• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 Potable water element
 Sanitary sewer element
 Drainage element
 Utility element
 Conservation element
 Intergovernmental coordination...
 Housing element addendum
 Appendix A. Major drainage basins...
 Appendix B. Detailed housing...
 Appendix C. Selected sources
 North Central Florida Regional...














Title: Alachua County comprehensive plan 1975-1995
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00091485/00001
 Material Information
Title: Alachua County comprehensive plan 1975-1995 draft
Series Title: Alachua County comprehensive plan 1975-1995
Physical Description: viii, 213, 34 p. : ;
Language: English
Creator: North Central Florida Regional Planning Council
Alachua County (Fla.) -- Dept. of Planning and Development
Publisher: North Central Florida Regional Planning Council
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1980
Edition: 1980 ed..
 Subjects
Subject: Regional planning -- Florida -- Alachua County   ( lcsh )
Genre: local government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: prepared for Alachua County Department of Planning and Development, Designated Local Planning Agency for Alachua County.
General Note: "January, 1980."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00091485
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 37432990

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    List of Figures
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Potable water element
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
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    Sanitary sewer element
        Page 25
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    Drainage element
        Page 45
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    Utility element
        Page 63
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    Conservation element
        Page 77
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    Intergovernmental coordination element
        Page 139
        Page 140
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    Housing element addendum
        Page 161
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    Appendix A. Major drainage basins and watersheds
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    Appendix B. Detailed housing characteristics
        Page B-1
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    Appendix C. Selected sources
        Page C-1
        Page C-2
        Page C-3
        Page C-4
    North Central Florida Regional Planning Council staff
        Page C-5
Full Text






ALA CrU' '. .T
COMPREHENSIVE PLAN


1975-1995
-W r .1,
*, y '* *


'1
C/1l XO


POTABLE WATER ELEMENT
SANITARY SEWER ELEMENT
DRAINAGE ELEMENT
UTILITY ELEMENT
CONSERVATION ELEMENT
INTERGOVERNMENTAL
COORDINATION ELEMENT
HOUSING ELEMENT ADDENDUM 3k



PrL--red f r.

ALACHUA COUNTY DEPART"'c- PL-,. ,,'-G AND DEVELOPE-XT


-anning Agency


Alachua County







January, 1980




North Central Florida Regional Planning Council
2002 N.W. 13th Street, Suite 202
Gainesville, Florida 32601
(904) 376-3344


// .l 7 /cs


SEP 24 '81


Des i .-. =" e LC








TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page


Chapter


I POTABLE WATER ELEMENT . . . . .

Inventory of Existing Conditions . .
Evaluation of Present and Future Needs.
Implementation . . . . . .

II SANITARY SEWER ELEMENT . . . .

Existing Wastewater Treatment Systems .
Evaluation of Present and Future Needs.
Implementation . . . . . .

:II DRAINAGE . . . . . . .

Scope of Drainage Element . . . .
Determinants of Drainage . . . .
Major Drainage Basins . . . . .
Implementation.. . . . . .


IV UTILITY ELEMENT . . . . . . . . . .

State Regulations Governing Electric Utility Companies.
Electrical Service Systems . . . . . ...
Existing and Projected Electrical Facilities . . .
Coordination of Plans and Policies . . .. . .

V CONSERVATION . . . . . . . . . .


Inventory of Natural Resources . . . .
Goals and Objectives . . . . . .
Implementation . . . . . . . .

VI INTERGOVERNMENTAL COORDINATION ELEMENT . .

Intergovernmental Relationships between Alachua
County and other Governmental Entities. . .
Consideration of Alternatives for . . . .
Intergovernmental Coordination . . . .
Principles, Guidelines, and Implementation. .
Policies for Intergovernmental Coordination .
Impact of the Alachua County Comprehensive Plan
on Development of other Jurisdictions . .


77
121
123

139

140

156

157

158


f t 1 I II I I 1


I I I I I











Chapter


TABLE OF CONTENTS Continued




HOUSING ELEMENT ADDENDUM. . . . . .


Housing Supply . . .....
Housing Market Analysis: Current and
Low-Income Households . . . .
Housing Plan of Action . . .
Housing Assistance Programs . . .
Statement of Program Evaluation . .


Projected .


Page


162
173
184
188
203
212


APPENDIX A MAJOR DRAINAGE BASINS AND WATERSHEDS. . . . . . .

APPENDIX B DETAILED HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS. . . . . . . .

APPENDIX C SELECTED SOURCES. . . . . . . . . ... ..


A-1

B-1

C-1










LIST OF TABLES


Tables


Page


1 Projected Percent of Population Served by Public Water. ... 14

2 Projected Percent of Population Served by Sanitary Sewer. . 32

A Land by Capability Class and Subclass . . . . .... .91

B Comparison of Soil Potential for Cropland with Existing
Cropland by Capability Class. .. .. . . . . ... 92

C Comparison of Soil Potential for Improved Pasture with
Existing Pasture Land by Capability Class . . . ... 93

D Comparison of Soil Potential for Pine Woodland with
Existing Lands in Forests by Capability Class . . ... 94

3 Housing Stock by Tenure, Occupancy, and Vacancy Status,
1970, 1978. . . . . . . . . ... ...... 163

4 Age of Existing Housing, 1970 . . . . . . .... 165

5 Plumbing Characteristics by Tenure and Race, 1970 ...... 167

6 Survey of Housing Conditions, 1978. . . . . . . ... 168

7 Housing Stock by Type of Unit, 1978 . . ............ .171

8 Existing Section 23 Assisted Housing by Number of
Bedrooms per Unit . . . . . . . .. .172

9 Population Projections, 1975-1995 . . . . . . . 174

0 Persons Per Household, 1978 . . . . . . . .. . 175

1 Household Size, 1970. . . . . . . . . ... .. 176

2 Projected Household Income, 1978-1988 . . . . .... 177

3 Value of Owner-Occupied Units by Race, 1970 . . . ... 178


Monthly Contract Rent for Renter-Occupied Units by Race, 1970 .

Projected Cost of New Housing Construction by Area Index,
1978-1988 . . . . . . . . . . . . .


179


180






LIST OF TABLES Continued


Tables Page


16 Mobile Home Prices Projected by Average Percentage
Increase Method, 1978-1988. . . . . . .. . .. 181

17 Minimum Cost of Adequate Housing, 1978-1988 . . . ... 182

18 Projected Housing Purchasing Power of Households, 1978-1988 183

19 Low-Income Households, 1978 . . . . . . . .... 185

20 Housing Assistance Needs of Lower-Income Households, 1978 . 186

21 Housing Assistance Needs by Geographic Sector, 1978 . . .. 187

22 Three-Year Housing Program. . . . . . . . . ... 194

23 General Location for Proposed Housing . . . . .... 196

24 Annual Housing Action Program . . . . . . .. . 197

25 Assisted and Non-Assisted Housing by Geographic
Sector and Housing Type, 1978-2000. . . . . . . 201










LIST OF FIGURES


Figure


Page


I Community And Non-Community Water Systems . . . .

II Generalized Areas Served By The Regional Utilities
Water System 1979 . . . . . . . . .

III Existing Eight-Inch Or Larger Water Mains Of The Regional
Utilities Water System 1979 . . . . . .

IV Concentrations Of Dissolved Solids In The Floridan Aquifer


V Projected Service Area For Regional Utilities Water
System By 1995 . . . . . . . . .

VI Projected Percent of Population Served By Public
Water 1980 . . . . . . . . .

VII Projected Percent Of Population Served By Public
Water 1985 . . . . . . . . .

fIII Projected Percent Of Population Served By Public
Water 1990 . . . . . . . . .

IX Projected Percent Of Population Served By Public
Water 1995 . . . . . . . . .

X Wastewater Treatment Plants . . . . .

XI Generalized Areas Served By The Regional Utilities
Sanitary Sewer System 1979 . . . . .

XII Projected Service Area For Regional Utilities
Sanitary Sewer System By 1995 . . . . .

,III Projected Percent Of Population Served By Sanitary
Sewer 1980 . . . . . . . . .

XIV Projected Percent Of Population Served By Sanitary
Sewer 1985 . . . . . . . . .

XV Projected Percent Of Population Served By Sanitary
Sewer 1990 . . . . . . . . .

XVI Projected Percent Of Population Served By Sanitary
Sewer 1995 . . . . . . . . .


4


6


7
. . 4


. . 6


. . 7

. . 10


. . 13


. . 15


. . 16


. . 17


. . 18

. . 27
. . 10


. . 13


. . 15


. . 16


. . 17


. . 18

. . 27


. . . 31


. . . 33


. . . 34


. . . 35


. . . 36







LIST OF FIGURES Continued



Figure Page


XVII Major Drainage Basins And Watersheds. . . . . ... Back Cover
Pocket

XVIII Physiographic Zones ................... ... 48

XIX Soil Associations . . . . . . . . . . . 54

XX Water Management District Boundaries. . . . . . ... .62

XXI Electrical Utility Service Areas. . . . . . . ... .66

XXII Conservation-Recreation Areas . . . . . . ... 138


viii














POTABLE WATER ELEMENT


The Land Use Element anticipates that Alachua County will continue to
increase in population through the planning period (1995). As Alachua
County grows, there will be an ever-increasing demand for a larger
potable water supply. Potable water is water which is safe for drink-
ing, culinary, and other domestic uses. The purpose of this plan ele-
ment is to indicate ways to provide for the potable water needs of the
County through the planning period.

Included in this plan element is an inventory of existing conditions, a
discussion of existing problems and future needs of residents located
within the unincorporated area of the County, and a section which pre-
sents implementation strategies to meet future needs.


INVENTORY OF EXISTING CONDITIONS


This section of the Potable Water Element inventories existing potable
water systems (including both private and public water systems) and
existing ground water resources.


Existing Potable Water Systems


Potable water needs of Alachua County residents are being met through
either private water systems (individual water supply wells) or service
connection to a public water system. In a report entitled Source,
Use and Disposition of Water in Florida, 1975, the United States Geo-
logical Survey estimates that in Alachua County approximately 31 per-
cent of local residents obtain potable water from private water systems
and 69 percent from public water systems.


Private Water Systems

According to Chapter 17-22 of the Florida Administrative Code, private
water systems (individual water supply wells) are defined as a well,
pump, and piping which is located on a residential lot and serves water
to only a single home of a family. Most of the individual wells in







Alachua County are shallow wells with drilled depths usually ranging
between 90 and 200 feet.

Private water systems (individual water supply wells) have not in the
past been regulated by State agencies; however, recent changes made
during the 1977 legislative session (Florida Statutes, Chapter 381.261)
gave the Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services "general
supervision and control over all private water systems...." Specific
regulations concerning the Department's role in regulating private
water systems (individual water supply wells) have not been developed
at this time.

Although State agencies currently do not regulate private water systems
(individual water supply wells), Alachua County currently requires in
County Ordinance 6 of 1971 that a well permit be issued by the County
Health Department before any new well is constructed or before any
existing well is changed in any manner within the unincorporated area.
Before the Health Department issues any well permit, it establishes
whether or not public water system service is available to the proper-
ty. If a public water system is available, no permit is granted for
the construction of a well to be used for household or drinking pur-
poses. If a public water system is not available, the Health Depart-
ment determines the location of the well in relation to any septic tank
in the area in order to minimize any chance of well contamination be-
fore it issues the permit. According to Health Department records, an
estimated 695 permits for private water systems were issued in 1977.

According to the report mentioned earlier entitled Source, Use and
Disposition of Water in Florida, 1975, about 40,100 people were served
by private water systems in Alachua County in 1975. Using a 1970 Cen-
sus of Housing estimate for Alachua County of 3.1 persons per house-
hold, there were about 13,000 private water systems in use in 1975.
Most of these private water systems are found scattered on residential
lots in the rural unincorporated parts of Alachua County outside of the
Gainesville Urban Area. The Gainesville Urban Area is delineated and
discussed earlier in the Land Use Element contained in Volume I of the
Alachua County Comprehensive Plan 1975 1995.


Public Water Systems


State regulations in Chapter 17-22 of the Florida Administrative Code
(FAC) define public water systems as "a system for the provision to
the public of piped water for human consumption, if such system has at
least fifteen service connections or regularly serves at least twenty-
five individuals daily at least sixty days out of the year." For regu-
latory purposes by State and local agencies, public water systems are
separated into two types--non-community water systems and community
water systems.








Non-Community Water Systems


Non-community water systems primarily provide potable water to nonresi-
dential uses. Non-community water systems serve many different types
of non-residential uses such as restaurants, schools, day care centers,
and camps.

Inventory records maintained by the County Health Department show that
presently there are 59 non-community water systems in Alachua County,
with 9 located within incorporated areas, 9 located in the Unincorpor-
ated Gainesville Urban Area, and the remaining 41 located in Unincor-
porated Rural Alachua County. As noted earlier, the Unincorporated
Gainesville Urban Area is defined and delineated earlier in the Land
Use Element, while Unincorporated Rural Alachua County is defined a
the unincorporated part of the County outside of the Gainesville Urban
Area. Figure I shows the location of all non-community water systems
located in Alachua County.


Community Water Systems


Community water systems provide potable water to residential uses such
as municipalities, single-family subdivisions, and mobile home parks.
According to inventory records maintained by the County Health Depart-
ment, currently there are 39 community water systems in Alachua County
with 12 located within incorporated areas, 17 located in the Unincor-
porated Gainesville Urban Area, and the remaining 10 community water
systems located in Unincorporated Rural Alachua County. Municipal
water systems own and operate 8 community water systems, 19 serve
trailer parks, 9 serve single-family subdivisions, 1 serves a food
store, 1 serves a fish camp, and 1 serves a correctional facility.
Figure I also shows the location of all community water systems located
in Alachua County.


Gainesville Regional Utility Water System


The largest community water system serves the City of Gainesville and
parts of Unincorporated Alachua County, primarily in the Gainesville
Urban Area. This water system is owned and operated by the City of
Gainesville.

On June 9, 1972 the City of Gainesville and Alachua County entered into
an interlocal agreement creating the Gainesville-Alachua County Region-
al Electric, Water and Sewer Utilities Board. According to this inter-
local agreement, the water and wastewater responsibilities of the Board
were to "make all policies for the administration, operation, mainte-
nance, extension, enlargement, development, replacement, and repair of
the systems in the City and in the unincorporated areas of the County
furnishing water and sanitary sewer services." The capital facilities




FIGURE I


COMMUNITY AND NON-COMIVVIUNITY
WATER SYSTEMS







^ALOo M-



re COMMUNITY


ALACHUA COUNTY.


0


* NON-COMMUNITY





BOURCe: ALACHUA
COUNTY HEALTH
DEPARTMENT













R : glone ri ,nga Counell






of the system remained under the ownership of the City of Gainesville
with a countywide, regional approach to the management of water and
wastewater systems provided by the Board.

The Board was composed of the five elected members of the City Commis-
sion of Gainesville and the five elected members of the County Commis-
sion of Alachua County. The Board selected one of its members to pre-
side at meetings and serve as general chairman. In December, 1979 the
interlocal agreement creating the Regional Utilities Board was nulli-
fied and management responsibility of the system was returned solely to
the City of Gainesville.

Existing water supply and treatment facilities of the Gainesville
Regional Utility water system include two water treatment plants--the
Dr. Walter E. Murphree Water Treatment Plant (the "Murphree Plant") and
Water Treatment Plant No. 1. The Murphree Plant provides 30 million
gallons per day (mgd) of lime-softened, stabilized, and filtered water.
The Murphree Plant has been designed so that its capacity can be readi-
ly doubled to 60 mgd by the construction of additional facilities at
the site without interruption of treatment or service.

Water Treatment Plant No. 1 has a 13.5 mgd capacity and includes treat-
ment and filtration utilizing treatment processes similar to that of
the Murphree Plant. Since the Murphree Plant is capable of meeting all
present system demands (current daily water use is about 15 mgd), Water
Treatment Plant No. 1 currently is not used and provides only standby
service.

As of May, 1979, the Gainesville Regional Utility water system served
approximately 18,300 residential water customers inside the corporate
limits of Gainesville and approximately 5,700 residential water custo-
mers in the unincorporated area. Commercial customers served by the
water system totaled approximately 1,940 inside the corporate limits of
Gainesville and 365 in the unincorporated area. The water distribution
system is made up of about 399 miles of transmission and distribution
mains forming a looped system, and a system of about 147 miles of small
service lines. Figure II shows areas presently served by this water
system in the Gainesville Urban Area (a water main also continues north
along U.S. 441 to the area around the Deerhaven Power Plant), while
Figure III presents the location of existing eight-inch or larger water
mains in the Unincorporated Gainesville Urban Area.


Existing Potable Water Resource


Potable water in Alachua County is obtained by tapping ground water
sources. Ground water is favored as a source of potable water be-
cause of its usually constant chemical quality and temperature and its
relative ease of accessibility. According to the report entitled
Source, Use and Disposition of Water in Florida, Alachua County with-
draws about 4.41 million gallons per day of ground water with about
3.81 million gallons per day used for domestic uses and about .60 mil-
lion gallons per day used for watering livestock.

Ground water is available to the entire County from the Floridan aqui-
fer and also available in the northern and eastern portions from the
upper aquifers. The upper aquifer refer to those aquifers above the




FIGURE II
GEiiNERALIZED AREAS SERVED BY THE
REGIONAL UTILITIES WATER SYSTEM -1979
















.n
,- - ,A ..I~i., *-.'. " \ / "










* * .i


























souGce: City of Gainesville Utility Department
0 $2 Imile


Rog M iinig Council
. ... .,- '- ,..':.ff:.XX :.:.:,...:,, ., "-" .': :,t~,,q 'tr_ li .t!.l! -: ..: :, '. .
.' .. ,- .. ..",i ;', ,." :, :".. ., :, . .j [, ,,.b ,.l.. . -,-.'" ,. . '. '.." ,
= .[;' .- r .e, ,,., ,,, :" -. "' ",'" .7 ." ./
Irjr a!;:L
L .... ... __ {,z.: C x ."-" I/ L:"r" 4}- m'li #- .,.,,,u -,






-oc, ClI of; Gansil Utilit Department ~ rh~i~ IUR'nIFI~l ~ ~ ~ L~n Ir '

~1~%_:Florida
la nn



9


* * ** 16
....... 16"


.ouRcE: City of Gainesville Utility Department


** 12"
*-*.s..... 10"
8"


O 1mile

tl NNorth Central flortd
pl regional Ptanning Council


FIGI1 III
EXISTING EIGHT-INCH OR LARGER WATER MAINS
OF THE REGIONAL UTILITIES WATER SYSTEM- 1979






Floridan aquifer and consist of a water table aquifer and other second-
ary artesian aquifers.

Many of the smaller water supplies, particularly for rural domestic
use, depend upon the upper aquifers. These wells predominantly tap
minor artesian aquifers. Probably more wells tap these secondary arte-
sian aquifers in the County than any other aquifer. In most places,
however, neither the water table aquifer nor the minor artesian aqui-
fers yield sufficient water for large supplies.

Most large potable water users, such as municipal water systems, draw
ground water from the Floridan aquifer. It is one of the most produc-
tive and extensive ground water bearing formations in the United
States, and easily transmits and stores more water than any other aqui-
fer in north central Florida.

In western and southwestern Alachua County where there is no confining
bed, the aquifer is under water table conditions. In the rest of the
County the aquifer is under artesian conditions. The aquifer is re-
charged by water leaking through overlying confining beds, by percolat-
ing directly into the aquifer where no confining beds are present, and
by flowing directly through sinkholes. Although the entire County is
considered to be a recharge area, of special interest are notable areas
of sinkhole recharge in the County, such as Hogtown Creek to Haile
Sink, Sweetwater Branch and Paynes Prairie to Alachua Sink, and the
unnamed sink in the southwestern part of Orange Lake. Another area of
high recharge is a 300 square-mile area in the southwestern portion of
the County having no surface outflow.

Ground water quality varies widely from one aquifer to "_'-:'r and also
within the same aquifer. In general, objectionable quality character-
istics of the water table aquifer include the presence of iron, and
sometimes high color. Water from the secondary artesian aquifer is
generally harder but less colored than water from the water table aqui-
fer. The Floridan aquifer generally produces water of a better quality
than any other aquifer in Alachua County. Hardness is the most fre-
quent undesirable characteristic of the Floridan aquifer.


EVALUATION OF PRESENT AND FUTURE NEEDS


This section is separated into two parts. The first section discusses
existing potable water needs, while the second section is concerned
with future potable water needs.


Existing Potable Water Needs


According to officials at the County Health Department, all properly
installed private water systems (individual water supply wells) are
currently obtaining sufficient quantities of ground water. Alachua







County has plenty of ground water available for potable water use
because of large water bearing formations such as the upper aquifers
and the Floridan aquifer.

Although sufficient quantities of water are available, the County
Health Department identifies four areas which are currently served by
private water systems (individual water supply wells) which need public
water system service because of existing water quality problems or
because there is a potential for ground water contamination-because of
high septic tank densities.


Existing Water Quality Problems Areas


Two specific parts of the unincorporated area currently experience
significant water quality problems. The first area is where private
water systems (individual water supply wells) draw ground water with a
high concentration of both dissolved solids and iron. This area, which
is primarily made up of Paynes Prairie, is located along 1-75 and runs
from just south of the City of Gainesville to the southern boundary of
Alachua County. Figure IV shows concentrations of dissolved solids of
water in the Floridan aquifer in Alachua County. According to this
figure, water quality problems associated with high concentrations of
dissolved solids are likely to be noted in wells which draw from the
Floridan aquifer in this area.

The Land Use Element shows much of the Paynes Prairie area in the con-
servation/recreation land use classification. This class i cation
allows limited residential, recreation, or agricultural uses. :-;Jre
water quality problems in this area are not anticipated to be signifi-
cant since only limited development is anticipated for this area.

The second area with significant water quality problems is the unincor-
porated community of Melrose located in eastern Alachua County. Parts
of this unincorporated community lie in Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and
Putnam counties along State Roads 21 and 26. Existing water quality
problems in this area are caused by high concentrations of iron, hydro-
gen sulfide, and magnesium in ground water supplies.

This community has recently formed a non-profit association, the Mel-
rose Water Association, Inc. This association has had a preliminary
engineering report prepared for a proposed water system to serve this
community. This report concluded that the community should construct a
water system to serve its residents which includes two eight-inch
wells, two 350 gallon per minute capacity pumps, and a 100,000-gallon
elevated storage tank. The Melrose Water Association, Inc. has applied
for a Farmers Home Administration grant and loan to construct this
recommended water system.





FIGURE IV
CONCENTRATIONS OF DISSOLVED
SOLIDS IN THE FLORIDAN AQUIFER


ALACHUA COUNTY.


R2OO CONTOUR LINES
CONNECT POINTS OF
APPROXIMATE EQUAL
DIBBOLVED BOLIDB.
CONTOUR INTERVAL
EQUALS 50 PART
PER MILLION.













SOURCE I FLORIDA
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY,
WATER RESOURCES OF
ALACHUA, BRADFORD,
CLAY AND UNION
COUNTIESI FLORIDA.







-A North Central Florida
R lLynag l "I< nning Coinol
**'- -- --'


A







Potential Water Quality Problem Areas

According to County Health Department officials, two parts of the unin-
corporated area currently have septic tank and private water system
(individual water supply well) densities high enough to cause some con-
cern about potential contamination of ground water supplies by septic
tank effluent. The first area, commonly known as the "Copeland Area,"
is a residential subdivision located north of S.R. 26 about a one-half
mile west of Little Hatchet Creek. This area is presently served by
individual water supply wells and septic tanks on small lots which
average about 7,500 square feet in size. Based upon the density of
septic tanks in this area and the potential for ground water contamina-
tion, Health Department officials state that either public water or
sewer system or both should serve residential lots in this area as soon
as possible.

The second area is the unincorporated community of Cross Creek located
between Orange Lake and Lochloosa Lake on S.R. 325. A combination of
high water tables and high density of septic tanks and individual water
supply wells on small lots in this area create a potential for ground
water contamination. Like the first area, Health Department officials
state that Cross Creek should also be served by either a public water
or sewer system or both as soon as possible. At this time, the Gaines-
ville Regional Utility System operates a centralized water and sewer
system serving the Cross Creek Mobile Home Park.


Future Potable Water Needs

The Land Use Element, which describes the future growth and development
of Alachua County, is used in this plan element to determine areas of
future potable water need. The Land Use Element, contained in Volume I
of the Alachua County Comprehensive Plan, includes a narrative document
describing future land use, policies and standards for development, and
land use plan maps. The land use plan maps anticipate most of the
future growth within the County to occur within the Unincorporated
Gainesville Urban Area. Therefore, this section is presented in two
parts, with the first part discussing future potable water needs of Un-
incorporated Rural Alachua County and the second part being concerned
with the potable water needs of the Unincorporated Gainesville Urban
Area. As noted earlier, the term Unincorporated Rural Alachua County
refers to those portions of the unincorporated area of the County lying
outside of the Gainesville Urban Area.


Unincorporated Rural Alachua County

Most of Unincorporated Rural Alachua County is expected to meet its
future potable water needs using private water systems (individual
water supply wells). The land use plan map shows most of this area in
the conservation/recreation or agricultural land use classifications,







both of which are characterized by low residential densities. Low
residential densities with large lot development permit the use of pri-
vate water systems (individual water supply wells).

Some areas of higher densities, which are shown around incorporated
communities, are expected to be served either by private water systems
(individual water supply wells) or by service connection to municipal-
ly-owned water systems operated by these communities.


Unincorporated Gainesville Urban Area


The land use plan map shows much of the Unincorporated Gainesville
Urban Area at residential densities equal to or greater than one unit
per acre. Planning standards indicate that it is generally feasible to
serve such densities with public water supply systems. Based on this
standard, the future potable water needs of the unincorporated Gaines-
ville Urban Area are expected to be met primarily by service connection
to a public water system.

Based on areas shown on the land use plan map for urban land uses, Fig-
ure V shows the projected service area for public water system service
by 1995 in the Gainesville Urban Area. These urban land uses include
residential development densities of one dwelling unit per acre or
higher, and commercial, office, institutional, industrial activities,
and agricultural areas located within existing public water system ser-
vice boundaries.

Projections of the percentage of population served by public water for
each planning district in the Unincorporated Gainesville Urban Area are
shown in Table 1. These figures assume that as growth occurs in the
Unincorporated Gainesville Urban Area and as water and sewer lines are
extended, the number of people served by public water will approximate-
ly equal the number of people served by sanitary sewer. This 'is a rea-
sonable assumption since, as noted earlier, new single-family residen-
tial development on lots of one acre or less in size usually can be
feasibily served by public water system service.
Based on projections of sewered populations given in Table 9-7 of the
Alachua County 201 Wastewater Facilities Plan, hereinafter referred to
as the 201 Plan, Figures VI through IX present the percent of popula-
tion in each planning district projected to be served by public water
for 1980, 1985, 1990, and 1995. Within each planning district, only
those areas shown on the land use plan map for urban land uses are
identified for future service by public water. As noted earlier,
these urban land uses include residential development densities of one
dwelling unit per acre or higher, and commercial, office, institution-
al, industrial activities, and agricultural areas located within exist-
ing public water system service boundaries.




FIGeE V
PROJECTED SERVICE AREA FOR
REGIONAL UTILITIES WATER SYSTEM BY 1995


S


de .. . . .
-. ''' ' .' . : .: .7...y..
. . . . . . . .



.4 .4 ...3 ~ 3 T fl f 7 ) Jt .~ . ... ... ... ..ji :- -
.1: . ... .'4* .. . . . .
I.............. ..... .








.. :':j *, *%4.tI) *" ..AI .
........... ........

. .; r .V ...b .. . . . : . .
. *. .. ; .j. .V . ....%...... . .rC, . .1.









2 Ii C' *.hi-' -V
. . ... . . . . J, 9 11 ; ; I -.4, 1 . . . ... .











*A -.AI
35
r . . .
; : I L . . . I .: % ..* . .

. .. .. .. .

. . . . .. .

... . . .

r~~ ; -Y..+~..'....... ....;~i
Tj .. .. ...













pi
. . . . . . .
... ... ...
...... ....rlt:~..... ',Y '
........ ... .~.. ...... ...'
. . . . . . . . . .
AWA-Jftll"hdA- b IA


E EXISTING SERVICE AREA .

: PROJECTED SERVICE AREA


1 Oa r Imile

North Central Vloride
ReaIonal Planinno Cotjncll








TABLE 1

PROJECTED PERCENT OF POPULATION

SERVED BY PUBLIC WATER

UNINCORPORATED GAINESVILLE URBAN AREA, 1980-1995 -


PLANNIN~G DISTRICT PERCENT OF POPULATION SERVED
NUMBER 1980 1985 1990 1995

12 18 41 57 68

13 23 54 66 77

14 78 81 83 84

15 24 43 55 60

16 76 86 88 90

17 73 81 83 86

18 57 68 75 78

19 89 90 91 92

20 22 62 69 74


Source: Table 9-7 of
ties Plan.


the Alachua County 201 Wastewater Facili-


As noted earlier in Figure II, most of the developed portions of the
Gainesville Urban Area are presently served by the Gainesville Regional
Utility Water System. The future potable water needs of a majority of
residents in the Unincorporated Gainesville Urban Area are expected to
be met by service connection to the Gainesville Regional Utility Water
System. According to CH2M Hill Southeast, Inc., Engineer of Record
for the Gainesville Regional Utility Water System, the present water
system is projected to adequately serve the present and future needs of
its customers well into the 1990's.


IMPLEMENTATION


Implementation strategies to meet future potable water needs are dis-
cussed in two parts. The first part identifies alternative ways to
meet future needs allowed by existing State legislation and County
ordinance, while the second part selects among these alternatives and





0


PERCENT SERVED BY WATER


' 2 -s50


O 42 1mirw

C3^ North Central Flor;dm
Regiona! Planning Council


S1 6S-100


FIGU i VI
PROJECTED PERCENT OF POPULATION SERVED
BY PUBLIC WATER -1980


5 I a-7a
76-85





FIGURE VII
PROJECTED PERCENT OF POPULATION SERVED

BY PUBLIC WATER -1985


PERCENT SERVED BY WATER
SO-75 I li 01-75

0 BeS-75 7e8-85
R~wrt L02!2


g3 -se


Ei:.


10 Imile

C North Ce Florida
Regiaone. lnrtng Courcil




FIGURE VIII

PROJECTED PERCENT OF POPULATION SERVED
BY PUBLIC WATER-1990


2t-50


PERCENT SERVED BlY WA-LtKi


6o1-7
Ifl.2.Z1aJ


u 8 -95

Eii -130-100


0 ImIle

North Central Florida




FIGURE IX
PROJECTED PERCENT OF POPULATION
SERVED BY PUBLIC WATER-1995


PERCENT SERVED BY WATER

ED s-75

E3 71r.-B


e~~as-gB

wI-


O a 32 Imila

C--3 North C I1 Florida
4 0'-n;- -,-'Ing Cr.e-A


S 26--O
i- =O-a






presents an implementation plan for both Unincorporated Rural Alachua
County and the Unincorporated Gainesville Urban Area.


Alternative Ways To Meet Future Needs


Future potable water needs can be met using either private (individual
water supply wells) or public water systems. These two methods are
discussed in the following sections.


Private Water Systems


One alternative way to meet future potable water needs is by using pri-
vate water systems (individual water supply wells). Installation of
private facilities will of necessity continue to occur in areas where
public facilities are not available. Although these installations may
not be desirable on a region-wide basis, if installed properly, they
can be used with a moderate degree of safety. State legislation and
County ordinances currently regulate the permitted lot sizes where pri-
vate water systems (individual water supply wells) can be installed
where public water systems are not available.


Public Water Systems


In addition to individual water supply wells, future potable water
needs will be met using public water systems. As develprnent density
in an area increases, public facilities become necessary in order to
protect the public health. As public water systems are installed, pri-
vate facilities are abandoned and funds spent to initially install pri-
vate water systems (individual water supply wells) are lost-to their
owners. Therefore, adequate public water supplies should be made
available and installed in the initial stages of urban development, if
at all feasible. In addition, in those areas where centralized public
water system service is not available, all new isolated non-community
water systems should be designed and constructed to be compatible with
the nearest community water system. This practice would facilitate
possible interconnection of the systems in the future.

The Board of County Commissioners encourages the provision of public
water services in parts of the unincorporated area of the County where
feasible. According to Section 8 of County Ordinance 64 of 1975, "The
board, by the adoption of this and prior related ordinances and poli-
cies, has committed itself to provide public water and sanitary sewer
services to the entire unincorporated area of Alachua County where fea-
sible to do so with or without creating special assessment districts."

Future public water systems are anticipated to be financed by both the
private and public sectors. Future public water systems financed by
the private sector include those financed by the Farmers Home Adminis-
tration and by individual subdividers or developers as new subdivisions






are constructed. The formation of water associations as non- profit
corporations under the Farmers Home Administration sponsorship is a
program which has been used to finance many public water systems within
the State. As noted earlier, the Melrose Water Association, Inc. is
currently seeking a Farmers Home Administration grant to help finance a
public water system within their community.

Presently, County ordinances and State regulations in the Florida
Administrative Code specify when developers are required -to install
public water systems in their subdivisions. These systems may be in-
stalled by either the developer or by the County. However, all costs
of installing the system are borne and paid for by the developer. When
constructed, every system must be dedicated to the County except where
the system is owned and operated by a municipal corporation, or by a
non-profit corporation which was financed by the Farmers Home
Administration.

In addition to public water systems financed by the private sector, un-
incorporated residents can be served by publicly-owned water systems.
Publicly-owned water systems are defined as public water systems owned,
operated, and maintained by either the County or a municipality. State
legislation gives Alachua County authority to provide potable water to
unincorporated parts of the County through the following means:

(1) By entering into interlocal agreements with other public
agencies;

(2) By establishing a countywide Utility Authority;

(3) By establishing Water and Sewer Districts; and

(4) By establishing Municipal Services Taxing Units.


Interlocal Agreements


Chapter 163.01, Florida Statutes, permits local "governmental units to
make the most efficient use of their powers by enabling them to co-
operate with other localities on a basis of mutual advantage and there-
by to provide services and facilities in a manner and pursuant to forms
of governmental organization that will accord best with geographic,
economic, population, and other factors influencing the needs and de-
velopment of local communities."


Countywide Utility Authority


Another legal means of providing publicly-owned water system service in
unincorporated areas is by the establishment of a countywide Utility
Authority. Counties have the authority "to purchase and/or construct






and to improve, extend, enlarge, and reconstruct a water supply system
or systems...within such county..." according to Chapter 153.03,
Florida Statutes. The Utility Authority can take advantage of all Fed-
eral or State loans and grants and issue revenue bonds, assessment
bonds, and levy ad valorem taxes if required to finance the system.


Water and Sewer Districts


Chapter 153.53, Florida Statutes, allows the establishment of water and
sewer districts in unincorporated areas. However, these districts
"shall consist of only unincorporated contiguous areas of such county,
comprising part but not all of the areas of such county." The County
may "construct, install, erect, acquire, and operate a water system or
a sewer system or both..." within this district. Financing of these
systems may be by general obligation bonds, revenue bonds, assessment
bonds, or any combination thereof.


Municipal Services Taxing Units


Publicly-owned water system service can also be provided to unincor-
porated areas through the establishment of municipal service taxing
or benefit units. Chapter 125.01, Florida Statutes, gives the County
the power to "establish, and subsequently merge or abolish those cre-
ated hereunder, municipal service taxing or benefit units for any part
or all of the unincorporated area of the County, within which may be
provided...water...and other essential facilities and municipal ser-
vices from funds derived from service charges, special assessments, or
taxes within such unit only."

Alachua County has passed County Ordinance No. 87 which allows for the
creation of special assessment districts in order to provide- for many
services and improvements within the County. Included among the ser-
vices which may be established through this County Ordinance are cen-
tral water systems.


Implementation Plan

The implementation plan to meet the future potable water needs of unin-
corporated residents is (1) to continue to allow private water sys-
tems (individual water supply wells) to be installed in parts of the
unincorporated area where public water system service is impractical,
unfeasible, or unnecessary; and (2) to continue to cooperate with the
City of Gainesville in furnishing water services in the unincorporated
area, rather than exercise any of the other alternatives listed above
for providing public water services.






The following policies should be followed concerning the location of
future private (individual water supply wells) and public water systems
and extensions of water lines for the unincorporated portions of
Alachua County:

(1) Limit the use of private water systems (individual water
supply wells) to areas where public water system service is
impractical, unfeasible, or unnecessary;

(2) Discourage the construction of isolated public water sys-
tems which serve residential developments, except within
completely pre-planned communities or currently developed
areas with existing public health problems, by limiting the
location of residential developments requiring public water
system service to areas served by existing public water
systems; and

(3) Limit future water line extensions of the Gainesville
Regional Utility water system within the Unincorporated
Gainesville Urban Area to areas shown within the projected
service area in Figure V based on urban land uses shown on
the County's land use plan map (Figure V should be amended
to reflect applicable changes made to the County's land use
plan map as it is amended in the future).



Implementation Plan

Unincorporated Rural Alachua County

The implementation plan for Unincorporated Rural Alachua County is to
continue to allow private water systems (individual water supply wells)
to be used where service connection to a public water system is
impractical, unfeasible, or unnecessary. The use of individual water
supply wells may create health hazards due to possible contamination of
ground water supplies by septic tank effluent (the Sanitary Sewer Ele-
ment provides for the continued use of septic tanks in Unincorporated
Rural Alachua County). Therefore, the following preventive measures
should be taken to minimize this health hazard:

(1) The County should continue to enforce County policy con-
tained in County Ordinance 6 of 1971 which says that:

(a) No new well shall be constructed anywhere within the
unincorporated area of Alachua County, nor shall any
existing well be changed in any manner without first
having obtained a permit therefore.

(b) Applications for well permits shall be made at the
Alachua County Health Department. All applications
shall state the purpose for which the well is to be
used. The Health Department shall investigate to






Determine if there is an available public water sys-
tem. If such water system is available, no permit
shall be granted for the construction of a well for
use in connection with a home or public establish-
ment for household or drinking purposes.

(c) If a public water system is not available, the
Health Department shall, before issuing the well
permit, determine the location of the weTl in rela-
tion to any septic tanks in the area for the purpose
of eliminating as much as possible any probability
of contamination."

(2) The Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Ser-
vices should develop the necessary rules to implement the
regulation of water quality in private water systems (indi-
vidual water supply wells) as provided for in Florida
Statutes, Chapter 381.261.


Implementation Plan

Unincorporated Gainesville Urban Area


The implementation plan to meet the future potable water needs for the
Unincorporated Gainesville Urban Area is to continue to cooperate
with the City of Gainesville in furnishing water services in the Unin-
corporated areas of the County.


Consistency Between the Comprehensive Plan

and the Gainesville Regional Utility Service Area


Although Alachua County and the City of Gainesville plan to cooperate
in extending water lines into the unincorporated area, future exten-
sions of water lines should be planned and made according to an engine-
ering "master plan." At this time, an engineering "master plan" has
not been prepared in order to guide and coordinate water line exten-
sions in the unincorporated area. This "master plan" needs to be pre-
pared for the unincorporated area in a coordinated manner with the
Alachua County Comprehensive Plan. Such a plan should provide for
future extensions of water lines consistent with the projected service
area contained in this Potable Water Element of the County's comprehen-
sive plan.

Section 163.3194 (1), Florida Statutes (Local Government Comprehensive
Planning Act of 1975) requires that "after a comprehensive plan, or
element thereof, has been adopted in conformity with this act, all
development undertaken by, and all actions taken in regard to develop-
ment orders by, governmental agencies in regard to land covered by such
plan or element shall be consistent with such plan or element as adopt-
ed." This provision is addressed in part by a policy statement includ-







ed in Volume I of the Alachua County Comprehensive Plan 1975-1995. Ac-
cording to this policy statement, "it is important that the county,
working with the Regional Utilities Board (RUB) [City of Gainesville],
insure that such water and sewer facilities be extended in a timed, ef-
ficient and orderly manner only to those sections that have been desig-
nated as future growth areas by the comprehensive plan."















SANITARY SEWER ELEMENT


In addition to an adequate supply of potable water, the future growth
and development of Alachua County depends upon sanitary means of treat-
ing and disposing of domestic wastewater (sewage wastes) generated by
local residents. The proper location, installation, and operation of
wastewater treatment systems is needed in order to prevent the creation
of nuisances or health hazards, as well as to protect the natural envi-
ronment and domestic water supplies. The purpose of this plan element
is to discuss ways to provide for the wastewater treatment needs of
local residents through the planning period (1995).

Included in this plan element is an inventory of existing wastewater
treatment systems, an evaluation of future needs, and an implementation
section which presents alternative ways to meet future needs and an
implementation plan.


EXISTING WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS


State and local re glations authorize the use of two types of waste-
water treatment facilities. These two types are individual sewage dis-
posal systems (septic tanks) and wastewater treatment plants. Current-
ly, both types of treatment facilities are used in Alachua County.


I-:ividual Sewage Disposal Systems


Individual sewage disposal systems, usually referred to as septic
tanks, are regulated by State and local authorities through rules
established in Chapter 100-6 of the Florida Administrative Code. Ac-
cording to this chapter, individual sewage disposal systems are defined
as wastewater treatment facilities with an estimated daily wastewater
flow of less than 2,000 gallons per day. Regulations in Chapter 100-6
describe minimum standards for the design, construction, operation, and
installation of individual sewage disposal facilities. Within Alachua
County, these regulations are enforced by the Department of Health and
Rehabilitative Services through the Alachua County Health Department.

Individual sewage disposal systems (septic tanks) are found scattered
throughout the County, usually located on residential lots greater than
one acre in size.







Wastewater Treatment Plants


When the estimated daily wastewater flow exceeds 2,000 gallons per day,
the system is classified as a wastewater treatment plant. Wastewater
treatment plants are regulated by the Department of Environmental Regu-
lation through rules and regulations set forth in Chapter 17 of the
Florida Administrative Code.

Like individual sewage disposal systems (septic tanks), wastewater
treatment plants are also found in many parts of the County. Waste-
water treatment plants serve residential subdivisions, mobile home
parks, commercial, institutional, and industrial activities. Figure X
shows the location of existing private, institutional, and municipal
wastewater treatment plants in Alachua County.

The majority of the unincorporated residents served by a wastewater
treatment plant are connected to the sanitary sewer system operated by
the City of Gainesville. On June 9, 1972 the City of Gainesville and
Alachua County entered into an interlocal agreement creating the Gaine-
sville-Alachua County Regional Electric, Water, and Sewer Utilities
Board. According to this interlocal agreement, the water and waste-
water responsibilities of the Board were to "make all policies for the
administration, operation, maintenance, extension, enlargement, devel-
opment, replacement, and repair of the systems in the City and in the
unincorporated areas of the County furnishing water and sanitary sewer
services." The capital facilities of the system remained under the
ownership of the City of Gainesville with a county~wide, regional ap-
proach to the management of the water and wastewater sys....: provided
by the Board.

The Board was composed of the five elected members of the City Commis-
sion of Gainesville and the five elected members of the County Commis-
sion of Alachua County. The Board selected one of its members to pre-
side at meetings and serve as general chairman. In December, 1979 the
interlocal agreement creating the Regional Utilities Board was nulli-
fied and management responsibility of the system was returned solely to
the City of Gainesville.

As of May, 1979, the Gainesville Regional Utility Sanitary Sewer System
served approximately 17,100 residential sewer customers inside the cor-
porate limits of Gainesville and approximately 4,000 residential sewer
customers in the unincorporated area. Commercial customers served by
the sanitary sewer system totaled approximately 1,550 inside the cor-
porate limits of Gainesville and 220 in the unincorporated area. Fig-
ure XI shows areas presently served by this sanitary sewer system in
the Gainesville Urban Area (a sanitary sewer line also continues north
along U.S. 441 to the area around the Deerhaven Power Plant).


EVALUATION OF PRESENT AND FUTURE NEEDS


Present and future wastewater treatment needs of the unincorporated
residents are based upon the findings of the Alachua County 201






TREATMENT PLANTS














PRIVATE
ant MUNICIPAL
j.tovy INSTITUTIONAL
I A lConty


ALACHUA COUNTY


SOURCE: ALACHUA
COUNTY 201 WASTE-
WATER FACILITIES
PLAN












Nortn Centr~in Clorld c
' Regional Pfinnlng Councll




FIGURE XI
GENERALIZED AREAS SERVED BY THE REGIONAL
UTILITIES SANITARY SEWER SYSTEM 1979





", ." '






J \ I,, p





.IA.- I :, "
-Ii--

City of Gainesville Utility Department



0 .... :..-:lo
.r. ,a na.., --n Co
-- i I 1 I mil












iii il o oi ll n lria Co.unnll






Wastewater Facility Plan, hereinafter referred to as the 201 Plan. The
201 Plan, which was completed in 1979, was prepared by CH2M Hill South-
east, Inc. over a three-year period financed in part by a Step I plan-
ning grant from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The
purpose of the following section is to summarize the conclusions of the
201 Plan for Unincorporated Rural Alachua County and the Unincorporated
Gainesville Urban Area, as well as identify steps taken to implement
this plan. As noted earlier in the Potable Water Element, the Unincor-
porated Gainesville Urban Area is defined and delineated tn the Land
Use Element, while Unincorporated Rural Alachua County is defined as
the unincorporated part of the County outside of the Gainesville Urban
Area.


Unincorporated Rural Alachua County


Current wastewater treatment needs are met in the Unincorporated Rural
Alachua County using either individual sewage disposal systems (septic
tanks) and public sewerage systems (package wastewater treatment
plants).

According to County Health Department officials, one part of the Unin-
corporated Rural Alachua County currently has septic tank and private
water system (individual water supply well) densities high enough to
cause some concern about potential contamination of ground water sup-
plies by septic tank effluent. This area is the unincorporated commu-
nity of Cross Creek located between Orange Lake and Lochloosa Lake on
S.R. 325.

A combination of high water tables and high density of septic tanks and
individual water supply wells on small lots in this area create a
potential for ground water contamination. Health Department officials
state that Cross Creek should be served by either a public water or
sewer system or both as soon as possible. At this time, the City of
Gainesville operates a centralized water and sewer system serving the
Cross Creek Mobile Home Park.

The 201 Plan does not recommend any centralized wastewater facilities
for any part of Unincorporated Rural Alachua County. Future wastewater
treatment needs for this area are expected to be met primarily by using
individual sewage disposal systems (septic tanks), except for unincor-
porated areas near municipalities which are or may be served by a pub-
lic sanitary sewer system.


Unincorporated Gainesville Urban Area


Over 80 percent of the Gainesville Urban Area is presently sewered.
Most wastewater generated within this area is treated at two wastewater
treatment facilities, the Main Street Plant and the Kanapaha Plant.
Two small wastewater treatment plants, the Northwood Plant and the
Country Club Plant are currently in operation but the 201 Plan proposes
to abandon these facilities and replace them with a pumping station







which will pump their wastewater to the Kanapaha Wastewater Treatment
Plant.

Although a majority of the Gainesville Urban Area is currently sewered,
County Health Department officials are concerned about one area which
is currently not sewered and has septic tank and private water system
(individual water supply well) densities high enough to cause some con-
cern about potential contamination of ground water supplies by septic
tank effluent. This area, commonly known as the "Copeland Area," is a
residential subdivision located north of S.R. 26 about a one-half mile
west of Little Hatchet Creek. The Copeland Area is presently served by
individual water supply wells and septic tanks on small lots which
average about 7,500 square feet in size. Based upon the density of
septic tanks in this area and the potential for ground water contamina-
tion, Health Department officials state that either a public water or
sewer system or both should serve residential lots in this area as soon
as possible.

The land use plan map shows much of the Unincorporated Gainesville
Urban Area at residential densities equal to or greater than one unit
per acre. Planning standards indicate that it is generally feasible to
serve such densities with public sanitary sewer service. Based on this
standard, the future wastewater treatment needs of the Unincorporated
Gainesville Urban Area are expected to be met primarily by service con-
nection to a public sanitary sewer system.

Based on areas shown on the land use plan map for urban land uses,
Figure XII shows the projected service area for public sanitary sewer
system service by 1995. These urban land uses include residential
development densities of one dwelling unit per acre or higher, and com-
mercial, office, institutional, industrial activities, and agricultural
areas located within existing public sanitary sewer system service
boundaries.

Projections of the percentage of population served by public sewer for
each planning district in the Unincorporated Gainesville Urban Area are
shown in Table 2. These figures are based on projections of sewered
populations contained in Table 9-7 of the 201 Plan. Using these pro-
jections of sewered population, Figures XIII through XVI present the
percent of population in each planning district projected to be served
by public sanitary sewer for 1980, 1985, 1990, and 1995. Within each
planning district, only those areas shown on the land use plan map for
urban land uses are identified for future service by public sanitary
sewer service.




FIGURE XII
PROJECTED SERVICE AREA FOR
REGIONAL UTILITIES SANITARY SEWER SYSTEM BY 1995
....ii ::::I :::::::::::




....... ........... . :: :: M


.. ... ....,..ili.li. ..
....:.. ...:::..::. .. -...






................ ~.~ i'"'."...'"....

...iiii...... ................. : .
.iii. ........... ....... .
-tf


,., ,~- ,i,- ,,... ....-....., N iit.' ii.i ....... ....

==================================== ...... .........
iiiiii.iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii......
. .. .. . ..iiiiiiiiii: iiiiiiiiiiiiii! .............












[ EXuISTING SERVICE
LiA RE A
L : PROJECTED SERVICE ?mile
AREA
cit North Central Florida
.... .egione! Planning Council
I i'iii~ NW N ...........~ ~ li1115!~ii "I
~l1ii~ii~iiiitiiiiiiiil f~~i:;li~iiiii~iliif~............l~il~~4
F~~f~i~i iii~f I~~~~~i~i~~~~f~~ii~55.-i




........ N MI; .... T ..................... .........
............ .. ..................... . ... ......









TABLE 2

PROJECTED PERCENT OF POPULATION

SERVED BY SANITARY SEWER

UNINCORPORATED GAINESVILLE URBAN AREA, 1980-1995


PLANNING PERCENT OF POPULATION SERVED
DISTRICT
NUMBER 1980 1985 1990 1995

12 18 41 57 68

13 23 54 66 77

14 78 81 83 84

15 24 43 55 60

16 76 86 88 90

17 73 81 83 86

18 57 68 75 78

19 89 90 91 92

20 22 62 69 74


Source: Table 9-7 of the Alachua County 201 Wastewater
ties Plan.


Facili-


IMPLEMENTATION


Implementation strategies to meet future wastewater treatment needs are
discussed in two parts. The first part identifies alternative ways to
meet future needs allowed by existing State legislation and County
ordinance, while the second part selects among these alternatives and
presents an implementation plan for both Unincorporated Rural Alachua
County and the Unincorporated Gainesville Urban Area.




w


FIGlJ XIII
PROJECTED PERCENT OF POPULATION SERVED
BY SANITARY SEWER-1980


I O000000 oo OOOOOOO
I o oooooooos ooo o OIl
000000 0000 0 000000 g
) 00o-1 00000000


1 0000 c 00 0 1111 1 i





- I, IT, ? 1 ,l^ ^^ i~ i 00000 ill l ilil I 00
S0oooo 0 oo o000


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I O OOI

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faIgI I ll, 0 00000o0 0

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00000 0 0 0 0 ( 0o

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000 0 00 00 0
0000 0 II00 If q

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S 0 00 00 00 90oo
000 00 00000 0 '
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IP %r 0 00 0000000 *0*
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t 4 DO 000 00000




000 C-


PERCENT SERVED BY BEWER


1 0-25


M51-7


ED 28-5 78-815


E986-100


0iu


~\North Centralg Fiorfda
Regional Planning Council




FIGURE XIV
PROJECTED PERCENT OF POPULATION
SERVED BY SANITARY SEWER-1985


PERCENT SERVED BY SEWER
0-25 o 51-75

S 26-50 TjoU 78-as


8T S0-


0 Imile

SNorth CeW7 Florida




V


PERCENT SERVED BY BEER


0.28


1111 81-75
p^76-Uan


988-9u


P2 Imile

C=3 North Central Florida
Regional Planning Council


FIGWE XV
PROJECTED PERCENT OF POPULATION
SERVED BY SANITARY SEWER- 1990


v




FIGURE XVI


PROJECTED PERCENT OF POPULATION
SERVED BY SANITARY SEWER-1995


PERCENT SERVED BY BEwVEtI
a-25 E -I5i

ag3-50 F th-1


L I
~yf-trl-95
1 10~


Y O i2 mile

Cz North Cow Florld









FIGURE=:II1 DRAINAGE DA')WN3 A11) SMALL WATERSHEDS


7.PARENER',- Ri4ANlCH .

..SN FEFMMMJNITY.




5*., M ,) It1 0 ( t'A 0(p irE K '.
I. f0N(CII ; 9ANTA_ Ft L A I WE




CFLO~CIfl v. ,,







WE, R ~I-IU+ PR JIL 9 i Iii. fcI j lilt-~~. ~ .
..........

17 14 ~FCIRST EEK28JETONIA CREEK
r 1it ~~~~ A.


/ 1 f, LOCuILOO~ALK

- ~ $ys GA~IESIIttE22. RANGE -CREEK ii iI

129.ll 111'MEIO I~tJ~ *. 24.L LEIP~ CIcII)/ ECOUNTY(,L ~

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-3 2... .. ....................-01





T ~ '27- TU, CAIWILLA LAKr







Alternative Ways To Meet Future Needs


Future wastewater treatment needs can be met using either individual
sewage disposal systems (septic tanks) or by service connection to a
domestic wastewater treatment plant.


Individual Sewage Disposal Systems


One alternative way to meet future wastewater treatment needs is by
using individual sewage disposal systems (septic tanks). Installa-
tion of septic tanks will of necessity continue to occur in areas where
centralized wastewater treatment facilities are not available. Al-
though these installations may not be desirable on a region-wide basis,
if installed properly, they can be used with a moderate degree of safe-
ty. State legislation and County ordinances currently regulate the
permitted lot sizes where individual sewage disposal systems (septic
tanks) can be installed where centralized wastewater treatment facili-
ties are not available.


Wastewater Treatment Plants


In addition to individual sewage disposal systems (septic tanks), the
wastewater treatment needs of unincorporated residents are expected
to be met by publicly-owned and -operated wastewater treatment plants.
As development density in an area increases, public facilities become
necessary in order to protect the public health. As sanitary sewer
lines are extended, private facilities are abandoned and funds, which
are spent to initially install individual sewage disposal systems (sep-
tic tanks), are lost to their owners. Therefore, adequate publicly-
owned sanitary sewer systems should be made available and installed in
the initial stages of urban development, if at all feasible. In addi-
tion, in those areas where centralized sanitary sewer system service is
not available, all new isolated sanitary sewer systems should be de-
signed and constructed to be compatible with the nearest sanitary sewer
system. This practice would facilitate possible interconnection of the
systems in the future.

The Board of County Commissioners encourages the provision of public
sanitary sewer services in parts of the unincorporated area where feas-
ible. According to Section 8 of County Ordinance 64 of 1975, "The
board, by the adoption of this and prior related ordinances and poli-
cies, has committed itself to provide public water and sanitary sewer
services to the entire unincorporated area of Alachua County where
feasible to do so with or without creating special assessment dis-
tricts."

State legislation gives Alachua County authority to provide public san-
itary sewer service to unincorporated parts of the County through the
following means:







(1) By entering into interlocal agreements with other public
agencies;

(2) By establishing a countywide Utility Authority;

(3) By establishing Water and Sewer Districts; and

(4) By establishing Municipal Services Taxing Units.


Interlocal Agreements


Chapter 163.01, Florida Statutes, permits local "governmental units to
make the most efficient use of their powers by enabling them to co-
operate with other localities on a basis of mutual advantage and there-
by to provide services and facilities in a manner and pursuant to forms
of governmental organization that will accord best with geographic,
economic, population, and other factors influencing the needs and
development of local communities."


Countywide Utility Authority


Another legal means of providing publicly-owned sanitary sewer system
service in unincorporated areas is by the establishment of a county-
wide Utility Authority. Counties have the authority "to purchase and/
or construct and to improve, extend, enlarge, and reconstruct... sewage
disposal system or systems...within such county...," according to Chap-
ter 153.03, Florida Statues. The Utility Authority can take advantage
of all Federal or State loans and grants and issue revenue bonds, as-
sessment bonds, and levy ad valorem taxes if required to finance the
system.


Water and Sewer Districts


Chapter 153.53, Florida Statutes, allows the establishment of water and
sewer districts in unincorporated areas. However, these districts
"shall consist of only unincorporated contiguous areas of such county,
comprising part but not all of the areas of such county." The County
may "construct, install, erect, acquire, and operate a water system or
a sewer system or both..." within this district. Financing of these
systems may be by general obligation bonds, revenue bonds, assessment
bonds, or any combination therefore.







Municipal Services Taxing Units


Publicly-owned sanitary sewer system service can also be provided to
unincorporated areas through the establishment of municipal service
taxing or benefit units. Chapter 125.01, Florida Statutes, gives the
County the power to "establish, and subsequently merge or abolish those
created hereunder, municipal service taxing or benefit units for any
part or all of the unincorporated area of the county, within which may
be provided...waste and sewage collection and disposal...and other es-
sential facilities and municipal services from funds derived from ser-
vice charges, special assessments, or taxes within such unit only."

Alachua County has passed County Ordinance No. 87 which allows for the
creation of special assessment districts in order to provide for many
services and improvements within the County. Included among the ser-
vices which may be established through this County Ordinance are sani-
tary sewers and services.


Implementation Plan


The implementation plan to meet the future sanitary sewer needs of
unincorporated residents is (1) to continue to allow individual sew-
age disposal systems (septic tanks) to be installed in parts of the un-
incorporated area where public sanitary sewer system service is imprac-
tical, unfeasible, or unnecessary; and (2) to continue to cooperate
with the City of Gainesville in furnishing sanitary sewer services in
the unincorporated area, rather than exercise any of the other alterna-
tives listed above for providing public sanitary sewer services.

The following policies should be followed concerning the location of
future individual sewage disposal systems (septic tanks) and public
sanitary sewer systems, as well as future extensions of sanitary sewer
lines for the unincorporated portions of Alachua County:

(1) Limit the use of individual sewage disposal systems (septic
tanks) to areas where public sanitary sewer system service
is impractical, unfeasible, or unnecessary;

(2) Discourage the construction of isolated public sanitary
sewer systems which serve residential developments, except
within completely pre-planned communities or currently
developed areas with existing public health problems, by
limiting the location of residential developments requiring
public sanitary sewer system service to areas served by
existing public sanitary sewer systems; and

(3) Limit future sewer line extensions of the Gainesville
Regional Utility sanitary sewer system within the Unincor-
porated Gainesville Urban Area to areas shown within the
projected service area in Figure XII based on urban land






uses shown on the County's land use plan map (Figure XII
should be amended to reflect applicable changes made to the
County's land use plan map as it is amended in the
future).


Implementation Plan

Unincorporated Rural Alachua County


The implementation plan for Unincorporated Rural Alachua County is con-
tinue to allow individual sewage disposal systems (septic tanks) to be
used where service connection to a public sanitary sewer system is
impractical, unfeasible, or unnecessary. The use of septic tanks may
create health and environmental hazards due to either their malfunc-
tioning during periods of high water table, or to possible contamina-
tion of ground water supplies by septic tank effluent. Therefore, the
following preventive measures should be taken to minimize these health
and environmental hazards:

(1) The Alachua County Health Department should conduct a com-
prehensive study of all septic tank operations in the unin-
corporated area of the County in order to identify any
individual sewage disposal systems (septic tanks) which are
improperly located (e.g., low lying areas) or malfunction-
ing, and to outline remedial measures to be taken (e.g.,
drainage improvements).

(2) The County should continue to enforce County policy con-
tained in County Ordinance 6 of 1971 which says that

(a) No new well shall be constructed anywhere within the
unincorporated area of Alachua County, nor shall any
existing well be changed in any manner without first
having obtained a permit therefore.

(b) Applications for well permits shall be made at the
Alachua County Health Department. All applications
shall state the purpose for which the well is to be
used. The Health Department shall investigate to
determine if there is an available public water sys-
tem. If such water system is available, no permit
shall be-granted for the construction of a well for
use in connection with a home or public establish-
ment for household or drinking purposes.

(c) If a public water system is not available, the
Health Department shall, before issuing the well
permit, determine the location of the well in rela-
tion to any septic tanks in the area for the purpose
of eliminating as much as possible any probability
of contamination."

(3) The Alachua County Health Department should continue strict
site specific enforcement of septic tank regulations and
close supervision of septic tank installation.







Implementation Plan


Unincorporated Gainesville Urban Area


The implementation plan for the Unincorporated Gainesville Urban Area
(GUA) is cited from Chapter 1--Summary and Conclusions of the 201
Plan. The 201 Plan is currently being reviewed by the U.S. Environ-
mental Protection Agency and has not received final approval at this
time.

The recommended plans) for meeting the wastewater collection, treat-
ment, disposal, and sludge disposal needs of the GUA is summarized
below.

Collection
Construct a master pumping station and force main to serve
the northwestern GUA (i.e., the Possum Creek PS/FM [Pres-
sure Sewer/Force Main]).
Construct a master pumping station and force main to serve
the western GUA (i.e., the Tower Road PS/FM).

Treatment-Main Street Plant
Continue with existing treatment practices (i.e., take no
action).


Effluent Disposal-Main Street Plant
Continue discharge through Sweetwater Branch to Paynes
Prairie with the addition of laggoning on the northern por-
tion of the prairie and ultimate disposal over Paynes
Prairie and/or to Alachua Sink pending the completion of an
EAS [Environmental Assessment Statement]. (This disposal
method alternative is in accordance with the Florida
Department of Natural Resources request.)


Treatment-Kanapaha Plant

Operate the AWT [Advanced Wastewater Treatment] plant in a
secondary treatment mode in conjunction with a disposal test
program. If the test program is successful, construct expanded
facilities when needed to provide secondary treatment.

Effluent Disposal-Kanapaha Plant

Investigate feasibility of discharging secondary effluent to
Lake Kanapaha via test program.







Sludge Disposal-GUA

Continue sludge farming demonstration programs until sufficient
data is collected to document feasibility and establish optimum
design criteria. If feasible, establish long-term sludge farm-
ing operations.


Phasing

Collection. The proposed Possum Creek pumping station and force
main must be constructed as soon as possible to allow the aban-
donment of the overloaded Northwood Treatment Plant and alleviate
the surcharge conditions in the gravity collection system. The
City of Gainesville has already prepared plans and specifications
for the construction of this station and force main. It is neces-
sary that the funding for these facilities be approved as soon as
possible so that construction can be started.

The Tower Road pumping station and force main should also be con-
structed as soon as possible. However, the station is not needed
as urgently as the Possum Creek station is and the normal proce-
dure for obtaining Step II and III funding can be followed.

Main Street Plant. No additional treatment and disposal facili-
ties or modifications have been proposed for the Main Street Plant
through the year 2000. Thus no phasing is necessary.

Kanapaha Plant. The preparation of the Plan of Study for the EAS
[Environmental Assessment Statement] or EIS [Environmental Impact
Statement] should commence as soon as the 201 Plan is approved [by
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency]. Upon approval of the
Plan of Study, the background study will be conducted followed by
initiation of the test program and concluding with a report pre-
senting the findings of the study effort. Until the test program
commences, the Kanapaha Plant will continue to operate in the AWT
mode and dispose of its effluent by recharge well. When the test
program starts, the plant will convert to the secondary treatment
mode and discharge to Lake Kanapaha.

[An application was submitted in early 1979 to the U.S. Environ-
mental Protection Agency for Federal funds to construct the Possum
Creek pumping station and force main to serve the northwestern
part of the Gainesville Urban Area.]

If the EAS or EIS determines that lake utilization is feasible,
then when the Kanapaha Plant needs expanding (by 1988), such ex-
pansion will be made to provide secondary treatment.

Sludge Disposal. No sludge disposal land or facilities are
needed until the sludge demonstration projects now in progress are
sufficiently completed to provide design criteria for optimum siz-
ing of sludge farming needs (approximately August 1979).







Consistency Between the Comprehensive Plan


and the Gainesville Regional Utility Service Area


Although Alachua County and the City of Gainesville plan to cooperate
in extending sanitary sewer lines into the unincorporated area,
future extension of sanitary sewer lines and construction of lift sta-
tions should be planned and made according to an engineering "master
plan." At this time, an engineering "master plan" has not been pre-
pared in order to guide and coordinate sanitary sewer line extensions
and lift stations in the unincorporated area. This "master plan" needs
to be prepared for the unincorporated area in a coordinated manner with
the Alachua County Comprehensive Plan. Such a plan should provide for
future extensions of sanitary sewer lines consistent with the projected
service area contained in this Sanitary Sewer Element of the County's
comprehensive plan.

Section 163.3194 (1), Florida Statutes (Local Government Comprehensive
Planning Act of 1975), requires that "after a comprehensive plan, or
element thereof, has been adopted in conformity with this act, all
development undertaken by, and all actions taken in regard to develop-
ment orders by, governmental agencies in regard to land covered by such
plan or element shall be consistent with such plan or element as adopt-
ed." This provision is addressed in part by a policy statement includ-
ed in Volume I of the Alachua County Comprehensive Plan 1975- 1995.
According to this policy statement, "it is important that the county,
working with the Regional Utilities Board (RUB) [City of Gainesville],
insure that such water and sewer facilities be extended in a timed,
efficient and orderly manner only to those sections that have been
designated as future growth areas by the comprehensive plan."





















DRAINAGE ELEMENT


The purpose of this Drainage Element is to relate the effect of general
drainage conditions to development in the unincorporated area of
Alachua County. Existing developed areas and areas where future urban
development is provided for by the Land Use Element of the Alachua
County Comprehensive Plan are the focus of this plan element.

The organization of this plan element follows the order of local nat-
ural drainage patterns. Within each of the four major drainage basins
in Alachua County, smaller drainage subbasins or watersheds are util-
ized to describe drainage conditions and their relationship to develop-
ment. Major drainage basins and smaller watersheds in Alac'..: County
are shown in Figure IER. Therefore, a watershed in this plan element
represents a specific geographic area. Usually each watershed is
developed around a central drainage feature such as a stream, creek, or
lake. Rainfall which is not absorbed into the ground (surface water
runoff) is collected, stored, and channeled out of the.-.watershed
through these surface water features. However, some watersheds in
southern and western Alachua County have no surface water features.

Local drainage patterns and conditions are formed as a response to the
natural environmental components such as local rainfall, soils, subsur-
face geology, and topography that occur within each watershed. An
overview of these natural components and the part they play in develop-
ing drainage patterns is presented in the first section of this plan
element. This section is followed by a more detailed discussion of
drainage patterns and conditions which occur within each watershed in
the County as defined in this plan element. Existing soils, geology,
topography, and hydrology that occur within each watershed are dis-
cussed in terms of their influence on local drainage patterns. Major
land uses and sensitive natural areas are also identified in this sec-
tion. Existing and proposed future development are discussed in terms
of drainage conditions of soils, proximity to stream, river, and lake
flood plains, and other flood prone areas.







SCOPE OF DRAINAGE ELEMENT


This Drainage Element contains a description and discussion of the gen-
eral drainage patterns and conditions in the unincorporated areas of
Alachua County. It does not substitute for more detailed, technical
drainage studies prepared by engineers which may be needed when some of
the unincorporated areas experience more development. Many of the
watershed boundaries outside the Gainesville Urban Area (GUA) defined
in this plan element should be considered preliminary until future
engineering studies have either confirmed them or established new
drainage divides. These watershed boundaries are primarily utilized as
a guide to describe land use and drainage patterns in the unincorpor-
ated area of the County. In addition, existing and future land use is
also described by planning district. A description and map of planning
districts is contained the Land Use Element of the Alachua County Com-
prehensive Plan, 1975-1995, Volume I. This Drainage Element presents
an overview of the general drainage within the County. Potential and
limitations for development within each watershed are presented to aid
in guiding and evaluating future development in areas defined by the
Land Use Element of the Alachua County Comprehensive Plan.


Other Drainage Studies in Alachua County


This ra-i.age Elen:.t discusses drainage in the unincorporated areas of
Alachua County. Drainage, a study prepared for the North Central
Florida Regional Planning Council in 1974, is a detailed engineering
study of drainage :--&tterns within the Gainesville Urban Area (GUA). It
'I) est:- dishes d ch" mna anl ,od ` -l-i limits for many depres-
si,. z ,:. s anz major stream basins witnin the GUA; (2) identifies
flood -iin li;n on copogrpahic maps for the GUA, and (3) presents
alterna:'i/e plans Tor alleviating flooding in areas proposed for future
development., a.'tershed boundaries for Little Hatchet Creek, Lake
Forest Creek, Calf Pone. Sweetwater Branch. Tumblin Creek, Lake Alice,
and Hoc:.,n Cree wates> -:: were s-s.a is-ed and mappec in the report
ntitl. Dra~i,_, 1974. These o, raries were used in this Drainage
'iement a'd are snown in Figure XVII.

A Repcr: On A Flood Plain and Water Control Program For the Headwaters
of Little Hatchet, Turkey, blues and Hogtown Creeks, another study pre-
pared for the "North Central Florida Regional Planning Council in 1973,
presents five alternative water management plans for the 8,500 acres
comprising the headwaters of these creeks. This area lies mostly with-
in the GUA and constitutes a detailed engineering study for water man-
agement at the local watershed level.

The City of Gainesville's Site Certification Application, Deerhaven
Station Unit 2 included an environmental analysis of the area around
the Deerhaven Power Generating Plant. The study identified, mapped,
and discussed the Turkey Creek, Cellon Creek, and Rocky Creek watershed
boundaries. Those boundaries were used in this Drainage Element and
are shown in Figure XVII.







DETERMINANTS OF DRAINAGE


The following section contains a description of the natural environ-
mental components which shape drainage patterns and conditions in
Alachua County. These determinants include physiography, geology,
topography, rainfall, vegetation, and soils.


Physiography


The peninsula of Florida has been divided into three geomorphic pro-
vinces: the Northern or Proximal Zone, the Central or Mid-Peninsula
Zone, and the Southern or Distal Zone. Alachua County lies along the
division of the Northern and Central Zones. Land lying north and east
of Gainesville is included in the Northern Zone. Land lying south and
west of Gainesville falls in the Central Zone. Extending from the St.
Johns River Valley on the east and to the Panhandle on the west, the
Northern Zone forms a continuous highland or upland area. The Central
Zone, which includes land from Gainesville south to Lake Okeechobee, is
characterized by discontinuous highlands generally in the form of
coast-paralleling ridges. Elongated river valleys lie between the
ridges and uplands. Physiographic zones found in Alachua County are
shown in Figure XVIII.

Several of the geomorphic features of the Central Zone describe the
land forms found in southern and western Alachua County. Most of the
area is part of two broad valleys which run through the Central High-
lands region of the Central Zone. Western Alachua County forms the
northern end of the Western Valley which extends in a southeasterly
direction to Hillsborough and Polk Counties. From Dunellon south to
Polk County and the Green Swamp, the Western Valley contains the With-
lacoochee River. On the southern end several other rivers, including
the Hillsborough and the Peace Rivers, flow out of the Western Valley.

The northern part of the Western Valley, lying in Alachua, Levy, and
Marion Counties, has no surface water outlets. Porous Ocala Group
limestones lie near the ground surface as they do in western Alachua
County. Sandy surface layers cover the area and allow water to freely
percolate downward where it is absorbed into the underlying porous
limestones and recharges the Floridan aquifer, an important water
source for much of North and Central Florida.

The Brooksville Ridge separates the Western Valley from the Gulf Coast
Lowlands. Part of this ridge lies in southwestern Alachua County. The
High Springs Gap, a break in the highlands of the Northern Zone and the
Brooksville Ridge in the Central Zone, is the outlet of the Western
Valley on its northern extension. The Gap permits drainage from a










SOURCE: FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES, THE
: GEOM GEOMORPHOlLOGY OF THE FLORIDA PENNISULA, BY
WILLIAM A. WHITE, TALLAHASSEE, 1970.




11-
>rn WALDO ,1 L ......

Issnt







acLakeua Lake



HAWTHORNE !

dachua Lake
Cross Valley
CANOPY L Iocloon
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a


ALACHUA COUNTY







large area of the Northern Zone, channeled by the Santa Fe River, to
eventually reach the Gulf of Mexico through the Suwannee River.

The Fairfield Hills, one of several discontinuous highland areas of the
Central Zone, extends from Winter Haven on the south to Alachua County
on the north. A small portion of these hills are located in southern
Alachua County in the vicinity of the Town of Micanopy. Some of the
surface water runoff from these hills drains into lakes and swampy
areas around the Town of Micanopy.

Southeastern Alachua County, including the area around Lochloosa, New-
nans, and Orange Lakes, represents the northern extension of the Cen-
tral Valley. The Central Valley extends in a southeasterly direction
to Lake Apopka and Lake and Orange Counties. The Oklawaha River is the
principal drainage feature of this valley. Water leaving southeastern
Alachua County is collected primarily into Orange Lake and is dis-
charged into the Oklawaha River through Orange Creek.

Connecting the Western Valley and the Central Valley is the Alachua
Lake Cross Valley. The Cross Valley is continuous with Paynes Prairie.
This wet prairie, which drains through a large sink on its northeastern
corner, has been flooded as a lake several times in recorded history.
Early in the 1890's debris restricting the outflow of water through the
sinkhole is thought to have broken free and caused the most recent
drainage of the lake.

The Northern Highlands is the only geomorphic feature of the Northern
Zone found in Alachua County. It forms a large, continuous upland area
which extends from Trail Ridge, lying northeast of Alachua County, west
into the Panhandle area. A well-drained scarp, an area of changing
ground slopes, separates the Northern Highlands from the valley and
coastal lowlands. As streams move across this scarp zone they cut
deeply into the ground surface, resulting in the rolling hills char-
acteristic of the area. Many of these streams go underground in sink-
holes and flow through subterranean passages, emerging at the ground
surface again below the scarp. The Santa Fe River at Oleno State Park
is a typical example of streams entering the ground and emerging fur-
ther downstream in the scarp zone. Every stream in Alachua County
which crosses the scarp zone drains into a sinkhole near the toe of the
scarp. This is true of Hogtown Creek, Turkey Creek, Mill Creek, Cellon
Creek, and the Santa Fe River.


*Geology

Subsurface geology is one of the more important factors which influence
an area's drainage conditions. The capability of a geological forma-
tion lying near the ground surface to absorb and transmit water largely
determines whether an area is well-drained or poorly-drained. Forma-
tions containing dense, relatively impervious materials, such as clay,
absorb water very slowly. The downward percolation of water from the
ground surface is retarded; water accumulates in the soil and overlying
material to form a ground water table aquifer. During seasons of heavy
rainfall, the soil becomes saturated and the water table lies near or






at the ground surface. Low areas and depressions often become flooded
and surface runoff is high because little or no water can be absorbed
into the ground.

In contrast, in areas where geological formations composed of soft,
porous limestones lie near the ground surface and are not covered by
other impervious materials, ground-surface drainage is usually good.
These limestones absorb large quantities of water. Internal drainage
can be so well developed that some areas, such as western Alachua Coun-
ty, have little or no surface water runoff and are characterized by an
absence of streams and lakes. Usually these areas contribute signifi-
cantly to aquifer recharge.

Several geological formations are exposed at or near the ground surface
in Alachua County. Their influence is readily seen when the areal dis-
tribution of each formation is compared with the corresponding drainage
conditions. In general, drainage is poor in northern and eastern
Alachua County. Soils are often poorly-drained and wet throughout the
rainy season. Streams, ponds, and lakes are present to collect and
channel surface water runoff. This part of the County has considerable
flood prone areas along streams and water bodies and in low areas and
depressions. Underlying most of northern and eastern Alachua County is
the Hawthorn Formation. It is a marine deposit consisting of thick
beds of clay and sandy clay. Beds of sandy, phosphatic limestones
occur within the formation. The clay layers of the Hawthorn Formation
are relatively impervious to tne downward percolation of water. Water
accumulates above the formation and builds a high ground water table
which contributes to the wet soil conditions and large amount of sur-
face water runoff.

Parts of the Hawthorn Formation are covered by Pleistocene Terrace
deposits. These are marine sediments consisting of unconsolidated tan,
yellow, and gray sands. They range from 20 to 45 feet thick and are
characterized by excessively drained to well-drained conditions. They
form broad low ridges over the generally flat lands of northern and
eastern Alachua County.

Soft, porous limestones of the Ocala Group are exposed in much of
southern and western Alachua County. They form a relatively flat lime-
stone plain. It extends from High Springs on the northeast across the
western part of the County through Paynes Prairie to Orange Lake on the
southeast. Karst topography, characterized by sinkholes, depressions,
prairies, and lakes, has developed throughout the limestone plain.
Water percolating through the sediments has dissolved and eroded away
some of the limestones to form these typical solution features of the
karst topography.

The potentiometric surface (the level water will rise in a pipe which
taps the underground water supply) of the Floridan aquifer, contained
in the Ocala Group limestones and other deeper limestone deposits, lies
near the ground surface in southern Alachua County. This results in
the formation of the wet prairies and lakes found in depressions in the
area. Their bottoms are generally at the same level as the water table
or surface of the aquifer. This condition accounts for the wet or
flooded conditions of these depressions. In western Alachua County,






the potentiometric surface of the aquifer is at a lower level and the
limestones absorb most of the rainfall in the area. Since there is
little or no surface water runoff, no streams or lakes are found in
this area.

West of the Cities of Archer and Newberry the Alachua Formation over-
lies the Ocala limestones. It is composed primarily of sand which is
interbedded with phosphate pebbles and sandy clay. Water percolates
readily through the sand, but where clay layers are exposed, they
retard the downward percolation of water and are partly responsible for
the formation of ponds and wet prairies in parts of this area.


Topography

The influence of topography on drainage patterns is extremely signifi-
cant. Topography determines how much water is concentrated in a
particular area. It also determines the velocity with which the water
moves through an area. Where the land is nearly level (areas of low
slope) surface drainage tends to be slow. In areas where surface
drainage is slow and impervious subsurface materials (clays and organic
hardpans) restrict the downward percolation of water through the soil,
drainage conditions are poor and water remains on the ground surface
for long periods of time.

In areas of steeper ground slopes, surface water runoff travels over
the land at a faster rate. In general, drainage is better in areas of
steeper ground slopes, even though an impervious subsurface material
may be present.

Topography also influences the flood potential of an area. The height
water will rise at a specific point is called a flood elevation. A
flood elevation is determined by the volume of flood water and the
topography of the drainage areas. All other factors being equal, an
area with pronounced topographic relief, such as a hilly area, will
have deeper floods than a flat area since flood water is concentrated
in depressions in hilly areas and spreads out over flat areas.


Rai nfall

Water reaches the ground surface through precipitation (rainfall) and
possibly stream flow. Precipitation in Florida is mostly in the form
of rain, as opposed to snow or hail. Characteristics of rainfall are
measured in terms of intensity (amount) and duration (time). The com-
bination of these factors is measured as total rainfall. The probabil-
ity of a particular rainfall occurring is expressed in terms of how many
times it has occurred in the known history of an area. Thus, terms
such as 10-year storm or a 100-year flood are utilized in identifying
storms and floods.

Alachua County receives an average yearly rainfall of approximately 52
inches. About 60 percent of the area's precipitation falls during the






summer rainy season which begins in June and lasts until September. It
primarily results from afternoon and evening showers or thunderstorms.
These storms are characterized by a longer duration than rainfalls dur-
ing other times of the year.

Variation in the yearly rainfall is not uncommon. "Dry" and "wet"
years have yielded average yearly rainfalls that range from a low of 35
inches to a high of 30 inches. Severe flooding often results from the
coincidence of heavy rainfall from a hurricane or stalled frontal sys-
tem and wet anticedent conditions where soils are saturated and natural
water storage areas (wetlands) are nearly filled to capacity. In this
case, little rainfall can be absorbed into the ground and the amount of
surface water runoff is considerable. Under these conditions, streams,
rivers, and lakes overflow their banks and water stands on the ground
surface in low areas.


Vegetation


Vegetation is another important determinant of drainage patterns.
First, its foliage intercepts rainfall which, if unrestricted, could
loosen soil particles and cause soil erosion. Second, plant roots help
to maintain the structure of the soil. In other words, they hold soil
particles in place and maintain pore space through which '.water perco-
lates. Third, plant stems ana leaves at the groun:- surfac- slow -
the overland flow of water which, ainong other things, 'eips re-ce S-"
erosion. Changes in vegetation can change tne rate cf surface water-
runoff from an area, a factor which can have a considerable bearing on
determining the flood elevation. Vegetation uses water from the soil
(transpiration), but also shades the ground surface which reduces
evaporation of soil water by blocking solar and wind energy as ,,ll as
creating a humid microclimate.


Soils


Soils can be divided into two zones: (1) an aerated zone; and (2) a
saturated zone. Water fills the pore spaces between soil particles
in the saturated zone. On the other hand, space is occupied primarily
by air in the aerated zone. The saturated zone is also referred to as
the ground water table. It may be perched or continuous with the aqui-
fer system below depending on the presence or absence of an impervious
layer. Impervious layers are formed from concentrations of organic
matter or deposits of clays and oxides. Intermixed with soils, these
substances have an effect on water transmission. Layers where these
materials are concentrated (soil horizons) retard the percolation of
water through the soil.

The level at which the surface of the saturated zone occurs varies with
rainfall and evapotranspiration (evaporation and transpiration). In
fact, evapotranspiration is often measured directly by observing the
water table level. At times the water table surface may rise above the
land surface, resulting in flooding.







Figurel shows the location of soil associations in Alachua County. A
more detailed discussion of soils which occur in Alachua County can be
found in the Conservation Element of the Alachua County Comprehensive
Plan.


MAJOR DRAINAGE BASINS


The drainage patterns in Alachua County can be divided into four major
drainage basins. Most of the County lies within the Santa Fe River
Basin and the Orange Creek Basin. Smaller areas are drained by the
Etonia Creek Basin and the Waccasassa River Basin.

In the following sections, each of the four major drainage basins in
Alachua County have been divided into smaller drainage subbasins or
watersheds. Each watershed represents a geographic area, often devel-
oped around a central drainage feature such as a stream, creek, or
lake. A watershed's boundaries are defined by the topography of the
area which it drains. As previously discussed, the boundaries of these
watersheds are tentative and are primarily utilized for the purpose of
describing drainage and land use patterns in the County. Ridges and
hills, and in some cases man-made features such as roadbeds and
ditches, determine the direction surface water runoff travels and where
it collects. Surface water runoff is that part of a rainfall which
does not percolate into the soil, but stands on the ground surface and
flows from areas of higher elevation to areas of lower elevation by the
force of gravity. Under normal conditions, surface water runoff is
collected, stored, and channeled in and out of the watershed through
its surface water features.

Because of soil and geological conditions, some watersheds located in
western Alachua County have few or no surface water features. In these
areas, rainfall is absorbed directly into the ground and there is lit-
tle or no surface water runoff.

A discussion of drainage patterns and conditions which occur within
each of the watersheds identified in Alachua County is included in this
section. The soils, geology, topography, and hydrology of each water-
shed are discussed in terms of the influence they have on local drain-
age conditions. Major land use patterns and environmentally signifi-
cant areas are also noted for each watershed. Existing and anticipated
future development is discussed in terms of drainage conditions of
soils, proximity to stream, river, and lake flood plains and other
flood prone areas. See Appendix B for a description and discussion of
drainage basins and watersheds in Alachua County.






FIGURE

SOIL ASSOCI





I.1SOU
12 k .





41 12






J 12 1
NI 5





'_" s "







ALACHUA CO( INT'


SXIX


NATIONS





RCE: FLORIDA DIVISION
OF STATE PLANNING
THE FLORIDA GENERi
SOILS ATLAS FOR
REGIONAL PLANNING
DISTRICTS III & I\
JULY 1974.

























a












LEGEND FOR FIGURE XIX


SOIL ASSOCIATIONS IN ALACHUA COUNTY



LOCATION SOIL ASSOCIATION NAME
NUMBER

AREAS DOMINATED BY SANDY, DROUGHT
SOILS NOT SUBJECT TO FLOODING

1. Candler-Apopka Association
2. Jonesville-Chiefland-Archer Association

AREAS DOMINATED BY WELL-DRAINED
SOILS NOT SUBJECT TO FLOODING

3. Arredondo-Zuber Association
4. Hernando-Archer-Chiefland Association
5. Kendrick-Hague-Zuber Association

AREAS DOMINATED BY MODERATELY WELL TO
POORLY-DRAINED SOILS NOT SUBJECT TO FLOODING

6. Tavares-Myakka-Basinger Association
7. Stilson-Pelham-Mascotte Association
8. Sparr-Lochloosa-Tavares Association
9. Blichton-Flemington-Kanapaha Association
10. Scranton-Basinger-Myakka Association
11. Lynne-Pomona-Pompano Association
12. Myakka-Wauchula-Placid Association
13. Meggett, Var.-Wauchula-Chobee Association
14. Eureka-Paisley-Eaton Association

AREAS DOMINATED BY POORLY AND VERY
POORLY-DRAINED SOILS SUBJECT TO FLOODING

15. Plummer, Var.-Rutlege var. Association
16. Martel-Placid Association
17. Okeechobee-Terra Ceia-Tomoka Association
18. Fresh Water Swamp Association








IMPLEMENTATION


Many of man's activities on the land cause change in the drainage sys-
tem. These changes and the usual results to the drainage system are
described in the following list.

(1) Increasing the area of impervious surface (buildings and pave-
ment) which increases the velocity and volume of runoff crossing
surrounding soil and entering streams and other bodies of
water;

(2) Filling or building in flood plains reduces the storage of flood
water. The resulting increase in volume and velocity of water
in the flood channel increases the flood elevation downstream
and amplifies property damage;

(3) Draining wetlands and other poorly-drained land, and/or removing
vegetation increases the velocity and volume of water downstream
by reducing natural water storage and speeding the removal of
surface water runoff; and

(4) Damming sheet flow in wetlands or stream flow creates ponding (a
backwater effect of higher flood elevations upstream). This is
a common effect of road construction.

Because the drainage system is interconnected, a change in one part may
bring about change throughout the system. Therefore, in order to mini-
mize the impacts of man-made change in the drainage system, the drain-
age considerations of man's actions which alter the drainage system in
Alachua County are addressed through several methods. The implementa-
tion of these drainage considerations in Alachua County consists of two
categories: (1) maintenance and construction by the Alachua County Road
Department and the Florida Department of Transportation; and (2) regu-
lation of new development.


Maintenance and Construction


The Alachua County Road Department provides for drainage in several
ways. It is responsible for the maintenance of County roads and as-
sociated drainage facilities. Roadside ditches provide drainage for
the road surface; they also provide some drainage for adjacent land.
Roadside ditches channel surface water runoff to streams, rivers, wet-
lands, lakes, ponds, or other water retention areas. Culverts carrying
waterways beneath roads must be maintained to preserve the natural flow
of water. The County Road Department also maintains drainage improve-
ments (retention ponds, drainage ditches and swales, storm water
sewers, and culverts) in developed areas approved and accepted by the
County.

The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) maintains a number of
roads within Alachua County. Most of these roads are drained by road-







side ditches but some have storm water sewer systems in urbanized
areas. The primary purpose of the drainage system installed with the
roads is to provide drainage for the State roads. With continuing
development adjacent to the highway, it is possible that this drainage
system could become overloaded. When the capacity of the system is
reached, flooding of the road could result. To protect the drainage
system from reaching overcapacity, the Florida Department of Transpor-
tation regulates the amount of storm water runoff which may-be allowed
to flow into its drainage system.

Runoff from development which increases the existing runoff to the
drainage system can be required to be retained on site or diverted to
another drainage outlet. In some cases, the Department of Transporta-
tion may not accept drainage to their storm water sewer system or
ditches from areas not formerly drained by these structures.

Before new development may have access to a State road, the developer
must present plans for review to the Department of Transportation. At
this time the drainage plans are also reviewed. The Department of
Transportation may require the developer to acquire a permit to dis-
charge drainage to the Deprtment of Transportation facilities. If
drainage to the State facilities is anticipated to be increased, or
areas not formerly drained by the roadway are planned to be diverted to
the State facilities, the Department of Transportation suggests a con-
sultation early in the planning process so that drainage requirements
can be met by the developer.


Regulation of Development


Drainage is also provided by the regulation of development in Alachua
County. This section discusses several implementing tools and agen-
cies which guide and regulate the provision of drainage in the develop-
ment process. These implementing tools are the implementing regula-
tions of the Alachua County Comprehensive Plan, the National Flood In-
surance Program, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the Florida Depart-
ment of Environmental Regulation, and the Suwannee River and St. Johns
River Water Management Districts.


Implementing Regulations of the Alachua County Comprehensive Plan


Alachua County has several means available to ensure that adequate
drainage facilities are provided when new development occurs. Over-
all direction is provided by the Land Use Element of the Alachua County
Comprehensive Plan which designates wetlands and flood prone areas as
"Conservation-Recreation". Special consideration and development re-
view procedures should be conducted prior to initiation of development
in these areas to ensure the functions of flood retention, aquifer re-
charge, nutrient filtration, and wildlife habitat are not adversely
affected in a significance manner. The County's site design review
process should be utilized to achieve these objectives.







Standards relating to drainage have been developed as part of the
implementing regulations for the Alachua County Comprehensive Plan.
The Alachua County Zoning Regulations address drainage considerations
through the following provisions.

(1) Regulating the filling of land and water areas, dredging, exca-
vations, and mining operating;

(2) Regulating new construction, and repairs and alterations to
existing structures on land subject to flooding;

(3) Defining setbacks for principal buildings from the high water
mark on waterfront lots;

(4) Requiring a construction permit before any alterations on the
ground surface are made in a proposed development. Proposed
drainage plans for the development, which will prevent flooding
and deposition of sediments on adjacent property and in water
bodies, must be approved by the County Engineer before a permit
is issued; and

(5) Requiring a special permit, which may include provisions and
conditions established by the County Commission, for mines, bor-
row pits, landfills, and other special uses.

The Alachua County Plat Law addresses drainage considerations in new
development through the following provisions.

(1) Prohibiting approval of plats of lands subject to periodic and
frequent flooding unless protective restrictions required by the
County Commission are provided; and

(2) Prohibiting the approval of plats without plans for drainage
requirements and assurance (bonds) for the provision of these
facilities.

The Alachua County Subdivision Regulations address drainage considera-
tions in new subdivisons through the following drainage requirements.

(1) Establishing specifications for drainage facilities; and
(2) Establishing restrictions for building in flood plains.

Two other Alachua County Ordinances also address drainage considera-
tions. Ordinance 75 requires a permit from the County Commission for
the construction of drainage basins or borrow pits. Ordinance 63 (Sur-
face Mining and Land Reclamation) requires drainage master plans for
all proposed mining sites. For mining operations larger than 40 acres
in area, drainage and flood-control measures provided during and fol-
lowing the conclusion of mining operations must be included for approv-
al in the Master Mining and Reclamation Plan.

The Mining Ordinance states that "no water will be diverted from natur-
al stream channels or drainage ways be interrupted or translocated ex-
cept as provided in the Master Mining and Reclamation Plan." In addi-







tion, it protects the 100-year flood plains of waterways and water
bodies by prohibiting land clearing, mining activity, placement of
fill, or the construction of any facilities within 100 feet of the
flood plains.

National Flood Insurance Program


Alachua County has been declared a flood hazard area by the Federal
Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Federal Insurance
Administration; the County has joined the National Flood Insurance
Program. It was established by the United States Congress in 1968 to
reduce the annual flood losses through more careful planning and to
provide property owners with affordable flood insurance protection. In
return for the Federally subsidized insurance, local governments which
are members of the program must administer flood plain management mea-
sures to protect lives and new construction from flooding. If local
governments do not join the program, Federal agencies may not provide
grant money, mortgage backing, direct loans, or other taxpayers funds
(including disaster relief) to support the purchase, construction, or
improvement of property located in the identified flood hazard areas.

The National Flood Insurance Program is developed in two phases (the
Emergency and Regular Programs). Alachua County is presently a member
of the Emergency Program. Limited amounts of flood insurance are now
available to property owners located in flood hazard areas. HUD has
provided the County with Flood Hazard Boundary Maps which outline flood
prone areas. To meet minimum flood plain management standards required
in the Emergency Phase, the County must require building permits for
all proposed construction and review the permits to assure that the
sites are reasonably free from flooding. For flood prone areas, the
following requirements are in effect.

(1) Properly anchor the structures;

(2) Use construction materials and methods that will minimize flood
damage;

(3) Provide adequate drainage for new subdivisons; and

(4) Locate and design new or replacement utility systems to prevent
flood loss.

During phase two, which is also known as the Regular Program, HUD will
prepare Flood Insurance Rate Maps showing flood elevations derived from
detailed on-site engineering surveys, and outlining risk zones used for
insurance purposes. When these maps become available, the full limits
of flood insurance coverage will become available locally. Additional
development requirements will be necessary at that time. New develop-
ment will have to be elevated to the level of the base flood (100-year
flood) or be flood proofed.








U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and


Florida Department of Environmental Regulation


Federal and State law also address drainage considerations in Alachua
County. Under the provisions of Section 404 of the Federal Water
Pollution Control Act of 1972, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers regu-
lates dredging and filling operations in waters of the United States by
issuing permits. The following waters are regulated under the Section
404 program.

(1) Coastal and inland waters, lakes, rivers, and streams that are
navigable waters of the Unived States, including adjacent wet-
lands;

(2) Tributaries to navigable waters of the United States, including
adjacent wetlands;

(3) Interstate waters and their tributaries, including adjacent wet-
lands and;

(4) All other waters of the United States (isolated lakes and wet-
lands, intermittent streams, prairie potholes, and other waters
that are not part of a tributary system to interstate or navi-
gable waters of the United States, but whose degradation or
destruction could affect interstate commerce).

These waters are also subject to regulation by the Florida Department
of Environmental Regulation (DER) under Chapter 253 and 403, Florida
Statutes. Among the activities being regulated by the Corps of Engine-
ers and DER having special concern for drainage are dredging and fill-
ing operations, channel and upland canal construction, and intake and
outfall pipes and structures. In general, maintenance of permitted
projects requires no additional permits. This applies to maintenance
of irrigation and drainage ditches as long as spoil is deposited in
self-contained upland sites and no more dredging is performed than is
necessary to reestablish original ditch specifications. Since both DER
and the Corps of Engineers regulate dredge and fill activities, they
have developed a joint-permitting process where applications are pro-
cessed simultaneously.


Water Managment Districts

Water management districts were established and given the powers and
duties to implement the policies of the Florida Water Resources Act
of 1972 (Chapter 373, Florida Statutes). Broadly stated, water manage-
ment districts are authorized to "promote the conservation, develop-
ment, and proper utilization of surface and ground water and to preserve
natural resources, fish and wildlife." Each water management district
must produce and implement a water management plan based on studies of
water resources within its jurisdiction. Plans from all districts are







used to develop the State Water Use Plan, a plan element of the State
Comprehensive Plan.

Water management districts may establish rules and regulations (requir-
ing a permit) governing the use, construction in, withdrawal of water
from, or discharge to water in the district (canals, water control
structures, rights-of-way, lakes, streams, and others as may be speci-
fied that have been declared as works of the district by its governing
board). Districts may also regulate, by requiring a permit, the con-
sumptive use of water ("any use of water which reduces the supply from
which it is withdrawn") from ground and surface water sources, the
drilling of wells, and the management and storage of surface water, in-
cluding dams, improvements, resevoirs, and diversion of water.

The jurisdictions of water management districts, defined in the Florida
Water Resources Act of 1972, do not follow political boundaries, but
are determined by the areas of the drainage basins included in each
district. There are two water management districts which have juris-
diction in Alachua County. Land drained by the Santa Fe River falls
within the Suwannee River Water Management District which has its of-
fices in White Springs. Land drained by Orange Creek falls within the
St. Johns River Water Mangement District which has its offices in
Palatka. Figure ffdepicts the boundaries of the water management dis-
tricts in Alachua County.













F DISTRICT BOUNDARIES







SUWANNEE RIVER WATER
MANAGEMENT DISTRICT
OFFICE, WHITE SPRING'
FLORIDA, 1980.


wiMKhfwi T TrRaq














UTILITY ELEMENT


The Local Government Comprehensive Planning Act requires that the Util-
ity Element of the Comprehensive Plan must be consistent with the ten-
year site plans of electric utility companies serving Alachua County.
Therefore, the first section of this element describes the Florida leg-
islation mandating the preparation of ten-year site plans and the pro-
vision of electric service in the State. The second section identifies
the existing service systems which provide electric utilities in
Alachua County. The third section lists the existing facilities
through which electric energy is generated and distributed to Alachua
County. In addition, this section also discusses the plans of the
electric utilities for meeting future electric demand in accordance
with their ten-year site plans. The concluding section discusses pro-
cedures for local governments to participate in the planning for future
electric power plant sites and transmission and distribution facili-
ties. Several policy statements are identified which provide for coor-
dination between plans for the extension and expansion of electric ser-
vice systems and the Alachua County Comprehensive Plan.


STATE REGULATIONS GOVERNING

ELECTRIC UTILITY COMPANIES


Several Florida laws and agencies govern electric utility companies.
The Power Plant Siting Act and the State Comprehensive Planning Act
require the preparation of ten-year site plans. The Florida Public
Service Commission regulates the distribution of electric energy
throughout the State.


Power Plant Siting Act and State

Comprehensive Planning Act


Each electrical utility is required to prepare and submit for review
ten-year plans estimating the future needs for electric power genera-
tion and indicating the general location of future electric power plant
sites. According to the Florida Electrical Power Plant Siting Act, the
term "electrical power plants" includes the electric generating facil-
ity, all associated facilities, and transmission lines required to con-
nect the plant to an existing transmission network or rights-of-way.








The Florida Department of Community Affairs, Bureau of Land and Water
Management is required to study and review ten-year plans and to consi-
der the following factors:

(1) The need for electric power in the service area as deter-
mined by the Public Service Commission;

(2) The anticipated environmental impact of each proposed elec-
tric power plant site;

(3) Alternatives to the proposed plan;

(4) An assessment of the availability of water by of the appro-
priate water management district and its recommendations
concerning the use of saltwater or freshwater for cooling
purposes by the proposed plant; and

(5) Consistency with the State Comprehensive Plan.
Within nine months after it is submitted, the ten-year site plan is
reviewed and classified as suitable or unsuitable by the Bureau of Land
and Water Management.

Ten-yea -lans ar b- on c"r-nit '"formation 2-fl projections, such
as future 3opulaTiun growth. -.rends in the economy, the effects of
'et-her, :d project:c ele-::.-ial energy consumption. All of these
factors are subject to change over time. The State Comprehensive Plan-
ning Act recognizes the need to update the ten-year site plan due to
changing conditions: :hus, t-he plan must be resubmitted and reviewed at
east e',.- two "-:"-


Public service Commission


All invest ,'-ownr .. -tili ,. are s,-Jec -u regulation by the Florida
.P. C :. ;ice ;:.iiss3- 'Jncer Flori.r Statutes, Chapter 366,
utility co.janies are required to furnish reasonably sufficient, ade-
ouare, ari efficient elec-ric energy to every person who applies for
service. Public utilities are expressly prohibited from giving undue
advantage or preference to any person or geographical locality.

In addition, utilities must make their energy reserves available at all
times to maintain electric power throughout the Florida energy grid.
The Public Service Commission can require any electric utility to fur-
nish electric energy over its transmission lines to another electric
utility or to another part of the State energy grid to assure efficient
and reliable operation of the entire grid.







ELECTRICAL SERVICE SYSTEMS


Electric energy is provided in Alachua county by (1) two rural electric
cooperatives (Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc. and Central Florida
Electric Cooperative); and (2) two investor-owned utilities (Florida
Power and Light Company and Florida Power Corporation); and (3) a pub-
licly-owned utility (Gainesville Regional Utilities System). Figure
XXI depicts the various existing service areas in Alachua County of
these electrical utilities.


Rural Electric Cooperatives


Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc.


The Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc. is a rural electric cooperative
serving seven counties in the north central and northeastern sections
of the State. Clay Electric has no generating facilities, but purchas-
es its electric energy through its generation and transmission coopera-
tive, Seminole Electric Cooperative, Inc., from Florida Power and Light
Company, Florida Power Corporation, the Gainesville-Alachua County
Regional Utilities Board, and the Jacksonville Electric Authority.
Because Clay Electric is a non-generating utility, it is not required
to file a ten-year site plan.

Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc. serves much of the rural areas of
Alachua County. Figure XXI depicts the approximate service area in
the County. As of October, 1978, Clay Electric provided electrical
service to a total of 11,580 members in Alachua County. The breakdown
of this total is 8,830 residential, 325 commercial, 11 industrial, and
2,414 other.


Central Florida Electric Cooperative, Inc.

The Central Florida Electric Cooperative, Inc. is a rural electric co-
operative serving portions of Alahcua, Dixie, Gilchrist, and Levy
Counties. Central Florida Electric Cooperative has no generating
facilities, but purchases its electric energy through its generation
and transmission cooperative, Seminole Electrical Cooperative, Inc.
Because Central Florida Electric Cooperative is a non-generating utili-
ty, it is also not required to file a ten-year site plan.

As depicted in Figure XXI the Central Florida Electric Cooperative
serves some of the rural area of southwestern Alachua County. As of
December, 1978, it provided electric service to 271 residential and
agricultural customers in the area.





Union Conunty

F1

ELECTR

SERV


S1-441 +



Tr ~ ______

.3 ____________________ _______



______ ___-kJ fet.>




)~~1; -, 28

A W.ly 7
~,. a- ___








JH AW TH O Ut-1r,10 i










ALARCHUAERUT~


GURE XXI


ICAL UTILITY
ICE AREAS















1111 iiRegional
Utlilteas

0 Clay El.ctrlo
Cooperative

fn r-1 Central Florida
Electric Cooperative
IIrFlorida Power Corpor-
*tion Retail
O, Florida Power Corpor-
mtlon Whoteeaie

Florida Power and
'.M Light l Cosmnpany

3 Not Barvted






Source: Utility Cornpa nine
end CoopereLive








- t IMth Central Florida
Pgoo koot" Plinnilg Council







Investor-Owned Utilities


Florida Power and Light Company

The Florida Power and Light Company is an investor-owned utility. Its
electric generation and transmission grid serves 35 counties along
the east coast and the lower west coast of Florida. The company has 12
generating plants distributed geographically around its service terri-
tory. These plants do not serve a defined area but are tied into a
State-wide transmission system to balance varying needs for power with
its availability and to assure system reliability. The nearest gener-
ating site to Alachua County is the Palatka Plant located in Putnam
County.

As depicted in Figure XXI the Florida Power and Light Company pro-
vides retail service to the municipalities of Waldo and Hawthorne and
to some neighboring rural areas. In November, 1978, it served a total
of 1,068 customers in Alachua County: 893 residential, 170 commercial,
and 5 industrial.


Florida Power Corporation


Florida Power is an investor-owned utility serving north central
Florida and the upper west coast of Florida. The Corporation pro-
vides electric power to approximately 200 municipalities and over 30
counties. The system consists of 11 generating plants distributed geo-
graphically around its service territory. These plants do not serve a
defined area but are tied into a State-wide transmission system to
balance varying needs for power and assure system reliability. The
nearest generating site to Alachua County is at Crystal River-in Citrus
County.

As depicted in Figure XXI Florida Power provides wholesale electric
utility service to the municipalities of Alachua and Newberry and re-
tail service to the municipalities of Archer and Micanopy as well as
several rural areas. It also provides electric energy to the Clay
Electric Cooperative and to the University of Florida. In 1977, the
average annual number of customers served in Alachua County was 2,538.
The distribution of these customers was 84.6 percent residential, 13.9
percent commercial, 0.8 percent industrial, and 0.7 percent other. The
nominal distribution voltage in this area is 12,470 volts.







Publicly-Owned Utilities


Gainesville Regional Utilities System


The City of Gainesville, pursuant to Chapter 12760, Laws of Florida,
Special Acts of 1927, as amended and supplemented, owns and operates
an integrated electric, water, and sewer utilities system to provide
the City and certain unincorporated areas of Alachua County with elec-
tric, water, and sewer service. The electric system was established in
1912 to provide street lighting anc electric service to the downtown
Gainesville area. Continuous expansion of the electric system and its
generating capacity has resulted in an electric system which currently
serves aDout 38,000 customers.

In 1972, the City of Gainesville and Alachua County entered into an
interlocal agreement pursuant to Florida Interlocal Cooperative Act of
1969, Section 163, Part 1, Florida Statutes (1975), which authorizes
cities and counties to enter into local contracts with each other to
provide services and facilities in accordance with geographic, econo-
mic, population, and other factors influencing the needs and develop-
ment of the local community. Under this agreement, the Gainesville
Utilities Department and the County-owned electric, water, and sewer
systems combined to form the Gainesville-Alachua County Regional Elec-
tric, 'Water and Sewer Utilities ioard (RU3).

The responsibility of RUB was to provide electric utility, water, and
sanitary sewer services to the City and the unincorporated areas of the
County. Under the terms of the agreement, the City acquired the Coun-
ty's electric, water, and sewer systems to operate with its own as a
single, combined utility. Pursuant to the agreement, the RUB made all
policies for the administration, operation, maintenance, extension en-
largement, development, replacement, and repair of the system.- The RUB
consisted of the five elected City Commissioners and the five elected
County Commissioners, each having one vote. In December, 1979, the
interlocal agreement creating the Regional Utilities Board was nulli-
fied and management responsibility for the system was returned solely
to the City of Gainesville.

The City of Gainesville operates a fully integrated generation, trans-
mission, and distribution system. The service area of the Gainesville
Regional Utilities System includes the City of Gainesville and the un-
incorporated area of Alachua County, an area of over 900 square miles.
The existing electric system facilities currently serve an area of ap-
proximately 150 square miles including all of Gainesville. Gainesville
Regional Utilities System also sells some electric energy for resale to
Seminole Electric Cooperative, Inc. The approximate service area of
Gainesville Regional Utilities System is depicted in Figure XXI. Some
of Gainesville Regional Utilities System's current service area over-
laps that area also served by Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc.

The Gainesville Regional Utilities System segregates rate schedules and
customer classes into residential, general services, large power, sale-






for-resale, and utility uses and losses. The residential class has
generally maintained the largest volume of sales, making up 48 percent
of the total sales in 1978. It was closely followed by the general
service class, representing 38 percent of total sales in 1978. General
service includes commercial, general power, and a former separate rate
schedule identified as hospital class.

Large power, formerly a part of general service until it was made a
separate class in 1970, accounts for nine percent of total- sales. A
recent trend of increasing sales in this class could continue with ad-
ditional industry being attracted to the Gainesville Regional Utilities
System service area. The resale class was established in 1975 when the
Gainesville Regional Utilities System began selling wholesale power to
Clay Electric. In 1978, the resale class made up three percent of
total sales. Lighting (two percent of total sales) represents a rela-
tively minor percentage of total sales. In addition to sales, approxi-
mately six percent of the kwh generated by the Gainesville Regional
Utilities System are consumed by utility losses.

As of September, 1978, the Gainesville Regional Utilities System served
34,104 residential electric customers, 3,700 general service customers,
and 8 large power customers. In addition, Clay Electric purchased bulk
electric power for distribution in western Alachua County.

The Gainesville Regional Utilities System transmission system is pri-
marily 138,000 volts. This is stepped down through transformers at
five regional substations to 12,470 volts for distribution. There is
some 4,160-volt equipment remaining in the system, but it is gradually
being phased out.


EXISTING AND PROJECTED ELECTRICAL FACILITIES


The ten-year site plan projects the needs for new generation facilities
and directly associated transmission lines. It also identifies pro-
posed sites for such facilities based on the load forecast for the ten-
year period. The ten-year site plan does not identify the locations of
transmission lines and substations needed to distribute electrical
energy to customers. These facilities are dependent on two factors:
(1) the load forecast (the size and distribution of the demand for
electrical power); and (2) the location of future generating facil-
ities.


Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc.


Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc., has five substations (Alachua, Archer,
Arredondo, Gainesville, and Rochelle) in western and southeastern
Alachua County. They are connected with Florida Power's 69-kilovolt
(kV) transmission line. In addition, the Waldo substation is connected
with the Florida Power and Light Company's transmission lines in north-
eastern Alachua County. The Farnsworth substation is connected with
the Gainesville Regional Utilitiy System's 138-kV transmission line.







All of these substations supply Clay Electric's local distribution cir-
cuits in Alachua County. The distriKution-voltage level currently in
use by Clay Electric Coopera3:ve, Inc., is 7.2/12.47 kV. The Coopera-
tive plans to convert all of its distribution facilities in Alachua
County to 14.4/24.94 kV (doubling its capacity) as system needs neces-
sitate additional capacity.


Central Florida Electric Cooperative, Inc.


Currently, Central Florida Electric Cooperative, Inc. has no substa-
tions in Alachua County. Transmission lines distributing electric
energy to customers in Alachua County are connected to substations in
Gilchrist County. Primary transmission lines carry a distribution-
voltage level of 7.2/12.47 kV at the present time. The cooperative has
no plans for additional transmission lines in the near future in
Alachua County.


Florida Power and Light Company


Florida Power and Light Company's closest generating plants are located
near Palatka in Putnam County: the Putnam Plan- and t'je Pal-t Pla.,-
These plants presently have a net generating capability of 4:-1 me'--
watts (MW). Two additional generating units are p-re-ntly col.
standby. Florida Power and Light Company is continually reviewing the
status of the Palatka unit 1 and unit 2 (on cold standby) for reactiva-
tion. The generating capability of these units is 109.5 MW which could
increase the plants' capability to a total of 593.5 %,?,.


Florida Power Corporation


Florida Power Corporation's closest generating plant is located near
Crystal River in Citrus County. Three generating units are presently
in service at this plant. The oldest unit came on line in 1966 and
burns heavy coal. Its net generating capability is 383 MW. A coal-
fired unit was placed in service in 1969 and has a net generating capa-
bility of 433 MW. The most recently constructed generating unit was
put on line in 1977. This nuclear power plant has a generating capaci-
ty of 825 MW. Three other utility companies, including the
Gainesville-Alachua County Regional Utilities Board, own a ten-percent
share (about 36 MW) of the nuclear plant. The Regional Utilities
Board's portion is about 12 MW.

Florida Power's ten-year site plan anticipates two additional generat-
ing units to be needed for the Crystal River site. Unit 4 is planned
to go on line in 1982 and unit 5 in 1984. Both of these plants will
burn coal; each will have a net generating capability of 640 MW. No
additional transmission lines in Alachua County are anticipated for
these future plants.






Florida Power Corporation has several substations in Alachua County: a
distribution substation is located in the municipalities of High
Springs and Alachua; two substations are located in the City of Gaines-
ville to serve the University of Florida; and a distribution substation
serves the General Electric plant near the City of Alachua. Two trans-
mission substations are located in Alachua County. The Archer substa-
tion interconnects with Florida Power's 230-kV transmission line which
joins the Suwannee River plant to the transmission lines located in
central Florida. The Idylwild substation is interconnected with
Florida Power's 69-kV transmission line. Tie-ins with Gainesville-
Alachua County Regional Utilities Board (RUB) occurs through these sub-
stations. A 230-kV transmission line connects RUB's Parker Road Sub-
station with Florida Power's Archer substation, and two interconnec-
tions are provided between RUB's 138-kV network and Florida Power's
69-kV transmission system at the Idylwild substation. At the present
time, Florida Power has no current plans for power generation, trans-
mission, or substation additions in Alachua County.


Gainesville Regional Utilities System


The Site Certification Application to the Florida Department of Envi-
ronmental Regulation for the City of Gainesville's Deerhaven Station
Unit 2, in compliance with the Florida Electrical Power Plant Siting
Act, and the City of Gainesville's Ten-Year Site Plan, provide a basis
for the following description of the facilities and their relationship
to other electrical generating facilities.


Existing Facilities


The City of Gainesville owns and operates two oil/gas-fueled generating
stations having a combined total net summer capability of 245 MW.
The City of Gainesville also owns a 11.6 MW share of the Crystal River
3 nuclear-powered electric generating unit. All of the Gainesville
Regional Utilities System distribution system power requirements are
provided from these generating stations via a 138-kV transmission net-
work and three interconnections with Florida Power Corporation.

The John R. Kelly Station (JRK Station) is located in southeast Gaines-
ville; it consists of three steam generators, three combustion tur-
bines, and one black-start diesel unit. All these units are equipped
for oil/ gas firing. The JRK Station has a maximum summer capability
of 123 MW.

The Deerhaven Station is located on a 1,116-acre site approximately 6
miles northwest of Gainesville; it consists of one steam turbine and
two combustion turbine units. Deerhaven Unit 1 was completed in 1972
and placed into commercial operation in August, 1972. Unit 1 is equip-
ped for oil/gas firing and has a net maximum summer capability of 82
MW. With the addition of two combustion turbines of 20 MW each in
1976, the Deerhaven Station has a net maximum summer capability of 121
MW.







Crystal River is a nuclear-powered unit with a net generating capabili-
ty of 825 MW. The City of Gainesville owns a 1.4 percent share of the
plant capacity. The power from this unit is transmitted over Florida
Power Corporation's transmission system to its point of interconnection
with the Gainesville Regional Utilities System pursuant to a tariff
filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC).


Existing Generating Capability


The Gainesville Regional Utilities System is operated based on dis-
patching procedures which take into account fuel costs, expected load
conditions, coordinated reserve requirements, and scheduled mainte-
nance. By consideration of these factors, generation from the system
capability is added to meet system energy requirements reliably and
economically.

The four fossil-steam turbines located at the JRK and Deerhaven Sta-
tions are capable of burning No. 6 oil or natural gas. Deerhaven Unit
1 is primarily used for base load, JRK Units 7 and 8 for intermediate
load, and JRK Unit 6 for peaking purposes. Although the fossil-steam
units represent only 63 percent of the system's net summer capability',
they produced 89.9 percent of the energy supplied to the system in
19783.

The five combustion turbines on the system are fueled by No.2 oil or
natural gas and are used for peaking purposes and emergencies. These
units, which can be started and placed on line in less than 30 minutes,
represents 32 percent of the system's net summer capacity, but sincee
they are less efficient than steam units and are designed for peaking
operation, they only produced approximately two percent of the erargy
supplied to the system in 1973. A 1.162 MW die4ael unit at the .1. Sta-
tion is used for black-start purposes (a unit which produces electric
energy for starting larger generators from a non-operating condition).

The 11.6 MW ownership-interest in Crystal River 3 which represents ap-
proximately 4.5 percent of the system's net summer capability to pro-
duce 7.9 percent of the energy requirements in 1973.


Interconnected Operations


The Gainesville Regional Utilities System, as well as most municipal,
investor-owned, and rural electric cooperative utilities in Florida,
is a member of the Florida Electric Power Coordinating Group, Inc.
(FCG). The members of FCG have developed and published an active oper-
ating handbook which makes recommendations for standard practices as-
sociated with various facets of interconnected operations.

Present bilateral interconnection agreements among FCG members provide
various classes of scheduled interchange services. These classes in-
clude (1) emergency service; (2) scheduled electric service for use






during maintenance of facilities; (3) economy service on a split-the-
savings basis; and (4) firm electric service used primarily to stagger
generating unit additions between systems to take advantage of the eco-
nomies of scale. Use of these services varies according to each sys-
tem's needs and its ability to meet the needs of other systems. These
services provide system operators flexibility in meeting their system
requirements in a manner consistent with established operating guide-
lines; interchange services provide for system reliability and economy,
and account for the responsibility of each system first -to provide
reliable service to its own customers.


Florida Power Corporation/Gainesville Regional Utilities

System Interconnection Agreement


The City of Gainesville entered into an Interconnection Agreement with
Florida Power Corporation effective July 2, 1973, for an initial per-
iod of seven years, automatically renewable for periods of three years
each. The contract calls for six electrical service schedules consist-
ing of the following: (1) emergency; (2) scheduled; (3) energy inter-
change; (4) firm; (5) secondary; and (6) power transmission electric
service. RUB's Parker Road Substation with 168,000 kilovolt-amperes
(kVA) of transformation from 230 kV to 138 kV interconnects with
Florida Power Corporation's Archer Substation via a 230 kV transmission
line. Two additional interconnections are provided between RUB's 138-
kV network and Florida Power Corporation's 69-kV subtransmission system
via an 88,000 kVA 138/69-kV transformer at the Florida Power Corpora-
tion Idylwild Substation.


Coordination with Other Systems


As a member of FCG, the Gainesville Regional Utilities System shares
installed and spinning reserves with other members, thus achieving a
substantial reduction in the amount of reserves required for operation
and reliability. The Gainesville Regional Utilities System is also a
member of the Southeastern Electric Reliability Council (SERC), along
with other major utilities in the southeastern United States. The pur-
pose of SERC is to augment further the reliability and adequacy of bulk
power supply in the areas served by its member systems.


Planned Capacity Additions


Additions to a utilities system should be planned to satisfy expected
future growth and to allow for replacement of older, uneconomical
units. Because larger units offer economies of scale and greater oper-
ating efficiency, utilities usually prefer to add the largest economic-
ally feasible unit to their system. Selling the excess capacity or
economy energy to other systems can, besides being a source of addi-






tional revenue, allow a utility to purchase larger units rather than
add smaller units more often or purchase capacity from other systems.

The coal-fired Deerhaven Unit 2 is currently the only planned addition
to the RUB system. The preliminary estimate for this Unit's continuous
capability is 235 MW. When the capacity of this new unit is combined
with the Gainesville Regional Utilities System's existing generation
units, the system will have a capability of approximately 480 MW. This
assumes the retirement of the J.R. Kelly Unit No. 6 (14.3- MW) after
Deerhaven 2 begins commercial operation. Unit 2 will consist of a low-
sulphur coal-fired steam electric generating unit and related facili-
ties (a modern steam generator, a reheat turbine generator, ground
water pumping facilities, cooling towers, ash handling, fuel storage
and handling facilities, complete auxiliary equipment instrumentation,
control, step-up transformers, and associated equipment.) The unit, as
well as Unit 1, will utilize a new, technologically-advanced, zero-
discharge system whereby process and cooling effluents are treated for
dissolved solids removed by a brine concentrator with the water being
reused by the facility. The use of this method of handling cooling ef-
fluent will minimize the discharge of pollutants from the plant into
local water. An electrostatic precipator, which can remove 99.5 per-
cent of particulates from stack gases, will be utilized to meet the
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Florida Department of
Environmental Regulation's New Sources Performance Standards for par-
ticulate emissions. Unit 2 is scheduled to come on line in 1981.

According to the City of Gainesville's Ten Year Site Plan for Electric-
al Generating Facilities and Associated Transmission Lines dated April,
1977, the middle- range population growth projections (an annual popu-
lation growth rate of approximately 2.3 percent) from the Alachua
County Comprehensive Plan and the Alachua County 201 Water Quality
Facilities Plan were utilized in Gainesville Regional Utilities Sys-
tem' s most probable load and energy forecasts. The annual population
growth rate is one of a number of important considerations utilized for
determining electric energy requirements and generating needs for the
next ten years. The use of these population growth projections in the
City of Gainesville's ten-year site plan insures that the planning for
future electrical energy needs is consistent with the anticipated
growth and development projected by the Alachua County Comprehensive
Plan and other local plans such as the Alachua County 201 W'ater Quality
Facilities Plan.


Contract Sale to Florida Power Corporation


Pursuant to a Letter of Commitment executed August 17, 1976, Florida
Power Corporation is committed to the purchase of 75 MW of firm
capacity for 3 years beginning June 1, 1980, or when Deerhaven Unit 2
be gins commercial operation, whichever is later. Florida Power Cor-
poration has an option to purchase an additional 75 MW of firm capaci-
ty, as well as an option to purchase any excess firm capacity for use
during the same time period and under the same terms as the initial 75
MW. A third option is available for the purchase of any excess firm
capacity from the end of the three year period up to May 31, 1936.






Whether or not Florida Power Corporation exercises any option, it has
rights of first refusal to purchase any excess capacity from October 2,
1978, through May 31, 1986, at a price equal to another system's final
offer.

Gainesville Regional Utilities System projections indicate that it will
meet its system requirements, the Florida Power Corporation contract,
and the 75-MW option in 1981. Even if Florida Power Corporation exer-
cises its 75-MW option during the Gainesville Regional Utilities System
peak demand period, a sufficient reserve would be available from system
capability to satisfy all of the projected electric power needs of
Gainesville Regional Utilities System service area.


Potential Markets for Excess Capacity and Economy Energy


A review of projected maximum peak demands, installed capacities, and
expected reserves of other systems comparable to or larger than the
Gainesville Regional Utilities System made in the Site Certification
Application indicated several potential markets for excess capacity
lasting well beyond the 1981 planned commercial operation date of Deer-
haven Unit 2. Several large and small utility systems were identified
as potential markets for excess capacity and economy energy.

Even with no sale of excess capacity other than that contracted to
Florida Power Corporation, coal-fired generation from Deerhaven Unit 2
could be used as economy energy to displace oil-fired generation on
other Florida systems, assuming reasonable price differentials in coal
and oil and taking wheeling charges into account.

With these facts in mind, the City of Gainesvilleis currently involved
in negotiating interchange agreements with several of Florida's inter-
connected utilities. Such contracts will allow the City of Gainesville
to offer these utilities any energy in excess of system demands and
reserve margins.


COORDINATION OF PLANS AND POLICIES

Even though the Florida Electrical Power Siting Act has delegated the
regulation and siting of electric generating facilities and directly
associated transmission lines to the State, local governmental bodies
can participate in the planning and certification process. When a
utility has applied for certification of a proposed power plant site,
the Governor and Cabinet must determine, after a public land use hear-
ing has been held, whether the site complies with the existing land use
regulations of the local government. The local government within whose
jurisdiction a proposed site is located may also become a party to the
certification proceedings by filing a notice of intent to be a party to
the hearing fifteen (15) days prior to the date of the land use hear-
ing.






It is important to coordinate the extension of electric utility service
with the goals and policies of the Alachua County Comprehensive Plan so
that the County's future growth and development occurs in an orderly
manner. The following guidelines should be followed to facilitate the
coordination of utility plans with the Alachua County Comprehensive
Plan.

(1) The future population and economic growth anticipated by
the Alachua County Comprehensive Plan should be-considered
when developing plans for electric utility service in
Alachua County.

(2) Any proposed major realignment or expansion of the elec-
tric infrastructure should first be reviewed for consisten-
cy with the Alachua County Comorehensive Plan by Alachua
County with regards to its compatibility witn existing and
future land uses, and natural systems in the area.

(3) Support facilities (power substations and transmission
lines) needed to provide electric utility service to exist-
ing land uses, to such future land uses as are authorized
by other elements of the Alachua County Comprehensive Plan,
or to such future land uses as may De lawfully authorized
by Alachua County should be permitted in any land use cate-
gory with appropriate safeguards and locational criteria.

(4) Development orders should, not be issued by C-ounty officials
(e.g., building permits for major developments or accep-
tance of subdivision plats) until formal correspondence is
received from the utility serving the area regarding its
capacity and capabii-,: of serving tihe crposed :'cject
witn electric power.
3) Criteria for d'eve 1;- t regul o -t ic- s :a rn. ic
facilities should consider (1) the need for locating the
facilities in the requested location; ana (2) the eventual
costs to consumers (- -lectri, : r.















CONSERVATION ELEMENT


Conservation is that process through which planning and management pro-
vides for the protection and wise use of natural resources. Conserva-
tion is an essential part of the comprehensive planning process; its
effects are crucial for formulating other plan elements such as future
land use, recreation and open space, traffic circulation, and drain-
age.

A report entitled, Natural Resources (study for Alachua County,
Florida), prepared by the North Central Florida Regional Planning Coun-
cil in 1975, provides an evaluation of the natural resources of Alachua
County and a basis for this plan element. The basic data on natural
systems contained in that study provides a background for conservation
planning. When analyzed as a unit, suitability maps of the natural
systems developed in that study illustrate areas of environmental con-
cern which suggest careful planning and consideration by local govern-
ment as development progresses in or around these environmentally sig-
nificant areas.

This Conservation Element presents an overview of Alachua County's
natural resources. It includes a descriptive narrative about each re-
source and, where applicable, highlights characteristics and qualities
which suggest conservation considerations concerning the extent of
their use and development. This information, coupled with the conser-
vation goals, objectives, and policies formulated and developed by the
Alachua County Citizens Participation Committee early in the planning
process, provides guidance and direction useful in preparing other plan
elements of the Alachua County Comprehensive Plan. An analysis of im-
plementation techniques follows the discussion of conservation goals,
objectives and policies. This final section focuses on the Land Use
Element and accompanying development regulations. However, it also in-
cludes other mechanisms for realizing the goals and objectives of the
Conservation Element.


INVENTORY OF NATURAL RESOURCES


Natural resources are the components of the natural environment which
support man and his activities. They provide essential services such
as water supply, flood control, purification of waste, recreation, fish
and game habitats, and are a source of gratification for man's aesthe-
tic and spiritual needs. Through the utilization and modification of






natural resources, man derives food and raw materials to produce the
goods and services needed by society.

Natural resources are interrelated to form vast natural systems of
water, air, and land. Man's use and modification of natural resources
brings about change in these natural systems. Often, there exists in
natural systems great flexibility to accept change without breakdown,
but there are limitations. Since man's use of natural resources brings
about environmental change, he must plan and manage the use -of natural
resources, within limitations, to prevent their destruction and unwise
exploitation. Through proper management of these natural resources,
man can ensure for the present and future generations that non-renew-
able resources will be judiciously allocated and renewable ones will be
maintained in adequate quantity and quality for man's needs.

The following sections inventory and discuss natural resources of
Alachua County: (1) Geology; (2) Soils; (3) Surface Waters; (4) Vege-
tation; (5) Wildlife; (6) Wetlands; and (7) Air. A short discussion
concerning conservation of the natural resource concludes each sec-
tion.


Geology


Geological formations are an important factor which must be considered
in the planning process because of their close association with the
natural systems as well as man's social and economic systems. Espe-
cially important is the intimate association of the geological forma-
tions with the water resources of Alachua County and much of Florida.
The quantity and quality of water is greatly influenced by these forma-
tions.

Since geological formations contain many rocks and minerals necessary
for manufacturing, industrial, and agricultural uses, their management
and environmental impacts resulting from their extraction and pro-
cessing is of great concern to Alachua County. Geological deposits
offer both potential and limitations for man's use of the land. The
characteristics and compositions of these formations that lie near or
at the ground surface affect the suitability of the land for agricul-
ture and urbanization. Within an economic and environmental context,
they influence how and to what extent land can be used throughout
Alachua County.


Geological Formations

The Florida peninsula is only a portion of the larger Florida Plateau
which separates the Atlantic Ocean from the Gulf of Mexico. A sub-
stantial part of the plateau is submerged and extends from Florida's
west coast as a broad, gently sloping shelf covered by shallow waters
of the Gulf of Mexico. The subsurface geology of the Florida Plateau






is composed primarily of thick layers of limestone and unconsolidated
sediments which were deposited over the basement sandstone and igneous
rocks when Florida was covered and subsequently elevated above the
ancient seas a number of times during its geological history.

Movement in the earth's crust has resulted in a number of subsurface
structures which influence the geology in Florida. Alachua County lies
over two of these structures. Located along the axis of the Florida
peninsula is the Peninsula Arch. This uplift, dating from -Paleozoic-
Mezozoic times, stretches from southeastern Georgia into central
Florida. All of Alachua County, except the southwestern tip, lies
within its boundary. The Ocala Uplift, a structural movement of early
Miocene age, is a gentle fold of the earth's crust that lies along a
general northeast to southeast axis from Gilchrist County and southwest
Alachua County to Polk County often underlain by fractures in the sub-
structure. Both of these uplifts have created slight regional slopes
toward the Gulf. Often the tops of the uplift have been eroded to the
level of the surrounding ground which has resulted in the exposure of
older and deeper sediments near the ground surface in these areas.

The geological formations of the Florida Plateau are composed of con-
solidated and unconsolidated marine and non-marine deposits of dolomite
(magnesium rich limestone), limestone (calcium carbonate), marl, clay,
and sand. The deeper deposits are the oldest and are overlain by suc-
cessively younger formations. All formations are not continuous in the
subsurface. Variation in deposition and the erosion and solution of
upper layers have influenced the distribution of some formations. The
following list presents the important geological formations found be-
neath the ground surface in Alachua County. The order of discussion
proceeds from oldest to most recent in age.

(1) Lake City limestone is considere, to oe -.e oldes: forma-
tion in the County. It is cc pised principally of dolomite
limestone, but includes mar.y beds of sulfur, fossiliferous
limestones, and seams of pear and lignite. The formation
approaches nearest the surface in southeastern Alachua
County.

(2) Avon Park limestone lies over the Lake City limestone. The
dense to porous dolomite also includes beds of limestone.
Avon Park limestone lies nearest the surface in southwest-
ern Alachua County.

(3) Overlying the Avon Park limestone is a series of three
limestones which are often collectively referred to as the
Ocala Group because of their similarities. The Inglis,
Williston, and Crystal River limestones compose this group.
The lowest of the deposits consist of hard and soft dolo-
mite, while the top layer is a soft coquina limestone.
This group is known for the high quality and relative puri-
ty of its constituent material. The Crystal River lime-
stone is the only one of the formations listed above that






is exposed at or near the ground surface in Alachua County.
It forms a wide plain which extends from the northwest
along the Santa Fe River to the southeast through Orange
Lake.

(4) Recognized by boulders exposed at the ground surface, the
Suwannee limestone has been found to overlie the Ocala
Group in parts of northwestern Alachua County. It posses-
ses characteristics similar to the limestones of- the Ocala
Group.

(5) The Hawthorn Formation is a marine deposit consisting of
thick beds of clay and sandy clay that reach a maximum
thickness of 200 feet in Alachua County. Beds of sandy
phosphatic limestone occur within the formation. It is ex-
posed over much of the area of northern and eastern Alachua
County.

(6) The Choctawhatchee Formation lies beneath the surface in
northeastern and eastern Alachua County and is exposed only
in a few prairies or low areas where overlying sediments
have been removed. It consists of fossiliferous clay and
marl with small quantities of phosphate pebbles.

(7) The Alachua Formation is primarily a terrestrial sand de-
posit found interbedded with phosphate pebbles and sandy
clay. It is found in southwestern Alachua County where it
forms low hills over the Ocala limestone.

(8) Pleistocene sand deposits are the most recent geological
formations recognized in Alachua County. They cover large
areas in the eastern part of the County. Consisting mostly
of thick layers of unconsolidated sands, they were deposit-
ed as a series of wave-formed marine terraces when most of
Florida was inundated by ancient seas.


Geology and Water Resources

The varying degrees of porosity which characterize the material compos.-
ing the geological formations in Alachua County influence drainage
patterns of surface water. Impervious layers which characterize the
Hawthorn Formation prevent or restrict the downward percolation of
water into the ground and result in greater quantities of surface
water. Water channels and basins have been formed to collect and carry
away this excess runoff. Streams, lakes, and ponds, as well as large
wetland areas, characterize northern and eastern Alachua County where
impervious layers underlie the ground surface. On the contrary, west.-
ern Alachua County is characterized by the general absence of surface
water features. Almost all the precipitation falling on the area is







absorbed into the ground. The highly permeable limestones of the Ocala
Group underlie much of this area.

Geological formations are also important to man because of their abil-
ity to store water. They serve as the primary source of potable water.
Water is stored in the shallow water table and secondary aquifers and
in the deeper Floridan aquifer. The shallow water table aquifer is
found in the Pleistocene sand deposits and limestone layers of the
Hawthorn Formation. It is absent where the Ocala limestones lie near
the ground surface in about 300 square miles of western Alachua County.
The secondary aquifer is often found in the deeper sand and limestone
layers of the Hawthorn Formation. These sources supply water for many
local wells but provide insufficient supplies for large users such as
municipalities and industries.

The deepest and most dependable source of potable water is found in the
Floridan aquifer. This source is important to Alachua County as well
as much of Florida. The porous limestones of the Ocala Group, perhaps
the lower layers of the Hawthorn Formation and the Avon Park and Lake
City limestones, are the geological deposits which contain the Floridan
aquifer. Where the Hawthorn Formation does not cover the limestone
formations, as in western Alachua County, water is freely recharged to
the Floridan aquifer by percolation through the overlying soils.

Pores in the limestone permit storage and movement of vast quantities
of water. Limestone (calcium carbonate) is readily dissolved by the
downward percolation of acid-cnarged water from the ground surface. In
the solution process, large cavities and channels are created in the
formation. In this way, water storage is increased and underground
water movement is facilitated. Sometimes when these underground
caverns lie near the ground surface, the weight of the overlying layers
causes their roofs to collapse and sinkholes are formed. Sinkholes are
commonly observed in western Alachua County. Often, direct recharge to
the aquifer occurs through sinkholes. Notable examples are Haile Sink,
which receives drainage from Hogtown Creek, and Alachua Sink, which
drains Paynes Prairie.

Sinkholes in western Alachua County often occur along two linear
trends, northwest to southeast and northeast to southwest. The linear
orientation of these sinks reflects control of solution by jointing in
the limestones. This jointing in the limestones is part of an
extensively fractured zone extending across Alachua County from Orange
Lake northward to the Santa Fe Sink (where the Santa Fe River goes
underground). The fracture zone is probably the result of stresses in
the earth's surface when the Ocala limestones in the north central part
of Florida were uplifted during late Oligocene and early Miocene times.
Ground water moving through joints in the limestones has resulted in
pronounced solution effects including numerous sinkholes and caves.
Almost every stream crossing the fracture zone in western Alachua
County has been captured by a sinkhole. The Santa Fe River is the most
notable of these.






Contrary to surface water which flows over the ground surface in the
direction dictated by local topographic relief, ground water in the
Floridan aquifer moves in the direction of the hydraulic gradient.
Maps of the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer show a
potentiometric high on a 525-square mile area centered near Keystone
Heights in western Clay and Putnam Counties and parts of eastern
Alachua and Bradford Counties. From this potentiometric high, the
hydraulic gradient slopes downward and outward. In Alachua County, the
slope of the hydraulic gradient and the movement of ground water is
generally in a westerly-northwesterly direction. South and east of the
City of Gainesville, maps of the potentiometric surface indicate that
ground water moves generally in a southerly-southwesterly direction.
Tests have shown that ground water movement from most sinkholes, irn-
cluding Alachua Sink in Paynes Prairie, follows the westerly-north-
westerly direction.

It is estimated that 210 MGD (million gallons per day) of water flows
through the Floridan aquifer under Alachua County. Consequently, the
magnitude of the water available in the Floridan aquifer offers few
limitations to anticipated water needs of future urbanization, industry
and agriculture when compared with the estimated consumption of 22 MGD
being consumed by these users based upon information complied in Water
Resources of Alachua, Bradford, Clay and Union Counties, Florida, pre-
pared by Florida Geological Survey and published in 1964. However,
these figures are only approximations due to the limitations imposed by
available data and are only intended to show the approximate magnitude
of water resources in tne County. It is important to note that water
availability in the Floridan aquifer can change as recharge areas are
modified or altered by man's activities. Large scale water users, such
as the phosphate industry, limerock mining operations and agriculture,
can have significant impacts on the quality and quantity of subsurface
as well as surface water resources.

The large volume of water beneath Alachua County does not necessarily
imply that all water is available for use in the County. Questions be-
yond the scope of this plan element also arise when the importance of
recharge potential is evaluated in terms of Florida as a whole and the
dependence of other areas of the State on the Floridan aquifer.


Mineral Resources

The geological formations underlying Alachua County are a source of
several mineral and rock resources of economic importance to the area.
These include several kinds of clay, sand, limestones, and phos-
phates. Clay is widespread in Alachua County and its prevalence is
characterized by the Hawthorn Formation. This formation underlies much
of northern and eastern Alachua County and is primarily composed of
various kinds of clay.






Clay is one of the products of the decomposition of rocks. It is com-
posed of fine grain minerals, which form a hard mass when dry but be-
come plastic when wet. The most common use of clay is brick-making.
Koalin, a pure and high grade of clay, is used for manufacturing of
china and pottery, but is also necessary for making paper and other
products. Fullers Earth is a type of clay which has little plasticity.
It is an important additive in many products, including ceramic glazes,
concrete, soaps, insecticides, cosmetics and many others.

Although the County is rich in clay, most of it is too sandy in nature
or contains other impurities which render it undesirable for commercial
uses. Bricks were made of local clay by the Campville Brick Company in
1923. Some Fullers Earth deposits have been discovered locally in
limited quantities. Reported occurrences of this material are near the
Town of Micanopy and in the Devil's Millhopper and Alachua Sink. At
the present time, little or no commercial uses are being made of local
clay deposits, but further exploration and refinement in processing
techniques may increase the future potential for clay production in
Alachua County.

Sand is an abundant surface material in Alachua County. However, no
specialty sands, such as those with qualities of consistent color, com-
positions, or grade, are known to be present in the County. Currently,
local sands are used for such general purposes as fill, and are not of
significant economic importance locally.

Limestone is the most important geological resource at present in
Alachua County. Limestone is exposed at or near the surface in much of
the western part of the County. The soft, chalky, coquina limestone of
the Crystal River Formation is the source for most extraction opera-
tions locally. It is not suitable for building stone because of its
varying composition. However, it is valuable as a source of crushed
rock necessary for building roadbases and is frequently used as sur-
facing material in other roadways. To be economically competitive, the
extraction operations must be located near adequate roads or railway
transportation. Consequently, most of the limerock mines are found
near the highways in western Alachua County. Because of its abundance,
limerock mining will probably continue to be important to the local
economy.

Phosphate deposits consist primarily of marine phosphatic sedimentary
rocks made up of clays, sand, dolomite, and a variety of alterations of
this material formed by weathering processes. The most important phos-
phate resources occur as hard-rock phosphates and land pebble phos-
phates.

Hard-rock phosphate is found mostly in a belt controlled by the Ocala
Uplift, a subsurface geological structure formed by the upward movement
in the earth's crust. The axis of the Ocala Uplift lies a few miles
west of Alachua County. Hard-rock phosphate deposits are highly ir-
regular in size and shape, ranging from a few feet to over 100 feet in
thickness. In the Newberry area, where most of the extraction activity







has occurred, the maximum thickness of these deposits is about 50 feet
while the average is less than 30 feet. A gray, phosphatic, clayey
sand, often as much as 80 feet thick, covers most of these deposits,
except in the area between the Cities of High Springs and Newberry,
where this material has been eroded. Hard-rock phosphate depostis
usually conform to the areal extent of the Alachua Formation which is
present in southwestern Alachua County.

Hard-rock phosphate was extensively mined in Florida. Beginning in the
early 1880's, mining operations peaked by the early 1890's. In 1909,
there were 22 locations in operation in southwestern Alachua County.
Production declined after World War I as improvement in mining tech-
niques were made for the extraction of land pebble phosphate. At pre-
sent, no hard-rock phosphate is being mined in Florida. Although not
of importance in the near future, the local deposits may become impor-
tant again as better grades and quantities of the land pebble phosphate
are depleted, transportation costs are reduced and other sources of
phosphate become non-competitive.

Land pebble phosphate is being extensively mined in Hamilton, Hills-
borough, and Polk Counties. Other deposits have been reported, most
notably in neighboring Bradford and Columbia Counties and in Alachua
County. Locally, the upper part of the Hawthorn Formation consists of
pebbles and grains of phosphate embedded with varying combinations of
sand, clay and carbonate materials. The deposits vary in thickness
from a few feet to 30 or 40 feet, and are covered by sand and clayey
sands up to 45 feet thick. Although more exploration is needed to
accurately assess the broad distribution of the phosphates, two areas
of heavy concentration have been reported in the County. These two
areas consist of a 50-square mile area north and northeast of the City
of Gainesville and an area south of S.R. 20 which lies between Grove
Park and the City of Hawthorne. Analysis of the local deposits have
indicated that they are of insufficient quality for mining at the pre-
sent time. Undoubtedly, when the better grades found elsewhere are de-
pleted, the Alachua County and other north Florida sources may become
more economically attractive in the future.

Limerock mining contributes to the economic diversity of Alachua County
and the phosphate resources might be of some economic importance in the
future. However, the mining and processing of rock and mineral re-
sources present several problems which should be addressed during the
planning process. Environmental problems result from the necessity of
site disturbance and the use of water. Compatibility of mining opera-
tions with adjacent land use is an important consideration because
noise from mining operations is often a nuisance to nearby residential
areas. Abandoned mining pits and spoil areas are often safety hazards
to children. These abandoned sites also render the land unsuitable for
other uses, and as such, are long-lasting eyesores to the public and
liabilities for their owners.

Because the rock and mineral resources lie below the ground surface,
the overlying material must be stripped to gain access to the underly-






ing material. This strip mining process necessarily destroys the na-
tural vegetation and animal communities on the site. In addition, some
adverse impacts are experienced by some species living adjacent to the
site because of the noise and on-site activity. This impact of plant
and animal communities being displaced and disturbed could be of great
significance depending on the value of the habitat and the rarity of
the species.

Water use and disposal may also have significant implications both for
ground and surface water quantity and quality. Often the phosphate and
limerock resources lie below the water table and the pits must be de-
watered so that the material can be mined from these areas. In addi-
tion, phosphate mining uses great quantities of water in its processes.
It is possible that local drawdown of the aquifer could occur if more
water is withdrawn than can be replaced within the same time period.
Other wells in the area could be adversely affected if their water
relationship is altered by the pumping of ground water. Water pumped
from the ground must be diverted off site through canals or other
natural surface water channels. Suspended particulate matter and nu-
trients in the water can affect the quality of the receiving water
bodies. Additional water flow from the mines can affect the discharge
rates of streams carrying the water. During periods of high water,
this can be a factor in local flooding. Conversely, diversion of
waters from natural streams to be used in the mining operation can
reduce the rate of flow downstream.

Not only can pumping and utilization of water by mining operations af-
fect environmental quality, but storm water runoff from the mining area
can also be a problem. Nutrients and other pollutants from the mining
operation are carried by surface water runoff into streams, water
bodies and wetlands where they can decrease water quality. Storage of
spoil or minerals, and the construction of settling and thickening
ponds for phosphate mining operations can be hazardous if these activi-
ties occur in the 100-year flood plain. Pollution of surface water
from spills and leakage of this material is a potential threat and the
displacement of flood waters by material storage and construction can
affect local flood stages.


Conservation Considerations for Geology


Most agricultural activities and urbanization are incompatible with
certain geological conditions without extensive alteration procedures
and maintenance practices. When certain geological formations lie
near or at the ground surface, they can render the ground less suitable
for vegetable and truck crops because tilling is difficult or impracti-
cal. Deep sands have low moisture-holding capacity and often contain
few nutrients. Irrigation and heavy fertilization are necessary for
good agricultural yields on these sands. Impermeable layers below the
soil result in flooding and poor drainage conditions. Clay and rock
lying near the ground surface in areas where there is adequate surface






drainage can still hinder urban development because these geological
conditions might be unsuitable for septic tanks, too.unstable for road-
beds and make shallow excavations for utilities and foundations diffi-
cult or expensive.

Rock and mineral resources are important from a conservation point of
view in that they are non-renewable resources, i.e., once high grade
deposits are depleted it will require increasing amounts of money and
energy to obtain or refine new raw materials from remaining supplies.
Because of the tremendous demands placed on our mineral resources by
our industrial system, many of our proven mineral reserves can last no
more than a few decades. Even the huge phosphate reserves of south
Florida are recognized to have very finite limits within this magnitude
of time. Inasmuch as our entire economy depends upon a balanced input
from all resources it is apparent that potential limitations imposed by
deteriorating reserves of high quality, non-renewable resources are a
key consideration in planning for the future.


Soils


Soils are three-dimensional bodies which lie at the surface of the
earth's crust. Weathered and reworked rock material and minerals form
the basic components of soil. Because of their intermediate posi-
tion, they are greatly influenced by the atmosphere above and geologi-
cal formations below. Soils are in a constant state of change due to
the forces at work on them. Man and all the components of the natural
systems working below, in and above them help develop the properties
which characterize soil types.

Soil properties and characteristics influence man's use of the land.
Slope, internal and external water relationships, clay, rock and sand
content, and natural fertility are some of the many characteristics
which soils exhibit in various combinations. The coincidence-of these
characteristics and other basic factors in soil composition affect the
soil's suitability for many uses. For example, urbanization requires
soils free from flooding in order to protect property and lives. Even
though modern technology often enables man to overcome many limitations
on land use presented by existing soil conditions, such change may be
uneconomical or precipitate undesirable social and environmental im-
pacts. Sound conservation and development practice requires the con-
sideration of limitations to development that may be imposed by soil
characteristics.

Detailed soil surveys undertaken since the fifties have been accom-
panied by in-depth analyses and interpretations which offer a wide
variety of information valuable for planning. Increasingly, soils are
being analyzed in terms of their suitability for a wide variety of
urban land uses. At present, the Florida General Soils Atlas for
Regional Planning Districts III and IV, prepared by the Florida
Division of State Planning, presents small-scale soil suitability maps






and tables which are useful for comprehensive land use planning. De-
tailed soil maps currently being prepared for Alachua County will pro-
vide more localized information which will be especially valuable for
more detailed, site specific land use planning. Part of the County has
already been surveyed and the results have been published by the United
States Soil Conservation Service in a document entitled Special Soil
Survey Report, Maps and Interpretations, Alachua County, Florida. How-
ever, individual site analysis is essential for the site planning of
high intensity land uses.


Soil Associations and Characteristics

Many different soil types have been identified in Alachua County.
Refinements in classification are constantly being made as more know-
ledge is gained about soils and their responses to various uses and
treatments. At present, the soils are grouped into 18 different
associations which represent groups of adjacent soil types in a geo-
graphical area. Soil types may vary widely within the association.
The predominant soil type or types within the group gives the associa-
tion its name. The Florida General Soils Atlas for Regional Planning
Districts III and IV presents a list and a description of the general
soil associations in Alachua County. FigureXfXin the Drainage Element
of the Alachua County Comprehensive Plan depicts the distribution of
these soil associations.

The soil associations have been placed into four major groups in the
Florida General Soils Atlas according to their drainage conditions and
potential for flooding. These characteristics describe the majority of
the soils within the association, but other conditions may be exhibited
by other soils within the association. Areas dominated by sandy,
drought soils which are not subject to flooding comprise about 22 per-
cent of the County. Areas dominated by well-drained soils not subject
to flooding cover about 25 percent of the total area of Alachua County.
Moderately-drained to poorly-drained soils characterize about 44 per-
cent of the land. Areas dominated by poorly and very poorly-drained
soils subject to flooding represent about nine percent of the total
County. This latter group is generally found in wetland areas,
prairies, and marshes around lakes and swamp forests along the Santa Fe
River and other water features.


Soils and Community Development

Soils information is extensively used when evaluating land for future
urban growth and development. Good drainage, bearing capacity, and
ease of excavation are characteristics of soils which provide the basic
needs for future growth and community development. Sound land use
planning will favor locations with these characteristics which reduce
site development costs for both the public and private sectors. The






broad evaluation of Alachua County soils presented in the Florida Gen-
eral Soils Atlas for Regional Planning Districts III and IV shows that
about 36 percent of the total land area offers only slight limitations
for community development. In addition, another six percent has only
moderate limitations.

Special design, major soil reclamation, or intensive management prac-
tices will be required if the remaining soils are to be utilized for
community development. Limitations for community development on these
soils are primarily due to wetness which results from a high water
table and poorly-drained surface conditions. Limestones lying near the
surface in western Alachua County often complicate shallow excavations
for utilities and building foundations. In general, land lying west of
the City of Gainesville and in the vicinity of the settlement of Orange
Heights offers fewer limitations to community development that that
land north, south and southwest of the City of Gainesville.

The suitability of soils for use of septic tanks influences the use of
land for residential development where waste water collection and
treatment systems are not available or cannot be feasibly provided to
an area. Interpretations of soils in the Florida General Soils Atlas
for Regional Planning Districts III and IV shows that about 19 percent
of Alachua County soils offer only slight limitations for septic tank
absorbtion fields. Another 12 percent present moderate limitations.
Wetness, depth to rock and slow percolation rates are the primary limi-
ting factors. The soils most suitable for use as septic tank absorp-
tion fields are located primarily in the same areas as noted earlier
where community development potential is greatest.


Soils and Agriculture

Agriculture is the predominant land use in Alachua County. Land whose
primary use is classified as agriculture represents about 65 percent of
the total County. To aid in the evaluation of land for various agri-
cultural uses, the Florida General Soils Atlas for Regional Planning
Districts III and IV presents interpretations of the suitability of
soils in Alachua County for agriculture. These interpretations are of
two kinds: (1) the capability grouping system; and (2) soil potential
for agriculture.

Each of the major soils within a soil association listed in the Florida
General Soils Atlas has been assigned a position in the capability
grouping system. This system represents a series of seven classes
which evaluates, in a general manner, the suitability of soils for most
kinds of field crops. Response to treatment, risks involved in the use
of these soils, and the limitation of the soil for use by field crops
are factors used in determining the seven classes of the capability
grouping system. The capability classes and the general limitations
imposed for each class are enumerated in the following list:







Class I Soils in Class I have few limitations that restrict
their use.

Class II Soils in Class II have some limitations that reduce the
choice of plants or require moderate conservation practices.

Class III Soils in Class III have severe limitations that reduce
the choice of plants or require special conservation practices, or
both.

Class IV Soils in Class IV have very severe limitations that re-
strict the choice of plants and require very careful management.

Class V Soils in Class V have little or no erosion hazard but
have other limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their
use largely to pasture, range, woodland, or wildlife food and
cover.

Class VI Soils in Class VI have severe limitations that make
them generally unsuited for cultivation and limit their use large-
ly to pasture or range, woodland, or wildlife food and cover.

Class VII Soils in Class VII have very severe limitations that
make them unsuited for cultivation and that restrict their use
largely to grazing, woodland, or wildlife.

Class VIII Soils and land forms in Class VIII have limitations
that preclude their use for commercial plant production and re-
strict their .tse to recreation, wildlife, water supply, or aesthe-
tic purposes.

An analysis of the soils in Alachua County, based on interpretations
presented in the Florida General Soils Atlas, shows that 59 percent of
the total land area is classified as Class II and Class III soils. No
Class I and Class VIII soils are listed for Alachua County. Table A
shows the percentage distribution of Alachua County land by capability
class.

Among other information provided in the capability grouping system is
the subclass. Subclass evaluations represent three kinds of limita-
tions imposed by the soils when used for field crops. Subclass "e" is
made up of soils which are susceptible to erosion or have incurred ero-
sion damage in the past. Subclass "w" includes those soils which, due
to flooding, high water table or poor drainage, present problems of
wetness which must be overcome. Subclass "s" is composed of soil which
present various limitations in the root zones of plants. These limita-
tions may result from shallow soils, low moisture holding capacity and
fertility, and stoniness. Table A classifies Alachua County land into
each capability group or class according to capability subclass.

In general, capability groups I, II and III are better suited for field
crops because of the less restrictive limitations imposed on soils by







these subclasses. The primary limiting factor of local soils is due to
wetness. About 39 percent of the total land area has some limitations
to use due to wetness.

The Florida General Soils Atlas for Regional Planning Districts III and
IV also makes interpretations of the soil potential for agriculture.
IEValuations of soil potential are based in part on factors such as dif-
ficulty to clear the land, droughtiness, excess humus, excess salt,
rapid percolation, poor outlets, productivity, rooting depth, and wet-
ness. Low, medium, and high potentials are designated for each of the
major soil types in the soil associations for use as pine woodlands,
cropland, and improved pasture. These evaluations assume a high
management level for the operation.

A correlation of soil potential for pine woodlands, croplands, and
improved pasture with the various capability classes of soils found in
Alachua County is made in Tables B, C and D. Information in these
tables shows that Class II, III and IV soils are the best agricultural
soils in Alachua County. Class II soils have a high potential in all
three categories--pine woodlands, croplands, and improved pasture.
Most of the Class III soils are designated as high potential for im-
proved pasture. The evaluation of Class IV soils mostly indicates low
potential for both pine woodlands and croplands, but about 60 percent
of these soils can be expected to produce high yields from improved
pasture.

An evaluation of the way in which various agricultural categories are
using Alachua County soils according to the capability classes was made
in Conservation Needs, prepared by the Florida Department of Agricul-
ture and Consumer Services. An update of this report is currently in
progress by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service. The comparison of
actual agricultural land use for field crops, pasture, and forestry
with the soil potential for these land uses according to capability
class provides some insights into the efficiency of agricultural land
use in Alachua County. Most of the total forest inventory Occurs on
Class III and Class V soils. These soils represent 17.3 percent and
22.0 percent of the total County land, respectively. The greatest
acreage devoted to cropland occurs on Class III soils. Cropland on
Class III soils composes 18.0 percent of the total County land. Pas-
ture also finds its principal development on Class III soils. Pasture
on Class III soils represents 11.7 percent of the total County land.
These statistics from Tables B, C and D show generally that most of the
pasture and cropland occurs on soils that possess the highest potential
for their development. Although 35 percent of the forestry occurs on
soils of medium potential for its development, a larger portion--44
percent--is found on soils with low potential for forestry development,
probably because this land is less suitable for other agricultural and
urban uses.

Because agriculture (crops, pasture, and forestland) occupies a major-
ity of the land in Alachua County, its development and management are
important to planning and consequently the quality of life in Alachua




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