlla bombifronsi X:3/1; adult 8 ; Pueblo Viejo, Porto Rico........ 53
Epicsiens fuscwis 'wctnorci X8/3; adult 9 ; Pueblo Viejo, Porto Rico.... 51
Tadarida mi'iurite XS/3: adult 9 : Utuado. Porto Rico................... iO
Molossu. fortis X3/1 : adult, : Adjuntas, Porto Rico ................... G5
SCsopthoultc.s cedithi(. Skulls of adult male and adult female, from Cueva
Catedral, Morovis, Porto Rico. X2/3.............................. 0i
NSsophionecs edilltir. Skulls of adult male and adult female, from Cueva
Catedral, Porto Rico. X2/1 ................................... 71
Xesophioutes cdillh. Crown views of upper dentition, A, and lower denti-
tion, B. X;i/l....................................... ......... 73
Xcs'op/houtcs edithli. Upper dentition in profile. XG/1 ............. .... 74
Xcsopihoutc. edith/e. Right scapula: A, external aspect: B, anterior
aspect; C, ventral aspect. X5/2 ............ ....... ............. 70
c.sopliho ji edith/r. Left hulnerus: A, anterior aspect: 1. internal as-
pect ;' C, Bp.oerjor aspect. X"/2 .................................. 77
Ne'sophlldecs edithic. Right ulna: A, anterior aspect: B, external aspect;
C, posterior aspect: I)D internal aspect. X5/2 ..................... 79
Yesopihonfes edillur. Left radius: A, anterior aspect; I, external aspect:
C. posterior aspect. X5'/2 ........................ ............ 80
Nesophioitcs cdithli. Sacrum: A. dorsal aspect: B, lateral aspect. X4/1. 82
Xcsophioutes reitlrr., Right inneiminate of adult male: A, external aspect:
IP, dorsal aspect; C, internal aspect. Left iinomlilnue of adult female:
I), external aspect. X5/2.................... ................... S3
Xcsopiotntcs edilth'. Right femur of adult male: A, anterior aspect: B,
posterior aspect; C, internal aspect; I), external aspect. Right femur
of adult female: E, anterior aspect. X2/1 ....................... 85
Nco.sphoiltcs celithar. Riight tibia of adult male: A. external aspect.
Left tibia and fibula of adult female: I, antero-external aspect; C,
external aspect; I), posterior aspect. X2/1 ........................ 87


Elaismodontomril obliqu/lt. Skull. dorsal aspect. IMorovis, Porto Rico.
X 1/1 .............. ........ .... .............................. 99
Elaisi-imodonoouliilo/ns obliiqui.s. Skull andl mandible, laterial aspect. Morovis,
Porto Rico. X1/1 ................. ............................ 100
1lrhsmodontuonUmys oblirquj/.. Skull, lateral aspect. Utuado, Porto Rico.
X 1/1 ......................................................... 101
l/sraleodoniomsry obliquit. Skull, front aspect. Morovis. Porto Rico.
X1/1. ........................................................... 101
Elarssisonlosomjss obliqsins. Skull, ventral aspect. lMorovis, Porto Rico.
X1/1 ...................... ... .. ................. ............ 102
EhfisiodoiiloyiiN obli/qsui 31Madille, dorsal aspect. Morovis Porto Rico.
X/1. .................. ................................. 103
Elasissodonslo inIy obliq Ins. Porto Rico. A, oblique aspect of superior
incisor; B, obliqule allterior aspect of inferior incisor; C, maxillary
molar of unwornI. ,maSximuln length : 1). worn maxillary molar of aged
aniinal, showing base of tooth filled in by cement; E, unworn mandib-
Ilar molar: F, crown view of mandibular molars of aged animal
l/ ................. .. ... .................................. 107
Amblyirhi:ia hoi/ndla. Jsland of Anguilla. G. crown view of first two
maxillh ry mol:ars. X /1 .......................................... 107
Elrr.srhldonroiinm!l. robl/itls. Porto Rico. A, external aspect of le't
scamlal : 1, internal aspect ; C, posterior aspect; 1), spine of scapula;
E, glenoid surface of left scapula. X /1 .......................... 110
Elitu/nmodiuntoims obliqllisa. Porto Rico. A, anterior aspect of left hu-
mcrus; I, internal aspect: C, posterior aspect ; D, anterior aspect; E,
anterior aspect of left clavicle; F, posterior aspect. X1/1........ 112
Ela.srnlmoidnlolmys oiliqusr .s. Porto Rico. A. anterior aspect or right lna :
B, external aspect; C. internal aspect; I), posterior aspect. Xl/1 114
Elsmodontosls/lu oblirqusti. I'orto Rico. A, anterior aspect of right ra-
dius; I external aspect; C, posterior aspect. X1/1 ................ 115
El'rasmoliionitnsm obliqsuss. Porto Rico. Sacrum. A, dorsal aspect; B,
lateral aspect: C, venlral aspect. X1/1 ........................... 117
EhiasmolidoHntomis obliquns. P'orto Rico. Innominate. A, dorsal aspect;
B. Internal aspect: C. ventral aspect. X1/1 ........................ 119
El/simodolltonyrs obliqu/iis. Porto Rico. A, anterior aspect of left femur;
B. internal aspect: C. posterior aspect: D, external aspect. X1/1.. 121
Elirsrmoidonirlomys obliqisji s. Porto Rico. A, anterior aspect of left tibia;
B, external aspect: C. internal aspect. X1/1..................... 123
Elairimtdon/omy/s obliquus. Porto Rico. A, external aspect of right
fibula; I,. posterior aspect: C, internal aspect. X1/1 .............. 125
Elasmondon/toml/s obliquus. Porto Rico. A, dorsal aspect of atlas; B,
anterior aspect: C. lateral aspect of axis; I), anterior aspect. X1/1. 125
El/smodoanoor is obliquus. Porto Rico. A, lateral aspect of thoracic
vertebra; B, anterior aspect: C, lateral aspect of Inmbar vertelbra;
I, dorsal aspect; E. lateral aspect of caudal vertebra; F, dorsal as-
pect. X1/1 ..................................................... 126
Elasimodoniomyis obliquins. .Porto Rio. Astragulus, calcaneni, two
views of ungual phalanx, and metatarsal. X1/1 ................. 128


ll'lptr.rodonr bidenns. Utuldo, P'orto Rico. A, B, two views of skull:
C, I). two views of mandible. X1/1. E. crown view of maxillary
molar: F. crown view of nandlihular iorar. XS/. ................ 1:1
Isolobodon portoricniisis. Utuado. Porto Rico. A. B. C. three views of
skull. I'lyiodonttii tr'diuti. Sail Lorenzo. Santa Domingo. DI, view\
of skull. X /1/ ................................... .. ............ 33
A. I'lagiodiontlia etdiumr. San Lorenzo. Santo D1omingo. B. Isolof;odon
porloricoe sis. Utundo, Porlo Rico. X /l .......................... 111;
Isoloboldon portoriccsis. Utuado, P'orto Rico. A, Il, C, three views of
left mandible. P'lt/uiodolia ird,/iian. San Pedro die Macoris, Santo
SDoiing.o. TI, E. F. three views of mandible. X1/1................ 137
Isolobilodo pororhic.rsis. Utuado, I'orlo Rico. Lateral view of molar
tooth to show striation s in ceme tnt. X(1/1 ........................... 1 S
Ietcrropsomtys in sulauis. tiundo. Porlo Iico. A, B, C. three views of
skull; I), view of mamnlible. X/I1. Homoprsomys (olilleilcsis. Ciales.
Porto Rico. E. view of skull. X1/1.............................. 14S
Iltcrrop.soity ins. srhlrns. Utuatlo. P'orto Jtiej. Two views of atlas and
two views of lumbar vertebra. X1/1 ............................. 152
Acrtotoolrn odoltriyionir.. Skull, dorsal aspect. Utuado, I'orto Itico.
X1/1 .......... .... ...... ...... ............. .. .............. 130
Acratocinu. major. Skull, dorsal aspect. Utuado, 1'orto Mico. X1/1. 1T
Aerrlo(tlrus odonlriogrcius. Skull and mulldililes, lateral aspect. Ttuado,
Porto Rico. X1/1 .................... ......................... 1.;0
Aerrrtoenis major. Skull and left mandible, lateral aspect. Vtualo.
Porto Rico. 1/1 ............................................... 111
Acrutocmus odontrito ru l. Skull, lateral aspect. lorovis. I'orto Rico.
X1/1 ......................................................... 103
Acra toriu. orldouitrigqonrs. Skull, ventral inspect. Utuado. 'Porto Rico.
X 1/ 1. ............................ .............................. 1 4
Acrato ois major. Hasicranial region of skull. TTtuado. Porto Rico.
X1/1 ....................................................... 1 ;
AcriororlrIs odlon 'igoniis. MaIndille. dorsal aspect. Utiudo. I'orto RTico.
X 1/1 ....... .......... .... ......................... ............ 1i5
A'eratoci lrt. major. Mandille, dorsal aspect. Utuad o, ]'orto Rico. X/- 11. 'l
A cratorc its odotnriyonuis. Morovis. Porto Rico. Right malar. X1/1 .... I((
Acrntlornurs odrntrigourn.s. Porto Rico. IUlTier and lower incisor. X1/1.. 163(
Acr'trlonri o otlontriigoltus. 3norovis, Porto Rico. Left scaplla. A, ex-
ternal aspect; I, glenoid surface. X 1/1 .......................... IliS
.Acrrr atoc rl odtrigofi ints. Ttnuado. Porto Rico. A, anterior aspeTct of
right liurnerus: IB, external aspect. X /1 .......................... 170
A'ratoru'isi oldo/ntrigowii. I'tundo. lPorto Rico. Posterior aspect of right
humerus. X 1/1 ................................................. 171
AI' r'torn.is odotlrirro,. in. i'tnado, Porto Rico. Anterior aspect of clavi-
cle. X 1/1 .............................. ........................ 173
Arm(,rto(rus orldoritrionrtus. rtuado, Porto Rico. Internal aspect of right
ulna. X1/1 ...................... ............................. 174
Arratoe nr, s oil major. Utuado, Porto Rico. Anterior aspect of right 1ulna;
11. internal aspect; (, posterior aspect. XI/1 ...................... 175


Acratocrous odontrifoUn is. MorovisI, IPoirt I ico. Anterior aspect of right
radius. X I/1 .................... ................... ........ .. 171;
Acralooi nu major. Porto Rico. Ribs. X/1 .......................... 177
Artratocitus oldoirigonius. Morvis. Porto Itico. External aspect of
sternebraln X 1/ .................. ......... ................ .. .. 17
A ii'ftocroiis majorr. 'tlualdo. I'orto Rico. Lateral aspect of left innomi-
nate. X1/1 ................... ............ ..................... 17
Acraitoioxi ma jor. IUtilado. Porto liico. 'ortion of expanded ilium.
XI/1. ................... ................................... 179
Actratocnts odontrifoiitns. Morovis. Porto Rico. A, anterior aspect of
right femur; Ii internal aspect. XI/1............................ IS
.Arrict-a trnls oditoi riygoinus. IMorovis. IP'rlo Rico. Posterior aspect of
right fem ur. X /1 ............................................. 181
Alcratoetnus majrjor. 'tnado, Porto Rico. A, anterior aspect of right tibia.
XI/1. Aeratocrinu odiontrigloiu u. Mlorovis, Porto Rico. IB, anterior
aspect of right tibia. X/. ................. ................... 1S4
Arratoreii.tu odontri/otuis. iMorovis, Porto Rico. A, external aspect of
right tibia; posterior aspect. X1/1 .......................... 185
Aeratocruts odoltriglonilst. Utuado, Porto IRico. A. external aspect of left
fiblla: I i, posterior aspect. Xl/1 ............................. 187
Acrratocuits Iumjor. Utundo. Porto Itico. A, right calcaneuilm. Aeriotoctt)us
odontrigoiiius. Utuado, 'Poro Iico. BI, C, left ncalaneunm. X1/1 .... 18
Acratocitus odolutrigyotis. Porto Iico. A, dorsal aspect of of left astragn-
lus: imetatarsal: C, phalanx: D, ungual phalanx. X/1.......... 190
Actratoctiut. Porto Itico. A. dorsal aspect of caudal vertebra: B. lateral
aspect of same vertebra ; C. lateral aspect of thoracic vertebra:; ),
lateral aspect of bar verte ; E, dorsal aspect of lum verteb ; same vertebra;
F, cervical vertebra. Xi/1 ........................................ 192
The extinct caraeara (Pol!yilrus Ihtclbrosus). Broken right metacarpil
(type). Natural size. From cavern deposits near Utuado .......... 325
The extinct caracanra (I'ol!lborius Ittebrosuts)'. Right metacarpal (type).
View of particular face. Natural size .............................. 325
The extinct De Booy's rail ('rsctrolhi s dcbooyi). I.eft iblio-tarsus. In-
ternal view. Natural size. Fronm cavern deposits of Cueva San
Miguel ........................................ ................. 341
The extinct lie Booy's rail (Xcsotrochis dcbooy/i). Left tibio-tarsus. An-
terior view,. Natural size. From cavernl deposits of Cueva San
Migel ............. ........................................ 341
The extinct 1)e Booy's rail (Ayc otrot'his dcbooyi). Left femur: Anterior
view. Natural size. From cavern deposits of Cueva Clara .......... 341
The exlinct lie looy's rail (Nesotrochis deboo!yi). Left humerus. An-
terior view. Natural size. From (.Ceva San MRiguel................ 341
Tile extinct De Booy's rail (Xcsolroehis dtrlbooyi). Left humnerus. Pos-
terior view. Natural size. From Cneva San Miguel ............... :141
The extinct Porto Itican Snipe (Ctlillat nthotliiii). Itight llllluerns
(type). Posterior view. About natural size. From cavern deposits
of ('noa Catedral ................................................ .11

SC'IJXTIl,'I ( NU'Ri I.Y 0o I'OlRTO 1i1('0

The extinct Porto RIican Snipe (Copelrla athlionyi). Right hlumnrous (type).
Anterior view. About natural size. From ncvern deposits of Cueva
Cathedral .................. .............. ........ ..... 301
The extinct Porto Itican Snipe (C Ipcll (ut111onyi). Right met'tarsus.
Anterior view. Natural size. Froln cavern deposits of Cueva Cate-
dral ........................................................... .. (1
The extinct Porto Rican Snipe (Copellc urnthonyi). Right metatarsus.
Posterior view. Natural size. From cavern deposits of Cueva Cate-
dral ........................................ .................. 3, 1
The extinct Porto Rican Snipe (Caplrlla tunthoiyi). Right metalarsus.
Dfistal outline of trochle:. Twice naturai size. From Cueva Cate-
dral ......................................... .. ............ 3G 1
Tlie extinct Porto Rican quail-dove (Orcopelciit litrra ). Left metatarsus
(type). Anterior view. Slightly less thla natural size. From cav-
ern deposits of Cueva Clara .................................... 40(
The extinct Porto Rican'quail-dove (Orcopclci liurnVi). Ieft metatarsus
(type). Proximal view of head. Slightly more than twice natural
size ......................................... ................ 40;
The extinct Porto lican quail-dove (Orcpeoplcit ltrrla). Left metatarsus
(type). Distal outlille of trochle.e. Twice natural size............ 400
The extinct Porto Rican 1a1rn owl (Tylo (arttlicn ). Proximal end of left
metatarsus (type). Anterior view. Natural size. From cavern
deposits of Cueva Toraiio ...................................... 429
The extinct Porto Rican harn owl (Tylo corraticii). Proximal end of
right metatarsus. Internal face. Natural size. From cavern de-
posits of Cueva Torafi. .......................................... 42!
The extinct lesser Porto Lican crow or solitario (Corcns plunilis). Right
ulnn (type). Inner face. Natural size. From cavern deposits of
(ueva San Miguel...................................... ....... . 482


Map of Porto Rico. with collecting sites indicated by black circles..oppoiite 4
Map of the West Indian region to show Porto Rico inl its geographical
relation to other islands ..................... ... ................ 2. 9
(ontour map of the Caribbean Sea. After Agassiz ..................... 240
Malp showing distribution of the species of the genus Artibcn.s in the
Antilles, Central America and northern South America. After An-
derson ........................................................ 241
Map of IPorto Rico and the Virgin Islands, with Dr. A. Wetmore's route of
travel indicated ......................................... opposite 250



( The plates are arranged consecutively at the end of the volume)

I. Looking out from (orozal Cave.
Limestone hills along road from Itunado to Arecibo.
II. Slopes of Luquillo Mountains.
III. Vegetation in Luquillo M3ountains.
I V. Region about Morovis.
V. Along road from Manalee to Morovis.
Near Ciales.
VI. Near GCui.ymln.
I'alhnms ile'r 310Morovis.
VII. Along road froln Naguabo o m;laynlma.
River 1nler (Coamo.
VTII. Rio (Grandle de Arecibo.
IX. Iligh mouInilainlos regioiL near Cr.ayey.
Cave interior of unproductive type.
X. l'iedra de In Cueva.
Entrance to Corozal ('nve.
XI. A large cave near .31Movis, the ('nve of San Miguel.
XII. Interior of Corozal Cave.
Small eave near the Cave of San Miguel.
XITI. A'Xclmpholnttc c(lithrr.
Figs. In. b, Ib, 2a, 2a, S, 3b, 3b, 4. Skull.
Fig. 5. Mandible.
XIV. Xc'sophoites editlhr.
Figs. (;a, G;), (e, 7. Scapula.
Figs. 8, 0, 10. Itib.
Figs. 11n, 11b. Left humerus.
Figs. 12a, 121, 12c. Sncruln.
Figs. l:1a, 13b, 13c. Right ulln.
Figs. 11a, 14b, 14c. Right radius.
Figs. 1Ia, 155, 15c. 10a, 1Cb, Ilc. Innolminate.
XV. Xcsopholitcs edithtc.
Figs. 17a, 17b, 7e, 1Sa. Sh1, ISc. Right femur.
Figs. 19a, 19b, 10c, 20a, 201i. Tibia.
Fig. 21. Atlas.
Fig. 22. Axis.
Fig. 23. Thoracic vertebra.
Fig. 24. Fifth cervical vertebra.
Fig. 25. Lumbar vertebra.
Fig. 20. Caudal verlebrta.
XVI. Elta.sodontoins obliquuts.
Figs. la, lb. Skull.
Fig. 2. ,eft mandible.
XVII. EleismodottomUys obliq us.
Figs. 3, 4a, 4b. Skull.
Fig. 5. Maxillary tooth-row.


XVII1. Elaslilmdol ( ntl!s obli quex.
Figs. 1. 2. Mlandible.
Fig. 3. 1Mandibllnar tooth-row.
Figs. 4. 5. Sal>ubll.
NXIX. Ehli. ioditloiti s obliquit.
Figs. na. (l), (;c, (id. 7. Left Imierus.
XX. Ehl iniodoltoin .is oiblin luts.
Figs. Sn, Sb. '.. Sd. Righi uiltn.
Figs. aIn, lb. Right radius.
XX[. Elasiiodouiilto,!.ys obliqui.s.
Figs. in, 1i, lc, Id. Left femuir.
Fig. 2. Left tilbia.
XXIr. Ehlasodoltomni)s obliiqu.ns.
Figs. :ia. :I, 2c. 3(. Ieoft tibin.
Figs. 4a, 4b. Right filula.
XXIII. EisI moldoilto tIrn obliqulis.
Figs. l. MH. Left in ininate.
XXIV. Elasminodoo nilomI oHbliq(s.
Fig. l1. Left iniiniii mle.
Figs. 2a. 2b. Snriinm.
XXV. Elasmiodonlomi1/.s obliquiis.
Fig. 3. Atlas.
Figs. -a, 41). Axis.
Figs. 5. 6. 7. S. Thoracic vertebr:.
Figs. 9a, f91. Caudal vertebra.
Fig. 10. Rib.
XXVI. Elasmodfontolimy obliquus.
Fig. 5. Rib.
Figs. lan. (i. Series of five cervical vertebran.
Figs. 7a. 71. I umbar vertebrae.
XXVII. Isolobodon pliiioricnisis.
Figs. la, i), l,c 2. Skull.
XXVI I. oIslobolon porlo oriceinis.
Figs. 3, 4. Skull.
Figs. 5a. 1b. -)e. Un. 6ib. Mandible.
XXIX. Pl'lugiodonliu irdiimn.
Figs. 7a, 71). 7d. Skull..
Figs. Sa, Sb, Sc. Mandible.
XXX. Isolobodoij prti iiri'riohsis and Elahin iodonitoiys obliqenms.
Figs. Ja. lb. Right scapula, Jsolobodon.
Figs. 2a, 21b. Ai0'lmiion process. Flu siml bio/rolonuis.
Figs. :n, :). Left clavicle. Elasmeodntoftn ..
Fig. 4. Itibs. Isolobodon.
Figs. an. .1, rc. lIight ulna., I.wlobdoii.
XXX I. Isolobodon portlric.0lxix.
Figs. in, illh. ic. I.eft ulna.
Figs. 7a, 7T, 7e. Right hunmerus.
Figs. Na, Sb, So. Left radius.
Figs. )I:n, 9i), 9e, 9(1. Riglit feninr.


XXXII. Isolobodon portoricensis.
Figs. 10a. 10l. 10c, 10d. Left femur.
Figs. 11,n 111. Left tibia.
Figs. 32a, 12b, 12e. Left filula.
XXXIII. Isolohodoi portorin'csis.
Figs. 13a, l:l), 13c. Snernm.
Figs. 14a, 141), 14c. Right innominate.
XXXIV. IlJteropsnomys inslalns.
Figs. 1a, 11), Ic, ]d. Skull.
Fig. le. Maxillary tooth-r(iw.
XXXV. Ilctcrops 'mys.l insiulons and Homopsomys an tilletsis.
Fig. If. M1tu Fig. 1g. SIandiular molar series, I]teropsostmUs.
Fig. 2. Palate, IIomopsomys.
Figs. 2a, ";li. Skull, Ilomopsomnys.
Figs. 4a. 4 Mandible. HIomopsomys.
XXXVI. Iomopsomys antillciisis, Ilceropsomys iisaIiihns and IIcptaxo-
dlon bide4ns.
Fig. 3e. Skull. JlHomiop.stomys.
Fig. 5. Atlasn, Iletcropsoml8s.
Fig. ;. Lumlbar vertebra, Icleropxom yi.
Figs. Ta. 7b, 7e. Skull fragment, Hepta.rndon.
Fig. 7d. 'remolar. Ileptraxdon.
Fig. S. Left mandible. pln.rodmon.
Fig. .. Crown view (f lower premular, HeIlcptodon.
XXXVII. Acralocnmts odontrigonmis.
Skull. No. 17720, lateral aspect.
Right jugal.
XXXVIII. Acratocnir( odontCriqyoOln.
Mandible, two views.
XXXIX. Acratoctuis odontrigolrins.
Skulls. No. 17720 and No. 17721. dorsal aspect.
XL. Aeratofcuents odo0trigofinus..
Skulls, No. 17715 and No. 17722, dorsal aspect.
XLI. Acratoimnus o.dontriyonats.
Right scuapla, two views.
XL11. A cratnocul s oidontrigonius.
Skulls. No. 17715 an] No. 17720. central nIspect.
XLIII. Acrait('onu, odotrigo l mi1s.
Skulls. No. 17715, lateral aspect.
XLIV. Acr-toitirn; major.
Fig. 1. Mandible.
Fig. 2n. Fragment of skull.
XLV. A-ratofo(I8s major.
Fig. 2b. I'asicrauial regiim.
Fig. 2e. Orbital section.
XL VI. Ara to)ni) )doilditrifoinsclt, anil Acratoerli 'n x major.
Figs. Gn. C1). Fragment of snerum. oldontriiyonls.
Fig. 7a. I.eft iniominmate, major.


XIII. Acratrci us odonflriyonus and teratoncils major.
Figs. In, lb. Right tibia, odontrigonus.
Fig. 2. Right tilia, major.
Fig. 3. Left tibia, odontrigonus.
XLVIII. Acratoenus odontrigonu,s.
Figs. 4a, 41. Left libula.
Figs. 5a, 5). Left radius.
XIAX. Aeratocnus odonfriyo n s and Acrafr(c n tas inljor.
Figs. la. 11. Ic. Right humerus, odontriiyotnus.
Fig. 2a. Right hunmerus, ,major.
L. Atraftoruis odontifrifgo)nus and Aerratocii us major.
Fig. 2b. Left humerus, major.
Fig. 8. Iight humerus. oldoitrifgons.
Figs. an. 4b. Left ulnn, odontrigontus.
Fig. 5. Left ulhnl, major.
LI. A.lcrato'rlrms odontrigoauis.
Figs. 1, 2. Right femur.
Figs. 3a, 3b. Left femur.
III. .icrutftocnuis odontlrigoius Y iad .Acrt 1oc011s m)Ijor.
Fig. :c. Left felmur, todontrigotinas.
Fig. 4. Distal extremity of left. femur, mauljor.
Figs. 5a, 5b. Left caleaneum, 1odo1ntrigonus.
Fig. 6. Right caleaneum, ?major.
Figs. 7a, 71T. Left astragulns, odmntrioinits.
1.11. Acri tocrot odontrigolis.
Candal series of veltebra'.
L.IV. Acrutoctnils.
Fig. 2. Public region, o1dontriyolins.
Fig. 3. U ngual phalanges, Acratoinus.
Figs. 4n. 4b. lngual phalanx, odontriyonl s.
LV. View of arid s(-rb on )eseclieo Islandl. T'klen June 14, 1012.
Grove of coconut palms and beach, a typical shore scene. Near
Agunadilla, June 11, 1012.
LYVI. Clump of royal palms, nesting sites for Porto Rican and yellow-
shouldered blackbirds. Near TYuco, May 17, 1912.
Limestone formation typiJcal or lower foothills of north const.
Near Trujillo Alto. December 26. 1011.
LVI. LView on El Yuuique ie llguillo from an allitunle of SC0 feet.
Taken March Gi. 1012.
El Yuninue de Lunquillo from the village of Mameyes. Taken
February 1ii. 1012.
IVIII. Rolling Itastllrelannd, breeding ground of the Porto Rican grass-
hopper sparrow. Near Yabucoa, May 10, 1912.
Second growth forest in lowlands, with setting of canefield and
pasture. On grounds of experiment, station at Rio 1'ieidlras,
December 20, 11ll.
LIX. Rio Sanltiago near Yabucon. Taken May 0, 1012.
Illume )palms, with hIaeklround of cane and low hills. Vieques
island. MSnrih 20, 1912.


LX. Open rolling pastureland typical of Culebra Island. Taken April
!), 1912.
Nortlihwestern end of Culebrita Island, Cayo Norte in distance.
taken April 1.), 1912.
LX]. West Intlian green heron, or martinete (Butoridcs rircsccIns
nt cul atu s ).
LXII. linre-legged owl, or nmficaro (Glym1naisio mndipes n i(oipes).
LXIII. Porto Rican tody, or San Pedrito (Todus ,mrcicai nus).
LXIV. Gray kingbird, or pitirre (Tyrannus. domiticensis dominicciisis).
LXV. Porto Rlican blackbird, or mozambique (Holoquiscalu.s niger
brachr' l ypertu).
Porto Rican tanager, or verd.so (Nesospi nUs speculij'crus).





Introduction ................... ...................................... -
Itinerary...................... .......... ..... ...... ...... 4
Previous work on ti muamall s If Porto Rico. ......................
Specimens received from Porto Rico subsequent to the New York
Academy Expedition of 1916.................................... 6
Acknowledgmruent s....................................... .. ..... .
Physiography..................................................... S
List of caves where material was collected ......................... !9
List of indigenous land mammals of Porto Rico.................... Il
Probable age of the fossils ....................................... 10
Order Chiiroptern ............................................ ........ 12
Fam ily Noctilio idae.............................................. 14
Nocilio lcporiniihs inasticnu s ....................... .......... 14
Family Phyllostoluidae ............................................ 1.
Subfamily Clhilonycterina, ......................... ........... IS
Clhilonyeteris parnellit portoriccnsis ........................ 1
ChildonyUctris fliginosa inflata ............................. 21
Mormooups bltintcillii ...................................... 2
Subfamily Glossophagin ne .............. .................... 21
Mloniohyllus ptortoricnis. i. ................... .. ........... '2
Mlompl!ilun.s fralt'. .......................... ........... :;..
Subfamily Stenodermiae .................................... 35
Brarhoitphylla ca vernarnit ...................... .......... 35
Steloderlniai rufus................... .....................1.
Artibecs jPunaicensis jan aricetsis .......................... 44
Subfamily l'hyllonycterinmae................... ................ 4
P'h llloi!it iricri m at jor. ........... .... ....... .................. 4
Erophylla, boimbifrons............... .......... .
Family Vespertilionidae ............... .... .... .............. 55
EpteNicus fuscus ielmorr i i .......................... ........... 55
Tcsprrtili o m nit yi f ................................... .... 5ri
Fam ily M olossidae ............... ................... ........... .
'T daridcr m uri n ................................ ... .......... .5 1
lolosa.i st fort is................................................ li4
il'der Insectivorn ........: .................. ......................... iw
Family Nesophlontidat ll ............................................. .
Geinuis Xesopllhoutes ................................. ........... ...'

,('1IIPN'I'IFI/ S I- I,'f7? EY OF p'"fTuo iir '

]:I 'e
Synopsis of genulns ............. ... ...... ............... GR
S Ncsophontes dithac.................... .... ........... 70
Synopsis of skull climra :ters ................ ....... 70
Rem arks ............................................. 74
Table of skull measurements .......................... 7.
Skeleton........ ...................................... 7t
Summary of the principal elm r:cters ................... 90
Status of the family Neso hlio tiidac ............................ 9:
Bibliography (see Part 2).


Plans for a natural history survey of the Island of Porto Rico were
drawn up in 1913 by the New York Academy of Sciences, with the active
cooperation of the 'Insular Government of Porto fico, The American
Museum of Natural History, the New York Botanical Garden, and Co-
lunbia University. The plans covered work in all the different depart-
ments of Zoilogy, Botany and Geology. The first field work was begun
in 1914 and the author was given the assignment to report upon the
mammals of Porto Rico.
At the time this survey was planned, the known mammal] life of Porto
Rico was exclusively a bat fauna, no terrestrial land manuals other than
introduced species being known from the island. The investigations of
the anthropologists under Dr. Franz Boas, in 191., gave promise of most
interesting and unexpected additions to the list of mammals. In exca-
vating shell-heaps, and caves formerly occupied by the aborigines, they
discovered fossil remains of three described rodents and a new ground-
sloth. This evidence of a fossil namnmal fauna greatly stimulated inter-
est in what had promised to be a rather narrow field of research. Active
field work for mammals was begun in May, 1916, and the author wa'
able to further increase the list of terrestrial mammals and secured a
Ireat abundance of fossil material, as well as fairly extensive collections
of the bat fauna.
The author was accompanied throughout the field work in Porto Rico
by his wife, the late Edith I. Anthony, who was an active assistant dur-
ing this time and found many of the specimens brought back by the

Text Fig. 1

We arrived at the port of San Juan Mary 31, 1916(. The day was de-
voted t1. visiting the Government officials anid arranging thie various

I A Y'-

01- L--l 1, 1,1- T.*


details of field work. Our first move took us to San German, near the
west coast of the island, where we met Dr. Spinden. of the American
Museum Department of Anthropology. Cooperative investigations were
carried on for several days with the expectation of finding mammal re-
mains in Indian shell-heaps and kitchen-middens. Although search was
extended as far as C'abo Rojo, this immediate region did not yield very
promising results and it was necessary to move on to Adjuntas. Both at
San German and Adjuntas no opportunity was overlooked to collect
specimens of the living manm als, namely, the bats. The third site
,-elected was Utuadu, in the interior of the island, and from this region
we secured some of our must. important material. Owing to the terrible
conditionn of the trail< and to a lack of understanding on the part of the
natives, great difficulty was experienced at first in locating caves and
favorable spots for excavation. Eventually an abundance of fossil main-
mal material wa.- sen'red from caves which were worked from Utuado as
a base. Several side trips were made while we were located at Utuado,
line of these being to tlie Hacienda Jobo and another to Quebradillas.
Dr. Spinden. finishing his arelhaological investigations while we were at
Utuado, returned to San Juan and to New York.
Upon completing the region about Utuado. it was necessary to return
for a stay of several days at San Juan. and during this time, July 3 to
.July 8, several important caves in the San Juan vicinity were worked.
One of these caves is the type locality for two species of bats. It is of
interest to note that bats were more abundant and representatives of
more species were collected about the San Juan sector than anywhere
else on the island. Leaving San Juan, we returned to Utuado to pick
up fossils which had been excavated on contract, and passed on west to
Lares. Not very much was added by the visit to Lares. which seemed to
be a region of rather limited possibilities, although there is an interesting
deposit of fossil-bearing Tertiary limestone near San Sebastian. A
delay in the receipt of funds expected from San Juan made necessary a
return again to that site, and, as before, while waiting there, more of the
caves of the region were visited.
We then motored to Manati, and a very promising field for fossil mam-
imals was located near Morovis. It was possible to work out from Manati
as a base. and several oaves near Morovis. yielded a great abundance of
nmamnial remains. On July 21 we returned to San Juan. and then went
eastward to investigate the high mountainous area about El Yunque.
Our headquarters were established at the Preston ranch, near Naguabo,
where we were most hospitably received by the overseer. Unfortunately.
no very extended work could be carried on here because of continuous,
heavy rains. A long, all-day tramp back toward the summit of El

,SC1EXVTIF1U 5CR VLD 01' J'U?'i0 J'H'

Yunque convinced me of the uselessness of any work in that region dur-
ing the short time at our disposal and the probable negative results as
far as mammals were concerned. From the Preston ranch our route took
us to Coamo by the road which parallels the coast. and from Coanmo we
went inland as far as Cayey. 'The next move brought us to Ponce, where
we left the automobile, took train and went around the coast, stopping
oft at Manati once more'in order to run down several clues which we had
been unable to investigate on the former visit. This completed the field
work, the collecting at Manati being the last. On August 2 we left San
Juan for New York.
So far as was possible in the limited time available for the work, spe-
cial L'.it- were made to investigate each distinct type of country and
each different ecological area. In a general way the entire island was
covered, and although many regions were passed by, it was felt that work
in these places would serve only to duplicate results obtained elsewhere.

The first work on the mammals of Porto Rico was done by Dr. Juan
Gundlach, who made three trips to the island from Cha, in 1813. 1875
and 1881. The principal localities worked by GCundlach were Aguadilla,
Guaniea. Lares, Utnado, Arecibo, Q ncbradillas. Vega Baja andI Bayamon.
The results of the first two trips appeared in the .1 oles de la Sociedad
EspaFiola de Ilistoriea Natllal for 18l8. The part devoted to mammals
is not very extensive and occupies only three pages: four species of hats
comprised the known indigenon>s mnamnalia. Other collectors did work
on the island at various times, but the total results ihale not greatly en-
larged the knowledge of Porto Rican mammals, partly through non-
publication. Mr. Alex. Wetmore, of the United States Biological Sur-
vey, worked in Porto Rico from 'December, 1!11, to September, 1!91.
primriily on the birds of the island. but incidentally secured a fine col-
lection of the bats, ?35 specimens, among t ihe a new form of IEplesilrs.
The Museum of Comparative Zoiilogy sent an expedition under Dr. C. M1.
Allen to Porto Iico in the spring of 1917. a small collection of bats and
fossil mammals being secured, none of which proved to 1,e new.

Important collections of fossil mammal remains have been'made by
Seilor R. Fernandez acceira, of Rio Piedras, Porto Pico, who apparently
found the bones while 1;.;I'.- in eaves for fertilizer. Senior Macceira has
carefully saved all bones found in this manner and since 1920 has for-

xwarded three lots to the American Museum. The first collection, which
wn the largest, and the third collection were purchased by the Americ-an
Mu-eum andl the second collection was acquired by the Museum of Com-
jparative Zollogy. The lots purchased by the American Museum are ex-
rhilively grould-sloth bones and it will be possible to mount a composite
-keleton of this animal from the material.
Sefior Maccira writes that these ground-sloth bones all eame from the
same cave, at Cabachuelas, Barrio de l-a Torreeillas, near Morovis. The
place ggoes under the local name of Cerro T1 unee. It is a large cave, about
sixty-five meters lonil by forty-eighlt wide The hones were found at a
depth of seven or eight meters.


It is a pleasure, to acknowledge the wide-spread interest in the torto
l'ican work and the great help and assistance which has been given me
lib ditffrent institutions and individuals. 1r. 11. E. Crampton. of the
Porto Rican committee of the New York Academy of Sciences. has done
everything to make the work suceesful. The ollicials of the In'nilar
xovernmenet, (Governor Ynager, the auditor, Jludie BoPnner. and the CIhief
of the Insulnar Pliee. Colonel Shanton. assured the success of the fiehl
work by their cooperation. The insular police were always eager to ren-
der very capable assistance wherever I found it necessary to call upon
them. To the late Basil Iicks Dutcher. then a Major of the I. S. A.
and surgeon for the insular troops, I owe a debt of gratitude, as dIoes
each one of the Acad,'em field workers in Porto Rico. who found him a
clo,-e friend. The residents of Porto Rico I found always interested and
helpful, and T wish to acknmoleldge especially the cooperation in my work
given hb Mr. Leopoldo Strnhe. of UTtuado. Mr. Gerrit S. Miller, Jr.. of
the United States National Musemn. has been very generous in the
matter of loans ( f West Indian bats and other material.. Mr. Alex.
Wetmore. of the United States Biological Survey, kindly allowed me the
use of his bat records from Porto Rico. Dr. G. MI. Allen, of the Museum
of Comparative Zoology. and Dr. Witmer Stone, of the Philadelphia
Academy of Sciences, have also assisted by the loan otf needed material.
The late Dr. J. A. Allen. Curator of the Department of M ammals in
the American Museum, gave me the great benefit of his long experience
in numerous consultations, both on the systematic work of the report
and on editorial matters.. Dr. W D. atthew, Curator of- Vertebrate
Paleontology of the Amdrican Museum, and M)r. W\alter CGranger, of the
aune department, have assisted me in many ways, not only by contribn-
tion of departmental aid but by con station as well. The Director of'


;st/Ef \ 7/ F ( St HI1) El OF U 11C/Ul n1c/(

the Americatn Museum, Dr. F. A. Lucas, showed his sympathy and in-
terest in the enterprise and ldid all that he could to further the work.
Finally, this list would ln1t be complete without an expression of grat-
itude to my wife. tile late Edith I. Anthony, who from the beginning
took an active Ihand in the col election of material and its preparation, the
writing of notes, the copying and arranging of the manuscript, the
figures and the bibliographvy.
'The text figures, with but few exceptions, were made by Mr,. Helen
ion Ziska, under lily supervision. The bones figured were first outlined
by means of the camera luciida and then the proportions checked by
dividers. In connection with the text ligures. I am greatly indebted to
lr. .ianesul P. C'hapin, at that time a co-worker in the same department
with me. for the benefit of much advice and help.
All of the typing and work of a secretarial nature has been done by
Mihs Ida Grobe, of the department staff, who has hben exceedingly help-
ful to me in the preparation of this report, and whose name should not
be omitted from this list of acknowledgments.
'he color terms used in the descriptions are taken from lridgwayv
(olor S"tanidards ar ol Noi enclatur', 1912.
I have constantly consulted lThe 'Failies and Gerrit S. Miller. .r. (U. S. National 3nseun, Bull. .', 190. ). and
helped myself liberally to the data therein when giving the characteriza-
tions of tile bats, because I know of no more authoritative source than
this invaluable report. In many cases it may be noted that my descrip-
tihns are but slightly altered transcriptions of Miller's wording.

I'lites I-IX

Porto tii-o is a small island, 95 miles in length by ;35i miles in breadth,
with an area of 3,(il!8 square miles. In shape it approximates a paral-
lelogram, the sides of which run in the ri'dinal directions of the conm-
pass. 'ITh island is diiided by physiographic features into several very
distinct ecological areas. mountainn ranges of fair elevation extend ea-t
and west for tie full length of the island, reaching in the western part
an elevation of nearly [000 feet and culminating at tile eastern end in
1h1 Yliinqu'. of 1985 feet elevation. These ranges form the backbone of
the island and the greater part of its area as well. A large part of the
northwestern end of the island is limestone, which occurs ns a layer of
considerable thickness. 'Thet southwestern part of the island atls contain.l
limestone. but it is here widely scattered. Thle eastern end of the island
consists of cong lon rates and inetanmorphie rock.

IX'V [O V 1Il I 1,S of'" PORTOI~ PICO

On parts of the island the annual rainfall is very heavy, notably in the
high moun itains at the eastern end and throughout (lie mIountain district
in general. On the southwestern end the rainfall is very scanty and
desert conditi ins prevail. There are several good-sized rivers, the largest
flowing through \alleys of considerable extent. Throughout most of the
island the virgin forest lhas been destroyed to make way for plantations,
bnt in a few isolated localities remnants of the early forest remain. Such
places may le found about Maricao, Ultuado, and to the greatest extent
in the Luquillo region. Cloe attention was paid to changes in the ecol-
ogy of the country traversed, in the hope of finding changes in tile bat
fauna, but none were noted: although, because of the short time spent in
the arid southwestern region, the most likely field lfor such obser ovation
was not by any means exhausted.

Mates -X II

Sall (ierllaln-

(abo I Rojo-

Cave of Monte Grande.
Two caves at Pefios Lojos.
One iunlinameid (ave.
Only bats and a very few scrap- of Isolobodio so-
cured at San CGerman.
Shell-inmomds only: fragments of [suloboldon.
Fourteen caves located at varying distances from the
town. Many of' these eaves are runnamedl, but a
few have local designations.
Caves of Cagiana.
Cueva de los Golondrinos.
(ueva de la Ceiba. on Hacienda .Jbo.
Cave on property of Don Gervaeio Torafio-an im-
portant cave for fossils.
Cave onl property of Don Sexto Lago.

San Jualn eliion-Cueva de Fari, near Pueblo Viejo-importnit for
Cueva de Trujillo Alto-a good bat cave.
Piedra de la Cueva, Old Loiza, home of Xortiiio.

Trwo nameless caves.
Cueva de Pajita.
Cueva de Corozal--a at cave.
Thirteen eaves visited, eight of tlheC nameless.
Cueva Imcera.
Cuieva de .Achatillo.
Cueva do San Miguel.
Cueva Clara-an important cave.
Cueva de Catedral-an important cae. .
An unnamed cave with many bats.




N(~D\TI 'IC [Tjlj 01-' 11PI'OJ'TO -Ti~lf

To summarize results, it might be stated that the Utuado and the
Morovis regions were by all odds the richest in fossil-bearing caves. Bats
were most abundant and varied ill species in the San Juan region. In
all, somei 51 caves were explored.

LIST (,' 1 \NIin0I;'ors LAN MAIMILS OF PonTo RI(co

Voer~riio 1C/)0I'i~l 115 IJI0.SSiiltS

(Ch i/on yeeWs fun (0// osla ilpata

I Rmibelps jO1IaIriYJISse 10ni-a0icCIIis
Erophylla boinbi frOols
*Eptcsicus fl/zclls nC/inlorei
Tadanrid. lnIokla,
jl~o/o~su~ forlis

J1iziophylflus fratcr
,Stelloderila rufus
Pluyllo a/clrl-ls ?w1ljoar
Xesophon/qs rd(/dlhae
Isolobodonl por~to~censieis
Elasni odOlltomyll 1/S Obliqo us
l1>'jprinrodola Videns
fIe1Ceopsoi1iyS UlS i 1sidans
flonloponqys aMllRWA i5S

I enlra bras II? (i/or


A conservative estimate of the age of the fossil species of Porto Rico
would place them in the Pleistocene and prohibbly late Pleistoiene. In-
deed, it is more than probable that some of this fauna persistedlinto the
Recent. Isoloboito n we 11ve found in the shell-heapl and know that it
was an article of ldit 11aong the Arnawaks. Many' of the bone, of, tlhe
other species haNe every Iaplpearalce of being fairly recent, geologically
Sspaking. Tlhe evilCle would indicate that the fossil species taken were
all eontemlporaneoun -ine they o(rlil in the same formation in nearly
every instance. A possible exception is sv.olboholn n, which was dnubtless
the last manual to becomCe extinct on the island.
The fossil remains were encountered at depths of a few inclhe, from
lth top down to as deep as nine feet. Often but little scraping wa- nec-
,isary to uncover bones. although in this connection it is well to state
liat, the natives of the island are in the habit of digging out the bat
nl.nall frol the wavess anid frequently take the earth from the floor if the
canes as fertilizer. Tiiiis the height of the eaith in any cave may not
always he considered with certainty as the maximum height of thl de-
posit. Tloweler, the height of the original deposit is generally hetralye

A.lso, found fos.il.


by a discolored ring around the walls of the cave. The bones were verv
fresh in appearance when excavated and had not undergone any miner-
alization. In the case of the bats found fossil in the Cueva Catedral. a
number of skulls were collected that prove indistinguishable from the
living bats, and this formation contained the insectivore Nesop1honles1
as well.
Fossils collected in Cuba and in Jamaica under similar conditions
display unmistakable evidence of recent deposit.
As a general rule, the specimens were found in dry limestone caves in
the mountainous part of the island. Caves on the sides of i-mall hills
yielded the most bones, and the size of the cave was immaterial. The
cave that contained the greatest amount of ground-sloth material was a
small one, with the entrance on a rather steep hillside and opening out
of a sheer front of limestone. Inside, the cave did not open out very
wide, but had a deep fissure at the left toward which the flo:r sloped,
abruptly. This fissure was richly packed with bones of the sloth and the
large rodent El,.s ,odoni owxs, the bones beginning at near the surface
and continuing down some nine feet, when excavations had to be given
up because of the impossibility of reaching any deeper. This cave had
the appearance of a trap for any animal that wandered into it and cer-
tainly would have proved so for any old or sick animal that had strength
enough to crawl up through the cave entrance. The earth in this cave.
which is the one on the property of Don Gervacio Toraflo near Utuado,
is reddish in color and composed completely of disintegrated limestone.
It is rather coarse in texture and intermingled with it were good-sized
fragments of the walls.
A much different type of cave is the Cueva Catedral, near Morovis.
Also situated on a steep hillside, it occupies the top of a small hill, and
the ceiling'of the cave has fallen through, letting in considerable light.
'This cave has two large entrances and is a large, open chamber filled to
a depth of several feet with earth and many fallen fragments of lime-
stone. At one side there is a deep deposit of fine powdery soil. almost
pure bat guano in spots, sloping rather steeply down from the back wall
of the cave. The natives have removed from this part of the cave a great
deal of the rich soil for fertilizer. Throughout a stratum of several
inches to a foot or more in thickness, this deposit vwas literally packed
with small bones of mammals, birds. reptiles and amphibians. In some
.pots the bones were interlaced almost in hundreds and a quart of earth
required some minutes to pick over. In the crevices between the larger
blocks of limestone and in the irregularities in the cave floor were espe-
cially rich pockets of these bones. Farther up the slope, above the fine


earth, a large number of skulls, some of them lime-encrusted, were found
beneath a heavy, flat slab of limestone.
Subsequent cave explorations in Cuba and Jamaica have indicated that
owls are to be considered responsible for these large aggregations of bones
of the smaller creatures. The owls spend the day in the caves, where
they cast up in pellets the bones of animals small enough to be swallowed,
and may carry to their perch there the larger species which must be eaten
piecemeal. A cave which is thus the home of owls may, over a period of
hundreds or thousands of years, accumulate an almost unbelievable
amount of hones, to be judged in hundredweights or even tons in some
eases. While the large barn-owl known in Cuba and Jamaica today is
absent from Porto Rico, 1)r. Wetmore has discovered the fossil remains
of a barn-owl among bird bone- collected by me at Utuado, while the
small bare-legged owl ie- common on the island today and probably should
he considered as a factor ill the creation of these cave deposits. (Wet-
more, 1922, pp. 299 and 32:i.)
Isolobo0don wavs Ifundi on the very surface of the floor, in nearly every
case, in caves whih lihad been occupied by the former Indian inhabitants
of thp island. Designs upon the walls of the cave, broken pottery and
ashes attested to the occupancy, and amidst the ashes and fragments of
pottery the scattered bones of this rodent could be found. Also through-
out the great shell-heaps along the coast, especially at Cabo Rojo. an
oeeasional bone of Isolobodon was encountered.
It is likely that the Arawaks or the Caribs carried Isolobodon with
them in their canoes as food, since the remains of this rodent have been
fiiind on the eastern end of Santo Domingo and in the Virgin Islands
associated with human artifacts. Wetmore (19'2.. p. 300) heard stories
of the natives whici hint at the persistence of Isolobodoni into quite
recent times.

Suborder M rcrotrIRnorTEI: A

The first authentic list of the hats of Porto lIico was published in 1878,
;a 11Mer by natural 1878. lie listed only four species. -rtibeiis /pers/pi'illa/its.
Mi-ior0oops haitn'llii, (hiloyocftri.t's mocle'ytii, and Iolosstus obscirus.
Later lists have 11l ac(:redited three of these species to Porto Rico, but
I'no soiue reason have omitted his rcord for the genus Mormnoops. Sub-
sequent paplers have added to the Porto Rican fauna, six species and sub-
species being given by Dr. . 31. Allen in his Mainmits of lte 11"'s
JIndies, published in July, 1911. in addition to several other subspecies

I XTII(NY, 1[.11 I1 ill OSiF PORTO( RICfO

given as doubtful records. The first mention of any native mammal
from Porto Rico not a bat is the description of Isolobodon porioricensis
by Dr. 3. A. Allen (1916, p. 19). Fourteen species and subspecies of
)bat4, four of them new to the island, were given in a paper pbnllished on
1ne I ynCOenH1ous Land Mamln ials of Porto Rico by Anthony (1918). No
species have been added since this time.
Four families of bats are represented on the island : the Noetilionidae
witl one species. the Phyllostomidac with ten species, the Vespertilionidae
with one species, and the Molossidae with two species. Porto Rico has
several endemic species and several genera endemic to the West Indies.
These endemic forms are found only in the family Phyllostomidae. The
species of the other three families all have very near relatives on the
continent )or possibly occur there as the same species. No less than five
genera of the Phyllostomidae of Porto Rico are endemic to the West
Indies. The following list of the bats of Porto Rico will indicate this

.ortiliio lpori, i iffrstfirfs'.....
(t'ilOnyctP ris. fuligitnosai inflata..
(h iloni yc 't s ], r'ellil portori-
re tt.s'1 .... ..... ............
MJormoop.i bflii rillii...........
IlM. ophylflus por.toricri .is/i .......
*3lofiolphyllfts fralter. .......... .
lirach(ylphyllfa. carerL aruLin .......
*S'.'enodernfia rfs.. ..............
ArI biiu/ jtin lre irnfsis jnaraifeo sis.
*Ph I/ylory/ eri.s aijc ..or. ...........
Erophylla. boinblfronfls..........
Eplhsriri.x f .scu.s ,etrfo ei o .......
Tadariida in u1.ri t. ................
NIolo.s.s xs for is. ................

cnnltiilinetal species

-pecies endemic t to the West Indies

species endemic to the West Indies
speciess endemic to the West Indies
genus endemic to the West Indies
genns endemic to the West Indies
lenlls endemic t to the West Indies
g'enns endemic to the West Indies
continental species
Oenlls endemic to the West Indies
,2enus endemic to the West Indies

continental species

-pe'ies endimic to the West Indies
species endlemic to the West Indies

The endemic nature of the bat fauna is readily apparent and i g-,,odI
evidencee of1 the ]lon continnefl separation of Porto Rico from any maiii-
land connection, since it is well known that bats are subject to practically
the same hlaws of dispersal as are terrestrial mammiials. (Dbhson, IT8S.

Found fossil only.

S( AIXIAT/F/ s'( 't A'l P11 (U' PORTO'( MI(

~~~. ~ 1 15--(~( i. AI I el I91, p. t .-i A nhderen, IN2 Iw N xvi-


oe M ilerId'. The Faimi lies and Gleniera of Hiats. p.95. l9i. Fmor digiiasis
,,f the Cainilfy: p. 91 'm' diagrnioi- of the genus.

~ "A'

Notil't o i ep0 ill ius Iunastivius ( 0.1 hi )
TIext Fig6. 2
I T I .'speri~tlo ( I s i [six i, Si~O I )tl .UM L 1'N ) llOt ii~k t. 'S IOIJ~l t, IKj~bl)'l'
linvi, IN, 1). 1: 2

ANTHONY, MA.L11. I Ls' 1 01R1'0O RICO

1.S3. Xoctilio lcporinus mastivus True, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., YVII 1SS4).
p. 603.
1911. Noctilio leporibus G. M1. Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zoi1.. LIV, p. 223. July.
1012. Noctilio lepo'risus mastirvis Miller, North American Lanid Mammals, p.
30, December 31.
191s. Noctillo leporinus masticus Anthony, Indigenous Lawnl Miumm;as o
Porto Rico, p. 340, October 12.
1921. Nectillo lcporin'us mastiviis Miller, North American Recent Mammals.
p. 40.

'Type localily.-Island of St. Croix, West Indies.
Distribution.-Limits of range unknown, but probably the Greater
Antilles, the Virgin Islands and St. Croix. Recorded in Porto ico, Old
Loiza, and on Mona Island (Elliot).
Specimens collected.-30 (20 skins and 10 alcoholics). from Old Loiza,
noer San Juan, on the northern coast.
General characters.-A very large bat with yellowish white dorsal
stripe. Head large and rounded; ears high, narrow, pointed, tragus ser-
rate along posterior border; muzzle simple, nostrils tubular; upper lip
simple, lower lip and chin with a few dermal, wart-like growths; cheeks
and chin sparsely haired; body robust and heavy; humerus very long and
nearly straight; thumb large and strong; third phalanx of third digit
very long; hind leg very large, with long tibia, long metatarsus and very
large claws; clear well developed and very long: tail short, enclosed.
except for extreme tip, in very wide interfemoral membrane; fur very
-hort everywhere, almost woolly; fur restricted along ]lwer back to a
narrow median strip, practically no hair on any of the membranes except
for a few scattered along lateral membranes: lateral membranes attachedl
rather high on sides of body.
('olor.-Adult: Above, snuff-brown, the hairs tipped with buff, with a
narrow dorsal stripe of yellowish white running from hind neck almost
to base ol' tail; below, whitish to yellowish or bully, varying with indi-
vidual : females yellower below than males. One specimen. No. 395(;3.
adult, varies from normal in being cinnamon-buff below.
Young: When nearly full grown very similar to adults, but mo re
-t wrongly yellow on underparts.
Skull.-Large and strongly constructed; rostrum of normal length but
rather broad; nasals slightly arched, premaxillhe thin and inflated, nare
opening outward, a pair of foramina at the posterior border of the nasal
lhnies: braincase rounded, globose, with high sagittal and lambdoidal
crests; sagittal crest dividing anteriorly and continuing as sharp ridges
nearly to the maxillary root of zygoma; mastoid process large, shelf-like.
suhrectangular: zygomatic arch strong and heavy, flaring widely pos-

t'('I 1\ 1']- -lF/C St fItl /1" OF j'ilRD) 1R1COt

leriorly, jugal meeting posterior root of zygomna it at nearly right angle;:
basioceipital region very short. slightly tilterdUpward from plane of
palate; basisphenoid pits very faintly indi'eted : sphenoiidal fi.nsre verve
large and extensive; glenoid broad anid shallow; b!ulla eouering about
hal f o cochleae: palate long and broad, deeply concave, more especially
from side to side; interlte-rgoid fosa. short and broadly IT-shaped;
manldil)l ve'ry heavy; horiz ontn rams straight; ascending rainus low
and rising in gradual enrve from horizontal ])portion: oroinoid higher
than iondyle. peg-like. cotodyle noticeably elevated above plane of molar
crowns; angular Iprocess strong and abruptly reflected outward: dental
fortamen large and conspicuous, below sigmoid notch. Dentition heavy.
Skulls of males heavier, with higher crests than those of females.
2- 1 1 1 -3
l li/l .-.- ; 11 : Pn, -= .
1-1 1-1 2' j -.
L'pper: Incisors unequal, inner much larger than onter pair. strongly
in contact at mid-height of tooth, but diNergent. at root anl tip; crown
of inner r ir er high, with potstero-external heel; outer incisors il con-
tact with inner posteriorly, hut separated by mnticeahle diastema from
Inainels, small and low. with internal cunsp: canine large and heavy, with
well-developed internal eingulum. but no accessory cnsp|s: inner face
slightly toncaive : plrem ilar very tshrt in antero-posterio r axis, witli high
anterior cusp and well-marked internal heel : first two molars similar,
subequal, with \V-shalped molar pattern of normal type. hylpocoie much
lower than protocone : third molar reduced, lacking metastvle.
Lower: Incisors small, crowded into and completely filling inter-aniie
space, crowns subrectang-ular, concae,. anterior enttin, ePdge faintly
bifid: canine large. with strongly marked internal spiral groove, tooth
enrved forward at base. backward at tip : first premolar small, with low
e sp, erowmled by second reinolar and by canine: second preimlar with
crow-n michIl wAider than long. crowded in toorth-row, with well-developed
external cinguluiml, high anterior cusp and low internal enusp: first and
second molars with liormal W-crown pattern, teeth projecting externally
considerably beyond face of rauns : third molar slightly smaller than the
other two., but similar in other respects.
.fletusiuri'me/s.-\Average tof 7 adult males: Total length. 1:32 m.
(13 -185) ; tail vertebra, 28.: (27 -31 ) : hind foot, : t.l (31-35) ; fore-
armi. 81.7 (85)-88).
Average of 7 adult fumnles: Total length, 12 -I. ( 18-135) : tail verte-
hait, 2K(.1 (5 28') : hind foot. 311.1 (30-32): forearm, ,83.i (S80-85.s).
iSkull.- Average of 5 adult males: greatest length. 2,.3 (26.- 28.5);
zygoni tic breadlh. 2 .2l (10!).8-20.1 ) : interorbital breadth. 7.2 (7.1-

IlT71I1L\'. 11.1I1111/LS l' O l' PORTO i:IC

;.): ; breadth of lbraincase, 13.9 (13.7-14) : mastoid breadth, 19.58 (18-
20.7 ) length of palate, 12.61 (12.3-12.9) ; length of maxillary molar
-cries. 8.72 (8.5-8.9) ; length of mandible, 19.06 (18.5-19.4); length of
lnanilibular molar series, 9.88 (9.4-10).
Average of 5 adult females: Greatest length, :.'.".'' (2 1.9-26.3) zvyo-
imasti' breadth. 18.86 (18.;-19.1); interorbital breadth. 6.96 (6.8-7.1) :
breadlh of liraincase. 13.4 (13.2-13.6) mastoid breadth, 17.2 (10.8-
17.8); length of plate 11. (11. 5-12.2) : length of maxillary molar
series. 8.18 (8.3-8.6) : length of mandible. 18 (17.7-18.4): length of
mandibular nildar series. 9.66 (0.5-9.S).
liemanrks'.-The species of the genus octilio are among the very larg-
est of the New World bats. On the character of size alone, the Port.o
Riiean Xo0lilio may be readily distinguished from all the other bats found
on ithe island. There is ohl one other large bat found in the entire West
Indies area which surpasses it or e\en equals it in size. This bat is
I'.mpy'm frini s'pecr't and it has not been recorded from Porto Rico.
The status of the two forms, lepors',nu and miasti 'sj., lhas not been very
satisfactorily worked out. Two specimens of leporins from Trinidad
are not very different from the series taken on Porto Rico, the Trinidad
.-eeimelnis being somewhat smaller and with the dorsal line less developed.
This large hat was found at hut one locality, in a cave known locally
an the Pied'ra de la C'eva, on the outskirts ol' the little town of Old
ILoiza. on the north coast. The fact that Noctilio had not been reported
fromi Porto Rico before would indicate that its distribution is very local.
Extraets from the field journil of tile expedition will servo to describe
lhe behavior of this interesting bat.,
The first en\'e \we C:lin to. called "'iedrai lite lit ('ClieV." wa\s I ve'y large.
hiti li c;lve. niorse s; salowll .i ope Iingl into thei f'nue of tie ssinalll h hill o'r hi11~ r'ck
inl whitil it wlas sitntitd tlhas :l caive, inl tie nslliil sellnse if tlte word. (Oll
sto;lrolllt o'i its h1 ei-ght tlhe light si'i; e tlhil' lulgh ilint ll plirts, iali so I T(id not
e'x\l'ct to oi'io'ilnIlitetr alythiing except a few I Aribr'i. A IIl.i.e pile of dropi-
pins uinderlliieillait a l'drkelned ir'revice iiver 'i'led led 1(im l tile ia shot 4,on sls-
picioin. lalld I 'was rewarl''de' d iy) several' specilenlls iof tle large, hiitherto i ellil-
'ouintered No'rtlioi. At the report. others began tio iimo'e ahout. and investi'ga-
lio11 showed that thle aill'e had a lillilber of these interesting l;isge bats. They
were sulit icitltly hi isigh to be :slnlost s:afe from my auxilittry, as thile ine shot
was nllo very deadly to sillth Iar.gie ibats ait thi t dlist;liice. loiweve'r, bl y 1 e'ilis
niwny ;it thleln I sec'lired a fail lluiller. These bats wvhen disturbed tiew ullt
ints, tle l riit and ut e ila lll lio t as i i're'ly as ift the light were ilbsollitely
it their liking. Their flight wi's quite re1sgl: Ir. :ond while t nol rapid. like thin
of ilI sit t the slimalle specie's., it was a strain, well-suistained flight. Thle very
hl'ire hinil le4"s were stretilhed ilt l hel iilnl, strain' it fri' l tile body and ailptroxi-
lml:l1tly p|1;:llrel,. kieeing llhe inll orfteltiin l imemibrane u'i l tile posterior p rl t ,if

tlic :;al.r IImeniillraii n ill ai lint lhorizol.11 l Iluhmle. while tihe priopulsion \v:as, flur-
nislied by the nllillbln'ilIe oi tlhe forlt'rl'ill. They looked almost like lai'rge birds,
a;is they N.circled alot (lite nave overlieil, the light shliing d\own\ through their
Ilini rilr lla s illll till redl bloIod showilln ill the thill feet. W fnl they ;klihlted
theyiv sreenllll ifsure their ilitelltioil llld \\ s'imnopd Iup directly to ,1 lhanifing
position ;nd did lnot ]iike s,'vr all V iit pireliminary trials. ;Is dois .rlilb.'x.
'I'lneir ]i.'lge fect' proved idinirt;lly silited to Ilingiig, upside down. with coisidtrahile angility, illoving sometiilies quite :i dlistilice
Ibfore they' flljinl :i sIlp t tlhal suIit'd Ih 111' well t'll lgh to ('tlllill. Froillm bilit
liti se. lemlled Alioist like hig stpilerrs cr';i\vlillg ;Ilholt onil the roI -ky cellilig. ('oin-
sillcr':ilc f Hlit,\ ('ri;ivlilLg \\ils doivlI bl y u" il(l s i'of til fee't't otlly o:lld tlhe thilibs
nwere used only abold hnl lhe tielie. A mother \vitli mI :i111nost lirl.es yoInig,
ll11'\\" ;IIlilit lirthe -;i\r' 1 frl'\\ tillltes, l l d tl eIl. ;ls siI tlile( ) I 'l l W'1Uld11 11 11.ewv
;I : IiisI t the ide t' tif e cI ve :id ; I is Int% r sI;Ir ;Itd. T lt I lIl-1late W;Is dI is-
tinctly dil'ler3 jl ill t ibno from ill f thile otllh lr Ills. eI i ll Irit'her I ligh piitIched
I'r I I-II Ih lzir ,g ]I);It. Tlihese i- ts ] were' very t i'elnlill; ;iIIs d, lik' :111 tihe other
specie's. -itt'lliptled I( hbite whlln i'rketld ui11. They seemed to Il' crroiwded ill
se(veroil Crcvivcie tHlit led Iick,: illnt tlihe eiling out t'f tilt direct light. liut \\ere
Ir.lthe'r et'isily !l;lriniId. nilt 1 ; shlot or' twoil t il':l'i;nlly lr l l ig li\v'idlils crowd-
i ig iut 'froill sIlt phl ces. Itrlibci. tlinhat were ftlind inll ti(, s ille riive did notl
iltiiihl wills t 0hese its mtil wert'e d\vnrfed ill comlpillrisoll \\when flyihl Ibeside
ll0eir large' r I' (lllll] ]lili 1i o 'f tihl' ( -ilavo.

.\ m ill th rethllill imnisite( \i-: fowI' ill mIilbralles lf .\nor/iu. l I was ,I cospirioll.s f'atlre ill splite of iI-
.Imall size. ;ill was seen on no other spleRies of bat taken 'll I'Porto Kirco.
A iiall e topi rasite I'fild ill tihe fur 1mt. lien identified 1)v lr. *I.
l'ejinert. as Parady.hiria. l',fi.vxca. Speiser. This species wai lharaicterize Ilv a iery .tring. ,lisawreenble odlor. rather musky in its nature. -


Sifamitly ('ll 1JO I-N YCTII IN\AE

Se Miller, The Flamilis and (linera nlr Mais. p. 1 I(. l!(90, ftor dia'niosi.-
of the family : pI. 118 'for diagnosis of the sub'famiily 'ChiloIyeteTriMte:
1). 1 19 filr dinanlosis f1' tlhe geilus C'hilonirirris.

('hilinyrtelrish inirlellii portoi'rKensis (Miller)
Texl Fig. :;
1902'. ('11itlnylclcri. pi ororiccv ..vi.m s Milhlr. % 'ror. Akmd. Nat. Sci. 'Phlihid lllihi.
Ip. 4(00. Septimilher 1-'.
0uM. i'hihlm lr'trix pIlrm llii ip rlioricrr xis It llln. 'Pro Acitdl. Nat. Sri. l'hill-
delhill;. p. 19., Mull'cl 29.
1011. Ch'lilony lcri. iporm llii ip rlofrit i' is. (;. M. Allen, Bull. AlLs. ('iolilp. z i;i..
1,1 V, p. 22-'5, .Inly.
1!112J. Chilo tiii rixm p 'i, rmllii pl rlorimc ilix Miller. North Amlleri<:i;n nIl.a < M;ilt-
Ill ls. 1. :t.2. I r libell r : 1l.

SCI EINT1 F/C N1 ]ill /111) 011, PORT" PHIO

I. TIJ/O Y. -I/. I.AL' OP I'OTO() JC100

1918S. 'hili n cleoris piujinli portouric(,ei.i Anthony, Indigenous Land Mlmn-
nmals of Porto Rico, p. ;24:. October 12.
1!24. C'hilot clcri.s Jotrt'n llii portoriccnsi. Miller. North Aimerician Re Maniiiitm s. p. 42.

A7 A 39370
X 3

Ii.,. :.- ('hill ,t'lri pliri' lli port'ri' .in X 8 '1 : dull 'f 'I rul jillo Alto. Porto ltico

'ijlp loculily.--('eva de Fari, near Pueblo Viejo, Porto Rico.
)istri/luiio .--lKnwn only from the Ilnand of Porto Rico. Recorded
I'rom (ICueva.I de Fari, Cueva de Trujillo Alto and (Caycy (U. S. Biol.
'l'ecimt.ens roHrll'edl.-To\\. t'roi)n Cuev\a de Trujillo Alto.

S('JJ]TlJlC' NI'IFljY OFi POTO) 1(0 WO)

General chara.tcters.-Size medium; ears tall, rather narrow aln
pointed, lower border extending outward in a broad shelf covered with
long hairs, tragus blunt; nose simple, without leaf; under lip with a pair
of transverse cutaneous lappets; forearm but moderately curved; tail
short, free for the terminal half; feet of medium size; calcar long and
slender; hair of sides not running onto membranes biut a few scattered
hairs continuing along hnnmerus and femur and onto the interfemoral
membrane for about half its depth; hairs about nose directed forward.
Color.-Above. a uniform brown, about dusky drab, the hairs grayish
at base; pelage rather thinner on neck and shoulders allowing more or
less of light color at bases of liairs to show through; below, light drab;
the hairs of abdomen blackish brown at base, those of the throat btt
little darker at base than tip; membranes blackish brIown; hair o ery-
where rather long, soft and lax.
Skull.-Of moderate size with high, rounded braincase: rostrum long
and somewhat inflated; a nasal concavity present; braincase tilted at an
angle to axis of rostrum, globose; zygomata not flaring; interpterygoid
fossa short; palate long and narrow, widening slightly anteriorly; cochlea
large; mandibular rams long and curved upward posteriorly; coronoid
low, about as high as condyle; angular process deflected outwar d.
S" -) 3 ]_- ::-
J)enitio-,l:'-l ', - ; Pm.il ; M, -= 4.

Upper: Inner incisors about twice as large as outel. e icwns awitl brnad
cutting edge;: outer incisors low and crown almost fat: i& eisArs all in
contact and ni diastemna in the entire tooth-row;: canllies typical. with
large internal ilngulum and conecae internal face: first premolar .mall.
with high anterior cnsp and prominent postero-interlal basin; second
premolar about twice as large as first, with a single. v'ry high. -hlarp
ensp and a wide internal basin; first and second I molar, with normal
\-shaped molar pattern composed of tive cusps amn fhr commiissures:
third molar less than half as large and with only three Ie itmissures.
Lower: Incisors snihequal, simple, cutting edges trifid; canine. with
internal eingulln and deep longitwlinal groo ve on internal and pos-
terior faces : firt and third preImolars about equal in size, second much
.iIller: first premolar simple with single highly conica l I usp; second pre-
molar minute and ainimost crowded out by first and third premolars; third
prn1molar with high sharp cusp; three molars sube uatl. the third unt
little smaller than first two, molar pattern a widened W.
3casnir, menlit.--''Two males: Total length. 7i, 8:3 num.; tail verteltae.
-?2 20; hinil flIt. .12. 1:i: forearm, -9.5, 51.


Skull.-Total length, 20, 20.4; zygomatic width, 10.8, -; interorbital
width, 3.8, 3.9; breadth of braincase, 9.2, -; length of palate, 9.1, 9.1;
length of molar series. 6.7, i.7; length of mandible, 14.4, 14.7; length of
mandibular molar series. 8.2, 8.3.
Iemairkls.-There are two species of the genus Chilonycleris occurring
on Porto RIico. These two forms may be easily separated on the basis of
size. (. parni llii portoricensis is much larger than C. fuliginosa inflata.
It is also apparently a much rarer species and not found in such large
numbers. The nearest relative of porloricensis is C. parnellii boothi of
Cuba, from which it differs in smaller size and more inflated skull. In
addition, the ear of boothli is more pointed and falcate than the ear of
Only two specimens of portoricensis were taken and it was found only
at one place, the Cueva de Trujillo Alto. The type locality for the spe-
eies is the Cueva de Fari, Pueblo Viejo, but although this cave was
visited several times and carefully searched, no portoricensis were seen
there. It is evidently not a common species anywhere, as the two speci-
mens secured were the only ones seen, and the cave where they were
found was visited no less than three times and hunted assiduously in the
effort to secure more. The two specimens were found in an inner alcove
of the cave, off to one side of the main chamber, from whence they issued
with a swarm of the smaller species of Cliilonycteri.f, IMoophiyllus and
the rare Mormoo,ps.
A fossil skull of this species was also found. Among a considerable
collection of fossil bat skulls and limb bones picked up in the Cueva
Catedral, there is one fairly complete skull of C. p. pororicensis. This
skull shows no difference whatever from the skulls of the bats living on
the island today.

('hilonycteris fuliginosa inflate (Rehn)
Text Fig. 4
1878. Chiilonyctcris MIc-LeUyi Gundlacl (not of Gray). Anales Sue. Esp;in.
List. Nat., VII, p. 140 (Part [Iaynmion n ;d 3Maynguez, Porto Rico]).
1904. Chilontleteris mitrlavlt ii hiflattt Rehn, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia.
p. 190. March 29.
1911. Chilotyctcri.s maNtoeaii influta (G. 31. Allen, Bull. iMus. Comp. Zool., LIV,
ip. 224, July.
19)12. ('hil/otn yri mairtolct!lii itifloti Miller, North American Land Mammals.
1) 1. D cenmblr ':l.
l18s. C'hilonlycteris'i fuligintosai ilulati Anthony, Indig i neiinm d Lantl Maunals of
P'orto lico. 1. 344, October 12.
19!24. ('hiiloiny iri-s minolcayrii in flta Miller, North Almerican Recent Manmmnals
p. 41.

,('/ l '.\'/'ll N S l /-I Y OF .'PORT/'o .1] '1

T7'pe o ,alily.-C'ueva de Fari, near Pueblo Viejo, 'orto Rico.
Dis/ribultiol.-l-iestricted to the Island of Porto liico. lIecorlcd as
follows: (ueva de Fari: Mavag 1 z (I'. S. Nat. Mus.): (' eva de Tru-
jillo Alto.
Slperimeins collected.-- ): Cueva de Fari, Pueibl Viejo. 1! (1'2
skins) : ('ueva de Trujillo Alto. (0 (8 skins).

+- A -A, sj

II .

1'I 4. 4.- 1'ilo tui lcri futliiinow, iniflilat x :/i 1 idnult r; ipoblo Vie.jo, Porto Ii

General charactler.-Size very small: ears quite highly, narrow andl
pointed, widening abruptly into an ample eminli at base, with two or
three tooth-like projections on external border about midway; tragic of
moderate length, with distinct notch-like infolding in anterior edge;
nostrils simple, without nose-leaf, but having a very low transverse ridge
just baek of nares; nose-pad with a number of low, rounded excrescences
along the margin; lower lip with lateral lobes or folds meeting anteriorly
to form a lappet, median region of lappet papillose; hody everywhere
furred: membranes naked: tail about one-half the length of head and
body, free for terminal one-fourth ; interfemoral membrane nearly twice
as deep as length of tail; clear very long and slender: femur nearly as
long as tibia, both bones slender; humerus strongly bowed; hair of mod-
erate length, soft, denser on back and belly than on neck. stiffer about
face and directed forward; a distinct longitudinal parting in the hair at
anterior edges of ears, and hair on throat lax and radiating in all direc-
Color.-Two color phases are found in this splcie-- a rich brown
phase and a gray brown phase, the latter seemingly the co('m onllr.
Cinnamon-lrown phase: Above. color between (Iillnanlll-] I-brown and
Prout's-brown, the hairs of the neck lighter at base. c(llraleonls buff. this
color showing through, making the whole general tone lighter: below,
hairs posterior to pectoral region between Saccardo's-umber and isabella

A. 'TIHIO\N -I 11.1J/.IL,'' O'F PORTO' HII'O

color, with hairs darker at base: throat ain un der side nf neck ci iIlamiiil-
butt, the hairs cinnamlon-brown at base. The color is rich, not truly ildi-
cated by any single shade.
>ister-brown phase: Above, sister, varying in ste i 1 individuals to
I'rout's-brown : hair on nieck mid shoullers Iralb-gray. clowl like back;
below. breast and abdomen like back, the hairs tipped with drab-gray,
throat to breast li'ht ol-hraccoil bIull, the hairs at base bist'r, a foew irs
ion tlhrot 1rab at base.
Young: Individuals with the teeth sharp and showing little wear, but
otherwi-ie f'illy adult in eve(y llarticular, have a ]ielaOge differing radically
froul either c I' thi above and seen to be best accounted for !by assumlinllg
anl innulatitre pelage that persists for soine time. Tliese individuals are
a uniform slate-blchk above. with the neck pallid neutral gray, and color
below nearly as dark as on back, except for throat and inguinal regions,
which arc lighter, like the neck above. One specimen. No. 3935,. ap-
Ipears to lie passing from the immiature to the bister-bromn phase.
T'lhese three dill'ereit pciagi's, or color phases, while very distinct whcllc
-elected splecimlenis are comiiijared, nevertheless g'radunlly grade fronl one
to the other ill tie series froiii Porto Iico.
,skiull.-Sniall and delicate; elhingate, with swollen rstrun and roundly
inflated iraineuse : brhinease raised up or tilted to axis of rostrumn ; zygo-
mata scarcely expanded; insals depressed : a sagittal crest, low but dis-
tinct from interorliital riegioin to lambdoidal crest: audital bulhe inflated :
palate normal: pteryg'oids divergent; mandible with a strong liorizontal
ramnus of nearly uniform depth throughout; ascending rams lowi: con-
dyle -smalH and liigher than the weak ioronoid: angular process subfalci-
forn., strongly divergent externally.
-2 1-1 2 3-3
Ia-i.-T, ; C2 ; lm. -31 l = .

l)entition almost identical, except for size, with that of r'lhiloqcleris
p. /pororoictensis, q. v.
I'pler: Central pair of incisors bifid and larger than outer pair. which
are appressed to sides of first; canine long, slender, sharp; first priemolnr
nlnch .-saller than second: second premolar with high<',t cu.l of imil,]ar
series alllli w\\el-deve\loped internal cinlgulinu ; first tvwo dollars equal, wxith
broad crowns andi promtinilnt 'V-shaped iIpattiern; third imlolar about half
as large.
Lower: Incisors suibequal, with bifid cutting edges; canine normal:
first and third premolars equal, with simple acute cusp, second small and
nearly crowded inwardly fromt tooth-riw: lmolars of nearly equal size,
with normal cusps, high and sharp.


The skulls or females do not differ appreciably from those of the male?,
as they do in tihe case of the related inaclea.yi of Cuba.
MeInasreten ts.--Average of 16 specimens, all adults: Total length,
i(.25 mm. (62-70) ; tail vertelbe, 21 (19-26) ; hind foot, 9.37 (9-10)
forearm, :;-.41 (37 .5-3).5) : ear from ileatus (average of 5 alcoholic
specimens), 15.
Skull.-A average of 10 skulls, a series of 5 adult males and 5 adult
females: Grealest length, & 1L.88 (14.6-15.1), 9 11.81 (14.5-15.1);
zygomatic breadth, $ 7.56 (7.5-7.7), 9 7.54 (7.5-7.6); interorbital
breadth, d 2.91 (2.8 -3.2). 9 3.04. (3-3.1); breadth of braincase, 8
;.';S (6.7-6.8). 9 (.58 (G.4-6.8) ; breadth of rostrum outside of m", 8
I;.1 (6- .3). 9 ( ((-6) : length of palate, & 6.76 (6.6-7.1), 9 6.66
(6.-6.8) : length of maxillary molar series, & 4.7 (4.6-4.8), 9 4.7
(1.6-4.8) : length of mandible, S 10.26 (10-10.4). 9 10.34 (10.2-
10..) ; length of manudibuar series, & 5.44 (5.3-5.6), 9 5.44 (5.3-5.5).
Ilenmarks.-Dr MJ. Allen discovered the presence of two small spe-
sice, of C'ilooclt'eris in Cuba, describing the new one as (. torrei, which
is distinguished from (C. mnicleaCii by the presence of two or three minute
tooth-like projections on the ear, and lower nose-pad with less prominent
protruberanes. and slightly smaller size throughout. The Porto Fiican
subspecies, iinfl /, has the same assemblage of characters which mark
lorrei. and consequently the old designation ol inflacta as a subspecies of
Mia/tleafii had to he revised. The next name available for the small spe-
ies of West Indian Chilo i.ycteris is ftliginosa Gray, 1843, occurring in
S[Haiti. Grav's type is in the British [Museum and Mr. Oldfield Thomas
lias xaminied it and pronounced it to be of the torrel style. while four
sp(e-inens of Chilotyol/eris from Santo Domingo loaned by the Academy
of' Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, as well as specimens from Haiti in
the American AInuseuin, are also similar to lorrei in the details of ear and
nose tiructurte. I(/fla is thus made a subspecies of fOlilinoso, and the
name of the Porto Rican lha should stand as (', ilonirtleri. fuigqiJnoso
in/laia (elehn).
Chilonyclerix I'/iint osa inflata is larger and has a longer calcar than
true fuliginosa of Haiti, and also shows the extreme degree of rostral
inflation for tlhe entire group of small Antillean Chilonycrteris. In addi-
lion to th te characters mentioned, which separate it from warclceayii if
Cuba, in/fl/ta llas a broader palate and shorter, broader ear. C. imacleayii
risee of Jamaica is a larger lat than C. f. ini/l/to and may 1,e distin-
gui.shed by this character.
I secured this hat only in the northern part of Porto Iieo, in the San
J1 ian distlri'l. A specimen taken at Mayaginez ( elhn. 1904. p. 19'1) is


in the United States National Museum, and Gundlach (18i8, p. 140)
records one which he caught in his house in Mayaguez. Although this
species might he taken anywhere throughout the island, the field work
done by this expedition inclines me to believe that normally it is re-
stricted to a narrow belt along the north coast.
In the Cueva de Fari and Cueva de Trnjillo Alto large numbers were
found, more especially in the latter. This species prefers deep, narrow
fissures or holes in the walls and ceiling and does not often cluster in the
nmre open recesses. When disturbed, the inmates pour out in a rapid
stream and disappear like shadows into some other part of the cave. The
Light is very swift, but, owing to the small size of this bat, may appear
to ie more rapid than it actually is. When frightened from a resting
place, as a rule thie leave the spot with very little reluctance and do not
hover about or make tentative returns. This species was not found in
houses, as MacLcay found the small C'hilonycleris in Cuba. A very
small bat, possibly inflata, was seen at dusk flying over the streets of
Lares. No small young were noted with the adults of this species, al-
thotgh you ng of the other species of bats were quite common at this time

Morimoops blainvillii Lench
Text Figs. 5 and C

See Miller: The Families and Genera of Bats, p. 121, 190 for diagnosis
of the genus.
1821. Mormnoopx blhlintrillii Leach. Trans. Linn. Soc. lim.lon. XIll. p. 77, tub.
1840. [,[obo.ulorma] Utinntmomeu Gundhillch. Weiglianll's Arch. Naturg.. VI.
Band 1. p. 257.
1S87S. Morntop. hblainrillci. (Ilndhaell, Ainales Soe. lsplni. Hist. Nat... II. p.
140 (part) [Ir'to RiWoo and Cubal.
J!02. 11orinoops blihairi.!1ii, rihn ioottica leohn. Proi. Aead. Nat. 'Si. P1hilatdel-
phina, p. 1N5 ..Jnm 11.
1>)1. 1lormoop.s bliolrillii 'imifill u m 'l G. M. Allln. InlIl. M sl. (Comip. Zo;l..
LIV. 22(;. July.
11112. 1otrnmoops blainril limi in mtmt'n Miller. North AmLrienn I.aund laine-
irals. p. 31. Iteeemlbor .3.
1!91. 1 Irioops i 1luinrillii \lAnltholly. Indigenou'I s Land Al.iInII alls of Porto
Rico. p. :140, 4Octolber 12.
11)24. Miormoopips bloirillii iiniamomric Miller, North AIloerila lRecolt .M;ali-
mlals, p. 44.

Ty'pe louitlily.-Casetal, San Anltonio el Fiimulailir. Cuba.
liis.rib ilio,.-Cubia, Santo DIl oinole,, Mona Isla;nd and PI'oto i ico.


]trciorded in Portoii lico from Trujillo Alto ;d11 from "-in parte ieiri-
dional de la lsla" (GIundlach).
Specieuens colflered.-Six: Five skin and one aleoholio.. uneva de
Trujillo Alto.



9 --~p

iIi;. ..- llormi ops b) r ih, lii \ 1 :t: ni ilt : Trujillo A.\ll. IPr i 4 Iic,

(;feI'erIl rhi ltrictrsI.-A Ismll or ) ediuml size bat with grote'ljue head
and fare and wide interfemorn ll nieinbriaine face very short: muzzle with
small pad, but no nose-lead': upper lip with two small fleshy processes on
-ither side iof nostril, and notch opposite first preiiiolar; lower lip andl
chin with (oi)llhix pad of fleshy leaflets. surface papillose: ears large,
rxccctliingly broad, not joined nIros.s For'eleaid, lower margin of (ar conch
road and shEll'-like : tragus large. complex, with subterminal procc)ss:
eye small and located in enclosir' made by ear. a small wart-like ridge
at ]posterior bordl'r o' eyelids: ihunierns of normal length, strongly showed,
ollex small and weak: femulr aln tibia long, hind foot small and deli-
lato. clear very loi' a:nd well developed : tail long', oeiloser.d except for

- II-.' /V Y, .i/AIJ.I/I ,' OF 10 /'0/7T1 ///h o

tip, in very broad interfelnoral membrane; membranes very thin and
delicate, eveerywhere naked: fur long, lax. and exceedingly soft and silky.
Color.-Two types of coloration are represented. Four skins are as
follows: ;Ibo('.. uniform Sac'ardo's-umber. the hairs distinctly lighter
hasally: beliw, about vinaccons butt. The fifth skin, No. 39558, is nun'i
darker than the others. Above. Proit's-lhroii : helow, between riniaiuon-
irowni andl ochraccous-tawny.

... 'm r..- .... Jyssy

I';. ;.- l/ nm o, s bl,itinrilli 4 1: adult : Trujillu Alto, Porto Itico

S'.,ll.-Snmall and rather delicate: rostrum about as broad as loini.
with median nasal depression and inflated maxillaries: brainease globose,
tilted to the axis of the rostrum so that frontal region makes au angle of
almost 900 with rostrum ; sagittal crest faintly indicated : mastoid process
not expanded from braincase; zygomatic arches scarcely flaring; jugals
nearly parallel; palate long, narrow, shallowly concave posteriorly: ptery-

sc/i; TIP/ 1., C El' OF PO(RTO 111C()

goid processes depressed fromn palatal plane; glenoid large, rather flat;
bulhe large, about equal to cochlea;; mandible long and narrow; hori-
zontal ramnus long, or good depth, ascending rams broadly curving up-
ward; coronoid very low, about midway between the condyle and molar
plane; condyle high above molar crowns; angular processes flaring out-
ward; dentition strong.

Dentition.-1, -- ; ,, Pm, -- ;1,- 34.
2-2 1 -1 3-3 3-3
Upper: Inner incisors strongly in contact, with expanded crowns and
looking somewhat as if they had been rotated slightly on the body of the
tooth. cutting edge trenchant and bifid: outer incisors very minute, sub-
terete, crowded against inner pair: noticeable diastema between canines
and incisors; canine long, compressed, with keen cutting edges; first pre-
molar very low-crowned, with very sharp median cusp and low posterior
concavity; second premolar with highest cusp of molar series; first and
second molars subequal, normal in detail, with W-shaped crown pattern,
as in Chilonyeleris: tlird molar reduced, lacking a cusp and a commis-
sure of the W.
Lower: Incisors equal, small. cutting edges trifid, forming a close row.
-lightly convex between canines: canine simple, sharp; three premolars
>Iubequal, second smaller than first or third, with single trenchant cusps:
three molars similar in detail. if nearly equal size. with normal cusps
well developed.
IMefIsurelmenl.--Average of 5 adult females: Total length, 83.8 mnn.
(80-86); tail vertebrmr. 29 (28-30) ; hind foot, 10.5 (10-11) ; forearm,
46.7 (16-48).
Skull.-Average of 5 skulls: (Greatest length, 14.1 (13.8-14.4) ; zygo-
matic breadth, 8.55 (8.5 -8.6) : interorbital breadth, 4.4 (4.3-4.5)
breadth of braincase, 7.38 (7.3-7.6); length of palate, 8.1 (8.1-8.8)
length of maxillary molar series. 6.2 (6-6.4) ; length of mandible, 12.06
(11.9-12.2) : length of mandibular molar series, 7.36 (7.2-7.5).
IMemarks.-JIormoops blaiiil dli apparently remains unchanged over
rather an extensive range, since specimens from Jamaica, Haiti. Cuba.
Mona Island and Porto Rico are indistinguishable from one another.
The question is complicated by the extreme variability in color shown hv
all the species of this genus, but the skull characters identify the Porto
Ihian specimens with the Cuban series. Froin 3. b. blainuillii of Ja-
maica, 31. b. riol.momenia, has been differentiated by Rehl (1902, pp.
1 G.'-166). the reviser of the genus, on the charmnter of the first 1pp1er pre-
odlar.' "greatly expanded posteriorly." I have examined the same speci-

I.YTHIOXI-. -11 1-11M ILNS o1' I'ORITO 1ff'o1

means which IRehn had. with the advantage of additional specimen.- (the
tltal number of West Indian Mormoops.: 31, as follows: Jamaica, 1.
skins and alcoholics with 12 skulls; Cuba, 4 skins and alcoholics with 4
skulls; Haiti. 1 alcoholic with 1 skull: Mona Island, 5 alcoholics with 5
skulls: Porto Rico. 6 skins and alcoholics with 5 skulls), and find that I
am unable to distinguish more than one form in the lot. The shape of
the first upper premolar varies somewhat with the individual and I can
see nothing to indicate subspecific separation for the Porto Rican animal.
The degree of rostral inflation varies as well.
None of the Porto icean animals sh,,w the intense ochraceou- colorn-
tion attained occasionally by this species elsewhere, but doubtless this i-
a condition due to the small size of the .ceries. and more extended collect-
ing would secure the bright individuals.
Mormoops appears to be a rare bat in Porto Rico. as it was seen in but
one cave, Cnueva de Trujillo Alto, and then only in very small numbers.
One was secured J. ly T after several shots had been fired into a chamber
teeming with Molooplylluts and on later visits, July 14 and 20. a very
few were found t, be hanging in crevices in a small, elevated chamber.
to which it was rather difficult to ascend from the main floor of the cave.
lere it wxas consorting with the smaller C'hilonyclctris and 3Monophylt/1s,
being found mingled with masses of these two genera. When in flight,
which was generally only after all the other bats had departed, this spe--
,ies would alight on the first favorable -spot, seemingly heedless of the
light and confusion or else bewildered by such strange happenings. where
it could be struck with a bit of brush. It is easily the most grotesque ii
appearance of any of the bats on Porto Rico. because of its very peculiar
ears and complexly ornamented lower lip.
With the fossil remains of .Veoplrnles. SNieiodlrmu'ii. Phyllon1ycerLi
and other bats were found three skulls and two mandibles of Mormnoop.o .
The fossil skulls ditrer to no appreciable extent from recent skulls of

See Miller: The Families and Genera of Bats. p. 13. 19(07. for diafnosi-
of suhfamily: p. 139 for diagnosis of genus.
3Ionophy.vllus portorieeniMs Miller
Text Fin. 7
19i00l. Mlou hllhithlsn irt(ririis ix Miller. P1ro. Waisington A\ai. Sci.. II, p. :14.
MaIrch :t0.
1911. Motnoohi lliix pr'loricmi.iix I 4 M. Allhn. lllnl. A ius. ('tomip. Z<'il.. LI \V, 1i.
2.31, .iuly.

,C1'I-,.VTIFIC ,,C'l, I/Y 1O'W P/'O /TO 1/t( 'o

1,112. .IonophyillJ poito)-'trivcxSi. Miller. North Ainerican Land Malinnils. p.
40. December 31.
SJlas. lloluophlluts portoricc'niss Anthony, Indigenous Land Mammals of 1'rto
Rico, p. 348, October 12.
1924, oiionophYillhux pJortoricci si. Miller. North American Recent MAnnmals.
p. 51.


l'( -" ,/ ,, B/ol.. SJrvy)

lm- 5 Pueblo iej,

uva de Trjillo Alto, 122 (15 skins).
mall.. nose and er ple: tai ver short.

iiosp-leaf low,, pointed_, ers of medim height, about as broad as high,
r 'ni;e 7at tip tlaifi ,S t'simplo, .' i ; a duligh t chi ; I'n lo \'it lort( l tai l

'bolpe 1oc uiti.-t lo e ial tipa interfem, orto e eeo.
I~istribeiiti.--Known only from the Island of Porto Rico. lRecorded
I'lin BiiiBalny n, 1l)Ce;i lie Fari (li'ar Sanl JUan), Cueva de Trrjilini Alt,
:1nil ('avyey (I7. S. Biul. Sirve).)
"1'*tcii't 'ollecl'i'il.-125: Cu'.eva d1 Fain. Pueblo Vieji 3 skins;
S'tvxa di Trjill) Alt!t), 122 (15 skins).
ieti iern C/iIIrI(clrrs.-Sixe small; nose and ehrs sinlpleO : tail very short.
iise-leaf low,. plilned : ears of miediiumi heiglit, abot as broad as high.
roundedl at tip: trains silnple, straight: chin with median clef't: tail
:liot 'i 1I111. Ilo1, f're,' ai fifl: illtert'emotlira] niembl1aral le very llnir'r'o'w alllll

IVNT/O\'N .I/.11.111./ I,'S OF I'ofl'io 1'lIo

attached to a greatly reduced calcenr: feet. small: huiieris haired il t
proximal third above and below, no hair on inlembranes elsewhere: hair
everywhere soft and oii moderate Icngth.
(olor.-Adults : Above, bone-brown, rather lighter on. sides of neck:
hair leveryvwhelr above practically unicolor except for minute grayish tip-
ping of some hairs which sug.'ests a frosted appearance: belm', hairs
sister at base. viliamciiis htill at ti]: imembrneiis I)rii]wnishi Ilack. ears
Younnig: ]Evryvwhere (darker tlha adullt- : Icoor ;ia)\ hila-kish ]bronv
below, deep nmuse-gray.
,'iSull.-L-',ing. slender and delicately constructed: rostrum very loni'.
slender and tuhular: braincaste large, rounded and. smooth, not risiniL
albru)itly from pllanc of rostrumi: zygoniltie iarches complete, but verve
light; h ulb of niModerte size. linut sinaller than coehleat: dentition very
weak: palate long aind narrow : iasispihenoid pits distinct; niandilbl lonhe2,
.lender mul nearly straight : coronoid low : condyle in plane of cioronoid:
ai."uilar proeess slightly dellected outward.

I -1 :._3 3 _3
2 2 I" 1-1 2-2 3

ipper: lniir-.s ahionut eqnual in -ize, very small, siimiple, outer pair in-
clinled toilard but not in cntiiact with inner pair: dliasteina between
incisors and (canines : engine sharp and dagger-like, with internal anterior
and posterior cutting edges and a poorly developed (iingIulum : first pre-
molar with high, sharp, median cusp. the entire crown heiing .]larp amd
niirrow: second preinolar like first. but rather lhriger: first two nolars
with sha rp-icuspd W-shaped crowns and extensive internal basins: lIst
molar siialler and lacking the complete 5W.
Lower: Incisors often lacking in adult, but whien present are very
minute, simple, peg-like, not in contact with one anotlier or with canine,
(c'rown1is ery lo\w: canine sharp and with posterior cing Iun : premolars
like those of' upper series, but the first one lacking the well-developed
median cone: molars similar to upper molars, hut very narrow and long,
with a reduced external basin.
Mll/'srs'e /l r/I..--A average of 18 ,pleciimens from thiera de Fnri milll
('uC a de Trl'ijillo Alto: T'otal length. (.8 toni. (l3l-11) : tail vertem.])
S.8 (7-t0) : hind foot. 11.4 (1I -12) : forearm, 36.1, (:36-38).
Skull.-.\verage .of ; adilnt skulls: Total length. 1!.8 (I .4--2.:) :
zyLioniatii width, 8.. (8.3 -8.7) : interorlbital width. :1.86 (18-3.9)
readtlih of lhrinease. 8.:2 (8.8.-I.) : length of palate. 0.4 (9.:!-9..) :
length of niolar series, 5.6 (5.6-.6) : length of iniandille. 12.:3 (12.1 -
12.S) : hlnuthi of indilmnilr umlar series. 6.:8 (0.2 1.S).

SCI'I12\ I'll/Pi SF11It' /)- ()/.' p1)117, fr p/c(

]ec/lirs.--The genus Jlonophyillus is known only from the West In-
lies, where it occurs as different species on several islands. The genus
is well characterized, and Mlonophyllus poorlori en.ais is nit liable to be
confused with any other Porto liecan bat. .I. porloricen. differs from
the species of JMoidop/hylllus o neighboring islands bIy its smaller -ize,
having a forearm less than 10 mm. The lMonoophyllfns of .Jamaica has a
larger skull than that f' the Porto ilican species, while the rostrum is
proportionally much shorter and more tubular. i. cu.bans of nulia is
quite similar to 31. ,portr'iceni.s, but the latter may he distinguished by
a smaller skull, shorter rostrum and more rounded hraincase.
This snall hat was encountered in great numbers in the Cneva de Tru-
jillo Alto. where it Intin unered all of the other hats. Here it was clus-
tered in masses. hanging in dleep crevices. or chimneysys," in the ceilinl"
of the cave, and generally appeared to be segregated by sexes. Thus, out
of 83 specimens collected on .lJlv 1-. So were males. This specie' ap-
peared to be rather lotl to leave a localit.y and even when disturbed flies
about in fluttering eiriles several moments before leaving the spot for
good. After several shots had Ieen fired the hats Iwould move on into an
adjacent chamber. Some individuals which were knocked down into the
stream that flowed through the cave lost little time swimming il the edog,'
and crawling- out. Others, which had been knocked down hy means of a
handful of slender branches and were not very seriously injured, crawled
down into a deel fissure between the earth andl the rocky wall of the iave
and behaved very imicih like so many mice. When this species was tiini
about in a wild and distiured condition., I oten noted a metallic buzziiig
sound that seemed to be made by lMoophi lll.s, and yet it was unlike aun
noise that I had hitherto hard made by bats. It was ore suggestive of
the droning flight of a huge beetle, and possibly may have been malde by
individuals with shot-pierced wings. 'The flight of this bat is st'rolig' but
not. particularly erratic or angular.
Monophylllus was found only sparingly in the .'ae\; d Fanri inea
iBayamin. These two localities, C'ueva de Fari andl ( eva de 'Trujillo
Alto, were the only places where Illonophy/llus was taken by this expedi-
tion, but an additional record from the United States IBiologieal Snrvey
gives Cayey a. a third locality.
This species was fiunmd as a fossil in the ('ueva Catelral. A siiigle
fragmentary skull agrees well with skulls of the present-day animal. The
fossil lMofoph/llix was found associated with Ifonoj/iyllus [froler. Phiyl-
lioiyert'i., major and1 other species now extinct.

IA '/IONY, I.IJ AIN OF"' 1'1 RT0 ric)

Monophy.lliu frliier Anthony

Text Fig. n

11117. lloItophyI/llus, friti/ri Anthoi3. HIll. Ailier. AlMn. Nat. Hist.. XXXVII. p.
.5(5. September T.
1!11S. liionophl! xllr tis f'rdr Antliiiho lIndieiil nul I. nIl M iiiIaialsll of P'orto Iico,
pi. 349). (Oct)her 12.
1!*21. MII ltliophfll, f'rierl Miller, Nrtlh American Recent Mainimal. p. 51.

A-m.Ms .No.40941x

B, _

F Ir ;. L I rp h y llu x f r a t 'r X 2 1 t.1 l u,: 1ml w v i" C' k P o r to V. ic

Type locality.-- ve nar Alorvis. Porto N ic. T lht typ v i. I bro n

kuill with c iim plete rostrum lll ;lll ) pille. t with lo(Ist \,' tl( I)raiti ,''
mis.sing:I i t1le molv teeth preslet ilre tihe lst iprtmoil]]r aitn til three miolar-
,f the left side. 'Topl'yples siuily it few ldtails inli'tcrminable ) I'rom
the type.
Di.rhibliolm.-Im)wn orly I'rv m thfl I orlanl Porto IH'D ico.
Sprl, imi'ns collect'Il.- Five I'rainmnt'ry skulls, nrly one of whiii. tho
t pIe. sihmvs any _great aisemllbLgei (of Chfl-ilmetrs. blit all are umnistaka;ihly
of the silno species. 'lhe we're ,ollcited in the ( 'nlev (t';itidral. willar
[orolO i-.

1'4CI /1"N7l1IF/C ,~U~VYOF PORTOI' RI((

(GeJeral charItucters.-Very similar to Mono/,op ll s plrforirtorr .si. but
decidedly larger.
Skull.-Narrow and elongate: rotr verlonte: trl v ong, tubular, with shallow
nasal depression in region of terminal suture, external nares subelliptiral.
opening decidedly upwards; interorbital constriction scarcely noticeable:
ni'inicase incompletely known. hut of rounded type; zygomatic arch
doulhtless complete: palate long. narrow, shallowly concave posteriorly.
incisive foramina large; interpterygoid notch about midway between last
molars and tips of ptcrygoid processes: denttiion normal for the genus.
l3Mdil)ble unknown.
r'nltiliou.-O)nly upper dentition known from specimens. lower denti-
tion assumed to be normal and so indicated in following formula:

2-2 1-1 2-2 3-3
T--; (', P1 -- = 4.

The first tooth of the series resent is the second prelnolar, it t tihe
;alveoli of the incisors, canine and, first premolar indicate a strictly nor-
rnal JMoophylluis dentition. Cusp of second premolar. the highest of the
molar series, triangular il outline, with trenchant edges and conlspic'uoIu
anterior and posterior accessory cusp on cingulun : molars with flattened-
out and widened W-pattern. the cusps well developed, the conmlissures
low: third molir with W incomplete, lacking the posterior stroke: out-
line of posterior border of first two molars with distinct indentattio.
Ifira.tncmrI lts of 1onioophlh!llhlU

Inter- Breadth of Breadth Alveolf
orbital rostrum L ntho of length of
atln ite sde maxillary
breadth at m' palate inside m2 o
1 readth pa molar series

.Ilo, nplh lis frater i
10941*.... .. 4 ti5 5 12.4 3 6 7 1
40944. ...... 4 ... .. 11 6 3 8 6
40945......... 4. . . 12 7 . ..
Mlmiophyll u pjor-
39431... ... 3.S 4 5 9.3 2 9 5.:


/li'on'rls.-This large species of Moaoplly'lus, while not found living
today, was apparently contemporaneous with the smaller MI. porloricwrsis
at the time that the cave deposits were laid down. A typical skull of the
smaller oiroriore.sis found in the same deposit with the skull of frater
womld indicate that the two forms were living as distinct species. ITad

AX\TIIONY, ir 1fJL4L 01' PON710) RICO

this material not been discovered, associated, the natural assumption to
make would account for portoricensis as a descendant of frater. The
relationship of frater and portoricensis is quite close, however, and the
differences appear to be in size rather than in detail. The two may be
distinguished most readily by the greater length and breadth of rostrum
and palate and by the much heavier dentition of frater.
-M. fraltr appears to be the largest species of the genus Monophyllus.
It is larger than -l lucine from the Island of St. Lucia, Lesser Antilles.
having a longer rostrum and noticeably longer tooth-row.
It is quite possible that frater may yet be found living, and only a
longer period of careful and extensive collecting can definitely prove this


See Miller: The Families and Genera of Bats, p. 149, 190', for diagnosis
of the subfamily; p. 152 for diagnosis of the genus Brachyphylla.
Brarhyphylla cavernanimn Gray
Text Fig. 9
1834. BIruchyphflllti cuc'rnremu Gray, Proc. ZoMl. Soc. London. for 1833, No.
XI, pp. 122-123, Manrch 12.
1911. Brachyplhylla cavero'irum. .M. Allen. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zoil., LIV, p.
233. July.
1912. Bruchyphylla car',etrumr Miller, North American Land Mammals, p. 43,
December 31.
1918. Braclhyphylla cternitrum Anthony, Indigenous Land Mammals of Porto
Rico, p. 350, Octohbr 12.
1924. Bruchiphyllu earcernorui Miller, North American Recent Mammals.
p. 54.

Type locality.-Island o' St. Vincent. West Indies.
Distribution.-Islands of St. Vincent, St. Lucia. Dominica, Montser-
rit, Antigua. Barbuda, Porto Rico. Cuba. Isle of Pines, and doubtless
other islands not yet closely investigated. Recorded in Porto Rico from
IPueblo Viejo. Trujillo Alto, Cayey, Corozal and Comerio (U. S. Biol.
Specimeuns collectedl.-- ) : Pueblo Viejo, (Cleva de Fari. 18 (8 skins)
'ueva de Trujillo Alto. 10 (3 skins) ; Cayey, 1; Corozal, 20.
lenerl c!miru'lers.-A large. heavy-bodied bat with rudimentary nose-
leIr, no external tail. and pale in color. IHead large and rounded; pad

Through the kiiinness of lMr. trit Miller, Jr., ir. h li mnuthlor Ihs lien nole to borrow
specimens of lonlophylluts Iucie, clinedalphius and pletlodou from the collection of the
United States Nalional lMuseum, and has thus, with tlhe imateriil in the American Mu-
semn. exatlined all the known specimens of the genus.

on muzzle, and nose-leaf represented 1y a low tralisvcrse ridge, faiitlyv
enmarginate at middle ,and lacking any upright process ears nt I moderate
size, not reaching to tip of nose when laid J'orwarl, tips somewhat
rounded tragus tall. broadly, with two wide notches on posterior border:
humierIus long, hcavv. niitie(il)lv bowed; pollex lion and stirog; tibia and

i. .-- -
,' '" : -- .:-^-,= ... "- ',
/ ? ) ... 1..... /\ J

A" Ir J,936/

____ .__ '

Flm. 1l. rl itihilphl lli rirr riiii tiii X 21 ; aIult ; 'luie lo Viejl l'urto l ii

foot of normal length, calcar present but very small; no Nisible external
tail: interfemoral membrane narrow; membranes very thick, heavily
wrinkled between hImerus and tibia; no hair*on membranes except scat-
tered hairs on interfemoral inemnbrane; pelage of moderate length, with
slight tendency to be woolly.
olor.-Adults: Above, tips of hairs warm sepia. greater length of the

W/E.N 711 V/C St -Ml hIll, W, 110AITO 1111CO

JA 'J'JION 1. M-11JL11.11-4 01' PORTIO JR/CO

hair ivory yellow, the exact tone varying with the individual; patches on
neck, shoulders at base of ears, and along sides having a much lighter
appearance than rest of upper parts because many of the hairs lack the
dark tips: underparts wood-brown, the hairs unicolor to the base except
In throat, where they are slightly paler at the base: membranes blackish
Immuature: Animals as large as the adults, but not yet in adult pelage,
are colored as follows: above, hairs tipped with deep mouse-gray, on the
rump and flanks the hairs practically unicolor to base, a patch along
either side of neck to shoulders white to gray basally below, mouse-gray.
Considerable variation in the amount of dark tipping to the hairs is
H/o'ull.-Large and strongly constructed; rostrru slightly longer than
broad, flattened across nasal suture, but not excessively so, nasals slightly
elevated above plane of upper border of maxillary, external nares opening
upward and outward: interorbital constriction slight; brainease long.
well rounded. greatest breadth posteriorly, well-developed sagittal crest.
inastoid process very poorly developed, zygoinatic arches wide-spread.
evenly flaring; palate long. U-shaped, shallowly concave, interpterygoid
notch not reaching plane of zygolnatic root of maxillary; basisphenoid
pits shallow, widely separate: bull large and completely covering coch-
lea': mandible strong and heavy; horizontal ramus deep, slightly concave
along lower border: ascending ramus broadly expanded; coronoid very
wide. mnhc higher than condyle. subfalcate; condyle slightly above plan
ifl molar crowns; angular process very broad, posterior border a wide
nir\ce ending above in an abrupt shoulder, deflected but slightly: denti-
tion heavy.
2-2 1-1 2-2 3-3
lienritio.--I. : C. : Pm, ; M,- = 32.
:-1-1 2
Ilpper: Inner incisors large, in contact at midpoint of tooth. cutting
edge a high triangle, posterior cingulum present: outer incisors minute,
in contact with crowns of inner pair, but not extending above their cin-
'ula, peg-like in shape with slightly expanded crowns;: canine large antl
heavy, with antero-internal cutting edge, prominent posterior accessory
cusp, well-developed internal cingulum bearing two low cusps; first pre-
molar small, with crown almost same in cross-section as body of tooth.
cutting edge bilobed, crowded between canine and second premolar: see-
fnd premolar with very high cusp on cutting edge, the highest cusp in
molar series. with narrow internal ciugulum and low cusp: first and
--ecoud molars similar, second slightly the larger, crowns wider than long.


greatest breadth externally, external cutting edge with two trenchant
cusps, protoconule and metaconule present but small, internal cusp or
protocone of good size, crushing surface concave with a few coarse
wrinkles; third molars less than half size of first, with concave crushing
surface and two external and two internal cusps, all low.
Lower: Incisors equal, crowded against canines and one another to
form a slightly convex row, crowns flattened, and borders slightly
rounded canines strong and sharp, with well-marked posterior heel; first
prenolar smaller than second, more than half as high, with triangular.
trenchant cusp and internal ciugulum; second prcenolar with cusp much
the highest of the molar row and even approximating the canine; first
and second molars with broad, flattened crowns, with low cusps and
wrinkled surfaces; third molar nearly as large as first, with crown similar
in appearance but with rather high metaconid.
Iea.sllrelments.-Average of 11 adult specimens. 2 males, 9 females:
Total length, 107.3 mm. (100-118); hind foot, 22 (21-23) ; forearm,
64.5 (63-66.4).
Skull.-Average of 10 adult skulls, 3 males 7 females: Greatest
length, 31.5 (30.1-3,2.' ); zygomatic breadth, 17.13 (16.3-1.8) ; inter-
orbital breadth, 6.38 (0-6.8); breadth of brainease. 12.53 (11.8-12.9)
length of palate, 12.86 (12.3-14); breadth of palate outside m2, 11.4i
(11.2-11.9) ; length of maxillary molar series, 8.73 (8.6-9) length of
mandible, 20.73 (20.2-21.); length of mandibular molar series, 10
Remarks.-This large, robust-bodied bat may be easily identified in the
field by its peculiar light coloration, narrow interfemnoral membrane, its
muzzle with the low transverse ridge and no upright leaf or process, and
lack of a tail. Next to Noctilio lrporinus mastirus, it is the largest of
the Porto Rican bats. although it is closely approached in size by Artibeus
jamaicensis. From Artibeus, JBraclyphylla may he told by the lack of a
nose-leaf and the much paler coloration.
Brachyphylla cavernarum ranges over a rather extensive area without
any apparent differentiation. Specimens from Porto Rico agree quite
well with specimens from St. Vincent, the type locality, as well as with
specimens from other West Indian islands. Doubtless Bralchypylla
ranges throughout most of Porto Rico, but it was found only along the
north coast and the northwestern parts of the island. Usually it was
found in large numbers if the cave was of any size. It appeared to be
truly a cave-dwelling bat and was not found in any other situation.
It is often found associated with Artibeaus, since the two are very simi-
lar in their habits. Both genera frequently use well-lighted caves and

.1iy7'I'IO'Y. M 11111 L OFL O'/o/'(O lRI('(1

'even in extensive caves arc found quite close 1o th e entrance. Brachy-
p,/ii, i is decidedly quarrelsome in disposition, and bats which are at rest
-how their petulant nature when a new-comer attempts to crowd in,
rentingng the intruder with angry squeaks. ''The (all-note is a strident.
raping squeak. Because of the aggressive disposition of this species,
live slpeimeni s must ble handled with care, for it is always ready to bite
;aid capable of quite a severe nip.
Nuirsing fleni les were collected on July 5, hut no small young were
I Jr. Beqiiaert has identified as Pterellip.is irancea Coq. parasites which
were taken from the fnr of this bat.
('ollsiderable fossil material of this species was collected in the C'nuva
('a ed nra. .A aret'ul comparison of some '25 skulls thus found with those
,tf recentt ,irer.,rI0 ti shot on the island show no differences worthy of
mention, and extensive measurements demonstrate the two series to be
primntitally identical in detail.

SlenIidermaii rufus (iken
Text Fig. 10

'ee M1iller: 'The Families and Genera of Bats. 1(;5, 1!51i. for diagnosis
of genus.
1':1.'.' ,S3eN e i')t om't r ifnl I tleoffroy. Dleser. die 'l.Egypit, 11. p. 114.
1'lf1;. ,N'/[ri t i/i al; ] rufasx Oken. l.ehrlhnic h dier NSaltIcrlgsl.. ,pt. :. II, p. 1'22.
1 ;Ti. N,.tiitdi't'ri.t rufumtn. I'eters. Monatslter. preuss. Akad. Wisseusell.
Berlin, p. 430. ]'l. 1. Figs. 1-l.
19111. Stie'n)roriri [ruifll n1 (G. M. Allen. Bull. Mus. (2Comp. Z% .. V1.1, p. 2'3S.
1'11\. S~rn der.lu r mfum Alinthony. lindigelius L Aind Maiinals of Porto Rivo,
1p. 352, Octobier 12.
1 124. N'tiiltrti'niit rufui.s Miller, Nfirth American Recetent llMiiials., ). 61.

Type lorNlity.-TUnknown.
Di.'stributio,.- unknown. l~ecorded from Porto lii-o, from the Cneva.
':atedral, as fossil.
.pecincens rollected.--2 good-sized specimens of skulls, some nearly
-(complete. 10 mandibles and smaller fragments too small to list in detail.
G,'neril characters.-".Nez simple. Oreilles petites, lathrales et isolkes,
,reillon interieur. Membrane interfbmorale rudinmetaire, bordant les
jambes. Queue nulle." (From description of Geoffroy.)
.',kcll.-Short and broad in general proportions; rostrmn very broad,
-hortened nasal region deeply depressed and bordered laterally by hiigh
-uplraorbital ridges coming off from the 1iifnrcation oitf the sa;ittal crest,

N('I l.t'Il st i/Ir OF PORl TO l'D JT. )


A~. .s~L Js -P04 V5~


\r47~ 4~. 3Irt~


FIG. 111. -N!'lii,,Jlt'iern

^ ^^, TK

rlifa Skull fi"urles X ; 1: dentitlion X 14 : : l[aovis. I'.leva
Catedral. PIorto Rico
A--crown view of maxillUlry to.tli-lvro
P.-crown view of iiimnullilil>la' ti)oti-)I\w.

exterinll mltre opening almost entirely lpward, suhliirctlar in outlile:
zygonmatic arches heavy. widelM fla ring; braincase high aind inflated, hut
compressed laterally rather thlin evenly rounded. low sagittal crest pres-
int, mastoid process poorly developed: palate very broadly horseshoe-
shaped with deei poIsteri or enmargination reaching nearly to p)lian of first
molar, large incisive foraminll well separated frotm root, of incisors and
front naclih other: pervygoid prolces.- short, low., triangular. initerptcrygoid
fossa -l-shaped. very loi p: ylnciitid well developed, lpost-lglenoid process
very heavy; basisphlieiid pits large anl prominent: l)lbeli not ]resent in
'orto Rican material, figured lb) Peters (1. c.) as of good size: niandille
wide and heavy: horizontal ratinin \'ry deep. rather short, astending
ramus wide with very high coronoid, low\. wide condvyle slightly elevated
above inneiioli p and anil'1llar ]processes scarcely dlellectel.
2 1-1 ,- 2 :!-
Ji/ififii.-I,-- (',-- : P'i.-- 1,- -- .

Incisors above and below nAissing in Porto Rican skulls and descrip-
tions of these teeth taken from Peters' fi'gres; all other teeth described
'rom actual specimens.
1)pper: Inner incisors very miiichl Iarger than outer pair. with slender
crowns: outer incisors about half as high as inner, with well-developed
cin'nullui and low accessory cusp : all incisors in contact with each other
and with canines; canine not very well developed, with good cinguluin
and very low internal accessory cusp: greatest transverse extent of canine
almost at right angles to main axis of skull: entire molar tooth-row very
niucl crowded, the teeth tightly pressed against each other: first pre-
nolar nearly a; high as canine, which it roughly resembles, with a single
trenchant cusp rising high on external border of tooth: second premolar
fully as high or slightly higher tlian canine, with tall. s0ntriangnlar main
1usp. lower posterior accessory euspl on external cutting edge and with
concave internal basin : first molar with main cusp as high as thnit of
second ipretioilar, protocole well developed, hypocone present but small.
imeaconule as a low', rounded cusp. paracone the main cusp. very high,
with trenchant edges, metaeone similar but rather lower. with faintly
bilobed edge. internal crushing basin concave: second molar slightly
smaller than first, similar in general pattern but with metacone much
lower and withi an internal cingulhini acroiiss entire flank of paracone,
outline of crown subtrianguilar: third niolar minute, closely appressed to
second mnolar, crown flattened, subelliptical in outline, with two low
'e,'ps. probably protoconel and paraeonie.


.l~l',l4'Ic 'JirHt' O(f tr ,rm dcrIlitl rifr'ls

I enigth fr ln
border fora-
mlenl nmagmllllil
to tip of

Zvgo- InIler- l readltl
inatic orbital of brain-
I rolt breailth I e ase

17 1 15 7
15 G

. . .. . 15 .
S 5 :S

Illngth of
Iilatet from Lcigth
lreadth aiilterior IBradtth of Iaxil-
of rost rum order p os- [ of alte o I air length of
f In' 1)ahltal notch iilside nolr length of
to posterior I l s mandiilei
border of in-
('.iiv. alveoli

of 111m111-
series s

3 6 5 ( li 5*
3 (i 4 9l 6 r, *
l.ti i li 2*
:3.S 2 G 5*
3 S 4 6. (i;t
:3 9. 4 7 li ..t .... .
. . . . . . . . . 13 2 t
.. .. ... .. 13 *. t
..... .. 12 .5 *
13 6.*

i lniso'r


40947.. .
1094 . .
40955. ..
10956. .

" v .\ l olalr I ll l l iakeill Iro;IIs o iif I* iCe f 1II (if IllP Inllar I' ri's.
"H 'riowi hlinglh halwn;.l all ofl IHiw mIon r I1" erlii+. lil' i.

ANTHONY, MAMMALS ,/' 1'UlT1O :1t'0

Lower: Ineii ors nmalil, equal, forming convex row between canines;
eanilne searcely larger than premolarci, with internal and external cutting
edges and anterior face (if tooth peculiarly flattened, a decided notch at
external base itf crown where it meets n poorly developed eilnglum pre-
molars with very flat external aspect ; first premolar with high trian-
gular crown having very trenchant edges and an internal einguluimn
second premolar larger than Jirst. with a high, sharp cusp on the anterior
border of the crown which is overlapped externally by the posterior
border of the first premolar: first molar largest of series with main cusp.
protoconiid, as high as main cusp of premolars. inetaconid and hypoconid
present as mnchl lower cusps upon a flattened posterior basin, and with
iutero-internal ringulnii :. second nmolar with much lower crown, the
pirotoeonid, lnetacnild and entoconid as low but distinct cusps, the hypo-
conid scarcely discernible, a well-developed external Cingulum l last molar
very small, with low, flattened crown showing protoeonid and metaconid
with a posterior internal cusp, possibly the entoconid.
Li'ccn, arlcs.-S-l ,loderma rI'ufus for over a century stood as a name only.
The habitat of the species was unknown. although it was shrewdly sur-
mised by Dr. -1. Allen (1911, p. 238) that the homeland of the spe-
cies was in the West Indies, and this conjecture accorded with the ideas
of most workers on Amnrican C'hiroptera. The animal was described by
Etienne St. Hilaire Geoffroy in a work on Egypt dated 1813 (see Lyon,
1914, 1. 217), but the type locality was not given. The natural assump-
tion would be that the bat was African. but later workers felt that its
New World origin was not to be doubted. For over fifty years nothing
was added to the description of Geoffroy, and it stood as an animal of
unknown habitat and poorly understood characters until Peters, in 1869,
visited the Paris Musemn atnd examined the type. He found the type
represented by a ilaimaged skin from which the skull had been removed
and lost. 'Peters was deceived by the faulty figure of Geoffroy, and as a
result lie made Stenodermia out to be VFampyrops (Peters, 1869, p. 399).
Later on Peters lhad occasion to examine the type of Artibeuts undallun
Gervais in the anatomical collection of the Paris Museum (Peters, 1870.
1). 132). The similarity between the skull of undatum (the type of
icdatehicm was a skull, the skin of which was supposed to be lost) and the
skull figured by Geoffroy at once impressed Peters, who came to the con-
clinsion that the skull of codatul was tie long-lost skull of Stenoderma
rif, si. This interpretation was evidently accepted by Dobson (1878, p.
.52 ), who wrote that tile type of Steimd.eraI. rufus was represented by a
skin, in bad condition, and a sknll in the Paris Museum. The work of
'cterrs is important because he was able to demonstrate the existence of


such nl animal as t1eunodllrma ruf.us and to define its well-marked char-
acters, thus putting' to an end a condition which had allowed rlenloderma
rufe s to be confused with 3olo.ssu.s, rufust and Desn.todus rufus.
Finally, in 1916, Seaoderuai rufus was discovered as a fossil and thl
habitat, in part. at least, of this species was disclosed. Some of the ob-
-nurity of the previous 100 years was dispelled, but there still remains
this interesting condlition. In Porto Ilico this bat is known only as a
fossil, whereas Geolfrov had an animal in the flesh. The fossil material
of this bal was found associated with Xe.ophonles, Phyllooyereris major
and Monopuhllus frater, all known ionly as fossils, and with skulls of
f1 type may very well have come from Porto Rlico: on the other hand.
.'lrn odernia maI be extinc(t on Porto Ii(ic and survive on some of the
adjacent islands.
The relationships of SIeuoderuma rl/fos are well expressed by Miller's
(1907, p. 1(;.) treatment of the Stenoderinimae. The aflinities of the
renus aire with Alrdops of the Lesser Antilles. hyllops of ('nba and
Santo' Domi ntigo aniil more remotely with rileus of .Jamaica. renat
diversity of development in the snbfamuily has taken place in the West
Indios, specialization having run along dillerent lines in separated locali-
ties. /en'odi/eriimo. in the character of its deeply excavated rostrum, i,
widely dlilf'rent, from its most closely related neighbors, and in addition
it possesses a well-developed inetoil.ollell ill 1 and in( which the other
enoera of tihe sul'familv lack.

Arrltiheis ,j.maicellsis jnamaicenslis I.emli
Texi Fig. 11

Se Miller: The lFanilio,- and (enera of Hats. pp.110, 190!,. for diag'nosi-
of the lenus.
IS21. A. 'liblcrIt joul i'nm .i I.ex irl ih. Tranlls. 1.ini. So(.. XIII, ]i. 75.
1S7.. .Arlli, i. picr'siciilltilu.ii ( himlllli.h. AnIIles Se, Espan. Hist. Nat.. VII,
p. 1:!l.
1!0T S. .\I i rl,) l. i'inOeir l s l(l i l.s iia ,iiiiih .ii.i Anlldllrs i. PI're. Z ool. So l.oi mlll. p.
11111. Arliloa.s j.nnl(iii *in.i ix U. I 1. m .\ oi Ini l. 1In. s. ('oni|i. Z .Iuly.
11)12. .Irlilil. j.ilt'ii iiiiri ix j l tiiii ro xi.x .M miller. North Am.\lerican; i Ii(l Mi ilni-
llil] s. 1). 41, Dereimber 1.
191 s. .1iribr'ix jilii I ''icil.Si. a innaiiicn' x.i I .ltlloiini. II l ligeiitnos Land iMaillnnils
of Porto Itico. p. :54. (Otoler 12.
1 124. tliliiux .jomm ui ircici.vi.x o liO ic.'Iniuis. Miller. North .\Aii< .ri; ll ie ient .M;in-
in als, ]I. 5I8.

ATT]'HO\Yv. /.1l.iIf.iA s r' OF I'/'TO ,I'ICO

Tylpe locality.-J amaica.
Dis~lribution.2-- "Central America and 8itthiern Mexico, as far north
as Morelos, and exclusive of Yucatan; St. Andrews and Old Providence
Islandls; Jamaica, Porto Rico, Santo Dominiogo, and Losser Antilles a-
far east as St. Kitts."

Vi 1. 1 i1 ir4br' iij nii rt hi, jint o, .i.si \ 2 1: adultt I I uini O. Mort,, ic,
ltecordenli in Piirto Rico from ('avev. ('I orozal, Lii-es, Mlrovi.. Old
LUniza. I'lilo) \Viejo, (nQuebradillas, San IGermiaii. 'T'rujillo Alto, I'tfidlo:
Agnas liunias, ('ierio. 11I1a. Catalina, TI'oa Alta (last four records ol'
'. S. Biiol. Survey).
Sp.jriciirs colle'tled.-4 : C'avev, I ; Coromal, 5; liares, 8: Old Loiza.
Siisktril tioi f"rom M miller .924. 1-). 5 .
i. ,_. . .
,/, c.,, :i ,, '



1: Pueblo Viejo (Cneva de Fari). 1; San German. 14 (12 skin :
Utuad,. 17 skins.
ft,'neral rrlaclers.---A large bat with robust body. narrow inter-
fenmoral memlranee and conspicuous nose-leaf. II adl rather large; muz-
zlh with large prominent lanecolate nose-leaf, arising from an enlarged
naadl p]ad: upper and lower lips normal, well haired; ears short, separate.
when laid forward lacking considerable of reaching tip of muzzle, tips
rounded, posterior border passing into thle basal couch by an abrupt
shoulder: tragus large. wide. notched hasally, thickened internally, sharp
externally; body thick set: humerus proportionally short and heavy.
furred throughout basal half: tibia and hind foot short. calcar present
but very short: tail vestigial and not externally visible: interremnoral
membrane narrow: membranes heavy and tough.
'olor.-Adults: Above. nearly uniform, varying with the individual
from warm sepia to light seal-brown, but with color of basal portion ,o
pelage, ranging from light buff to pale smoke-gray, showing through on
neck and shoulders to give those parts a lighter tone: below, uniform in
coloration with uLpper parts, but hairs unicolor t( the chase except for
limited area on under side of neck. where the hairs are huffy or gray
hasally. as ab-ve: facial stripes absent in most cases, but appearing
I'aintly in some specimens, of same color as bases of the hairs on the
upper side of the neck, the stripes running from the nose-leaf over the
eye to the anterior order of the ear: membranes blackish thrown ; pelage
rather thick, of medium length and very soft.
Young: )Dark mouse-gray above and below, the hairs of the upper neck
and shoulders lighter basally.
,'kull.-Size large, strongly built: rostrum very broad and flat neros
nasals, external nares opening outward and upward : braincase pro-
gressively exlipanded posteriorly, dorsal outline strongly curved downward
f'roii parietals, sagittal crest well developed; mnastAid process poorly de-
velolpe(d: zygoimatic arches strong, wide-spread, jugals nearly parallel to
one another: palate broad, horseshoe-shapled interpterygoid fossa U-
ltaped, reaching about h alf the distance from tips of pterygoid process,
to plane of last molars; hiasisphenoid pits well developed ; bnlle slightly
smaller than cochlea;. combined auditory mechanism rather small: man-
dible strolling and leavy, horizontal ralllus straight and thick: ascending
rmlus broad, its ventral border in sample plane with horizontal rams:
ruronoidi wide, triangular, nmch higher than condyle: angular process
ihort. wide, rounded: dentition hbove and below heavy.

2-2 1-1 2-2 2-2
[Dentiion.-.-.-- ; --: Pil, --: 2, :;0
11- ) ") "3 :


Upper: Incisors small, innor about twice size of outer pair, slightly
separated from eaeh other and from canines, inner pair with crown.-
slightly expanded laterally, cutting edge bilobed, outer pair with letting
edge oblique, entire: canine straight, simple, with internal cingulum:
first preinolar rather small, with sharp, anterior cusp. chisel-like Lctting
edge amn poorly developed style: second premolar about twice as large a-
first, its mainly cusp the highest in the molar tooth-row, with broad. flat
internal heel and low internal cusp: first molar with crown abont twice
as wide as long. with external cusps, paracone and euctacone. and two
low internal cusps, protocone and hypocone, the crown sloping abruptly
downward from the external cutting edge to forin a broad. internal basin.
surface of crown covered with fine wrinkles; last molar slightly more
than half as large as first, subelliptical in shape, with broad, wrinkled.
crushing surface and postero-external cutting edge.
1 power: Incisors small, peg-like, with flattened crowns, cutting edges
very faintly bifid, teeth eroded into intercanine space: canine simple:
first premnolar about half as high as second, with triangular, trenchant
uesp: second preiolar with one very high cusp aml reselmbling consid-
erably the canine; first molar large, abont twice as long as wide, nar-
rowed anteriorly, ,rown low with finely wrinkled surface; second molar
subrcetangular, much smaller than the first, with trenchant internal
border bearing three low cuIps: third molar minute, peg-like, closely
crowded against second molar.
M.lrurslmiiel.l s.-Average of' 21 adults, both sexes: Total lelth, 10;."
inn. (100-115) : hind foot, 17.5 (17-19) ; forearm, 58.88 (56-(61.9).
Skull.-Average of 5 males and 5 females, adults: (.-eatest length.
28.V (.7.-29); zygomatic breadth, 17.02 (16.5-17.) : interorbital
breadth. 7.16 ((.7-7.-J) : breadth of brainease. 12.16 (12.2-13) ; length
of palate. 12.(15 (12.4-12.9) : breadth of palate outside i1, 12.36
( 2.1-12.S) : length of umaxillary molar series, 8.41 (.19-S.8) length oI'
inandible,. 1.4:1 (18-19); length of mandibular molar series, 9.1
Ieimarks.--The genns I rtibeus has only one representative in Porto
Iico and conise[uently there is little likelihood of confusion arising over
tle determination of this well-characterized species. The slight super-
ficial resenbance which this species bears to irarclyplylla rarerneruimi
is not misleading, fIor even a casual comparison of the two genera show.
/it h .phI/Ill/l'i t o he Il rger, paler in ,olor, and with a narrower rostrumn.
\\hicllh lack a well-deoveloped nose-leaf. -I rlibeua. juiit.iretisis jamaicecnsi
hlas a x r1y ile rallge all([ is fund unldilfferilti;itecl t throughout the
3In thi, sk p i-hown InI is ivkiml on both ides.

,('//I, VT /I sUB~ IV 01W (iF)'VTI'O RICO

greaterr Antilles, with t11 v xceptioii of Cubai. In (Cuba. Ar/libels is rep-
resented by another suispoeies, j. psirripjs, which differs from .. jntmii-
rensis in slightly smaller size, smaller skull and smaller teeth.
This species is one il' the mist widely distributed of the 'orto Rieian
hats. It was f'oind in many localities widely separated and its range

pirel'ferec' e fr a;ny particular type of c \ve' was nuiti-edl. Arlib'ir.s being
fl'iii in ilt'cp. lark ca\es and in s)lillov, light ones. It \was oiftte fonidl
in (caves s s sallow that there was uvry little prote(.tiii froi direct day-
lii'ght, anI Ihats tio he highly social aiIl as g'merallv scattered tlll'oghml t a aive rather
thli in a single lTrge Crolonyl. Nuiiibers of the tibrous corn'~ s of native
I'ruits 'were fIoumnd ilingl on the cavr tfiors whl're tllis fruit-eating bat had
Iro' liht tlheim.
Thl light o l .I rlib!us is rather he;ivy andI steady in direction, when
co'plirlll d witli soine of the siialler species. althiughi this bat is a strong,
capable fiyer. It is quarrelsome in disposition and vociferous when pres-
Oit in iiii unlers. If given aln olpportluity, it is capabl' of making" a
]ainl'li wound. uis its teeth are harp and the jaw imusishi powerful. It
i< not very easily alarilled and alniost never left a c(.ive whin disturbed.
Its call-inot i a. st roig, strident squealk of harsh quality.
'emliales with small young were taken .l une 3 and g.graidi females with
a single. large einib'r'o wWre collected on the smnie day. On .June 26 lihalf-
grown oinmg were taken. and June 21l and .July I young' nearly the size
of the adults were noted. The females carry the young" m when the latter
are alinist as large as themselves. and tiy albiuM with the heavy lirdeli
willholut mullh loss sof speed.


Si'e .Miller: T'he Famiilies andl Genera of BHts, p. 1 1. 1)0;. for diagnosis
ol thei sublfnmily: p). 172, for diagnosis iof the ginis.

I'Phyllon.eteris ilalijur Anthlny
Text Fi-. 12
1917. I'hlll lioftcrii llsjiir Anliit i y. ulll. Aller. Mills. Nat. Hist.. XXX 'tI.
p. 56i7. Selitenilir 7.
1's1. I'Ph lli/onylsr'rix llisjor Anthony. I ligi'luilts s ls uill A llll:lls lf P'o'rt5
ities, 1p. :.1;. (October 12.
1!)24. I'Phyflliouiptri'.x major Miller, No'rth Ailierii'i.ail il ceiit M; nnnu ls. p. (62.


Iw'lit 1 isp a kill[ nirly ctiiple. bm hickinl rill] deltnitionut In' anil
ill. 111in li:l 1112 :,,,(1 Illu,1 l(ii right sidre ;ie the oili teetfi pTeOflt.
/I1~/if~ejen.j'Ci iwn iiIY from the khlid ofi PoroIti lon.




4 t-

A ,.

m si
II *

F .1 2. Ph ,ililii iiicris nojoi* X 2. 1 tyv _)ii. )vi. oxt, Cupwn Cat idI in. I 'riu ldvo~ii

G(n / (ll, g (I re r~,.-( Iikehi ted tIi IhylIlnyetcris iovyi. bit ie-
ifeatmdv Lii Iger. with wider I uaiuiease ond heavier dentitionl
~ ii u]oiii l-n, deepl anld ratlIvo t uhlnia, external lanes open logA,
-iuduil lllvorfwnii. lntu"als maitrkedl n., flattened riilLO aIlon- roilnom ;inter-

N (IEX/ 1'X71' F/NURUEI OFPOR'11TO ftJ('

Orlit.al constriction very slight: braincase high and rounded, not rising
abruptly front rostral plane, broader than deep. expanded posteriorly.
\ery low sagittal crest; mastoid process poorly devellopd : zyg~ matic arch
incomplete: palate very long, shallowly concave, narrowed anteriorly.
small. incisive foramina present. pterygoid region very !log, prove es
flattened, conlave for half their extent; V-shaped interpterygoid notch
not reaching plane of last nmolar,-: very low med ian ridge ationg floor of
interptervgoid fossa: poorly developed Imsisphenioid plit: paroccipital
processes well developed: bulle unknown: manildild (not particularly
associated with type skull) long and narrow; horizontal ralnus very
straight. of good depth; ascending ramus scarcely elevated above hori-
z ntal ranius: coronoid high. wide, triangular: condyle much lower than
.oronoid, about level with no la' crowns; dental foramK n large and con-
2-2 1-1 2-2 3-3
Dentition.'- .-- ; C, ; Pm,-- : A.- = :32.

TDtntition heavier than that of P. poeyi.
Upper: Tncisors not presei t in any skull, bIut alvli indicate incilor-
as in poeyi, a larger inner pair. a smaller iouter pair. all in contact. but
separated hy diasterna from canines: canine large. simple, w wdih well-devel-
opeid anterior and posterior cutting edges and narrow internal cinguluni :
lir-t premonlar small, subterete: second premiolar rather more than twice
as la ge as first, with single triangular cusp. practically no eingulum:
molar' with low crowns, not reaching level of crown of second premolar:
first miolar with crown about as broad as long, parnaonle and mtetacone
-c:arcelv distingluishable on the external cutting edge, internal crushing
surface broad, outline from above ubelliptical : second molar wider than
long. the greatest length along external cutting edge. crown pattern of
raised cutting edge with two cusps and broad, internal crtuslhing surface:
Ihird mnilar about half size of second. crown flattened sul ,triangoular, the
tooth set inside of extreme border of molar series.
Lower: Incisors not present lint indicated as minute, sHltequal : canin,
large. with prominent posterior notch on cingulumn : first prentiolar not
kn wni, but alveolus as large as that of second: second preimoar with
well-developed triangular median cusp: first molar with crown longer
than wide. flattened, outline of cusps lost: second d tmolar subrectangular.
slightly longer thlin wide. crown flattened,'with trace of shallow con-
cavIity, cusps very faintly indicated : third mAolr smaller than either tir-t
or eccOlld imola's.

' Il.-uliptin t;ikenii ftlrm type mild lIIplype material.

lc iuretlm'18 of Ph/ yllonii 'tcri(y

Phyl/llonuycteiris mnjor
40926 .
40928 ...............
40929. ..............
40932 ............ ..
40933 .............. .
40934 ....... ... ...
I'; .,.! ... ... r, poeyi
23758.... .......
23759 . .......

T1p .

Greatest Int r- H re: dlt
lnt orbital of
S breadth braincals

2( 7 5.5 11.3
.. . 5 0 .. .. .

27 7




5.2 10.5
5.3 9.9

i Breadth of
e at In2


0 9

Length of

10 7
11 1
10 7

9 7

B1reidth of
insile 1m12

length of
maxilhl rv

Length oif enigt
mandible It|monldi

ol) r
h of
ar -

" 8, ... . . . . . . . .. .
6.S ..
. . . . 18 .1 . .
...... 17 6 S.3

6.1 1i. 7.3
5.7 15.4 7 2





,*('jJ~\ '11 10 J.11 V'I 01P PORTO'( RICO

Specimens collHcled.-60 fragmentary skulls, only a few of which are
nearly complete: 22 mandibles, mostly without any teet1, and small
fragments not worth listing.
Penieari.s.-Phyllonyrleri.s major is so obviously congeneric with poeyi
fhat comparison elsewhere is unnecessary. From poeyi it may be told by
its larger size, more widely expanded braincase and much larger second
upper premolar.
This species was found only as a fossil and in but one cave. It wa~
contemporaneous with Nesoph ones as well as with Slenodentau. rufu.s
and other bats to be found living today. Possibly P. major may be found
as a living bat, the chances for this being very favorable, since P. poeyi
and the species of the related genus Erophylla. occur only in isolated
localities and escape notice for long periods, as witness the rarity, till
recently, of P. poryi and E. sezckorni in collections.
Heretofore, Phyl!oiiyceri.q, with but a single species, has been knownY
only from Cuba. The discovery of a closely related species of this pecu-
liarly West Indian genus upon Porto Rico is an added bit of evidence in
favor of an earlier, intimate connection between the now detached island-.

Eropliylla bombifrons (Miller)
Text Fig. 1i

See Miller: The Families and (Genera of Bats, p. 1;.), 901. for diagnosis
of the genus.
ls)9. PJuhy.ll lctcris borbifrolls millerr. I'Proi. I1iol. Soc. Washington. XIII. p.
3113, May .21.
190G. Erophyl bomhbifrom .Miller. Proie. Biol. Soc. W~ishingt(on, XIX. p. ';41.
June 4.
1911. Erophylhla bolmbifr'roIR (.. 'M. Allen. Itull. -Mus. Comp. Zo4il.. LIV. p. 2411.
19i12. i.erophyillt bliilthifro4.5i Miller. North Aimericnli Latnl MAlnimmals, p. r1.
December 21.
1918. Erolphylfl bonimbifronKs Anthony. llinigenifons linld M1IIlliii:ls of Porto
licn. p. 3.S1. Otoler 12.
19!24. Er)iphyllht l bifr4lifroil 31iiller. North Amneriica lil eent IMaimninml. p. ;:.

'i'ye locality.-Cave near Bayamon, Porto RIico.
I)isxliblfio,.-Known only from the Island of Porto lico. Recorded
from B Iyamnio anil from ilie Cueva de Fari,.near San .Juan.
S'lperim.es .ro7llectd.-14 : Cueva le Fari. Pueblo Viejo. 1- (S skins).
J.nly 5 and (C.
( tragus with nIotrlchd dges; niose-lea f rudimentary, represented by a low.


pointed, median projection upon a naked, tumid nasal-pad; lower lip
with median split; tail very short, terminal half free; interfemoral mem-
brane narrow; calcar present but vestigial; skull moderately narrow and
elongate; zygomatic arch complete; lower molars with distinct cutting

'Vy--^/ -'4,- /^' "-
I"- ( .l^ ^

,t- i .
,,,,"1. al'' l

,.'. i .
ii, .. a'[

j|"i "*^^ .
y/1 \- i

\. \, ,. ,, .'\ .,
'Vl '-- ? ^ "";
S.-,: .

1"1'l'. 1.". -F.r']~t~f IJ~ mi~ iiii roll. :. 1 : aflllll : rult l i.dl Viroio


('olor.-Adults: Abo v, hairs distinctly bicolor. being white for rather
more than half the basal half. then tipped with chestnut-brown: from
shoulders posteriorly the color is darker than on foreparts, where white
of the basal part shows through: rather lighter on head and face, the

I, 1'orto I;",


hairs unicolor and shorter; below, uniform wood-brown, the bases of the
hairs whitish.
Young: Above, hairs white at base, clove-brown at tips, and coloration
uniform over whole upper surface, white not showing through on neck
as in adults; below, coloration scarcely lighter than above.
Skull.-Elongate, with fairly well-rounded and expanded braincase:
rostrum long and with a marked concavity in the region of the nasal
termination, rim of external nares thin and distinctly flaring; braincase
rising abruptly from rostral plane; zygomatic arch complete; interptery-
goid fossa very long; basisphenoid pits present; palate long and sub-
rectangular; ramus very long and straight, coronoid low, condyle in
plane of tooth-row, angular process well developed.
2-2 1-1 2-2 3-3
Dentition.-I,- ; C, Pm,- : M, 32.
"-2 1-1 2 P 2 3-3
Upper: Inner incisors not meeting in midline, crowns expanded later-
ally, cutting edge broad, slightly bifid; outer incisors much smaller than
inner, with oblique cutting edge in contact with neither canine nor in-
cisors; canine large. dagger-like, with small internal cingulum; first pre-
molar small and simple, with crown widened antero-posteriorly; second
premolar much larger, with wide antero-posterior crown which has nearly
smooth surface and outside border raised to form crescentic cutting edge;
molars decreasing in size posteriorly; first molar nearly twice as long
antero-posteriorly as wide transversely, outer border forming nearly flat
cutting edge; second molar subtrinngular across crown, cutting edge
indented medially: third molar small, triangular, with straight cutting
edge. All of the molar series very low crowned.
Lower: Incisors small, inner pair the smaller, not in contact, crowns
expanded, cutting edges entire; canines large, with posterior cingulum:
first premolar smaller than second, cutting edge on outer border, highest
at middle; second premolar with a carnassial shearing edge; first molar
with long, slightly concave cutting edge; second molar smaller than first,
cutting edge more over central axis of tooth than on outside border and
slightly depressed at middle; third molar smaller than second, cutting
edge noticeably depressed at midpoint lying along central axis of tooth.
Meiasurements.-Average of 6 specimens: Total length, 81.6 mm.
(80-85) ; tail vertebrae, 15.1 (13-17) ; hind foot, 16 (15-17) ; forearm,
4S.6 (48-19).
Skull.-Average of 3 specimens: Total length 34.7 (34.3-31.9) ; zygo-
matic width, 11.83 (11.8-11.9); interorbital width, 4.5 (4.5-4.5);
breadth of braincase. 10.1 (30-10.3); length of palate. 10.6 (10.4-10.7);

.NT7f/OXY, OlAJIA 1ll l,'F I'ORTO 1JUO .55

length of molar e-ries, ;6.27 (6.1-6.4); length of mandible, l (15.6-
16.?); length of mandibular molar series, 7.8 (7.6-7.9).
Remarks.-There is no other Porto Iican bat liable to be confused
with Erophyllht bombifroons. In some characters this species has a super-
firial resemblance to Monlophyllus portoriccnsis, hut there are notable
difflrenees between the two in size, color and fundamental differences in
tooth structure. From the other species of the genus to be found on
other islands, bowmbifrons may be known by the combination of complete
zygomlata. high. rounded braincase rising abruptly above rostral plane,
small teeth. notched tragus, and flaring rim of the external nares.
This brightly colored species was taken only in the Cueva de Fari.
about two or there miles west of San Juan. and was noted in no other
locality. It was found a a small colony, in a chamber to one side of thle
main cave. and there may have been about :35 or 40 animals altogether.
After a few shots, tlh survivors flew out into other parts of the cave and
were lost to observation. Their reddish appearance was apparent under
the light of my acetylene lantern, and generally this species could be thus
di.ttiniuished from the others found in the cave. Eropliylla had segre-
gated itself from the other .species and was found in small potholes or
conc avities in the ceiling of the chamber, a few in each place. Yomun
from two-thirds grown to nearly full grown were collected.


See Miller: The Families and Genera of Bats. p. 195, 1907, for diagnosis
of the family; p. 207, for diagnosis of the genus Eptesicus.
Eptesicius fuscus wetmorei (Jackson)
Text Fig. 14
1910. EEptesicits wet.wali Jackson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, XXIX. p. 37,
February 2-1.
191S. Epte.sicus fu sciu. tetomwori Anthony, Indigenous Landl Mammals of Porto
Rico. p. 359, October 12.
1924. Eptesicus wrctwiorei Miller. North American Recent Maimmals. p. 78.

Type locality.-Maricao, Porto Rico.
Distribution.-Known only from the Island of Porto Rico. Recorded
from 3Iaricao (U. S. Biol. Survey), Cueva de Fari (Pueblo Viejo) and
San German.
Specimens collectld.-51: Cueva de Fari (Pueblo Viejo), 26 (11
skins) San German, ?5 (10 skins).
General clhamcters.-From specimens taken at San German. A me-
dium-sized bat with tail completely enclo-ed in interfemoral membrane,

P/ IlA itC .\( H I 1"Y OP' PORTOl' RWOC

muzzle sintile and color of fur brown. Nostrils simple. no nose-leaf,
upper lip sparsely haired; lower lip simple; cars of moderate size, bluntly
pointed. about reaching tip of muzzle when laid forward; tragus tall.
slender, with rounded tip; body of normal proportions; hnunerus long,
slightly bowed: digits normal, tibia of normal length, hind foot short.
calcar long and heavy: tail long. completely enclosed in wide intr-

W i(, 14. 1i~cu, fumus if" wourri X S'33 adult :Pueblo Vi"jo Moo
\ I, -

Ili(;. 14. Kl rtC.iHi.s f11.iu s i( I Ouiir'i 3 t adult 9 : Plueblo \"i <..i. i'urh, I;iii

'enioral iiieiObraiine 10o fur anywhere on memblranevS : color olh ,vx- and
helow a warIm broh w, fur long and lax.
Colir.-Adults: Above, everywhere a uniform imars-brown. thio hairs
blackish brown at the base;: below, uniform clay-color; hairs blackish
brown basally; membranes black. Individuals varying from the normal
,oloration as given were taken. The variants resemble verv closely in
color the iuiniiattire pelage, altholigh the allimals are. unquestionably

[,\-7J10. V. 11 Il/I/ If> OF' PORTO 1')1](RR'

I mature: Similar in colir pattern to adu lts lbut dif tering in shade:
above, bone-brown; below, tawny-olive.
Skeull.-Moderate in size and normal in proportion of parts. Dorsal
outline of skull nearly straight, a slight depression in nasal region; ros-
trumun about as wide as long, very flat, external nares opening outward
and upward: braincase moderately inflated through parietal region, flat-
tened dorsally; noticeable sagittal crest; interorbital constriction some-
what pronounced ; zygomata flaring, greatest width posteriorly mastoid
reduced; palate long, moderately concave, cut away anteriorly between
inlisors to form a U-shaped indentation; bimll of medium size, about as
large as c, chlet: no basisphenoid pits; mandible normal; horizontal
ranius straight; asccendiing rams rising in gradual cr ve; coronoid very
highi and wide for a nt, much higher than condvle; angular process
hook-like, very slightly deflected.
2-2 1--1 1-1 3-3
Dentition.-J, (', m,-- : 3, -- ="'.
3- 1-1 ? 3-:
Ipper: Iicisors unequal. inner much larger than outer pair; inner
incisors separated widely vb the ciargination of the palate and inclined
slightly towaril each other, crowns high, pointed, with small accessory
cusp and poorly developed cingulum; outer incisors closely in contact
with inner, but separated by slight diastema from canines, with single.
well-developed cusp and external posterior cingulum: canine normal,
with well-developed posterior cutting edge; premolar with high. trigonal
cuspl first and second molars subequal, with W-shaped crown pattern of
five cusps and connecting commissures and single, low internal cusp:
third molar about half the size of anterior molars, with two cusps and a
commissure of the W-pattern well developed, two cusps poorly developed
and the fifth lacking entirely.
Lower: Three pairs of incisors subequal and similar in detail, closely
in contact with canines and with each other, crowns spatilate with an-
terior cutting edge trifid : canine simple, with sharp postero-internma cnt-
ting. edge and well-developed cingidln ; first premnlar about half as large
as second, both lirst and seco nd with a single cusp and well-developed
cingulumn : molars subequnl, the third the smallest, all with five well-
developed cusps.
Measurmcit Is.'-.Avxerage of o15 adult females: In all the series col-
lected there were no adult males suitable to be included in the series for
measurement. Total lengtlh. 119.9 un1 (114 13) : tail vertehlra. 1s.3
(14-.52) : hind foot, 13 (12-1 ) forearm, S3.-It (18.2-5i .3).
Skull. -Aierage of 10 skulls of adult females: Greatest length, 19.).5

,CI 'ijX T/IFI N ?E ] ')?Um

(19.1-20.2) zygomatic breadth, 13.16 (12.8-13.4); interorbital breadth,
L.26 (4.1-1.4); breadth of braincase, 8.59 (8.3-8.8) :length of palate,
8.59 (8.1-8.8) ; length of maxillary molar series, 5.59 (5. -5.) ; length
oif mandible, 13.73 (13.3-14.1); length of mandibular molar series, 6.61
( 13. 7-).
Rema.rks.-The long. lax fur and rich brown color of Eptrexics 'fursc
retimorei are sufficiently diagnostic to mark it off from all the other bats.
Its closest relative, perhaps, is Eple.sirca fulscus cubent, s of Cuba, typo
locality. Trinidad, Cuba, from which it differs but slightly. In the orig-
inal description by Jackson, the Porto Rican animal is given full, specific
rank. On the basis of the improbability of the actual intermingling of
the Porto Rican form with the mainland fuscis or the Cuban f. eube.si-s.
this determination is satisfactory, but on the basis of development and
actual relationship the trinominal is the best expression. Examination
of typical fascus, m iradorensis, cuibeosis, and wehtorei has convinced me
that the relationship is a very close one, and to carry the expression of
this relationship only to the limits of the mainland and then call the
island forms full species hardly seems consistent. Eplesicus /. ivetmorei
)ears especial resemblance to f. m iradorensis from the Chiriqui region of
Panama, having the same, well-built skull, heavy dentition and long
This bat was not noted throughout the island, but appeared to be re-
stricted rather to the western half. in the two regions where it was
taken it was a conspicuous bat, and were it generally distributed over
Porto Rico it seems fair to assume more specimens would have been
taken. Both at San German and at Pueblo Viejo it was found in eaves,
using deep crevices and holes in the limestone in much the same fashion
as did Tadarido, being crowded into its retreats in large numbers. The
several colonies located were nearly all females, and practically every
animal was nursing or heavy with a single large embryo. This condition
was noted June 6 and July 6, and while considerable variation in the
development of the young bats was noticed, the majority of them were
at about the same stage of development. At San German. June 6, most
of the young were short-haired and about one-half the size of the parent.
One of those taken proved to be a partial albino, differing from the others
in its almost white coloration.
A bat seen at dusk in Lares was thought to be of this species.
A series of 9 skulls, some of which are nearly perfect, and one man-
dibular ramus of E. f. wetmorei were secured as fossils in the Cueva
Cathedral. These skulls appear to be indistinguishable from those of the
living form. although associated with the skulls were skulls of genera


and species now extinct, the inference bein." that the deposit is older than
the very recent.

Vespertilio maugei Desmarest
1S19. Vespertilio muge~ci Desmarest, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., XXXV, p. 4SO.
1918. cTspertilio lmalugn Anthony. Indigenous laj:nd Mamminals of 'orto Rico,
p. 360, October 12.

This bat, said to have been brought from Porto Rico by Mauge, is de-
scribed in sufficiently great detail to make its identification as one of the
large-eared Vespertilionids certain. Very likely it is Corynorhintus, as
the characters given by Desmarest fit this genus very closely, and Gray,
in Cuvier's Animal Kingdom, vol. 5. 1827. p. 97, places it under Ple-
colus. This state of affairs gives plausibility to the hypothesis that
)Desmarest's specimen did not come from Porto Rico, since Corynorhinn.s
has never been taken in the West Indies. Probably Maug6 obtained his
specimen from the mainland and, as was the case so often in the early
days of systematic mammalogy, the described confused the localities.
For this reason I believe that Yespertilio maugei is not truly a Porto
Rican record.


See Miller: The Families and Genera of Bats. p. 241, 1907, for diagnosis
of the family; p. 251, for diaAgosis of the genus Nyctinoinus =
Tadarida mnurina (Gray)
Text Fig. 15
1827. Nyetinonius mturinus Gray, Cuvier's Animnal Kingdom, Griffith edition.
V, p. 66, paragraph 187.
1861. Xyctinomus iniusculus Gundlnch, Monatsher. k. press. Akad. Wissensch.
Berlin, p. 149.
1911. Nyyctinomus b'rasilienisis musculus G. M3I. Allen, Bull. IIs. Comp. Zolil..
LIV, p. 244, July.
1912. Xyctinomus musceumls Miller, North American Lm.aI( Manmmls. p. 70.
December 31.
1918. ycltiom us i urius r Anthony, Indigenous Ilnnd iMammals of Porto
Rico, p. 361, October 12.
1924. Tadarida muscula Miller, North American IRecent MammalsD p. .

Type locality.-Cuba.
Distribution.-Cuba. Jamaica, Santo Domingo and Porto Rico. Re-
corded in Porto Rico from Adjuntas, Cabo Rojo, mranati, San German
and Utuado.

, 'I'E\TIFIC' U4F'IVEY 01' Oi)1'/'O RICO

p,',iciies collccted.-54: Adjuntas, 1 (3 skins) ; Cabo Rojo, 9 skins:
San GOermnan. 35 (1' skins) : Utuado, 6 skins.
(;rIler, dcrII'ctrs.-A small, free-tailed bat of dark-brown coloration.
ITheal isall: ears broad. not pointed. not united across forehead but aris-
ing from same point tragny very small, subrectanpgular; antitragus low
iand rounded : mizzle well developed and without any excrescences except
a few minute hor'ny points on uippler margin scattered long hairs on
fi'rae: upper lip with a number o1' transverse ridges: lower lip not pecu-
liar: linumerus longer and nearly straight: wing's very narrow; legs 4iort;

JmJd Y9 Y

1 T

Il 1;. 1,5. ft'u~ rii tlg ii ninn /i ,< '2 t

a;li1l : I't lllllo. Io1rtno Ii

ieirllliral e. fairly to(ui1 :11 le t liler Ilot ]lil'~'red a wl\iet' exce lt for :i
I'w very short I airs on upper surface of intcrfenoral mIeml)ralle a:nd
;alog median under surfiae of that membrane: lg ii hairs on feet: tail
I're for about half of its ]imi'th : color dark brow\\n : fur soft and vlvety.
'olor'.-Adults: Above. from warmi Sepia to seal-brown, v-aryingi with
Ithe individual, tlli hairs light lu111m at the basc and showing the lighter
c)l'lr lmor or less in the neck region; below, varying from cinnamon-
brown to natril-brown, thle Ihairs lihIt colored at base as above: miem-
branes blackish.


Skill.-Small. with dorsal outline nearly a straight line; rostrum
fairly wide, rather flat and of normal length proportionally; interorbital
constriction not excessive; brainease rounded but not globose. greatest
inflation through parietal region, a constriction at region of supraoc-
eipital and interparietal; no sagittal crest: zygomatic arch well devel-
oped, flaring but slightly; lachrymal and suipraorbital ridges present:
palate short and concave interpterygoid fossa wide; basisphenoid pits
hardly discernible: hblla and coehlea of moderate size; mnandible normal
with ramus curving slightly into ascending portion ; coronoid sharp and
deflected outward from plane of tooth-row; cidyle slightly elevated
abl)ov plane of tooth-row; angular prices not omspicouomsly deflected
irom plane of lower border of rainus.
1-1 1-1 2-2 3-3
Denttiion.-1, -;C, -; Pin,-- ; .- = 3".
:1-3 1-1 2 -2 3-3
Upper: Incisors inclined toward each other, but not meeting medially
or filling up the intereanine space, crown surface long and oblique;
canines sharp and simple, with practically no cingula: first premolar
vestigial and visible only from outer side of tooth-row: second premolar
large, with high anterior ensp and postero-internal basin; first and
second molars equal, with W-shaped crown pattern of five cusps with
connecting' commissures and two additional cusps internally; third molar
smaller, identical with second and third molars. but lacking the last
ascending arm of the W and with only one internal cusp.
Lower: Incisors minute, subequal, crowns slightly expanded, bifid. the
teeth completely filling space between canlines; canine ,f moderate size
with antero-internal accessory ensp and internal eitgulum. first premolar
about half size of second, simple in form, with single, sharp cusp; second
premolar with high median cusp, the highest in molar tooth-row; second
and third molars with normal pattern of five cuspis; aIst nmolar slightly
smaller but retaining the five cnsps.
Measuirem ents.-Average of 10 adults, 5 males man 5 females: Total
length. 95.2 mm. (9)3 -11) : tail vertebra, 33.S (::3-3:() : hind foot. 9.8
(9-10) ; forearm, :s38., (3S.2-41.1).
Skull.-Average of Hti adult skulls. I males and 6 females: Greatest
length, 15.9 (15.0-1(;.) : zygomatic breadth. 9.25 (8.S 9.:) ; interor-
hital breadth, 3.;> (W3.7-1.); breadth of braincase. .; (;.5-7.90):
length of palate. 5.s3 (5.6-1) : length of maxillary molar series. 1.c:l
( .5-L8); length fd' mandible. 111.51 ( 10.2 11).7) : length ol' mandt ild;ir
ilolar series, 5.1 (5-5.3).
The ln e floor tie coilm on T'Iadjrio iof the (Greater Antilles has been


generally given by recent writer. as Nyclinlomleti inusculus Gundlach,
1861. This does not take into consideration the much earlier name of
(ray,. In The Animal Kingdonm of Cuvier, published in 1827, Gray de-
scribes ycrliinoma s itt ri us from a specimen in the British Museum.
the habitat of which is Jamaica, queried, according to Redman. In the
Magazine of Zoilogy and Botany, vol. 2, p. 501, 1838, Gray gives another
description of this species and states its range as "South America.
(Brasils) : West Indies, (Jamaica)." Dobson, in his Catalogue (1878,
p. 137), places imuioii ts in synon ymy with N. brasilienxis but lists
among his specimens one from Jamaica as "Type of Nyctinomus murinius
Gray." As Dobson had other specimens from Jamaica and was familiar
also with Xycftnoomos miacrotis, the only other species of NA'.. l;,,.I.;......
known to occur on Jamaica, it seems fair to assume the validity of
,to inu, i and of the type locality as well. This being the case. Gray's
name must stand for the small Tadarida generally distributed throngh-
out the Greater Antilles, mlusvcu ts being a synonym of it.
Lyon (1914, p. 217) has discussed the use of Tadarida for Nyctinotaus
;nd it seems best to make this change in generic terms.
RIeioarls.--Taddar-idan uirim is not liable to confusion with any other
P'orto Rican bat with the exception of Molossus fortis. The distinctions
between these two forms are fundamental: the high sagittal crest, the
robust upper incisors completely filling up the intercanine space, the
number of lower canines reduced to 1-1, and the curving dorsal outline
of the skull of MIolossus serving to show a well-marked generic separa-
tion. if the skulls are compared. Superficially, however, the differences
are not so apparent. and as a rule it is necessary to have the bat in hand
in order to determine whether it be Tadarida or Molossus. The best
external characters to distinguish between the two are the following:
Molo.ossis is appreciably the larger and has noticeable strips of fur along
the humerus which Tadarida lacks: it has ears that are much lower and
thicker than those of Tadrilda, a much narrower tragus and more promi-
nent antitragus: males of ]lolos.su.s have a gular gland; the upper lip of
T'uadrida is more tumid and has tra.n sverse wrinklings not to be seen in
Moloss.is: and the fur of JIolossis is darker in color, more velvety to the
touch and mInch richer in appearance.
From the species (of Tada rida to be found on the other islands of the
West Iundie-, iiiuriin is distinguished as follows: from T. antillularain
of the Lesser Antilles by the slightly smaller size of the latter; from
7'. h aaiamiesis of the Bahamas by the larger size and grayer coloration
of that form and rrom 7. iniaroti. of Cunha and Jamaica by the fact
that macfrotli belongs. to that --cetioi of the genus which has ? -2 lower
i cis01i 's.


This small bat is easily the best flyer of the island species. Its flight
is very rapid and under such perfect control at all times that on occasion
very erratic maneuvers are executed. This bat occupies much the same
position among its fellows that the swifts do among the birds. The long.
narrow wings give rapid strokes, and the bat rows through the air, oscil-
Iating from one side to the other, looking at a distance very much like a
small swift. The compact, cylindrical form of the body, the long tail
generally held out straight behind, so that the conmtor of the animal
diminishes from the thickness of the body at the hipls to the point of the
tail behind, and the wings vibrating so rapidly that they often present a
lcnmi-transparent zone along the sides, all combine to give such a charac-
teristic picture that this animal mnay be readily recognized on the wing.
thle closely related 3looss.is being the only other bat on the island with
similar flight.
Tidaridan m oiimn is a dweller in both eaves and loses, seeming to be
one of the most abundant bats on the island. Old buildings frequently
had bats to the number of several hundred spending the day packed into
dark crevices. In eaves these bats chose deep fissures or holes in the
limestone and were packed in very closely. When disturbed they poured
forth literally in a stream. The large piles of droppings beneath such
holes demonstrated the fact of the great concentration in numbers. In
no ease was Tadoricda ever found in small, scattered groups, the social
instinct seeming to bring all of the individuals of a region into large
congregations. The habit of the sexes of keeping in separate colonies is
very marked. ThIis species has a sharp, high-pitched squeak and is rather
noisy when in large numbers.
A very large colony was located in an old, deserted building in San
German. It was a typical old Spanish structure of low, rambling con-
struction, made of brick and wood and with an inner court. In places
it was more or less fallen in. Early in the evening, about 6 :15, we en-
tered the building and were greeted by a great deal of squeaking from
the many dark corners. The noise was made by so many individuals
that it seemed as if we stood in a gigantic beehive, and this squeaking
buzz could be heard even before the door was opened and the building
entered, showing that the bats were beginning to stir about, preparatory
it issuing forth for tlhe night. By seven o'clock, hats were flying about
hlie darkened corridors and rooms in small numbers. Very shortly they
began to come forth in large numbers, and the interior was teeming with
the noisy animals on the wiung. Soon the bats left the interior and began
lo leave by way ,l lthe inneri c rt, which took on the apple arance of a
whirlpool of hats. Issuing from the rooms, they cir'lodl the court, all

*S'J'j\ IPUSum] 21n Ow1 m/0P'/ 1111

going in one direction and at a high rate of speed. A few paIsed np and
over the enclosure at the completion of each lap, until finally nulne were
left. The whole building had the pronounced musky odor seemingly
chalrncteristic of the Molossidae. TadIoridl. seen in other localitie
-lowed a tendency to circle for several moments albot the spot where it
liId spent the day before straightening out the flight and taking a dirmet
course for other feeding grounds.
Females taken .June 7, t1 and 21 contained single, large embiryo.'
nearly ready for birth. No immature animals flying with the adnlt<
were taken. At San German, during, early June, this hat was frequently
seen to re-enter the home crevice after having been awing about thirty
minutes: possibly this was for the purpose of nursing the young.

.Molossus fortis Miller
Text Fig. t;

See lliller: The Families and Genera of Bats, p. 260, 1 !90. for diagnosis
of the genus.
1878. Alolosu.,x obs.cur'i (lundlach, Anales de Historia Natural. VII, 1p. 140.
1913. 3Molos.us fortis M3iller. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XLVI p. p S, August 28.
1918. Miolosnsu forlix Anthlony, Indigenous Laind Mlnmiunls of P1'nro Rico, p.
;303, October 12.
1 r24. 3Joloihsun ffortix Miller, North American Recent Mauinnals, p. S!t.

Type locality.-Iunquillo, Porto Rico.
Dixtribnlion.-Knnown only from the Island of Porto Rico. Recorded
from Luquillo (F. S. Nat. Mus.), Adjuntas. San C(erman, Utuado.
Aibonito and Maineyes (last two records of IU. R. Bid. Survey).
SpecimeCRn rollerl/ed.-33: San German, 2 skins: Adjuntas, '? (20
skins) : Utuado. 4 skins.
(tneril cIhirarter.-s-\ small, free-tailel bIa with dlark pelage: heal
small: ears low, the joining membrane thick, meeting on forehead :
tragus very.small. antitragus thick and rounded; nostrils slightly tubu-
lar; a few stiff hairs between cars and nostrils andl on upper lip; lower
lip not peculiar: hnmerns moderately curved: wings long and exceed-
ingly narrow: tail free for about half its length ; interfejmoral me1in-
branme not extensive; feet witl eomnspienous long hairs on the tarsals and
metatarsals: fur short. soft and velvetyv: gnlar gland on males; narrow
strips of fur on humneru, above amn helow', and fur of hodly extending
onto lateral membranes for short distance.
(olor.-1Adults: Above, varying with tie individmlal ,from Vandyke-
birown ito clove-brown, the hairs white for ihe basal half: below. same

.AV'/IIOV .X J/.lIlJ3.lLS O1' /'PORTO I'o

color as above, but fur shorter and white basal portion showing more;
membranes blackish.
Young: Pelage very short and thick; about ehaetura-black; below.
deep mouse-gray.
Akull.-Skull small. but not. especially delicately constructed : ro-truln
very short, expanded anteriorly, external nares opening upward as well
as outwardl: brainc;se expanded laterally, flattened on superior slurfaef:

-(- A'.

,'T" ,a

I -- 1. olo.ns fr X /1; l : juntas, Porto i eo

high knife-like sagittal crest extending frmin jus anterior to the greatest
interorbital constriction back to the lambdoidal crest, and higher in males
than in females: lamhdoidal crest high and thin : zygionatic arches flaring
very slightly; bullet nearly as large as cochlea,; jngal straight; palate
short, concave, narrowing slightly anteriorly; interpterygoid fossa very
wide: basisplienoid pits deep and prominent: mandibles of medium
length. Il rminng a triangle of approximately equal sides: ramus deepened


nlteriorly. straight to last molar, then curled gently up into ascending
ranis;: coronoid a sharp, outwardly deflected process; angular process
large and strongly curved outward.
1-1 1-1 1-1 3-3
Dentition.-I.- ; C, Pin, ; 31. = 6.

Upper: Incisors large. strongly 1in contact mealially andn approximat-
ing contact with the cingula of the cneines, crowns subtrirangnlar. with
high cone on the anterior internal angle: mcaine with anterior and pll '-
terior internal cutting edges anld a eiingnlmii ; priinolar wider tlian lnig,
with a high, sharp cusp anteriorly and a de(ep, internal concivitv po4-
teriorly; first and second molars with the typical \\'-sliapd Ipattcrn ain
the inner part of the crown filled iup by a large l]rotoc'ne: third molar
representing in most details half (of an anterior iolar.
Lower: Incisors minute with laterally expanded crowns., cutting edge
bitid, in contact medially, lut crowded forward from the nirilil position
between canines,: canines large, the cingula meeting in thle midline. ni
internal anterior accessory cnsp on the cinguln : first ipremolar ima1l.
very closely crowded by second premiolar, very narrow ante r-po- triorly :
second preniolar with high antero-n-edian cusp and low piostero-interinal
cusp: the three molars subequal, third the smallest. each with eusps
and connecting coinnissures to form a discontinuous W-pattern. the dis-
continnity due to the absence of the full number of commnis-nres as found
in the upper molars.
iMfeasIuremenils.-Average of 10i males: Total length. 111.3 m11I. ( 1(4-
118); tail vertebra, 40.1 (35-46) : hind foot. 10.9 (10-12) ; forearm.
39.45 (38.5-40.2). Average of 10 females: Total length. 108.3 (100-.
111) : tail vertebrae, 37.8 (35-41) : hind foot, 10.8 (10-11) : forearm,
38.75 (37.5--10.2).
Skull.-Average of 10 skulls. 5 inales and -' females: Greatest length,
17.38 (10.)-18.2); zygomatic breadth. 10.7 (10.2-11.3) : interorbital
breadth, 3.61 (3.4-3.7) : breadth of lirainese, 8.72 (8.50 .1) length of
palate, 5.34 (5 -.7) length of molar series, 5.07 (5-5.2): length of
nandible. 11.46 (11.2-12) : length of mlanidibuhrr molar series ;.01
l.emaarks.-There is only one species of Mnloscin ]'on Porto INico. ails]
cons.e-lquently forlis needs no specific comparison with any of its illle-
diate neighbors. A very close, superficial resembilani' exists, hliowver.
between the small menhers of the related general, foo.on-'.'u and Tidlitil,.
ianid as 'Tada.ridar Im'in is found on Porto [ico care inist be taken in
distinguishing tle two. The characters of distinction lhave lalrealy Ieen


given in the treatment of Tadarida imurinu. From the related species
of IMolossus, the Porto Rican foris is distinguished by the combination
of the following characters: moderate size (forearm. 40 mmn.), rostrum
not heavy, color dark and molars of normal size.
In addition to the localities recorded under the distribution, this bat
was noted at Lares and at the Preston Ranch near Naguabo, but no
specimens were taken. Because of the impossibility of distinguishing
between 3Joloss.s and Tada.rida when on the wing and in a poor light,
definite records are given only when specimens were collected or the op-
portunities for observation were unusually good. MJolossus fortis appears
to be quite well distributed over the island, although I have no notes for
it in the San Juan district. It was not found anywhere in eaves and
probably is almost strictly an inhabitant of old dwellings, which are
sufficiently numerous in Porto 'ico to afford ample quarters. For this
reason it was not as easy to collect, as it was often impossible to shoot
about the buildings, and in the case of old church buildings the high
ceilings where the bats were in hiding were inaccessible.
The flight of this bat is exceedingly swift and erratic and possibly it
is an even more skillful aviator than Tacdrida mauina. The flight of
these two forms is so essentially identical and the size difference so slight
that there is little to mark off the one from the other.
This bat comes forth while there is vet considerable daylight, and by
early dusk, if there is any large colony of bats in a town, a multitude of
the little animals will be seen pursuing their zigzag courses about the
streets. In the month of June the first bats would begin to appear about
1 p. m. In a quarter of an hour the number would greatly increase and
probably the total bat population would be awing by 7 :30. This bat was
frequently seen leaving the caves of some house in the evening and one
could not fail to be impressed by the intense activity of the small crea-
ture. The bat would drop out from the opening and take a downward
course for five or six feet, then straightening out in the most rapid flight.
Often one could see the head of the bat appear an instant before the
animal precipitated itself headlong, but so quick were the movements
that it was exceedingly difficult to shoot the bat, even when thus warned
to expect its emergence. Not infrequently the animal was not observed
until it appeared as if shot out from the opening in full flight.
A large colony was located in the attic of the lodge building at Ad-
juntas. It was possible to ascend into the attic and by poking into the
crevices between the rafters dislodge tlhe bats. This species is not very
dormant, even in midday, and it was not an easy task to dislodge them.
A nose and pair of Iright eyes would peer out of a crack with a ver\


mouse-like aspect and the owner would dodge back so nimbly as to avoid
all thrusts of the stick. Tobacco smoke blown into a long crevice de-
moralized the tenants and they attempted to move into adjacent nooks
with much scuffling and scratching, accompanied by sharp squeaking.
When animals were knocked down to the floor, if uninjured, they ran
for dark corners with as much agility as a mouse. This bat always at-
tempts to bite if given the opportunity. An intensely musky odor wae
always to be noted about the buildings where llolos-m.s: stayed.



1910. Nesophontidae Anthony, Bull. Amer. Mns. Nat. Hist.. XXX\V p. 72s.
1923. Nesophontini Wilige. P'attelyr-Siaegter. I,. 123 (under tfaiily Tal-
11,24. Xesopinntidie Miller, North Amerienn Recent Mainials. 1. i

Nesophontes Anthony
1!11l. esophlonter Anthony, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. list.. XXXV. p. 72.. No-
vember 10.
1!I91. ei.Vophlonue. G. M. Allen, r.ull. M3us. C mp. ZoT;l., LX[I, p. 135, May.
1]118. yi'sophaitlfe .\Anlllthony. IndigelnoulS la iai M ain:als of 1'ortol Itico, :9. I.
October 12.
11)22:. Ycophoiltes Winii., P';lttedlyr-Sdlngter, I, i>pp. 122, 14S.
1924. Nesophon tes l1iller. Nortli Anmerica:tn ll tRont Mr1ntitls, i9. .

T'ype.- .Vsophol leIs edit/ha Anthony.
Insectivores of imdium size wilh nearly thel full primit i\ dntitiln;
3-3 1-1 3 -3 3-3
I.--; C,-- Pm,- ; 1.- = O1. Incisors smaller than ailin",.
3-3 1-1 I 3-3
simple, and with median diastema above: canines n(lgg'er-like, two-rootl1d.
in normal position; upper molars triangular in cross-section, with V-
sliaped protocone, metneone and paracoine:" lower molars of primitive
tiubereulo-sectorial type: zyvgomati arch incomplete. liclkin milar:
sknll elongate and narrow, basierania] reglioi moderately el ongate anterl-
li)fr'ibtlh)il.- [nouwn only from iorto lNioe. ('lnh l111i thle Isld of
Pin c.

'The type specimen has worn mi:lars andi the, paralconle hiits eonll almost obliterated.
a condition which led to an error in the diagnosis Mf the family, 1916, 1. c., when it
was stated that the Yx.soptho ifes meolar had no paracone. Thie available material, how-
dvrr, ildmonstrated that the unworn molar possesses the full complement of primary
'Ilsps. 1'nfortinately, tli, diagnosis of the family, as given in the more detailed report
of 10l19., repeated the misstatement as to the paracone, through a Ihtpsits. alltough th1,
prl'sence of the paraone was implied in olher statements made in tlle same discussion
ip. :17R). The figure of No. 17ii)0, palatal view, also indicated lie presence iof the
pa ioi i-On

ANT'I/HOVY WII 11/1if OF ( Po ,V'O RfICO



I- I
Ac4k5 ~



ARr'U4~ ~479 3% 4yg $

'IG. 17. Scs.plihites. edith' X 2 1. Skulls of adult male and adult ft'ma i' frim'
Cueva Catedral, Morovis, Iorlo Rico


Nesophontes edithae Anthony
Text Figs. 17-28, Plates XITI-XV
1916. Nesophontes edithlue Anthony, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.. XXXV, 1p.
72,, November 16.
1918. Xcsophotecs edithae Anthony, Indigenous Land Mammals of Porto
Rico, p. 365, October 12.
1924. Ncsophotcs cdithac Miller, North American Recent Mammals, p. 9.

Typc.-No. 14174, Dept. Vert. Pal., Amer. Muis. Nat. Hist. The type
is a skull in nearly perfect condition, being broken only at the extreme
tip of the prcmaxillaries and lacking the auditory bull, dentition well
Type locality.-The type, as well as a large number of other skulls of
this insectivore, was taken from a cave near Morovis, Porto Rico. This
cave is more or less well known locally as the Cathedral Cave, "Cueva
Distribution.-Known only from Porto Rico. Recorded from Porto
ilico from Hacienda Jobo (near Utuado), Ttuado and MIorovis (Cueva
Clara and Cueva (Catedral).
Skull.-(Text Figs. 17, 18.) Males have skulls considerably larger
than those of females, although proportionally the skulls of both sexe-
are practically identical.6
Skull elongate and narrow, tapering gradually in width from parietal?
to end of nasals, superior outline nearly straight, slightly elevated in
fronto-parietal area; rostrum long, tubular, and strongly convex from
side to side, only slightly narrower outside incisors than at base of zygo-
matic roots, much deeper than wide; nasal sutures not satisfactorily dis-
cernible because of fusion, but apparently nasals are very narrow; inter-
orbital region with sides practically parallel, in males a very slight
widening anteriorly, this whole region flatly convex front side to side:
braincase only slightly inflated, parietals swollen, but interparietal and
supraoccipital regions solnwhat constricted, inflation generally more
noticeable in females than males; very low sagittal crest, higher in males.
ending anteriorly in noticeable supraorbital ridges; lambdoidal crest well
developed, especially in males; noticeable fine wrinkling of lone surface
over upper part of brainease (best shown in type, a female).
Zygomatic arch incomplete, lacking jugal, anterior root a peg-like
process, posterior root a blunt process upon the expanded glenoid: infra-

'The series of crania is divisible into two groups, on the basis of size only, and the
most logical way to account for this is by assuming a sexual dimorphism. No such sex
tlifference In size is known among living insectivores, hut the occurrence of two similar
groups in the series of Cuban Xesopholtfc. stirnll hens 1he impression that the size
difference Is not inter- but intra-speciflc.

1 0 X '. -1.i 1i) 1 [ IL. ()F I'UI0CJ) H'I(CO

orbital foramenl xerv large laechymn] viiml of gmo1~ size: mastoid pro(-,,-
w eli developed].
'alatc Ion--. 1aternalY tonvtive. almo-t paaltsdd with a pail. of
:,MIIiallcni-ix fornmnin. ;111(1 tlorinaftinll! just po~tt'ioi' to) Ins molar in

din //"4. X,//"

4'3. -Y1f>63 x2
Fl;. 1'.- )phoutes t diit tir. Skulls uf adult male and adult female froni Cueva
Ca'ledr: I, Porto lli0.. X 2 I

a quare, p1otpdlatal ioteli ; palate completely ossified, but very thin and
often with four listimt., transverse, areuate rows of minute pores or
framiina : pter-yoid Inorcses well separated, low. termiinating in small

N('IQ TI'(' NIl fl UP~ l'cuuo r'0I:C'O

hook-like process at their highest points before they slope gradually to
imict the floor of the alisphenoid ; pterygoid fossa reduced to shallow con-
car ity: hasicranial region of good length, not compacted : basisphenoi
with a pair of sharp ridges bounding basisphenoid pits; glenoid with
ci-enavitv facing almost directly front instead of customary ventral posi-
tion ine, to extreme development of the postglenoid process; the pctrosal
is small, with a, flattened anterior and rounded posterior face, and a
short. thick posterior external wing that attaches to the tympanic; the
tyvipanic is ring-shaped, nearly circular, and placed transversely, with
inly ai slight posterior obliquity; it is closely appres.ed to the petrosal
ant is separated liy a considerable interval from the postglenoid process;
neitlier alisphenoid nor basisphenoid enter into the auditory structure:
parccilpital process well developed: condyle large; foramen magnum
very large.
Mandible very strong and heavy; horizontal ramnus with lower border
convex, deep aml thick, deepest at m, and mn.; posterior mental foramen
below the last premolar: ascending ramus with lower border continuing
in the curve of horizontal ramus. angular process large, falciform : coro-
noid process large and high, with muscle insertion areas prominently
marked condyle with articulating surface facing obliquely backward.
3-3 1-1 3-3 3-3
Denttiion.-I, -- C,- : Pm, ; M1,-= 0.
3-3' 1-1 3 .-
(T'ext Figs. 1, 1, 1, 2.)
Upper: Incisors arranged in nearly parallel rows, the teeth of each
row closely in contact with one another, but the anterior incisors of each
row separated from each other by a diastema equal to about half the
width of the palate from canine to canine; first incisor the largest of the
three, about three-quarters as high as canine, with slightly convex an-
terior outline, and posterior outline with shallow notch or shoulder about
half-way up; second and third incisors subequal, simple in structure,
without any posterior notch, but a noticeable posterior cingulun; all
three incisors have flattened internal faces giving anterior and posterior
cutting edges; all are slightly procumbent, the greatest procumbeney
being found in the first incisor; a distinct diastema between incisors and
canines; canine double-rooted, large, strong, piercing, much the highest'
tooth in the entire row except for first incisor, which approximates it:
anterior face flat, with longitudinal groove, Well-developed anterior and
posterior cutting edges; internal face flat, with conspicuous median
longitudinal groove; posterior face slightly convex, a noticeable posterior
notch at base of tooth in the position of eingulmn : first two prenuolars

.i'T1\ .lA 1. 1.1 M I/ IN o-' P' lRT'O RI1('

subeqial. with simple trigonal cusps and poorly developed postero-inter-
nal cingula; third premolar submolariform, its single trigonal cusp the
highest of molar series, with luw internal heel and postero-external
shoulder; first two molars subequal, with crown roughly triangular in
outline, well-deviloped p'rotocone and metacone as trenchant V-shaped



I --

' A

c/ i

F -i. 1H.-. .lxophoillIts edithr. iCroxwn viowN t' f uipler 4lll ition A n l lower dentitioiin,
13. X m/1
cusps; paracone much sinaller than either protocone or nietacone, low
para- and metastyles; third molar slightly more than half as large as
second, which it closely resembhles except for loss of corner of tooth bear-
ing nmetastyle; protocone well developed. mctacone not as well developed
as in lnl parastyle present.


I. I



..,S -il-( >.


Lower: Incisors not all present in any mandibles found, but alveoli
show that the three are small, closely in contact and the rows meeting at
the mandibular symphysis: third incisor reaching about midway up
canine, cutting edge broadly bilobcd and entire face of tooth greatly
expanded, a wide sulcus down inner face of incisor; canine strong and

,f. l/7/03 X

FlV 21.--\ c ,ph;lunicsls edithln Upper ideltitllon in llprofile. X i/1

much higher than any other tooth of mandible, with an anterior cutting
edge the outline of which is convex; the internal face, passing from apex
to root, seems to rotate to the rear, so that canine appears as if twisted
from right to left: this rotation further expressed by appearance of ex-
ternal mid posterior faces of canine, a narrow shoulder developed at bas,
of posterior face; three premolars subequal, with trenchant triangular
cnsps and narrow heel: three molars of approximately equal size, all with
high tuberculo-sectorial trigonid and broal, flat talonid, the protoconii
being the highest cusp.
In a mandible (No. 17315) showing evidences of early maturity wliat
appears to be the permanent canine can he seen pushing up against its
milk predecessor, which is subpremolariform in shape.
Skulls collected.--J7. of which many are nearly complete. lacking only
incisors and bullet.
Mandibles collected.--0, the greatest number lacking only the in-
cisors; also, a considerable number of fragmentary skulls and rami too
badly broken to be worth listing separately.
Ileinarl's.-Three species of the genus Nesophonles have been de-
-cribed-edithae of Porto Rico, micros of Cuba and longirostris, also of
Cuba. Edithae is very much larger than either of the two Cuban species.
fI addition to the size difference, there are cranial distinctions which
have been set forth in detail by Anthony (1919, p. 633). X. m.icru. has
tle first anterior upper premolar noticeably larger than the second,
whereas in editme the anterior upper premolars are equal. y. lonui-
roslrins has a distinct diastema between canine and first premolar above.
between the two anterior premolars. and between the second anl third

.Ili asurnrcnts of Skull of NcsophooJnlte cditho'

Catalogue No. breadth
of Department greatestt across
of Vertebrate length Izygomatic
Paleontology roots on

of brain-


of rost ru
ca nines

Length ol'
post- I
palate Breadth
notch to of palate
posterior at pinm

Lengh No of De-!
of maxil- paitlent ,Length
lary of Verte- of
molar te mandlible
s iilaeon-
o ulogy

17094 ........
17096. ........
17 114 ........

17097 ... ....
17098 .........
17099 .. ......
17100.. ......
17103 .. ..
17104 ......
17107.... .
17108. ........
17110 .. .


38 6

39. ?

40. S?
40 2?


18 9


16 1

15i.9 10
...10 .
15.8 10.3
15.7 10 2
9 S

11 5 9.1
1.5 *2 3

S 1


ii S

6 .

1 9s 9


. ;. 5
5 .5

4 7
4 7

17 3 4 (i
17.5 .
16.5 3 9
161.2 1
15.4 4 5
17.2 4 1
160.2 4 5
.. 1. 3
17 4.7
17. 4.4

of inan-


S... ...

31 5
34 3
32. 6
31 .(i

2s 5
27 6
28. 1
2S 2
27 S

. . . .

12 9I
12 5
12 16
12. S
13 2
12 5

17 6
15 s
16. l

13 (
14 2
13 5
13 5i


N('C/ 11"N7'II'll $L A114i1 KY Op J101L111 PiCO

'The Skeleton of \esophontes edithae

lThe scapula (text Fig. 21) is long and has a breadth equal to about
half its length. The spine is very high, the acromion and metacromion
are well developed and the coracoid is very long and strongly curved.
T'he axillary border is reflected outward to produce a ridge and a deep
concavity paralleling the spine. The anterior superior border is smooth
and regular.
Scapula, rollecleed.--larts of seven scapulm, of which three are fairly
well 1preserved and afford between them all the different strutrures.

AM r. j. rj 75'5 /i 5

.. -.......... A

'l'i;. 21,. 'opit 'itcs clifiur. lighl seapula: A, external aspect ; 1:. anterior asplct :
S'. ventral aspect. X 5 '2

Mieosurenren ts.--Composite of scapule, all males. Length over all.
19.s mln.: greatest width, 11.3; greatest depth, through acromion. I :
width of nnck. :.4- transierse width of glennid. 2.4; glenoid +- ora-
coid, 4.5.
If the ('entel'l s scapula lie taken as a primitive type, the \Xe'oph~onlie
scpula i en to be rather more r advanced in several details. The re-
fHcction ,f' tile axillary ] irder and the extreme development of the acro-
mial and cnracoid process arre inot found in the Cenltles scapula, while
the spine is much deeper in the case of .Vesophon/l. A close approxi-

nation to Nescuplholes is noted in Solenolo. Proportionally, tes.o-
phonle/'s has carried the development of the spine further, and the cln-
strictiou or the body of the bone at the neck is much mire marked.
Xfsollphon Is does not have the posterior superior borderr drawn out into
a, sharp point, as in ,Solr)iuodon. Prlolibly as close agreement is shown
by the ('rocidrtlra. (( ocidira m/alanw ii'-n/ ) siarinula wh ere the samn1 l'e l.
partially enclosed, inil'ra-spinatus l'ossa is found. T'he same expansion of
the spine in the lroliial region does not occur in the (rocidumnt scapula.
The Gymnnm, aiind to a lesser degree the EriMnIcerI. scapula resembles
the NesophoI/,Os senipila in minst of the primitive details. X.\soplihote.s

A zI

Fli;. 22. \'V sophlontt.s iijhejr. Left 1llnt1rn's: A, talll lri r ;napv(l 1., inht,'lal :,|wer:
C(, postrior aspect. X 3 '2

does not very closely parallel "Ti'piait. in details of the s;qpnl1a. altholluh
they have the reflected axillary border in comino1n.
T'he Immerus (text Fiog. *??) of Neoophonles is nearly strnaiht. rather
robust, and with a conspicuous deltoid ride. It is ,expanded di.,tally
and tile shaft above the expansion is rather llnder. The head is large ,
and broadly elliptical in cross-section : the hiceipital groove is well marked
and the greater and lesser tuberosities are well developed. Moderate-
sized entepicondylar ;1nd l sulpratrolilear foraminaa ar present. The
supinator crest is nn anrel;lte ridgo which extends onto he ulnexplanded
shaft. There is- a ('nspicnou swelling on the intertl asiteJt of tie



dlltaid rid-e to mark the attachment area of the teres major and lli.o (i-
o is ilursi.
17lr,,ri co illccled.-- 135, noist of them perfect.
}ll',sr le, l o tl iit of Hullt eruC'IIx of e oophoal trtllx i ithiat

(realtest Transverse
(;'.aest (Ihe:atest Least i depth width of
h t widthl width of through head from
lesnth ilistally si1ift deltoid )icipital
ridge groove
S~ ~ ~~- - ~~ -.
S........ 2(6 1 6.9 1.9 3.1 4.2
S........... 26.0 6i. 1 .9 3.S 4.1
S. 7.2 1. 3.5 4.3
i ... 26.9 7 (1. 3 4 4.1
.....26. N 7 2 1 3 li 1.
f ........ 22 .7 7 1.( .: 3.7
. ..... 23.7 G.2 1.4 3.2 3.i
Il ... 22.5 5. 1.5 2.9 3.5
i .22 6 5.S 1.5 3.1 3. 6
j.. 22. .5 5 5 2 9 3 3

The Ihutierus of Jeso/pholeis bears considerable resemblance to that of
Solenodon, but is even more primitive than the latter, retaining an un-
specialized form and showing little decided adaptation for a fossorial
habit. The Solerodon1l humierl s is much heavier proportionally, antd con-
.qtquently is inch more aiigular in t.he a ittaclhent areas. The HIaitian
animal lacks the suprai roclilear foraien, the head of the huImerus is
mincih more elliptical and thie deltoid ridge is anore greatly expanded.
The' dillerencoes for the most ;part appear to be responsive specializations
to a fossorial habit. Itelationshlip in primitive characters is more clearly
shown by i comparison with (eiteles and Iiemicentetes. where modifica-
tion by peculiar environment has not played a part. The Erinaceus
hunmiierus only approximately resembles that of Vesophontes and does not
show as close a resemblance as the Zalambldoldots cited, but the Gyminnurn
hIl merls bears a \ery strikiingi likeness t, the Cesop.Ihowle humlerus.
Tl'hi arboreal type of hiiitnerns, as exemplified biy T'uli;a, shows such a
parallelismlu with the ]hinertis of S.es ophoiftes tliat the evidence should
not be passed over lightly. The Talpids are too highly specialized in the
fore limb to give a. clues through com lpa prison, except it shounl be noted
that a primitive humerns, sli c as that of Xcsophoutones. has the possibili-
ties for the Talpid spleialization. The more primitive condition of the
Soricid hlniterus, using Crocirlulra is a type, bears significant likeness to
the .Vesoplonles hlmnerlls.

IN'/'II1()-N V. .11. 11-11. 1 LS OP~ PORlTO RICO

The ulna (text Fig. 23) is of the primitive placental type--log,
slender and nearly straight. It is flat and thin for most of its length.
with a lIarge, strong oleerinon process which is well ridg.d for tendon

I k ***I '

A B' iE rc

One r rollected.-33, most of them perfect.
BMem i C edith

F';. :.; -\ '. hli, f d ithr. Rit ult n ina A, anterior ispc( 11, oxternai ISp 7, p vrior' ir Iisict T Ti, intermit asi'<. X 2-1 '2

attehillcunt. lTh sie inoiil ca\vity is ample. Thre are wll-defituied suir-
laces for the nirticu nation of tihe radius and for the pisiformii and conei-

/na rcollrccdtl.-;33, most of tliIn perfcict.

M1opr t', iri lcwls of Ulina of Y.Voulp i/, o s 'iedit/imr

C reat let

25 0

22 1

.. .

.. I

antero-posterior ciraloll from
idanth t order of siginoid

2.3 0(I

(i .
(. .
1. . .
S... . .
S . . . .
j .........

The A. rsophl, nl s a ulun omlipares well with the shrew lna l. C'rocidlira.
Init there is rather more specialization to be seen in the olecranon region
of the latter. The primitive zalambdodonts- l'ecntele, II lemicenletis,
Iad les s elosel) .vSoleCodon anid Poliniiogale-show remarkably close simi-
]lrity to Nesophonies throughout. The Eriiiac cs uln\ is also sufficiently
gen(lralizedl to 1w closely cmll)ared with sooh phontles. The ulna of Gytm-
nuru is very similar and the greatest difference seems to be merely in the
curve of the bone. The ulnam of Tuiipela bears out the reseinblance ex-
>rr.ssedl by the l1n11111erl1s aiind agre, in Ille maliln, quite well with 0eso-

0z V

.E I'


l';. 24. V\risoiphaiotcs itih ,ell plains': A, anterior aspect: I, oxternt l ) is|'i l:
C, posterior aspect. X 5/2

The radius (text Fig. 24) is moderately bowed, nearly uniform in
cross-section throughout, and with a slight distal expansion. It has a
conspicuous tublerele and well-marked insertion areas for the snpinator
and pronator muscles. There is a well-defined curve for the extensor
lendon. and the articulating surfaces of the bone, both proximal 11(a
distol, are large. Considering the small size of the radius tle minusel
insertion areas are unusually well marked.
Idii colle(ited.- -, most of them perfect.

N I' l\ 'll'lt' Y I IJY O1. I'M(. A lll ('l)

\T'ItIo.Y. .I11.111.1L /. OF PORTO RIC('(

I/I 'fl.uremC't(l' o f I\tdii.l of \' l ophoul.xl cdillhu

( .t l li igth i rn sverse N hilt 1h
Sll mid-point

i 20 ) 1 ;5
. IS.7 1.2
8... 1S.S 1.2
i.. 20 I 5
.... 19 1
f. . .... 17 1 .

('Cretes and Solenodon, while rather closely agreeing with k'cs'o-
lphoufes as to radii, are not proportionally as well equipped for pronation
and supination. Although the bones of these two genera are much
larger, and therefore should be more clearly marked olr for muscle inser-
tion, they are actually smoother than tlhe small radius of .-r'.ophoenic,.
Eriiarc is has a radius quite similar to that of -e.ophouIt'.e, and the
Shrew radius (C'rocidura and Bltrimn.) is also similar.
Although several ribs of Nesophontes were found, mostly from the
anterior part of the series, it is not possible to draw very satisfactory
deductions front the material. The ribs are not very strongly curved and
the greatest degree of curving is at the proximal end. On some of the
ribs the tubercle is fairly well developed, but on the longer ribs the
tubercle facet is wanting or is undifferentiated from the surface of tle
rounded head. The shaft of the rib is strong, compressed, but expanded
distally to form a thickened articulation surface for the Icostal cartilage.
In most cases there is a well-marked groove along the shaft.
Ribs collected.-15, most of them perfect.
lMea.sure, melu.-Sex indeterminable. 9 ( ( ). raiest length, third
(?) rib, 15.6 umn.; ninth (?) rib, 19.7.; greatest breadth of shaft, third
rib, 1.5.
Judging from the curvature of the few ribs collected, the body of
XeNophonles must have been deep rather than broad. In the characters
of the ribs themselves, considerable resemblance is shown to those of
'roridura. and to Gyminura. C'enlees, as well, should be included in this
comparison, although in some details, such as the more rounded shaft
and the better-developed tubercle, a decided difference is displayed. The
"',dalodon rib is compressed in a plane at right angles to the plane of
iulnIpression in the Yesioplhonts rib. and this is confirmatory of the
hypothesis that Yesophloonies had a deep body and not a widened-out one
like '1,ol'odon. None of the other insectivores examined have sucrl ;

S(CI lAV'J'J FJ C I'll hIF11< OF Pi'/()ffi'( III (0

knob-hlike expansion Tor the coastal attachments on the di>tal end of the
The sacrum (text Fig. 23) is composed of three vertebrar and is nmch
\wiler at the cephalic than at the caudal extremity. The neural spines
are not fused to lorU a continuous hdorsal crest and they are not very
blibl. The cephalic articular surfaces are of mediimn size, but the cauidal
articuilations are rather small. The hlteral borders curve gently from
tih alh to the third sacral vertebra. The dorsal foraiiiin are very laroe
and the ventral foiramina are fair-sized. In one specimen, probably that
of' an old individual, advanced fusion with the first eaudal vertebra is
shown. The sacrum shows no characters of specialization.
.'acra collected.--.
ifcasu rei en l/s.--Length through central l. ..S., 9 11.9 ulnn.. breadth
across ala', 9.6, 9 a.2.
The esop hon/es sacrum l fnds its closest, resemihlance in the sacrumn
of I'roctnidujt and others of' the Soricidne, the proportions of the different

X .. A .

1V1;. .1 T.vop oii I e d lir. 25. 'rin : .\. dlorsli; l :Is.<' nl : P.. lant lr l {Isp, ect. 4 1

leiiicnt.s being, in general, similar. The sacrum of the primitive zalamb-
dondoits, Conte/es and lIfeicentetes, is decidedly different in the propor-
rion- of tlie first two soeral vertebra:. IHcmirelon tle.s resembling sc.-o-
phlt,,ils in this respect rather more than does CPeidle'.s. Tie Solenod7on
sacrutm, of four vertebrae and with tile ieurtal spines fused to form a
cre.'t is quite. dissimilar to the esonphonls' sacruim. The Erinaeeidae
hiae quite a high saerum ilr nearly uniform width and need no detailed
comparison here. The sacrum of the arboreal Tnpaoi is much wider and
fl, a struicturi widely different from that of the Porto Iiean insectivore.
The innioinate bone (text Fig. 26) is simple and unspecialized. The
main ixisi of tie scenicc n is nearly straight. The ilitum is long, slender
iand triliedral, expandig anii teriorly inl the itranserse plane. with the
external Iorder a sy unetrical cure. The ilium probably does not enter
into tlhe acetailumi. judugintg froin a specimen which has been broken
aid shows a sntiral contaitet. Th'lie iartiu]lating surfteo of the ilium ex-


tends from about tie middle of the bone to the terminal fourth. The
ischium is laterally compressed, expanding where it articulates with the
pubis, and seeming-ly does not have an osseous connection with the

x .' ...." -,.'I

S- / Am.Mus.No.17151a

)'' '- -V"


-M--.No. 1715k

lF'r<;. 24;.- -\cKsophoit. cdlithq, Right itmonidnate of adult male: A, external aspect:'
1., dlrsal aspec : C, internal ;aspct. Left ih minati]]>e of mtlult f(lmale: 1). external
a-peer. X 5/2
-- A W-,-.-'~
----' -

A --

a'plecr. x 5,'2

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs