Citation
Determination of selected sedimentary properties and erodibility of bottom sediments from the lower Kissimmee River and Taylor Creek-Nubbin Slough bas

Material Information

Title:
Determination of selected sedimentary properties and erodibility of bottom sediments from the lower Kissimmee River and Taylor Creek-Nubbin Slough bas
Series Title:
Determination of selected sedimentary properties and erodibility of bottom sediments from the lower Kissimmee River and Taylor Creek-Nubbin Slough bas
Creator:
Rodriguez, Hugo N.
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publisher:
Coastal & Oceanographic Engineering Dept. of Civil & Coastal Engineering, University of Florida
Language:
English

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text
UFL/COEL-97/09

DETERMINATION OF SELECTED SEDIMENTARY PROPERTIES AND ERODIBILITY OF BOTTOM SEDIMENTS FROM THE LOWER KISSIMMEE RIVER AND TAYLOR CREEK-NUBBIN SLOUGH BASINS, FLORIDA
By
Hugo N. Rodriguez Jianhua Jiang and
Ashish J. Mehta

October, 1997 Submitted to: Soil & Water Engineering Technology, Inc. Gainesville, FL 32605




SUMMARY

Selected sedimentary properties and erosion characteristics of sediments collected during three field sampling campaigns are presented. The areas include the Lower Kissimmee River Basin and the Taylor Creek-Nubbin Slough Basin, both located approximately north and adjacent to Lake Okeechobee in south-central Florida. The first of these campaigns, meant to be a preliminary exercise, occurred on 10/25/95. The second and third, more extensive, samplings took place during 8/26/96 through 9/6/96 and 4/15/95 through 5/5/97, respectively. For the first campaign, laboratory sedimentary analyses for density, organic content, grain size distribution and settling velocity were carried out for two shallow cores and a bottom surface grab-sample. The cores were subdivided just prior to these analyses according to visual stratigraphic horizons, and each sub-sample thus obtained was assayed for the above sedimentary parameters. The grab-sample was analyzed in bulk for the same. In addition, the rate of erosion of a bed prepared using the grab-sample was measured in the Particle Erosion Simulator (PES). The same procedures were generally followed for the second and third suites of samples. In the second suite there were twenty cores and twelve grab-samples and, in the third, twenty-five cores and twenty grab-samples.
Overall, the fifty-seven cores varied in length from 16.5 cm to 78.7 cm, and the sub-divided segments from 2.0 to 35.6 cm. The bulk density (sample volume divided by sample mass) of the subsamples varied from as low as 1,0 14 kg/in3 for a core with very high water content to 2,242 kg/in3 for a dense core substrate. The corresponding range of dry density (dry sediment mass per unit volume of sediment-water mixture) was 48 kg/in3 to 1,872 kg/in3. The respective composite granular density (sediment mass divided by sediment volume) varied from 1,029 kg /in3 for a sample composed mainly of organic matter (obtained as percent loss on ignition), to 2,987 kg/in3 for a predominantly inorganic sample.
While the organic content in some samples was practically nil, one sample contained 75.9% organics. The inorganic component typically consisted of medium to fine sand, and finer fractions mainly in the silt size range. The overall median grain size range was found to vary from 0.008 mm (medium silt) to 0.394 mm (medium sand). The sandy material at many sites seems to be moderately well sorted, i.e., comparatively uniform in size, but increasing fractions of organics cause the composite material to be increasingly graded (non-uniform). The sorting coefficient, i.e., the squareroot of the ratio of 75 percentile (by weight) grain size divided by 25 percentile grain size, ranged from 1.05 to 5.27, with the exception of one sample, which seemed exceptionally graded, with a sorting coefficient of about 12. This material was a mixture of organic floccules and silt- and claysized inorganic matter. It was also one of two with the lowest settling velocity of 0. 1 ni/s, corresponding to the median particle size. The highest settling velocity of 168.1 mm/ds was recorded for a sandy sample.
Eight out of the total of thirty-three grab-samples consisted of significant amounts of vegetative matter of such coarseness and consistency that their bulk properties could not be defined except for organic content, which ranged from 20.2% to 90. 1%. Ten samples were effectively sand-




dominated despite organic matter, with size ranging from 0. 148 mm to 0.39 1 mm. The remaining fifteen samples ranged in bulk density from watery 1,003 kg /in3 to dense 1,995 kg /rn3.
The overall range of dry density of the grab-samples was 131 kg/in3 to 1,616 kg/rn3, and the respective granular density varied from 1,024 kg/rn3 to 2,639 kg/rn3. This variation reflects the presence of organics; high percentage of organic matter giving a low composite density, and low percentage yielding high density. The organic content in the grab-samples ranged from 11.0% to 47.1%. The median grain size varied from 0.015 mm (medium silt) to 0.39 1 mm (medium sand), and the sorting coefficient from 1.07 to 2.98. Finally, the settling velocity range was 0. 1 mm/s corresponding to slowly falling organic floccules, to 146.5 mm/s for 0.39 1 m sand.
Over depths on the order of 30 to 90 cm cored, the organic content showed a trend of decrease from surface, where it ranged from -10% to -40%, to values on the order of 5% or less below about 30 cm. The bulk density correspondingly increased from 1, 100 kg/rn3 at surface to 2,200-2,800 kg/rn3 in the 30-90 cm deep zone. The organic-rich sediment within the top '-10 cm appears to have a fluid-like consistency, with bulk densities less than 1,200 kg/rn3. Similar "fluid mud" layering has also been observed in the nearby Lake Okeechobee.
The upper organic layer seems to have a high potential for scour, given its low critical shear stress for erosion (or shear strength), which is on the order of 0. 1 Pa. On the other hand, sand grains seem to be somewhat more resistant to erosion. As a result, given that the organics are inter-bedded with sand at many sites, at these sites, in the lower layers, sand may act to sequester the organics and thereby contain their transport by erosion.




TABLE OF CONTENTS
SU M M A RY ............................................................ 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................. 4
LIST OF FIGURES ...................................................... 5
LIST OF TABLES ...................................................... 13
INTRODUCTION ...................................................... 14
PARAMETERS AND METHODS FOR CHARACTERIZATION ................ 14
B ulk D ensity .................................................... 14
D ry D ensity ..................................................... 14
G ranular D ensity ................................................. 15
O rganic Content .................................................. 15
Particle Size Distribution ........................................... 15
Settling Velocity/Particle Size ....................................... 15
Critical Shear Stress and Erosion Rate Constant ......................... 15
RE SU LTS ............................................................ 16
Sedimentary Properties ............................................ 16
E credibility ...................................................... 19
B ed Profiles ................ I ..................................... 20
CONCLUDING COMMENTS ............................................ 20
REFEREN CES ........................................................ 21
APPENDIX A: CORE DESCRIPTIONS
APPENDIX B: GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS APPENDIX C: EROSION RATE VERSUS BED SHEAR STRESS APPENDIX D: BULK DENSITY AND ORGANIC CONTENT PROFILES




LIST OF FIGURES

1 Sampling sites (pilot and final) in the study area. Station numbers correspond to those
identifying the cores and grab-samples in this study ............................ 35
2 Variation of granular density with organic content. The mean line is described by the
stated equation ......................................................... 36
3 Erosion rate constant variation with critical shear stress. Dashed-line box shows
the bounds of analogous data obtained by Mehta et al. (1994) from the Rodman
Reservoir in North Florida ................................................ 36
A. 1 Core No. SW ET 1, P11 ................................................ A-1
A.2 Core No. SW ET 1, P4.5 ................................................ A-1
A.3 Core No. 4-09-03-96-C (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches. The height,
H, of each sub-section selected for sedimentary analysis is enumerated, 1, 2 and 3 in
this case. In some case, e.g., sub-section 1, the stratigraphy is not entirely uniform,
as indicated by the dashed-line divider) .................................... A-2
A.4 Core No. 21-09-04-96-C (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ........ A-2
A.5 Core No. 5-09-04-96-C (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ......... A-3
A.6 Core No. 24-09-03-96-C (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ........ A-3
A.7 Core No. 17-09-05-96-Cl (Note: 24" core taken in 5 ft of water; not drawn to scale.
Heights are in inches.) ................................................. A-4
A.8 Core No. 17-09-05-96-C2 (Note: 24" core; this core was driven deeper but otherwise
was in same cross-section as core No. 17-09-05-96-Cl; not drawn to scale. Heights
are in inches.) ....................................................... A -4
A.9 Core No. 7-09-06-96-C (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ......... A-5
A.10 Core No. 18-09-06-96-C (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ........ A-5
A.1 1 Core No. 1 1-09-06-96-C21 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ...... A-6
A.12 Core No. 11-09-06-96-C 11 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ...... A-6
A.13 Core No. 11-09-06-96-C12 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ...... A-7
A. 14 Core No. 8-08-28-96-C (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ......... A-7
A.15 Core No. 23-08-30-96-C (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ........ A-8
A.16 Core No. 19-08-28-96-Cl (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-8
A.17 Core No. 19-08-28-96-C2 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-9
A.18 Core No. 9-08-28-96-Cl (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ........ A-9
A.19 Core No. 9-08-28-96-C2 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-10
A.20 Core No. 14-08-27-96-C20 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ..... A-10
A.21 Core No. 14-08-27-96-C40 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ..... A-11
A.22 Core No. 15-08-26-96-C (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-11
A.23 Core No. 10-970417-Cl (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-12
A.24 Core No. 05-970416-Cl (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-12
A.25 Core No. 10-970417-C2X (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ..... A-13
A.26 Core No. 04-970417-Cl (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-13
A.27 Core No. 30-970415-Cl (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-14
A.28 Core No. 48-970422-Cl (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-14




A.29 Core No. 21-970424-C1 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-15
A.30 Core No. 21-970424-C2 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-15
A.31 Core No. 35-970421-C2 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-16
A.32 Core No. 35-970421-Cl (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-16
A.33 Core No. 60-970421-Cl (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-17
A.34 Core No. 60-970421-C2 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-17
A.35 Core No. 33-970424-C2 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-18
A.36 Core No. 33-970424-Cl (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-18
A.37 Core No. 22-970424-C1 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-19
A.38 Core No. 22-970424-C2 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-19
A.39 Core No. 11-970505-Cl (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-20
A.40 Core No. 11-970505-C2 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-20
A.41 Core No. 54-970502-Cl (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-21
A.42 Core No. 54-970502-C2 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-21
A.43 Core No. 08-970501-Cl (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-22
A.44 Core No. 08-970501-C2 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-22
A.45 Core No. 50-970429-Cl (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-23
A.46 Core No. 50-970429-C2 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-23
A.47 Core No. 42-970429-Cl (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-24
A.48 Core No. 42-970429-C2 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-24
A.49 Core No. 41-970429-Cl (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-25
A.50 Core No. 25-970502-C l(Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-26
A.51 Core No. 41-970429-ClA (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ..... A-26
A.52 Core No. 19-970428-Cl (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-27
A.53 Core No. 25-970502-C2(Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-27
A.54 Core No. 36-970429-Cl(Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-28
A.55 Core No. 19-970428-C2 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-28
A.56 Core No. 36-970429-C2 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-29
A.57 Core No. 56-970502-Cl (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-29
B. I Grain size distribution for sample SWET 1, P11-1 ............................ B-1
B.2 Grain size distribution for sample SWET 1, P11-2 ............................ B-1
B.3 Grain size distribution for sample SWET 1, P11-3 ............................ B-2
B.4 Grain size distribution for sample SWET 1, P4.5-1 ........................... B-2
B.5 Grain size distribution for sample SWET 1, P4.5-2 ........................... B-3
B.6 Grain size distribution for sample SWET 1, P4.5-3 ........................... B-3
B.7 Grain size distribution for sample SWET 1, P4.5-4 ........................... B-4
B.8 Grain size distribution for sample SWET 1, P4.5-5 ........................... B-4
B.9 Grain size distribution for sample E-1 ...................................... B-5
B.10 Grain size distribution for sample 4-09-03-96-C-A ............................ B-5
B. 11 Grain size distribution for sample 4-09-03-96-C-B ............................ B-6
B. 12 Grain size distribution for sample 4-09-03-96-C-C ............................ B-6
B.13 Grain size distribution for sample 21-09-04-96-C-A ........................... B-7
B.14 Grain size distribution for sample 21-09-04-96-C-B ........................... B-7




B.15 B.16 B.17 B.18 B.19 B.20 B.21 B.22 B.23 B.24 B.25 B.26 B.27 B.28 B.29 B.30 B.31 B.32 B.33 B.34 B.35 B.36 B.37 B.38 B.39 B.40 B.41 B.42 B.43 B.44 B.45 B.46 B.47 B.48 B.49 B.50 B.51 B.52 B.53 B.54 B.55 B.56 B.57

Grain size distribution for sample 5-09-04-96-C-A .......
Grain size distribution for sample 5-09-04-96-C-B .......
Grain size distribution for sample 24-09-03-96-C-A ......
Grain size distribution for sample 24-09-03-96-C-B ......
Grain size distribution for sample 17-09-05-96-C1-A ..... Grain size distribution for sample 17-09-05-96-C1-B ..... Grain size distribution for sample 17-09-05-96-C2-A ..... Grain size distribution for sample 17-09-05-96-C2-B ..... Grain size distribution for sample 7-09-06-96-C-B .......
Grain size distribution for sample 7-09-06-96-C-C .......
Grain size distribution for sample 18-09-06-96-C-A ......
Grain size distribution for sample 18-09-06-96-C-B ......
Grain size distribution for sample 11-09-06-96-C21-A .... Grain size distribution for sample 11-09-06-96-C21-B .... Grain size distribution for sample 11-09-06-96-C11-A .... Grain size distribution for sample 11-09-06-96-C11-B .... Grain size distribution for sample 11-09-06-96-C12-A .... Grain size distribution for sample 11-09-06-96-C12-B .... Grain size distribution for sample 8-08-28-96-C-A .......
Grain size distribution for sample 8-08-28-96-C-C .......
Grain size distribution for sample 23-08-30-96-C-A ......
Grain size distribution for sample 23-08-30-96-C-B ......
Grain size distribution for sample 19-08-28-96-C1-A ..... Grain size distribution for sample 19-08-28-96-C1-B ..... Grain size distribution for sample 19-08-28-96-C1-C ..... Grain size distribution for sample 19-08-28-96-C2-A ..... Grain size distribution for sample 19-08-28-96-C2-B ..... Grain size distribution for sample 19-08-28-96-C2-C ..... Grain size distribution for sample 9-08-28-96-C1-A ......
Grain size distribution for sample 9-08-28-96-C1-B ......
Grain size distribution for sample 9-08-28-96-C2-A ......
Grain size distribution for sample 9-08-28-96-C2-B ......
Grain size distribution for sample 14-08-27-96-C20-A .... Grain size distribution for sample 14-08-27-96-C20-B .... Grain size distribution for sample 14-08-27-96-C40-A .... Grain size distribution for sample 14-08-27-96-C40-B .... Grain size distribution for sample 14-08-27-96-C40-C .... Grain size distribution for sample 15-08-26-96-C-A ......
Grain size distribution for sample 15-08-26-96-C-B ......
Grain size distribution for sample 6-08-27-96-C1-East-A Grain size distribution for sample 6-08-27-96-C1-East-B. Grain size distribution for sample 6-08-27-96-C1-East-C.. Grain size distribution for sample 6-08-27-96-C2-West-A

....... B-8
....... B-8
....... B-9
....... B-9
...... B-10
...... B-10
...... B-11
...... B-11
...... B-12
...... B-12
...... B-13
...... B-13
...... B-14
...... B-14
...... B-15
...... B-15
...... B-16
...... B-16
...... B-17
...... B-17
...... B-18
...... B-18
...... B-19
...... B-19
...... B-20
...... B-20
...... B-21
...... B-21
...... B-22
...... B-22
...... B-23
...... B-23
...... B-24
...... B-24
...... B-25
...... B-25
...... B-26
...... B-26
...... B-27
...... B-27
...... B-28
...... B-28
...... B-29




B.58 B.59 B.60 B.61 B.62 B.63 B.64 B.65 B.66 B.67 B.68 B.69 B.70 B.71 B.72 B.73 B.74 B.75 B.76 B.77 B.78 B.79 B.80 B.81 B.82 B.83 B.84 B.85 B.86 B.87 B.88 B.89 B.90 B.91 B.92 B.93 B.94 B.95 B.96 B.97
B.98 B.99 B.100

Grain size distribution for sample 6-08-27-96-C2-West-B Grain size distribution for sample 6-08-27-96-C2-West-C Grain size distribution for sample 6-08-27-96-ED .......
Grain size distribution for sample 8-08-28-96-ED .......
Grain size distribution for sample 9-08-28-96-ED .......
Grain size distribution for sample 11-09-06-96-ED ...... Grain size distribution for sample 14-08-27-96-ED ...... Grain size distribution for sample 15-08-26-96-ED ...... Grain size distribution for sample 17-09-05-96-ED ...... Grain size distribution for sample 19-08-28-96-ED ...... Grain size distribution for sample 23-08-30-96-ED ...... Grain size distribution for sample 04-970417-Cl -A ...... Grain size distribution for sample 04-970417-Cl -B ...... Grain size distribution for sample 05-970416-Cl1-A ...... Grain size distribution for sample 05-970416-C1-B ...... Grain size distribution for sample 08-970501-C1-A ...... Grain size distribution for sample 08-970501-Cl1-B ...... Grain size distribution for sample 08-970501-C2-A ...... Grain size distribution for sample 08-970501-C2-B ...... Grain size distribution for sample 10-970417-Cl-A ...... Grain size distribution for sample 10-970417-C1-B ...... Grain size distribution for sample 10-970417-C2X-A .... Grain size distribution for sample 10-970417-C2X-B ..... Grain size distribution for sample 11-970505-C1-A ...... Grain size distribution for sample 11-970505-C 1-B ...... Grain size distribution for sample 11-970505-C2-A ...... Grain size distribution for sample 11-970505-C2-B ...... Grain size distribution for sample 11-970505-C2-C ...... Grain size distribution for sample 19-970428-Cl1-A ...... Grain size distribution for sample 19-970428-C1-B ...... Grain size distribution for sample 19-970428-C2-A ...... Grain size distribution for sample 19-970428-C2-B ...... Grain size distribution for sample 21-970424-C1-Al ..... Grain size distribution for sample 21-970424-C1-B ...... Grain size distribution for sample 21-970424-C2-A ...... Grain size distribution for sample 21-970424-C2-B ...... Grain size distribution for sample 22-970421-C 1-A ...... Grain size distribution for sample 22-970421-C 1-B ...... Grain size distribution for sample 22-970421-C2-Al .... Grain size distribution for sample 25-970502-C1-A ...... Grain size distribution for sample 25-970502-C1-B ...... Grain size distribution for sample 25-970502-C2-A ...... Grain size distribution for sample 25-970502-C2-B ......

... B-29
... B-30
.. B-30
.. B-31
... B-31
... B-32
... B-32
... B-33
... B-33
... B-34
... B-34
... B-35
. B-35
... B-36
... B-36
... B-37
... B-37
... B-38
... B-38
... B-39
... B-39
.. B-40
... B-40
.. B-41
.. B-41
... B-42
... B-42
... B-43
... B-43
... B-44
... B-44
.. B-45
S. B-45 ... B-46
... B-46
... B-47
... B-47
.. B-48
... B-48
.. B-49
... B-49
... B-50
... B-50




B.101 Grain size distribution for sample 30-970415-Cl-A .......................... B-51
B. 102 Grain size distribution for sample 30-970415-Cl-B .......................... B-51
B. 103 Grain size distribution for sample 33-970424-Cl-A .......................... B-52
B.104 Grain size distribution for sample 33-970424-Cl-B .......................... B-52
B.105 Grain size distribution for sample 33-970424-C2-A .......................... B-53
B. 106 Grain size distribution for sample 33-970424-C2-B .......................... B-53
B. 107 Grain size distribution for sample 35-970421-Cl-A .......................... B-54
B.108 Grain size distribution for sample 35-970421-Cl-B .......................... B-54
B.109 Grain size distribution for sample 35-970421-C2-A .......................... B-55
B. 110 Grain size distribution for sample 35-970421-C2-B 1 ......................... B-55
B.111 Grain size distribution for sample 36-970429-Cl-A .......................... B-56
B.1 12 Grain size distribution for sample 36-970429-C l-B .......................... B-56
B.113 Grain size distribution for sample 36-970429-C2-A .......................... B-57
B. 114 Grain size distribution for sample 36-970429-C2-B .......................... B-57
B. 115 Grain size distribution for sample 41-970429-Cl-A .......................... B-58
B.1 16 Grain size distribution for sample 41-970429-Cl-B .......................... B-58
B. 117 Grain size distribution for sample 41-970429-C1A-A ........................ B-59
B.1 18 Grain size distribution for sample 41-970429-ClA-B ......................... B-59
B. 119 Grain size distribution for sample 42-970429-Cl-A .......................... B-60
B. 120 Grain size distribution for sample 42-970429-C 1-B .......................... B-60
B. 121 Grain size distribution for sample 42-970429-C2-A .......................... B-61
B.122 Grain size distribution for sample 42-970429-C2-B .......................... B-61
B. 123 Grain size distribution for sample 48-970422-Cl-A .......................... B-62
B. 124 Grain size distribution for sample 48-970422-Cl-B .......................... B-62
B. 125 Grain size distribution for sample 50-970429-Cl-A .......................... B-63
B. 126 Grain size distribution for sample 50-970429-Cl-B .......................... B-63
B. 127 Grain size distribution for sample 50-970429-C2-A .......................... B-64
B.128 Grain size distribution for sample 50-970429-C2-B .......................... B-64
B.129 Grain size distribution for sample 54-970502-Cl-A .......................... B-65
B.130 Grain size distribution for sample 54-970502-Cl-B .......................... B-65
B.131 Grain size distribution for sample 54-970502-C2-A .......................... B-66
B.132 Grain size distribution for sample 54-970502-C2-B .......................... B-66
B.133 Grain size distribution for sample 56-970502-Cl-A .......................... B-67
B. 134 Grain size distribution for sample 56-970502-Cl-B .......................... B-67
B.135 Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-Cl-A .......................... B-68
B. 136 Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C1-B .......................... B-68
B.137 Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-A1 ......................... B-69
B. 138 Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-B .......................... B-69
B. 139 Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-B .......................... B-70
B.140 Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-B .......................... B-70
B. 141 Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-B .......................... B-71
B. 142 Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-B .......................... B-71
B. 143 Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-B .......................... B-72




B. 144 B.145 B.146 B.147 B.148 B.149 B.150 B.151 B.152 B.153 C.1

Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-B Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-B Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-B Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-B Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-B Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-B Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-B Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-B Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-B Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-B Erosion rate versus bed shear stress for sample E-1

.......................... B -72
.......................... B -73
.......................... B -73
.......................... B -74
.......................... B -74
.......................... B -75
.......................... B -75
.......................... B -76
.......................... B -76
.......................... B -77
........................... C -1

C.2 Erosion rate versus bed shear stress for 6-08-27-96-ED ........................ C-1
C.3 Erosion rate versus bed shear stress for 8-08-28-96-ED ........................ C-2

C.4 C.5
C.6 C.7 C.8 C.9 C.10 C.11 C.12 C.13 C.14 C.15 C.16

Erosion rate versus bed shear stress for 14-08-27-96-ED Erosion rate versus bed shear stress for 19-08-28-96-ED Erosion rate versus bed shear stress for 23-08-30-96-ED Erosion rate versus bed shear stress for 11-970505-ED1 Erosion rate versus bed shear stress for 19-970428-ED1 Erosion rate versus bed shear stress for 21-970424-ED1 Erosion rate versus bed shear stress for 22-970424-ED 1 Erosion rate versus bed shear stress for 30-970415-EDI Erosion rate versus bed shear stress for 35-970421-EDI Erosion rate versus bed shear stress for 36-970429-ED1 Erosion rate versus bed shear stress for 48-970422-ED1 Erosion rate versus bed shear stress for 50-970429-ED 1 Erosion rate versus bed shear stress for 54-970502-ED 1

....................... C -2
....................... C -3
....................... C -3
....................... C -4
....................... C -4
....................... C -5
....................... C -5
....................... C -6
....................... C -6
....................... C -7
....................... C -7
....................... C -8
....................... C -8

D. 1 Depth variation of sediment bulk density: samples SWT, P11 and SWET 1, P4.5... D-1 D.2 Depth variation of sediment bulk density: samples 4-09-03-96-C; 21-09-04-96-C;
5-09-04-96-C and 24-09-03-96-C ........................................ D-1
D.3 Depth variation of sediment bulk density: samples 17-09-05-96-Cl; 17-09-05-96-C2;
7-09-06-96-C and 18-09-06-96-C ........................................ D-2
D.4 Depth variation of sediment bulk density: samples 11-09-06-96-C2 1; 11-09-06-96-C 11;
11-09-06-96-C12 and 8-08-28-96-C ...................................... D-2
D.5 Depth variation of sediment bulk density: samples 19-08-28-96-Cl; 19-08-28-96-C2;
9-08-28-96-Cl and 9-08-28-96-C2 ....................................... D-3
D.6 Depth variation of sediment bulk density: samples 23-08-30-96-C; 14-08-27-96-C20;
14-08-27-96-C40 and 15-08-26-96-C ..................................... D-3
D.7 Depth variation of sediment bulk density: samples 6-08-27-96-C 1-East
and 6-08-27-96-C2-W est ............................................... D-4
D.8 Depth variation of sediment bulk density: samples 04-970417-Cl; 05-970416-Cl;
08-970501-Cl and 08-970501-C2 ........................................ D-5
D.9 Depth variation of sediment bulk density: samples 10-970417-Cl; 10-970417-C2X;
11-970505-Cl and 11-970505-C2 ........................................ D-5




D.10 Depth variation of sediment bulk density: samples 19-970428-Cl; 19-970428-C2;
21-970424-Cl and 21-970424-C2 ........................................ D-6
D.11 Depth variation of sediment bulk density: samples 22-970421-C1; 25-970502-C1;
25-970502-C2 and 30-970415-Cl ........................................ D-6
D.12 Depth variation of sediment bulk density: samples 33-970424-Cl; 33-970424-C2;
35-970421-Cl and 35-970421-C2 ........................................ D-7
D.13 Depth variation of sediment bulk density: samples 36-970429-Cl; 36-970429-C2;
41-970429-Cl and 41-970429-ClA ...................................... D-7
D. 14 Depth variation of sediment bulk density: samples 42-970429-Cl; 42-970429-C2;
48-970422-Cl and 56-970502-Cl ........................................ D-8
D. 15 Depth variation of sediment bulk density: samples 50-970429-Cl; 50-970429-C2;
54-970502-Cl and 54-970502-C2 ........................................ D-8
D. 16 Depth variation of sediment bulk density: samples 60-970421-Cl
and 60-970421-C2 .................................................... D -9
D. 17 Depth variation of organic content: samples SWT, P 11 and SWET 1, P4.5 ....... D-10 D.18 Depth variation of organic content: samples 4-09-03-96-C; 21-09-04-96-C;
5-09-04-96-C and 24-09-03-96-C ....................................... D-10
D.19 Depth variation of organic content: samples 17-09-05-96-Cl; 17-09-05-96-C2;
7-09-06-96-C and 18-09-06-96-C ...................... .............. D-1 1
D.20 Depth variation of organic content: samples 1 1-09-06-96-C21; 11-09-06-96-C 11;
11-09-06-96-C12 and 8-08-28-96-C ..................................... D-11
D.21 Depth variation of organic content: samples 19-08-28-96-Cl; 19-08-28-96-C2;
9-08-28-96-Cl and 9-08-28-96-C2 ...................................... D-12
D.22 Depth variation of organic content: samples 23-08-30-96-C; 14-08-27-96-C20;
14-08-27-96-C40 and 15-08-26-96-C .................................... D-12
D.23 Depth variation of organic content: samples 6-08-27-96-C1-East
and 6-08-27-96-C2- W est ............................................ D-13
D.24 Depth variation of organic content: samples 04-970417-Cl; 05-970416-Cl;
08-970501-Cl and 08-970501-C2 ........... ........................... D-14
D.25 Depth variation of organic content: samples 10-970417-Cl; 10-970417-C2X;
11-970505-Cl and 11-970505-C2 ........... ........................... D-14
D.26 Depth variation of organic content: samples 19-970428-Cl; 19-970428-C2;
21-970424-Cl and 21-970424-C2 ............ .......................... D-15
D.27 Depth variation of organic content: samples 22-970421-Cl; 25-970502-Cl;
25-970502-C2 and 30-970415-Cl ............ .......................... D-15
D.28 Depth variation of organic content: samples 33-970424-Cl; 33-970424-C2;
35-970421-Cl and 35-970421-C2 ............ .......................... D-16
D.29 Depth variation of organic content: samples 36-970429-Cl; 36-970429-C2;
41-970429-C1 and 41-970429-C1A ......... ........................... D-16
D.30 Depth variation of organic content: samples 42-970429-Cl; 42-970429-C2;
48-970422-Cl and 56-970502-Cl ........... ........................... D-17
D.31 Depth variation of organic content: samples 50-970429-Cl; 50-970429-C2;
54-970502-Cl and 54-970502-C2 ....................................... D-17




D.32 Depth variation of organic content: samples 60-970421-Cl and 60-970421-C2 ... D-18




LIST OF TABLES

1 Sedimentary parameters for cores and grab-samples from the first field campaign ......... 24 2 Sedimentary parameters for cores and grab-samples from the second field campaign ...... 25 3 Sedimentary parameters for cores and grab-samples from the third field campaign ........ 29 4 Erosion rate param eters ....................................................... 33




DETERMINATION OF SELECTED SEDIMENTARY PROPERTIES AND
ERODIBILITY OF BOTTOM SEDIMENTS FROM THE LOWER KISSIMMEE RIVER AND TAYLOR CREEK-NUBBIN SLOUGH BASINS, FLORIDA
INTRODUCTION
This report presents laboratory measurements of selected sedimentary properties and erosion characteristics of sediments collected during three field sampling campaigns in the Lower Kissimmee River Basin and Taylor Creek-Nubbin Slough Basin, both located approximately north and adjacent to Lake Okeechobee in south-central Florida (Fig. 1). Two collected shallow cores from the first, preliminary, campaign carried out on 10/26/95 were analyzed for density, organic content, size distribution and settling velocity. Core descriptions based on visual stratigraphy are given in Appendix A. These descriptions correspond to sub-segments into which the total cores lengths were divided according to identifiable and significant horizons. In addition to these cores, a bottom surface grab-sample collected during the first campaign was also analyzed for the same sedimentary properties as well as its erodibility under quasi-steady, flow-induced stressing. Results from these analyses follow brief descriptions of parameters measured and the methods used. The main body of results consists of similar analyses of twenty-two cores and twelve grab-samples obtained in the second, more extensive, field campaign carried out during 8/27/96 through 9/7/96, and the third campaign during 4/15/97 through 5/5/97.
PARAMETERS AND METHODS FOR CHARACTERIZATION
Bulk Density
The bulk density, p, was determined gravimetrically by weighing a sample of known volume determined using a 10 cm3 cylinder, through the equation,
M
P (1)
v
where M is the mass of the volume, V, of the sample.
Dry Density
The bulk sample from the above test was then dried in an oven at 105'C for 24 hours and the dry mass, MD, recorded (see Designation D4531-86 of ASTM, 1993). The dry density, PD, was then calculated as:
PD D (2)
P -V




Granular Density
Knowing the dry density, PD' the corresponding granular density, p was calculated from the following on mass balance (Mehta, 1986):
PDPw
Ps PDP (3)
PD + Pw P
where pw is the density of water taken as 1,000 kg/m3.
Organic Content
The fraction of organic matter in the sediment, as defined by percent weight loss on ignition, was determined using the standard combustion method per Designation D2974-87 of ASTM (1993). This test was a continuation of the dry density determination whereby the dried sample was heated again for 24 hours in a combustion furnace at 5500C. The ashed sample was removed from the oven and placed in a desiccator to cool. After the cooled sample was weighed (MA), the percentage of organic matter in the sediment was calculated as:
OC x 100% (4)
MD
Particle Size Distribution
1. For sand-sized sediment (greater than 63 pm in diameter), quantitative determination of the distribution of particle size, D, was achieved by mechanical sieving as described in Designation D422-63 of ASTM (1993), and by using the Rapid Sand Analyzer (RAPSANDER) at the Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Laboratory of the University of Florida. A description of RAPSANDER and the procedure for its use are provided by Charles (1994). The two methods (i.e., sieving and using RAPSANDER) have been shown in that study to yield comparable histograms of grain size.
2. For fine-grained sediment (smaller than 63 pm in diameter), the standard hydrometer test can be used to obtain the grain size distribution (ASTM, 1993, Section 4, pp. 93-99). However, in this study the following method was used, given the presence of significant organic matter as part of the sediment in many samples.
Settling Velocity/Particle Size
The method selected to measure the particle size distribution and the settling velocity of suspended fine sediment was the well-known bottom withdrawal method using a settling tube (1.22 in long x 25 mm inside diameter), as described in Vanoni (1975). The general procedure for a sediment sample consisting of both coarse-grained and fine-grained fractions was as follows:




1. Coarse Fraction: The distribution of the coarse fraction was first determined by wet-sieving the grab-sample using three sieve sizes with 0.850 mm, 0.420 mmn and 0.150 mm openings. The fractions retained by these sieves were then analyzed according to the sieve analysis procedure cited above. The settling velocity of sediment was obtained for the median size according to Eq. 5, which relates the size (D) to settling velocity, w, according to:
D18pwv (5)
Sg(pS P)S
where v = kinematic viscosity of water.
2. Fine Fraction: The finer fraction that passed through the 0. 150 mm sieve size was then transferred to the bottom withdrawal tube. Once the suspension was uniformly distributed in the tube by tilting and shaking it, the time of settling was begun and equal-volume aliquots were withdrawn at subsequent time intervals to obtain the Oden Curve relating the percentage by weight in suspension, W, and the time of fall, t. The intercept at the W-axis by the tangent drawn from the Oden curve at time t represents the percentage by weight of the sediment in the sample that is finer than the size corresponding to the observed time of fall. This information was then used to obtain the histogram of particle diameter and a representative settling velocity based on Eq. 5. See details in Vanoni (1975) for the exact procedure.
3. Size Distribution and Settling Velocity of Composite Sample: When both coarse and fine fractions are significant, e.g., 50/50, the size distribution of the composite is obtained by combining the histograms of the two fractions and calculating a single representative value of the settling velocity. When only one fraction is dominant, e.g., 80% or greater, it suffices to report the settling velocity of the dominant fraction.
Critical Shear Stress and Erosion Rate Constant
Erosion tests were conducted using the Particle Erosion Simulator (PES), which consists of a cylindrical chamber inside of which a horizontal grid oscillates vertically (Tsai and Lick, 1986). The chamber is 12.7 cm high with an outside diameter of 11.5 cm and inside diameter of 11.0 cm. The sediment is placed at the bottom of the chamber and overlain by water. The grid is oscillated in water and creates turbulence, which in turn generates a quasi-steady fluid stress at the bed surface. When this stress exceeds the critical shear stress for erosion (or bed shear strength), sediment entrainment occurs due to bed scour. During the test, suspended samples are withdrawn periodically for concentration determination. The time-series of suspension concentration thus obtained at different frequencies of grid oscillation, which is calibrated a priori to yield the applied shear stress, trb, is then used to calculate the critical shear stress for erosion, -r., and the erosion rate constant, M, using the following linear rate equation:




dmi h dC9 = M(Trb -rd; rb > -rc (6)
dt dt
where mn = sediment mass eroded per unit bed area per unit time, C =measured sediment concentration at the end of the period of a constant applied stress, Trb, and h =depth of water in the chamber (Lee et al., 1994).
For the complete test procedure the work of Tsai and Lick (1986) should be referenced. The only noteworthy difference was the choice of the equation for converting the grid RPM to the bed shear stress, rb (Pa). The equation used in the present study was derived from a calibration of the PES specifically for organic-rich samples (Mehta et al., 1994):
Tb = 0.0005914 x RPM (7)
RESULTS
Sedimentary Properties
Results from the First Campaign: As seen from Figs. A. 1 and A.2 in Appendix A, the two cores exhibit stratigraphic sub-divisions that range in color from sandy to grey to black. These subdivisions are between 9 cm and 18 cm in height, and correspond to visual horizons that presumably reflect local depositional and erosional sequences.
Results based on sedimentary analysis for the sub-samples, each sub-sample corresponding to a sub-division, are given in Table 1. The bulk density (sample volume divided by sample mass) is observed to range between 1,360 and 1,800 kg/in3, and the corresponding dry density (dry sediment mass per unit volume of sediment-water mixture) is between 690 and 1,440 kg /in3. The composite granular density (sediment mass divided by sediment volume) is consistently lower than, e.g., 2,650 kg/in3 characteristic of quartz sand. This is undoubtedly due to the presence of lighter material, including organic matter. Loss on ignition is observed to vary from as low as 0.8% to as high as 18.7%.
The cumulative gain size distributions are given in Figs. B. 1 through B.8 in Appendix B. The median diameter values indicate that with the exception of sub-sample P4.5-5, which was in the fine-sand range, the remaining sub-samples were essentially in the medium sand size-range. The sorting coefficients (obtained from the cumulative grain size distribution plot as the square-root of the ratio of 75 percentile by weight grain size divided by the 25 percentile grain size) indicate moderate to poor sorting, while the settling velocities correspond to the dominant sand sizes in the sub-samples (Shore Protection Manual, 1984).
The bulk density of grab-sample E- 1 (1,070 kg/in3) is characteristic of fluid-like mud (density less than 1,200 kg/in3), also found in the surficial sediment layers of Lake Okeechobee (Kirby et




al., 1994). This low bulk density is likewise reflected in the very low dry density (130 kg/m3), while the granular density of the sediment (2,220 kg/m3) is consistent with those from the cores. The fluid mud-like character of the grab-sample is certainly due to the high organic content (26%). The material is poorly sorted (So = 1.77), indicative of its heterogeneous composition. The settling velocity (0.39 mm/s) corresponding to median particle size is characteristic of fine-grained sediment (Mehta, 1986).
Results from the Second Campaign: Results from this campaign are summarized in Table 2. The sequencing of cores as presented is based on the order in which they were analyzed, and agrees with the sequence in which they are presented in Appendix A. Note that when analyzing the cores for their sedimentary properties, in several cases two or more sub-samples, as identified numerically in the core descriptions in Appendix A, were combined because they were found to be visually similar. These combinations required new alphabetic designations, which are given in Table 2. See also, note at the end of that table for further comments in this context.
The cores varied in length from 22.9 cm (Core No. 17-09-05-96-Cl) to 78.7 cm (19-08-2896-Cl), and sub-segments from 3.2 cm [7-09-05-96-C2 A(l)] to 61 cm [9-08-28-96-Cl B(3)]. The
bulk density of the sub-samples varied from as low as 1,104 kg/m3 for a core with high water content [19-08-28-96-C2 A(Top 6")] to 2,223 kg/m3 for a dense substrate [1 1-09-06-96-C12 B(5)]. The corresponding range of dry density was 48 kg/m I3 [19-08-28-96-Cl A(Top 6")] to 1,872 kg/m 3 [11-09-06-96-C12 B(5)]. The composite granular density varied from 1,085 kg/m3 for a sub-sample composed mainly of organic material [4-09-03-96-C A(l)] to 2,885 kg/m3 for a core containing mostly inorganic material [11-09-06-96-C 12 B(5)].
Overall, while the percentage of organic matter in some sub-samples was practically nil (e.g., 21-09-04-96-C B(2) with 2% organics], one sub-sample contained 75.9% [7-09-06-96-C A(l)]. The
inorganic component typically consisted of medium to fine sand, and the finer fractions were mainly silt-sized. The median grain size range was found to be 0.020 mm [19-09-06-96-C12 A(Top 6")] to 0.316 mm [9-08-28-96-Cl A(l+2)]. The sandy material was generally moderately well sorted, i.e., reasonably uniform; however, increasing fractions of organics led to increasing non-uniformity. Overall, the sorting coefficient ranged from 1.16 [19-08-28-96-Cl C(3)] to 4.12 [17-09-05-96-C2 A(1)]. The exception was a highly graded sub-sample [8-08-28-96-C A(l+2)], with a sorting coefficient of 12. This material was a mixture of organic floccules and inorganic silt- and clay-sized particles. It was one of the two samples with the lowest settling velocity of 0.1 mm/s. The highest settling velocity of 48.4 mm/s was recorded for a sandy sample [9-08-28-96-Cl B(3)].
Three of the grab-samples (5-09-04-96-ED, 18-09-06-96-ED and 24-09-03-96-ED), consisted
mostly of vegetative matter. Given their coarseness, their bulk properties could not be defined, with the exception of the organic content, which was naturally high. The highest value was 90.1% for Core No. 24-09-03-96-ED. Among the remaining samples some were quite watery (e.g., 1,003 kg/m 3 for 19-08-28-96-ED) and others were denser. The densest was 9-08-28-96-ED with 1,995 kg/m3. The range of dry density was 137 kg/m3 (6-08-27-96-ED) to 1,616 kg/m3 (19-08-28-96ED), and the granular density varied from 1,024 kg/m 3 (19-08-28-96-ED) to 2,620 kg/m 3 915-08-




26-96-ED).

The organic content in the grab-samples varied from almost nil to 47.1%. The particle size, which very approximately correlates with this change in the organic content, ranged from 0.018 mm (8-08-28-96-ED) to 0.347 mm (9-08-26-96-ED). The sorting coefficient varied from 1.17 (15-08-2696-ED) to 2.58 (8-08-28-96-ED). Finally, the settling velocity was as low as 0.1 mm/s for fine particles (e.g., 8-08-28-96-ED) to as high as 105.1 mm/s for a sample consisting of 0.347 mm sandy particles (9-08-28-96-ED).
Results from the Third Campaign: Extensive results on core and grab-sample analyses obtained in this campaign in Table 3 should be examined against the backdrop of analogous results obtained from the second campaign, which was also extensive. An inspection of the data in all categories (columns in the table) reveals no major trends that are significantly different from those in Table 2. There are likely differences due to locality and season, which however are not examined here. In any event, it is instructive to combine the results from this campaign and the previous two campaigns to establish lower and upper limits with respect to the parameters in Table 3. In that context, the following observations are made.
Overall, the fifty-seven cores varied in length from 16.5 cm or 6.5" (8-970501-C1) to 78.7 cm or 31" [19-08-28-96-C2 A (Top 6")]. The sub-divided segments varied from 2 cm or 0.8" [e.g., 05970416-Cl-A(1+2)] to 35.6 cm or 14" [36-970429-C2-B(2)]. The bulk density of the sub-samples varied from as low as 1,014 kg/m 3 for core material with a very high water content [19-08-28-96-C2 A(Top 6")] to 2,242 kg/m3 for a dense substrate [35970421-Cl-B(3)]. The range of dry density was 48 kg/m3 [ 19-08-28-96-C1 A(Top 6")] to 1,872 kg/m3 [11-09-06-96-C 12 B(5)]. The composite granular density ranged from 1,029 kg/m 3 for a sub-sample composed mainly of organic matter [19970428-C2-B(lower 2+upper 3)] to 2,987 kg/m3 for inorganic matter [35-970421-C1-B(3)].
Overall, while the percentage of organic matter in some sub-samples was practically nil (e.g., 21-970424-C2-B), one sub-sample [7-09-06-96-C A(1)] contained 75.9% organics. The overall median grain size range was found to be 0.008 mm to 0.394 nun. The sorting coefficient ranged from 1.05 [e.g., 21-970424-Cl-B(4)] to 5.27 [50-970429-C2 A(1+upper 2)] with the exception of one sub-sample [8-08-28-96-C A(l+2)] with a sorting coefficient on the order of 12, noted previously. This fine-grained, graded material along with another sub-sample [19-08-28-96-C 1(Top 6")] had the lowest median settling velocity (0. 1 minm/s). The highest settling velocity of 168.1 mm/s was recorded for a sandy sub-sample [35-970421-ClB(3)].
Eight out of the total thirty-two grab-samples obtained in these two campaigns were dominated by coarse vegetative matter, with organic content ranging from 20.2% (5-09-04-96-ED) to 90.1% (24-09-03-96-ED). They also were not subjected to erosion tests in the PES because they could not form well defined sediment-water interfaces necessary for PES testing. Eight samples were sand dominated, with fine to medium sand ranging in size from 0. 148 mm (15-08-2696-ED) to 0.391 mm (33-970424-ED 1). The determination of their critical stress for erosion was based on the well-known Shields' diagram, which relates this stress to the grain size (Vanoni, 1975).




The remaining grab-samples were tested for erodibility in PES. Of these, some were watery and high in organics, with bulk density ranging from as low as 1,003 kg/m3 (19-08-28-96-ED) to a dense, silty sample having a density of 1,380 kg/m 3 (11-970505-ED 1). The range of dry density was 131 kg/M3 (35-970421-ED1) to 61 kg/m3 (11-970505-ED1) and the granular density varied from 1,024 kg/m3 (19-08-28-96-ED) to 2,638 kg/m3 (11-970505-EDI). The overall range of organic content was from 6.6% (11-97505-ED1, which contained mostly inorganic fine-grained material) to 47.1% (6-08-27-96-ED). The median grain size ranged from 0.015 mm (medium silt) in 11-97505-EDI to 0.276 mm (medium sand) in 30-970415-EDI. The latter sample however had a relatively high organic content (13.6%). The sorting coefficient varied from 1.07 for a fairly uniform core material (30-970415) to 2.57 for a graded sample (0-08-28-96-ED). The settling velocity varied from 0.1 mm/s for a fine-grained sample (8-08-28-96-ED) to 29.6 mm/s (30-970415ED 1); the latter corresponding to 0.276 mm grains.
Erodibility
The plots of erosion rate versus applied fluid stress based on all the PES data obtained are given in Appendix C. Note that these only include samples that were generally fine-grained or organics dominated, with the exception of grab-sample 30-970415-EDI, which was coarser. Table 4 gives the ensuing values of the erosion rate parameters, i.e., critical shear stress, TC, and the rate constant, M applicable to Eq. 6. Also given are values of rc for sand from Shields' diagram.
For PES test results, observe that rcI ranged from practically nil to 0. 127 Pa with a mean of 0.088 Pa. The rate constant, M varied from 0.30 g/N-s to 4.47 g/N-s, with a mean of 1.61 g/N-s. These values indicate the presence of a highly erodible (i.e., very low shear strength) sediment surficial sediment (Lee et al., 1994).
The T, values for the sandy material varied from 0.099 Pa to 0.236 Pa, with a mean of 0. 153 Pa. We note that the lower value (0.099 Pa) is within the bounds of the range of values for the finer material, where as the upper value (0.236 Pa) is higher than that for finer sediment (0.153 Pa). Comparing the mean values, 0. 153 Pa for sand is about twice as high as that for fines (0.088 Pa). This difference implies that, in the mean, the finer material is potentially more erodible than the sandy material. It also suggests that when erosion does occurs, once the top organic-rich layer is soured, the finer material embedded with sand is more difficult to erode, and that sand may actually assist in sequestering the fine material within its matrix.
Bed Profiles
Despite the paucity of data on the depth-variation of the various sedimentary properties, it is instructive to examine the variability of bulk density and organic content with depth. These depth profiles are given in Appendix D. Although no significantly strong trends seem apparent, some general observations can be made. Thus we note that, notwithstanding numerous "anomalies" in the data it can be concluded that, over the depths of about 30 to 90 cm cored, the organic content characteristically decreases from the surface, where it tends to range from -10% to -40%, to values on the order of 5% or less below about 30cm. The bulk density correspondingly increases from -1,1 00 kg/m3 to at the surface to 2,200 2,800 kg/m3 in the 30 90 cm depth zone. The surficial




sediment on the submerged bottom appears to be fluid-like (p < 1,200 kg/Mn3) and is often rich in organic matter. The thickness of this very soft layer seems to be on the order of 10 cm, as within the adjacent Lake Okeechobee. The sediment beneath this soft mud layer down to 90 cm (at least) appears to be essentially sandy, with dark pigmentation due to organic matter.
CONCLUDING COMMENTS
The surficial sediment on the submerged bottom at many sites appears to be fluid-like and rich in organic matter. Such sediment is also reported to occur extensively in the region of Lake Okeechobee where the bottom is muddy (Kirby et al., 1994). The sediment beneath this soft layer down to about a meter depth (at least) is essentially sandy, with dark pigmentation imparted by the organic matter, as noted. An outcome of the depth-decrease in organic content would be that the mean granular density tends to increase from a very low value (- 1,050 kg/m 3) characteristic of organic matter that is only slightly heavier than water, to the density of inorganic (sand grains) in the lower layers (-2,700 kg/m 3). A plot of organic matter versus granular density is given in Fig. 2 using data from the three field campaigns. In this plot, a weak trend of increasing density with depth is seen in the mean, notwithstanding substantial smearing of data points. Data smear may actually reflect wide ranging conditions of deposition and resuspension, which in turn are characteristically contingent upon the locality and season. The mean line follows the following equation:
OC = l00e0.0o42(-1025) (8)
in which p. is measured in kg/M3 and OC is in percent.
Since clayey sediments can be stable against erosion up to stresses well in excess of 1 Pa (Lee et al. 1994), the PES-obtained critical shear stress, tc, values in Table 4 indicate that in most cases the collected sediment samples possessed very low strengths against erosion, on the order of 0.1 Pa. Previous research (Lee et al., 1994) shows that the rate constant, M, is not wholly independent of t:e. In fact, in general as "tc increases, M decreases because increasing "tc implies increasing bed stability against erosion. Hence the rate of erosion, as measured by M, must decrease accordingly. In Fig. 3, M is plotted against -r. from Table 4 using all PES test data. Because of the lack of significant variability in 1:c and expected smear usually inherent in sediment transport related experimental data, M is not observed to vary systematically with -r.. Curves drawn in the figure are from Lee et al. (1994), based on a rc versus M nomograph developed in that work using extensive erosion data sets on comparatively well characterized sediments. The topmost curve is applicable to undisturbed samples with high (55 milliequivalents per liter) total salt concentration in the pore fluid, while the bottom-most curve is applicable to remolded beds with low (5 milliequivalents per liter) salt concentration in the pore fluid. The curve in-between is for remolded beds with 10 milliequivalents per liter salt concentration.
Given the data spread in Fig. 3 it is instructive, even though somewhat simplistic, to look at the mean trend relative to erosion of the grab-samples. For the data points included in Fig. 3, as




noted the mean value of rc, is 0.088 Pa and the corresponding M value is 1.61 g/N-s. These values generally connote a remolded bed with low concentration of salts in the pore fluid, a description that is also apt for the organics-rich samples tested in the PES (Mehta et al., 1994) from the Rodman Reservoir on the Oklawaha River in north Florida (see dashed-line box, which denotes the bounds of the data points). This comparison indicates that the erodibility of the basin sediments conforms to the trends based on what is found elsewhere within the state.
REFERENCES
ASTM, 1993. Annual Book of A.S.TM. Standards. V.04.08, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, 1470p.
Charles, L. L., 1994. Application of equilibrium beach profile concepts to Florida's East Coast. M. S. Thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 115p.
Kirby R., Hobbs C. H. and Mehta A. J., 1994. Shallow Stratigraphy of Lake Okeechobee, Florida: a preliminary reconnaissance. Journal of Coastal Research, 10(2), 339-350.
Lee S.-C., Mehta A. J. and Parchure T. M., 1994. Cohesive sediment erosion: Part I Test devices and field instrument assemblies, Part 1I Relationship between the erosion rate constant and bed shear strength. Report UFLICOELIMP-94/02, Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Laboratory, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 75p.
Mehta A. J., 1981. A review of erosion functions for cohesive sediment beds. Proceedings of the First Indian Conference on Ocean Engineering, Vol. 1, Madras, 122-130.
Mehta A. J., 1986. Characterization of cohesive sediment properties and transport processes in estuaries. In: Estuarine Cohesive Sediment Transport, A. J. Mehta Ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 291-325.
Mehta A. J., Lee S.-C., Li Y., Vinzon S. B. and Abreu M. G., 1994. Analyses of some sedimentary
properties and erodibility characteristics of bottom sediments from the Rodman Reservoir, Florida. Report UFLICOEIIMP-94/03, Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 63p.
Rodriguez H., Li Y. and Mehta A. J., 1996. Determination of some sedimentary properties and erodibility characteristics of bottom sediments from Lake Okeechobee area, Florida. First Progress Report, submitted to Soil & water Engineering Technology, Inc., Gainesville, FL, 19p. Shore Protection Manual, 1984. Vol. 1, U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS, variously paginated.
Tsai C. H. and Lick W., 1986. A portable device for measuring sediment resuspension. Journal of




Great Lakes Research, 12(4), 314-321.

Vanoni V. A. (Ed.), 1975. Sedimentation Engineering, ASCE Manuals and Reports of Engineering Practice No. 54, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, NY, 771p.




Table 1: Sedimentary parameters for cores and grab-samples from the first field campaign
Sample/Sub-Sample H p PD Ps OC Dso So w.
(cm) (kg/m'3) (kg/) (kg/m3) (%) (mm) (mm/s)
SWET 1,P11-1 18.0 1720 1240 2390 10.7 0.21 1.32 27
P11-2 18.4 1470 970 1950 18.5 0.19 1.32 25
P11-3 16.4 1920 1530 2520 2.9 0.20 1.35 26
SWET 1,P4.5-1 12.2 1360 690 2090 6.1 0.21 1.40 27
P4.5-2 14.2 1770 1400 2210 0.8 0.28 1.35 41
P4.5-3 9.4 1750 1390 2160 1.5 0.16 1.30 17
P4.5-4 11.6 1800 1440 2250 0.9 0.14 1.25 14
P4.5-5 19.2 1500 920 2190 18.7 0.088 2.98 5.1
E-1 NAa 1072 130 2220 26.3 0.024 1.77 0.39

aNot applicable.

Symbols:
H: height of core sub-sample (cm);
p: bulk density (cm);
PD: dry density (kg/m3);
Ps: particle or granular density (kg/m3);
Dso50: median particle size (mm); So: sorting coefficient [ =(D75/D25)/2];
D75: value of diameter D at 75 cumulative % (mm); D25: value of diameter D at 25 cumulative % (mm); and ws: settling velocity of median size particle (mm/s).




Table 2: Sedimentary parameters for cores and grab-samples from the second field campaign
Sample/ Ha P PD Ps Oc Do So w
Sub-Sample (in) (kg/mn3) (kg/m3) (kg/m3) (%) (mm) (mm/s)
4-09-03-96-Cb 5.00 1053 686 1085 13.5 0.178 1.39 1.5
A (1)
4-09-03-96-C 7.50 1276 982 1391 5.3 0.178 1.27 6.8
B (2)
4-09-03-96-C 7.50 1981 1708 2350 1.6 0.184 1.28 24.9
C (3)
21-09-04-96-C 7.00 1180 956 1233 5.0 0.171 1.24 3.7
A (1)
21-09-04-96-C 2.00 1414 1228 1509 0.2 0.157 1.23 6.8
B (2)
5-09-04-96-C 6.00 1835 1378 2539 2.3 0.187 1.22 29.3
A (1+2)
5-09-04-96-C 11.00 1858 1553 2236 0.1 0.18 1.26 21.8
B (4)
24-09-03-96-C 1.50 1277 640 1765 7.8 0.164 1.20 11.2
A (1)
24-09-03-96-C 11.00 1274 1011 1372 3.6 0.167 1.26 5.7
B (2)
17-09-05-96-C1 3.50 1418 949 1786 2.4 0.217 1.64 20.2
A (1)
17-09-05-96-C1 5.50 1744 1431 2084 0.4 0.15 1.17 13.3
B (2)
17-09-05-96-C2 4.00 1070 501 1162 13.6 0.129 4.12 1.5
A(1)
17-09-05-96-C2 9.00 1742 1406 2117 0.4 0.137 1.16 11.4
B (3)
7-09-06-96-C 1.25 NRc NR NR 75.9 NR NR NR
A(1)
7-09-06-96-C 4.75 1706 1373 2058 0.3 0.119 1.22 8.2
B(2)
7-09-06-96-C 7.50 1886 1544 2345 0.2 0.131 1.26 12.6
C(3) I
18-09-06-96-C 5.00 1677 1256 2169 2.3 0.188 1.18 22.5
A (1+2)




18-09-06-96-C 9.00 1422 1193 1548 1.9 0.218 1.24 14.2
B (3+4)
18-09-06-96-C 2.00 NSd NS NS NS NS NS NS
C (2)
18-09-06-96-C 3.00 NS NS NS NS NS NS NS
D (3)
11-09-06-96-C21 4.25 1700 1182 2453 2.8 0.168 1.19 22.4
A (1+2)
11-09-06-96-C21 4.00 1649 1362 1911 0.6 0.159 1.19 12.5
B (4)
11-09-06-96-C11 3.00 1718 1294 2246 2.4 0.172 1.25 20.1
A (1+2+ top of 3)
11-09-06-96-C11 6.00 1961 1655 2387 1.3 0.177 1.22 23.7
B (5)
11-09-06-96-C12 4.00 1765 1256 2559 1.8 0.217 1.58 40.0
A (1+2+3)
11-09-06-96-C12 7.00 2223 1872 2885 0.6 0.162 1.23 27.0
B (5)
8-08-28-96-C 17.50 1029 355 1088 9.5 0.025 -12 0.1
A (1+2)
8-08-28-96-C 8.00 NS NS NS NS NS NS NS
B (3)
8-08-28-96-C 6.00 1756 1437 2110 1.7 0.148 1.30 13.2
C (4)
23-08-30-96-C 9.25 1015 160 1101 50.1 0.069 2.99 0.3
A (1+2)
23-08-30-96-C 4.00 1711 1285 2236 0.3 0.21 1.28 29.7
B (4)
19-08-28-96-Cl 6.00 1015 48 1444 55.6 0.020 1.82 0.1
A (Top 6")
19-08-28-96-C1 13.00 1616 1252 1968 4.2 0.155 1.24 12.7
B (2)
19-08-28-96-C1 3.00 2082 1949 2249 1.8 0.154 1.16 16.1
C (3)
19-08-28-96-C2 6.00 1014 55 1333 55.4 0.029 1.59 0.2
A (Top 6")
19-08-28-96-C2 14.00 1692 1297 2145 3.7 0.167 1.62 17.3
B (1 below top 6")




19-08-28-96-C2 10.00 1887 1430 2631 1.6 0.15 1.28 20.0
C (2+3) 1
9-08-28-96-Cl 1.90 1318 1143 1386 0.5 0.316 1.27 21.0
A (1+2) 1
9-08-28-96-Cl 24.00 1504 1263 1665 0.5 0.252 1.25 23.0
B (3)
9-08-28-96-C2 3.10 1740 1471 2013 0.2 0.296 1.19 48.4
A (1+2)
9-08-28-96-C2 4.00 1673 1365 1973 1.2 0.204 1.24 22.1
B (4)
14-08-27-96-C20 4.50 1104 276 1607 10.5 0.146 2.36 7.0
A (1)
14-08-27-96-C20 11.50 1493 1237 1662 1.3 0.156 1.23 8.8
B (3+4)
14-08-27-96-C40 5.50 1063 190 1495 20.4 0.061 1.47 1.0
A (1+2)
14-08-27-96-C40 4.00 1554 983 2292 5.9 0.128 1.18 11.5
B (3+4)
14-08-27-96-C40 5.00 2103 1824 2529 1.1 0.151 1.20 19.0
C (5) 1
15-08-26-96-C 8.25 1326 1047 1452 1.1 0.147 1.20 5.3
A (1+2)
15-08-26-96-C 8.50 1245 671 1575 12.8 0.165 1.18 8.5
B (3)
6-08-27-96-Cl-East 2.50 1056 202 1381 41.2 0.095 2.35 1.9
A (1+2)
6-08-27-96-C l-East 9.00 1778 1474 2116 1.4 0.165 1.26 16.6
B (3)
6-08-27-96-C l-East 8.00 1529 1299 1688 1.1 0.159 1.24 9.5
C (4) 1
6-08-27-96-C l-West 3.50 1031 154 1257 47.8 0.065 2.82 2.2
A (1+2)
6-08-27-96-Cl-West 5.00 1979 1566 2665 1.6 0.175 1.26 27.8
B (3) 1 1
6-08-27-96-Cl-West 7.00 1248 997 1333 2.5 0.166 1.25 5.0
C (4)
5-09-04-96-EDe I NA 20.2




6-08-27-96-ED NA 1031.3 137.2 1296 47.1 0.097 2.24 1.5
8-08-28-96-ED NA 1128 300 1748 9.7 0.018 2.57 0.1
9-08-28-96-ED NA 1995 1616 2602 0.2 0.347 1.23 105.1
11-09-06-96-ED NA 1684 1175 2395 1.7 0.169 1.21 34.2
14-08-27-96-ED NA 1125 319 1645 11.4 0.077 1.87 2.1
15-08-26-96-ED NA 1743 1202 2620 2.26 0.148 1.17 19.3
17-09-05-96-ED NA 1350 579 2528 3.35 0.229 2.28 43.6
18-09-06-96-ED' NA -- -- -- 41.1 -- -- -19-08-28-96-ED NA 1003 140 1024 34.7 0.029 1.63 0.1
23-08-30-96-ED NA 1054 169 1473 24.8 0.072 2.34 1.3
24-09-03-96-ED' NA -- -- -- 90.1 -- -- -aln Table 1, H values are reported in cm.
bC designates a core.
cNot required.
dNo sample.
eED designates a grab-sample.
'Only organic content measured.
Not applicable.




Table 3: Sedimentary parameters for cores and grab-samples from the third field campaign
Sub-sample H P PD Ps OC D50so S w
(in) (kg,/m3 1 (k/m31 k/31 n (MM) (M M/
04-970417-C1-Aa 2.5 1363 901 1676 4.2 0.299 1.38 32.9
(1+2" of 2)
04-970417-Cl-B 8.8 1447 1224 1575 4.2 0.310 1.14 30.1
(2 less top 2")
05-970416-C1-A 0.8 1526 930 2302 6.9 0.268 1.43 51.0
(1+2)
05-970416-C1-B 10.2 1121 881 1159 1.7 0.123 1.18 1.3
(3)
8-970501-C1-A 3.5 1430 955 1820 4.8 0.138 1.31 8.5
(1+ upper 2)
8-970501-C1-B 6.0 1834 1494 2263 0.7 0.272 1.06 50.9
(2)
8-970501-C2-A 3.6 1493 1047 1891 1.7 0.150 1.32 10.9
(1+2)
8-970501-C2-B 5.8 1732 1439 2035 0.3 0.272 1.06 41.7
(3)
10-970417-C1-A 0.8 1040 576 1074 11.0 0.230 1.58 2.1
(1+2)
10-970417-Cl-B 10.2 2067 1656 2812 3.0 0.279 1.06 76.9
(3)
10-970417-C2X-A 0.8 1291 978 1423 4.8 0.144 1.54 4.8
(1+2)
10-970417-C2X-B 8.6 1643 1302 1977 2.9 0.281 1.07 42.0
(3)
11-970505-C1-A 2.0 1261 475 2215 10.8 0.009 4.63 0.1
(1+2)
11-970505-C1-B 11.0 1944 1488 2737 1.6 0.010 2.12 0.1
(3)
11-970505-C2-A 5.0 1131 283 1863 2.5 0.010 2.99 0.05
(1+ upper 2)
11-970505-C2-B 8.0 1275 452 2548 18.2 0.008 4.42 0.1
(3)
11-970505-C2-C 10.0 1727 1418 2054 0.3 0.324 1.05 60.3
(4)
19-970428-C1-A 6.0 1259 598 1766 12.1 0.187 1.55 14.6
(1+2)
19-970428-C1-B 8.0 1173 963 1218 1.4 0.296 1.13 10.4
(3)
19-970428-C2-A 6.6 1310 678 1841 11.7 0.192 1.55 16.9
(1+ upper 2)
19-970428-C2-B 6.8 1019 654 1029 11.3 0.283 1.49 1.3
(lower 2+upper 3)
21-970424-C1-A1 5.0 1074 753 1109 7.4 0.177 1.52 1.9
(1+2+3)




21-970424-Cl -B 5.6 1292 1084 1368 0.3 0.327 1.05 21.5
(4)
21-970424-C2-A 3.0 1102 692 1174 10.0 0.168 1.31 2.7
(1)
21-970424-C2-B 7.0 1621 1373 1827 0.2 0.253 1.54 28.8
(2)
22-970424-C1-A 3.0 1047 595 1086 17.8 0.201 1.64 1.9
(1)
22-970424-C1-B 4.0 1320 1091 1414 1.4 0.274 1.08 17.0
(2+3)
22-970424-C2-A1 10.0 1048 599 1087 17.9 0.266 1.61 3.3
(1)
25-970502-C1-A 3.0 1114 311 1578 21.6 0.175 1.65 9.6
(1+2)
25-970502-Cl1-B 8.0 2004 1594 2701 2.1 0.321 1.07 95.5
(3+4)
25-970502-C2-A 4.8 1151 488 1450 25.1 0.172 1.63 7.3
(1+2)
25-970502-C2-B 8.8 1996 1575 2718 2.0 0.315 1.44 92.9
(3)
30-970415-C1-A 5.0 1105 216 1954 18.9 0.128 1.76 8.5
(1+2)
30-970415-C1-B 8.0 1186 341 2203 16.2 0.120 1.77 9.4
(3)
33-970424-C1-A 2.4 1118 525 1289 5.9 0.143 1.28 3.2
(1+ upper 2)
33-970424-C1-B 5.1 1269 913 1417 2.8 0.150 1.46 5.1
(lower 2+ upper 3)
33-970424-C2-A 2.5 1100 280 1552 33.1 0.136 1.27 5.6
(1)
33-970424-C2-B 6.5 1385 1098 1540 0.7 0.318 1.07 29.8
(2+ upper 3)
35-970421-C1-A 4.6 1053 180 1420 39.3 0.100 2.97 2.3
(1+2)
35-970421-C1-B 6.4 2242 1867 2987 0.2 0.394 1.25 168.1
(3)
35-970421-C2-A 2.2 1946 1471 2799 1.3 0.160 1.50 25.1
(1+2)
35-970421-C2-B1 8.2 1931 1576 2444 0.4 0.254 1.44 50.8
(3)
36-970429-C1-A 5.0 1042 589 1078 10.9 0.276 1.06 3.2
(1- upper 5")
36-970429-C1-B 5.0 1264 982 1369 2.8 0.274 1.06 15.1
(1- lower 5")
36-970429-C2-A 9.0 1024 269 1098 12.2 0.160 1.35 1.4
(1+ upper 2)




36-970429-C2-B 14.0 1100 853 1133 2.0 0.326 1.05 7.7
(2)
41-970429-Cl-A 4.0 1638 963 2967 7.5 0.164 1.41 28.8
(1+2+ top 3)
41-970429-Cl-B 5.0 1350 1161 1431 1.9 0.270 1.48 17.1
(3)
41-970429-C1A-A 2.6 1095 435 1279 19.1 0.157 1.68 3.8
(1+2)
41-970429-CIA-B 4.8 1801 1517 2120 1.7 0.327 1.05 65.3
(3)
42-970429-Cl-A 3.0 1293 758 1629 4.1 0.154 1.28 8.1
(1+ upper 2)
42-970429-Cl-B 4.0 1499 1222 1689 0.8 0.270 1.48 27.4
(2)
42-970429-C2-A 6.0 1281 535 2110 9.2 0.165 1.27 16.5
(1+ upper 2)
42-970429-C2-B 10.0 1591 1320 1812 1.5 0.257 1.54 29.2
(2)
48-970422-Cl-A 3.4 1073 257 1399 15.1 0.122 1.36 3.2
(1+2+3)
48-970422-Cl-B 5.0 1361 571 2720 18.2 0.275 1.06 70.9
(4+5)
50-970429-Cl-A 4.8 1461 697 2956 12.0 0.155 1.77 25.6
(1+ upper 2)
50-970429-Cl-B 8.8 1467 1121 1712 3.1 0.267 1.67 27.7
(lower 2+3)
50-970429-C2-A 3.6 1301 521 2368 15.9 0.067 5.27 3.3
(1+ upper 2)
50-970429-C2-B 7.0 1635 1159 2213 5.2 0.274 1.05 49.6
(lower 2+3)
54-970502-Cl-A 3.0 1120 351 1521 31.0 0.187 1.62 9.9
(1+2)
54-970502-Cl-B 9.8 1278 1023 1372 1.8 0.149 1.26 4.5
(3)
54-970502-C2-A 5.2 1283 566 1996 16.2 0.185 1.52 18.6
(1+2)
54-970502-C2-B 5.6 1387 1138 1516 1.0 0.270 1.31 20.5
(3+4)
56-970502-Cl-A 5.8 1063 391 1193 22.0 0.178 1.56 3.3
(1+2)
56-970502-Cl-B 8.8 1083 871 1105 2.0 0.262 1.44 3.9
(4+5)
60-970421-Cl-A 4.0 1037 303 1137 27.3 0.130 1.42 1.3
(1)
60-970421-Cl-B 4.6 2033 1602 2816 1.9 0.267 1.41 70.6
(2+3)




60-970421-C2-A1 4.6 1069 148 1871 28.5 0.166 1.58 13.1
(1+2)
60-970421-C2-B 6.0 1659 1395 1896 0.9 0.327 1.05 52.2
(3)
04-970417-ED1b NAc 1540 905 2478 5.5 0.290 1.39 67.8
05-970416-ED1d NA ...... 73.3 ......
08-970501-EDI NA 1584 940 2639 3.9 0.165 1.60 24.3
10-970417-ED1d NA ...... 54.9 ......
11-970505-ED1 NA 1380 611 2638 6.6 0.015 2.32 0.2
19-970428-ED1 NA 1030 431 1074 15.3 0.205 1.58 1.7
21-970424-ED1 NA 1039 544 1078 24.0 0.199 1.59 1.7
22-970424-EDI NA 1028 531 1056 26.9 0.160 1.38 0.8
25-970502-ED1 d NA ...... 50.4 ......
30-970415-ED1 NA 1100 241 1713 13.6 0.276 1.07 29.6
33-970424-ED1 NA 1992 1556 2758 0.7 0.391 1.16 146.5
35-970421-ED1 NA 1031 131 1309 41.6 0.201 1.48 6.8
36-970429-EDI NA 1229 415 2234 17.5 0.144 1.38 14.0
41-970429-ED1 NA 1496 865 2343 9.3 0.203 1.34 30.2
42-970429-EDI NA 1078 211 1582 16.3 0.278 1.11 24.5
48-970422-EDI NA 1238 393 2536 11.3 0.135 1.38 15.3
50-970429-ED1 NA 1274 570 1925 11.0 0.220 1.48 24.4
54-970502-ED1 NA 1012 191 1068 41.2 0.120 1.97 0.5
56-970502-ED1d NA -- 56.6
60-970421-ED1d NA -- _9-a C1, C2 designate cores.
bNot applicable.
CEDI denotes a grab-sample.
'Only organic content obtained.




Table 4: Erosion rate parameters
Sample M
I (Pa) (g/N-s)
E-1 0.093 2.15
5-09-04-96-EDa -6-08-27-96-ED 0.109 2.64
8-08-28-96-ED 0.127 1.64
9-08-28-96-EDb 0.207 -11-09-06-96-EDb 0.117
14-08-27-96-ED 0.076 1.61
15-08-26-96-EDb 0.099 -17-09-05-96-EDb 0.075 0.61
18-09-06-96-ED' -- -19-08-28-96-ED 0.101 2.37
23-08-30-96-ED 0.102 3.30
24-09-03-96-ED a -04-970417-ED1b 0.163 -05-970416-ED1a -08-970501-ED1b 0.128 -10-970417-ED1a -11-970505-EDI 0.119 2.32
19-970428-EDI1 0.111 4.47
21-970424-ED1 0.074 1.54
22-970424-ED 1 0.068 2.27
25-970502-ED1a -30-970415-EDI 0.066 0.30
33-970424-ED1b 0.236 -35-970421-ED1 0.108 0.77
36-970429-ED1 -0 0.45
41-970429-ED1b 0.136 --




42-970429-ED1b 0.147 -48-970422-ED1 -0 0.58
50-970429-ED1 0.094 2.55
54-970502-ED1 0.113 2.20
56-970502-ED1 a-60-970421-ED1a -aPredominantly vegetation no PES test.
bTexturally dominated by sand no PES test; critical stress, tu determined from Shields' diagram for incipient motion of sand (Vanoni, 1975).

Note, the erosion rate expression is:

C = M((Tb Tc)

Symbols:
8: erosion rate (g/m2-s);
Tb: bed shear stress (Pa);
,,: critical erosion shear stress (Pa); and
M: erosion rate constant (g/N-s).




Pilot Sampling Site Final Sampling Site

LAKE OKEECHOBEE, FLORIDA

A
N

2 0 2 4 6 Miles

Figure 1. Sampling sites (pilot and final) in the study area. Station numbers correspond to those identifying the cores and grab-samples in this study.




101
o
0
100 Ol 10
0

1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
Particle Density (kg/m3)
Figure 2. Variation of granular density with organic content. The mean line is described by the stated equation.

103
2 Undisturbed/5.
10
Mostly remolded/10 zX
02
" 10
0 M .........._Mostly remolded/5!
U) 0
i 10
10-2
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
Critical Shear Stress (Pa)
Figure 3. Erosion rate constant variation with critical shear stress. Dashedline box shows the bounds of analogous data obtained by Mehta et al. (1994) from the Rodman Reservoir in North Florida.




APPENDIX A: CORE DESCRIPTIONS Note: Descriptions of the two cores from the first (preliminary) field campaign (Figs. A. 1 and A.2) include sub-sample coloration and height. Descriptions of cores from the second and third campaigns (Figs. A.3 through A.22 and A.23 through A.57, respectively) provide additional stratigraphic information. Core sequence upto Fig. A.23 matches that in Tables 1 and 2. For sequence beginning Fig. A.23 see List of Figures.
* Sand colored 1 180cm H
* Black 2 18.4 cm
* Gray 3 16.4 cm
Figure A.1 Core No. SWET 1, P11

* Black Sand colored
* Grey
* Sand colored
* Black

19.2 cm
11.6 cm 9.4 cm

14.2 cm 12.2cm

Figure A.2 Core No. SWET 1, P.45




H
2
3

Detrital material Dark, heavily rooted, dry sand Sand and organic marbling with some roots Uniform, dark brown sand

Figure A.3 Core No. 4-09-03-96-C (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches. The height, H, of each sub-section selected for sedimentary analysis is enumerated, 1, 2 and 3 in this case. In some cases, e.g., sub-section 1, the stratigraphy was not entirely uniform, as indicated by the dashed-line divider.)

23.0
16.0

Grey, top soil type, dry sand with lots of roots Dark brown sand Light-brown, coarse sand

--_ -Some organic staining

Figure A.4 Core No. 21-09-04-96-C (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.)

A-2




2
3

-Thin flocculent layer
-Light-grey sand with leaves and twigs
-Dark/black sand
-Light-grey sand with organic staining

4 Light-grey sand
Figure A.5 Core No. 5-09-04-96-C (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.)

24.0

21.5 r- -

1
2

Clear water
-Blue-green algal mat on organic material with lots of
oaks leaves
- Fibrous organic material (leaves and water oak)
Darker sand with oak leaves Brown sand with oak leaves
Lighter brown sand with oak leaves

Figure A.6 Core No. 24-09-03-96-C (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.)

A-3

25.51

21.5 19.5 15.5
11.0




Water

- Small macrophytes floating in water
9.0 Thin flocculent layer
1 Dark-brown/black fine sand with organic matter
5.5
2 Light-brown sand with organic staining
Figure A.7 Core No. 17-09-05-96-Cl (Note: 24" core taken in 5 ft of water; not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.)

V

17.6 13.0

2
3

Murky water
-- Black/dark brown, fine sand
Light-brown sand with a lot of black organic staining
,- Light-brown sand with some sediment layering and
organic staining

Figure A.8 Core No. 17-09-05-96-C2 (Note: 24" core; this core was driven deeper but otherwise was in same cross-section as core No. 17-09-05-96-Cl; not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.)

A-4




13.5 12.25
7.5

1
2
3

- Dry detrital material from grass and pickleweed
roots
-- Very light-grey, coarse sand
-- Light-brown sand

Figure A.9 Core No. 7-09-06-96-C (Note: 24" core; not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.)
14.0 Dark, 1/4" thick flocculent layer
1 Light-brown sand 11.0
2 Dark organic-stained sand
9.0
3 Brown sand, appeared to be a native spodic layer
6.0
4 Dark-brown sand
Figure A.10 Core No. 18-09-06-96-C (Note: 24" core; not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.)

A-5




Clear water
12.25
12.0C Dark, 1/4" thick flocculent layer
1 Dark-brown sand
10.5
2 Light-brown sand with a little organic staining
8.0
3 Dark-brown sand
4.0
4 Light-grey sand/clay
Figure A. 11 Core No. 1 1-09-06-96-c21 (Note: 24" core; not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.)
-- Very clear water
15.3
1 3- Fibrous (with needle-like plants) organic material
15.0 (macrophytes)
2 -Light-brown sand with organic material
13.0
3 Dark-brown sand
8.0
4 Light-grey sand
6.0
5 "- Grey clay/sand
Figure A. 12 Core No. 11-09-06-96-cl 1 (Note: 24" core; not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.)

A-6




Very clear water

15.0
1 Organic material
14.0
2 Light/medium-brown sand
12.0
3 Light-brown sand
11.0
4- Dark-brown sand
7.0
- Grey clay/sand
Figure A.13 Core No. 11-09-06-96-C12 (Note; 24" core; not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.)
31.5
Field mark (22.75) 22.3 1 Grey-clay type flocs
2 .- Dark-grey clay
14.0
3 Light-grey silt/clay
6.0
4 Light-grey sandy clay/coquina shells, greenish blue
marbling
Figure A. 14 Core No. 8-08-28-96-C (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.)

A-7




it;

-Field mark (16.5) 16.5 Fibrous organic, brown flocs
16.252 Brown organic material with plant
7.0 detritus
3 Organics/sand
5.0
4 Brown sand
1.0
5 Coquina shells
Figure A. 15 Core No. 23-08-30-96-C (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.)

34.01

2
3

Field Mark (31.8)
Fibrous material (note: upper layer philamental algae) SDark organic, fibrous material
Sandy, brown organic soil
-Dark-brown sand

Figure A. 16 Core No. 19-08-28-96-Cl1 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.)

A-8

v




V

33.25

Field mark (31.25)
Dark organic matter (with lots of fibrous material) Dark-brown sand with some roots Dark-brown clay material with heavy root mass

30.0 10.0

Figure A. 17 Core No. 19-08-28-96-C2 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights in inches.)

- Field Mark (26.00)
- Organic flocculent layer
- Light-grey sand with light organic staining
- Light-grey material

25.9 25.5
2
24.0

Figure A. 18 Core No. 9-08-28-96-C 1 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.)

A-9




34.5
Field Mark (30.25) 30.9 1 Organic flocculent layer
29.9
2 Light-grey sand with light organic staining
27.0
Light-grey sand
3
Minor organic stain
4.0
4 Light-grey sand with organic straining; leaf parts,
possibly laurel oak
Figure A. 19 Core No. 9-08-28-96-C2 (Note: not drawn to scale. Height in inches.)
35.0 z
- Clear water
17.5
1 Dark organic flocs and sediment
13.0
2 Dark-brown sand
11.5
3 Medium dark-brown sand
9.0
4. Medium/light-brown sand
0.0
Figure A.20 Core No. 14-08-27-96-C20 (Note: Site 14: Core depth referenced from bottom; not drawn to scale. Heights in inches.)

A-10




35.0
Water clear
18.0
1 Light-brown floating flocs 17.0
2 Dark organic matter
12.5
3 Dark organic and brown sand marbling
3
8.5
4 Medium/dark-brown sand
5.0
5 Light-colored sand
Figure A.21 Core No. 14-08-27-96-C40 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.)
19.25 On mark from field
Clear water 17.25
17.00 1 Organic flocculent layer 17.00
Dark sand
2
9.00
Dark organic matter with some sand marbling; organics of "oak" leaves interleafed
3
-- 1/4" to 1/2" thick white sand layer
Figure A.22 15-08-26-96-C (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.)

A-11




15.0 V
-< Clear water
11.0 -1 -Fibrous material
10.5 2 '-Organic flocculent material
10.25 '- Grey sand
3 4 Dark organic material (sandy)
Figure A.23. Core No. 10-970417-ClI (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).
18.0 V
-<-Very clear water
10.5 1 -< Leave debris (no flocs)
9.5
2 % Beige sand with organic staining
7.0
3 ( Dark organic material (roots)
(Sandy)

Figure A.24. Core No. 05-970416-Cl (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).

A- 12




-<-No water

-<-Dark organic material <- Grey sand
S--Dark organic material

Figure A.25. Core No. 10-970417-C2X (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).

11I(<

-<- Clear water

Organic flocs A little sand Dark organic material (sandy-reddish iron color)

Figure A.26. Core No. 04-970417-C1 (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).

A-13

1
2
3

17.0 V

11.251

10.75




3
4

,& Thin flocculent layer '-Fine blue/grey material <-Organic marbling
-(-Dark organic material (-Grey sand

Figure A.27. Core No. 30-970415-ClI

Flocculent layer K- Grey sand
-< Dark organic material
--- Dark grey sand
-< Sandy organic layer (dark/blue)
-<- Beige sand

Figure A.28. Core No. 48-970422-Cl (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).

A- 14

17.5
16.0 15.0
11.01

17.01

12.9
9.5
7.0
4.5

3
4
5
6




Dry core
Leaves on top
10.5
8.5 1 Dark organic material
7.25 2 Beige sand
5.5 3 Dark organic material
4 Light beige sand
Figure A.29. Core No. 21-970424-C I (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).

Dry green plants
Dry organic material
-K- Light grey sand

10.0 7.0

Figure A.30. Core No. 21-970424-C2 (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).

A-15




19.0
15.25
15.0 13.0

-<- Flocculent layer
- Grey/brown sand
-% Beige sand light organic marbling
-(-- Very coarse beige sand

Figure A.31. Core No. 35-970421-C2 (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).

v

-<- Flocculent layer <-- Dark organic material/sand
-4 Beige sand

Figure A.32. Core No. 35-970421-Cl (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).

A-16

2
3

5.0

17.0

11.0
10.25




13.5
9.5 6.0 5.0

Dry
Dry organic material
2 Dark grey sand
3 Very dark organic material

--K- Grey sand

Figure A.33. Core No. 60-970421-Cl (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).

10.5
10.0
5.9

Flocculent layer Dark organic material Beige sand organic marbling

Figure A.34. Core No. 60-970421 -C2 (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).

A-17




-- Dark organic material
- Beige sand
- Thin organic staining
-- Beige sand

Figure A.35. Core No. 33-970424-C2 (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).

--- Flocculent layer
--- Grey sand, organic staining
--- Grey/brown sand, organic staining

Figure A.36. Core No. 33-970424-C1 (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).

A-18

13.0 10.5 8.0

1
2

18.01 V

1A--

11.0 10.25

7.01




12.0
9.0
2
6.0
3
5.0
4

_-Dry
(o- Dark organic material
--< Brown sand
(Dark sand/organic material
-(Light beige sand

Figure A.37. Core No. 22-970424-ClI (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).
10.0
1 ( Dark organic material/some sand
0
C <- Air pockets
0
Figure A.38. Core No. 22-970424-C2 (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).

A- 19




35.0 V

2
3

--- Flocculent layer
-4- Dark sediment <- Dark sands

Figure A.39. Core No. 11-970505-Cl (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).

1
2
3

10.0i

Figure A.40. Core No. Heights are in inches).

--- Flocculent layer
-- Dark sand "-- sand <- Beige sand

11-970505-C2 (Not drawn to scale.

A-20

34.01 v-




18.71

14.75 % Flocculent layer
14.25
2 (Dark sand
11.7
3 -4 Grey sand-organic stains Coarse sand
2.0 Dark organic material
Figure A.4 1. Core No. 54-970502-ClI (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).
19.25
Surface mark (16.0) 15.75 1 Flocculent layer
14.75
2 Dark organic sand
10.5
3 < Grey/beige sand
65 4 Dark organic material
5 Grey/beige sand
1.0 Dark organic material
Figure A.42. Core No. 54-970502-C2 (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).

A-21




6.51
6.01:

--Flocculent layer
-K- Grey sand

Figure A.43. Core No. 8-970501 -ClI (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).

1
2
3

(Flocculent layer (Grey sand
--Beige sand

Figure A.44. Core No. 8-970501-C2 (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).

A-22

16.51




13.5
12.4 1
2
5.0

- Very dark organic flocculent layer Dark organic sand
- Beige sand

Figure A.45. Core No. 50-970429-C1 (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).

11111 Dark organic flocculent layer

2 --

Dark organic sand

Sand/organic sand
-(-- Beige sand

Figure A.46. Core No. 50-970429-C2 (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).

A-23

19.0 15.7 15.25
9.0 5.0




19.01 v

10.0 1
9.0
2
5.0

Flocculent layer Beige sand Dark sand with pieces of shell

Figure A.47. Core No. 42-970429-C I (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).

16.01 V

12.5 11.0 10.0

Vegetation
Flocculent layer
-4--- Beige sand with pieces of shell

Figure A.48. Core No. 42-970429-C2 (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).

A-24




13.01 V

6.5 1 Flocculent layer with leaves
6.0
2 Dark sand
5.0
3 Beige sand (yellow/gold)
Figure A.49. Core No. 41-970429-C I (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).

A-25




(Wet)
( Detritus (vegetation and leaves)

2 1 -- Dark sand

(- Beige sand "-- Dark beige sand

Figure A.50. Core No. 25-970502-Cl (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).

7.5 7.0
2
5.0

-- Flocculent layer with leaves Dark sand Beige sand (yellow/gold)

Figure A.51. Core No. 41-970429-ClA (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).

A-26

11.0 10.0

4.5

13.51 V




17.0

14.0 1
13.0
2
8.0

Flocculent material Dark sand Beige sand

Figure A.52. Core No. 19-970428-C 1 (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).
(Dry)
14.5
1 -<- Detrital material (vegetation)
12.0
2 Dark sand
9.0
3 Beige sand

Figure A.53. Core No. 25-970502-C2 (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).

A-27




10.51

I < Dark organic material
Figure A. 54. Core No. 3 6-970429-C 1 (dry) (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).

18.01 v

15.0
14.0

Flocculent material Dark sand Beige sand

3.0

Figure A.55. Core No. 19-970428-C2 (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).

A-28




14.C 13.7 -*
13.3 8.0 7.0

Flocs and detrital material Dark organic material

3
4

Beige sand Dark organic material Beige sand

4.51

Figure A.56. Core No. 56-970502-C 1 (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).

18.01 V

1
2

Flocculent layer Sand with organic material

Figure A.57. Core No. 36-970429-C2 (wet) (Not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches).

A-29




APPENDIX B: GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS
Note: Figures B.1 through B.9 provide data from the first field campaign, Figures B.10 through B.68 are for the second campaign, and Figures B.69 through B. 153 present data from the third campaign.

Sample SWET 1, P11-1

Figure B. 1 P11-1

diameter (mm)
Grain size distribution for sample SWET 1,

Sample SWET 1, PI1-2

diameter (mm)
Figure B.2. Grain size distribution for sample SWET 1, P11-2.




Sample SWET 1, P11-3 inn.

60
40
20 10-2 10-1 1
diameter (mm)
Figure B.3 Grain size distribution for sample SWET 1, PI 1-3

Sample SWET 1, P4.5-1

10-2 10-1 10,
diameter (mm)
Figure B.4 Grain size distribution for sample SWET 1, P4.5-1

B-2




Sample SWET 1, P4.5-2

102 10-1 100
diameter (mm)
Figure B.5 Grain size distribution for sample SWET 1, P4.5-2
Sample SWET 1, P4.5-3 100
80
S60
60 ...................
C
0
10 10 100
diameter (mm)
Figure B.6 Grain size distribution for sample SWET 1, P4.5-3

B-3




Sample SWET 1, P4.5-4

o 4
.. . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . .
40 ...........
20 .................... ...... .................
20
102 10-1 10,
diameter (mm)
Figure B.7 Grain size distribution for sample SWET 1, P4.5-4

Sample SWET 1, P4.5-5

diameter (mm)
Figure B.8 Grain size distribution for sample SWET 1, P4.5-5




Sample E-1

40 .
2 0 ........ ...... ... :..i..L ~ ~ ......... .. .. .. .. . .. .........
40
20
10 10-2 10-1
diameter (mm)
Figure B.9 Grain size distribution for sample E- 1 Sample 4-09-03-96-C-A

diameter(mm)
Figure B. 10 Grain size distribution for sample 4-09-03-96-C-A




Sample 4-09-03-96-C-B
10 0

40 ....

diameter(mm)
Figure B. 11 Grain size distribution for sample 4-09-03-96-C-B Sample 4-09-03-96-C-C
I n n ... . ... .

80 ....

60 ......

40 ........

20 ........

10-2 10-1
diameter(mm)
Figure B. 12 Grain size distribution for sample 4-09-03-96-C-C
B-6

80 ........

60 ........

100

............

. ........... R

. ............. ......

........ i...........

... . . . .
. .
Z .
...........
........ .. ........... .. ... ......... ..... ......... ... ......

....................




Sample 21-09-04-96-C-A

60 .........

40 ........

20 ..........

diameter(mm)
Figure B.13 Grain size distribution for sample 21-09-04-96-C-A Sample 21-09-04-96-C-B inn

60 .....

40 ...........

20 ...........

. .. .. . ... ... ... . . . . . . ..... . . . . ... .
. . . .. . .. .;.. ... ... . . . . . . ... . . . . . .. :. . ... . - .
10-1 1
diameter(mm)

Figure B.14 Grain size distribution for sample 21-09-04-96-C-B B-7

Sample 21-09-04-96-C-A

. . . .... . . . . . .. .. .

... .. ... ... . . .
... ... ..... ... ........ ......
... ...... .... ..... ... I ..... .
. .... . . . .. ... . .. . .. . ... . ..




Sample 5-09-04-96-C-A 100
80
60
6 0 . . .. . . . . . .... . .".. . . :' ' : : :. . . . . .. . . . . . . i.. .. i i
40
6 0 . .. . .. . ... ..- . . . .. . .... . .I. .
20 .........................
0
2 04 .......... .. ........... ..... .: .- - -:..... .. ...... ............ .... .... -. ;-.- .
10-2 10- 1
diameter(mm)
Figure B. 15 Grain size distribution for sample 5-09-04-96-C-A Sample 5-09-04-96-C-B

102 10-1 1
diameter(mm)
Figure B.16 Grain size distribution for sample 5-09-04-96-C-B
B-8

60 .......

40 ..........

20 .........

...........
.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... ..
. ....... ... ... .. ........ .. ....... ...




Sample 24-09-03-96-C-A
1nn

80

60-

40

- -21-
10 101 1
diameter(mm)
Figure B. 17 Grain size distribution for sample 24-09-03-96-C-A Sample 24-09-03-96-C-B

40 ...

10-2 10- 1
diameter(mm)
Figure B. 18 Grain size distribution for sample 24-09-03-96-C-B
B-9

60 ........

20 .........

. . . . ... . . . ... . .. ... ... ... . . . . . . . . . . ...
....... .... ... ... ....... ...
. .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .
. .... .. .... .. ..... ..... .. .....
..........
. ...... ...... .. ....... .... ........ .. ........ .......... .. ............ ....

. ... ... ... . . ...
.. ..... .... ... .. ... ... ... ..... ... I ...... ....... ...
.. ........... .... ..... .... ...... .. ...... ... .... .. .. ..... ........




Sample 17-09-05-96-Cl-A

50
40
30 20
10
2 0 . . .. . .. . ............... . . . ... ....: : :
0
10 10-2 10-1 1(
diameter(mm)
Figure B.19 Grain size distribution for sample 17-09-05-96-C 1-A Sample 17-09-05-96-Cl-B 100
8 0 . . .... ... ... .. .. .. ......... .... .... .. : ": .... ... .. ... ...... .. .... ... : : "
80
C 60 -.... .
as
! !

10-2 10-1 100
diameter(mm)
Figure B.20 Grain size distribution for sample 17-09-05-96-C 1-B

B-10




&U
80 70 60
c
5 50
40 30
20 10 10
Figu

Sample 17-09-05-96-C2-A

-3
re B.21

10-2 10-1 100
diameter(mm)
Grain size distribution for sample 17-09-05-96-C2-A
Sample 17-09-05-96-C2-B

70. -....
60 .
50
3 4 0 .. ..-. .. . .. . .. . .
30
~3 0 ........ . .. . . . . . . . .
30 ............ . ... . .. .. . . ... .. .
20
10 ........... ....
10
10-2 10-1 100
diameter(mm)
Figure B.22 Grain size distribution for sample 17-09-05-96-C2-B
B-11

: . . . . . . . . .. .
. . ..-. .
. . . .
-. . .




Sample 7-09-06-96-C-B

diameter(mm)
Figure B.23 Grain size distribution for sample 7-09-06-96-C-B

Sample 7-09-06-96-C-C

80 ............

. . ......

diameter(mm) Figure B.24 Grain size distribution for sample 7-09-06-96-C-C
B-12

(I i .- .

...................
...............
.................
................

. . . . . .




Sample 18-09-06-96-C-A
i nn

80

20-

10-2 10-1
diameter(mm)
Figure B.25 Grain size distribution for sample 18-09-06-96-C-A Sample 18-09-06-96-C-B

diameter(mm)
Figure B.26 Grain size distribution for sample 18-09-06-96-C-B
B-13

80 ..........

40 ..........

20 -.

- . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . .
. . . . . . .

. ... . ... . ..... . . . . . . ... . . ... . .... . .... .
................. .....
. . . . . . .. . .. . . . .. . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .




Sample 11-09-06-96-C21-A 100
80
60
S40
20
0
10-2 10-1 10
diameter(mm)
Figure B.27 Grain size distribution for sample 11-09-06-96-C21-A Sample 11-09-06-96-C21-B

80 -

40 .......

102 10-1 100
diameter(mm)
Figure B.28 Grain size distribution for sample 11-09-06-96-C21-B
B-14

. . . . ... . . ... . ... . .... ... ... ... . . .. . . .
........... ..
............. .....
.. . . . .. . . .. . . .... .... ..... . . . . . ..

20 F.




Sample 11-09-06-96-C 11-A 100.

80 1-..........

60 ......

40 ....

20 .........

102 10- 10
diameter(mm)
Figure B.29 Grain size distribution for sample 11-09-06-96-C11-A Sample 11-09-06-96-C 11-B

80 .......

60 ......

40 .......

20P ......

10-2 10-1 10
diameter(mm)
Figure B.30 Grain size distribution for sample 11-09-06-96-C 11-B
B-15

,vv

. . ... . . ... . ... . ... . ... ... ... . . . . . . ... . . ... .. ... . ... .
. .. . ... . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . ... .
.................................
.. ... . .. . ... . .... ...... .. . . . . . . . . .. . . ... . .

....................
..... ...... .... .. ......
..................... ......................

.................
..................




40 .....

20 ....

U,
U -2 1 1
102 101 100
diameter(mm)
Figure B.31 Grain size distribution for sample 11-09-06-96-C12-A
Sample 11-09-06-96-C12-B

80 I-.......

40 r 20 .

10-2 10-1 10
diameter(mm)
Figure B.32 Grain size distribution for sample 11-09-06-96-C12-B
B-16

80 ..........

1UUI

..............

Sample 11-09-06-96-C1 2-A . -. . ... .. .. . . . .. . .... ... .. .... . :.. . : : .

.. .. .

60 .....

... ............ ... ...... ..... ...... ... ... ...... .. ...... ...
...........
....... .... ......... ... ............ ..... ..... .. ...... ........
................
................. .....................................




Sample 8-08-28-96-C-A
. . . . . . . I . . .

90 ........
8070-

60 ....

40 ......

30 1-10" 10-2 10-1 1
diameter(mm)
Figure B.33 Grain size distribution for sample 8-08-28-96-C-A Sample 8-08-28-96-C-C 100
2 0 ............. i ........... .. .. .. .... .... .. ............. . ...... ....... ..........
0
60
40
0
10-2 10-' 1
diameter(mm)
Figure B.34 Grain size distribution for sample 8-08-28-96-C-C
B-17

A




Sample 23-08-30-96-C-A 90
8 0 ........ : ..... .. .. ... . . .
80
70 60
.50
Z40
30
20 ...
0
2 . . . . ... : . . . . . .
10-3 10-2 10-1 1
diameter(mm)
Figure B.35 Grain size distribution for sample 23-08-30-96-C-A Sample 23-08-30-96-C-B

60 F

40 "

10-2 10-1
diameter(mm)
Figure B.36 Grain size distribution for sample 23-08-30-96-C-B

B-18

. . . . .. . . . . .. . .. . . . .
... .. ... ... ..... ......... .. .... ........ ......
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
.. ... ..... .. .... ..... .. ..... ...... .. .. .. .. ..... .
. . . . . .. . . . ... . . . ... . ... . ... ... . . . . . . ... . . . . .. ... ..

20k""




Sample 19-08-28-96-C1-A
0 -

60 .......

40 .....

20 .......

10 10-2 10-' 10
diameter(mm)
Figure B.37 Grain size distribution for sample 19-08-28-96-C1-A Sample 19-08-28-96-Cl-B

80 ....

40F-

20 ....

10-1
diameter(mm)

Figure B.38 Grain size distribution for sample 19-08-28-96-C1-B B-19

10

. . . . .
. . . . . . . . .

80 .....

..................
..................

..........




Sample 19-08-28-96-Cl-C
10 .

80 .....

60 F-

40 .....

20 ..........

102 10-1 10
diameter(mm)
Figure B.39 Grain size distribution for sample 19-08-28-96-Cl1-C Sample 19-08-28-96-C2-A 100
80 .
1 0 0 . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . ... . . . .
. 60
40 .....
0
10 10 10- 10
diameter(mm)
Figure B.40 Grain size distribution for sample 19-08-28-96-C2-A
B-20

10

.........................

. ......................... ....................
. ... . . . . . . . . . . ... .
. . . . .. . . . . . . . ..
. ... .. ... .. .. . . . . .... . . . .. . . .... . .. .




Sample 19-08-28-96-C2-B 90
80........... ..... .......
70 .......... . . .
60
40o
105 0 .. .. ... . .. .
30
20
1 0 . . .. . . . .. . . i. . .
10
0
10 10-2 10-1 1(
diameter(mm)
Figure B.41 Grain size distribution for sample 19-08-28-96-C2-B Sample 19-08-28-96-C2-C

60 ....

40 ....

10-2 10 1 100
diameter(mm)
Figure B.42 Grain size distribution for sample 19-08-28-96-C2-C
B-21

. . . . . . .+... . . .. i.. . ... . ..




Sample 9-08-28-96-Cl -A

80 I-.

O' 1 0
10-2 10-1 10 0
diameter(mm)
Figure B.43 Grain size distribution for sample 9-08-28-96-C1-A Sample 9-08-28-96-Cl-B 90
70..... ........... . .
80
60 ........... .
.....................
70
60
.40......-.....
30
20 ...... .. .... ........ ............ ............... ...............
10 ..................... ............. ...... .........
20 ::
10
10-2 10-1
diameter(mm)
Figure B.44 Grain size distribution for sample 9-08-28-96-Cl1-B

B-22




Sample 9-08-28-96-C2-A

diameter(mm)
Figure B.45 Grain size distribution for sample 9-08-28-96-C2-A Sample 9-08-28-96-C2-B

80 .....

40 .-..

20 ....

.................'....

10-2 10-1
diameter(mm)
Figure B.46 Grain size distribution for sample 9-08-28-96-C2-B

B-23

.............




Sample 14-08-27-96-C20-A 100
9 0 .. .. ... . . .. . . . . .
80 ............................. ................
70 ............ ...... ... . .. ......................... .
5 0 ...... ....... .. . .
0
= 50
40
20
4 0 . . . . . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .
102 10 100
diameter(mm)
Figure B.47 Grain size distribution for sample 14-08-27-96-C20-A Sample 14-08-27-96-C20-B
0
100 .............
C 60 ......
4 0 .. . .. .. . . . . . .. . . . ........:
2 0 . . . . . . . . . .. i . . . . . i ; i. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . i i i i .
0
102 10- 10
diameter(mm)
Figure B.48 Grain size distribution for sample 14-08-27-96-C20-B
B-24




8

4

Sample 14-08-27-96-C40-A
0 . . . .. . .. . . . . . . .. . .
0 .. . . .. . . . ..... .... . ..
0 .....
'0
0-

diameter(mm)
Figure B.49 Grain size distribution for sample 14-08-27-96-C40-A Sample 14-08-27-96-C40-B 100
8 0 ............. .. ..... ".... :"""" " ": """" .......... .... .. ......... ... ...... . . . .....................:'
6 0 .. .... ..... .... ..... ....: ... : : : : :...... ......... .............. . : :
6 .......... .
4 0 .............:.. . . .. . . .. . . . .. .. I .. ..
2 0 . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . .. . .. . : ": "i ' . .. . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . : " ) !
80
6040
20
102 10- 100
diameter(mm)
Figure B.50 Grain size distribution for sample 14-08-27-96-C40-B
B-25




..............

80 ...

40 .....

20 .....

10 10-1 10
diameter(mm) Figure B.51 Grain size distribution for sample 14-08-27-96-C40-C Sample 15-08-26-96-C-A
100
0 ........... ............. .............
80
60
40
20
0
102 10-1 10
diameter(mm) Figure B.52 Grain size distribution for sample 15-08-26-96-C-A

B-26

Sample 14-08-27-96-C40-C
. ... ...... . . . .. . ... . . . ... . . ... . ... .
... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .
.... ..............................
. ... . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . .




Sample 15-08-26-96-C-B
. .

80 ..........

40 .........

20 .......

10-2 10-1
diameter(mm)
Figure B.53 Grain size distribution for sample 15-08-27-96-C-B

Sample 6-08-27-96-C1-EAST-A

60 ...

40 .....-

20-

10- 10-2 10-1 1
diameter(mm)
Figure B.54 Grain size distribution for sample 6-08-27-96-C 1EAST-A

B-27

IUv




Sample 6-08-27-96-C1-EAST-B

C -
- J1
40
20
0 0
102 10- 100
diameter(mm)
Figure B.55 Grain size distribution for sample 6-08-27-96-C 1EAST-B
Sample 6-08-27-96-C1-EAST-C 100
80 ....... ... . . .
80O
60
co
40
20
102 10- 100

diameter(mm)
Figure B.56 Grain size distribution for sample 6-08-27-96-C1EAST-C

B-28




Sample 6-08-27-96-C2-WEST-A

S 6 0 ........ .. ".".....'i ......... ...... !... . ' / .......... . " ":
50
40 .
30 ................................. ........
20 ... .. .. ...... .
10-3 10-2 10-1 100
diameter(mm)
Figure B.57 Grain size distribution for sample 6-08-27-96-C2WEST-A
Sample 6-08-27-96-C2-WEST-B 100
80 ... . . .... ............ ........... ..................... ..... ...... ..........
60
.
40 .......... ........ ....... ............... ........................
20 ......... ............................................
40
20 0
10-2 101 10
diameter(mm)
Figure B.58 Grain size distribution for sample 6-08-27-96-C2WEST-B

B-29




| UU

80- .........

60 .....

40 ..........

20 ..........

C -2
10-2 10
diameter(mm)

Figure B.59 WEST-C

Grain size distribution for sample 6-08-27-96-C2-

Sample 6-08-27-96-ED

diameter(mm)
Figure B.60 Grain size distribution for sample 6-08-27-96-ED

B-30

Sample 6-08-27-96-C2-WEST-C
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . .
. . .. . . .. .. .... . . . . . .
. . . . ... .. . ... . .. . .... . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .




Sample 8-08-28-96-ED

6 0 . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .
60OS50 40
30 20
2 0 . . . . . . I ; ; : :. . .
10 2
10 10-2 10-1 10
diameter(mm)
Figure B.61 Grain size distribution for sample 8-08-28-96-ED Sample 9-08-28-96-ED
100
80
60
40
20
102 10- 10
diameter(mm)
Figure B.62 Grain size distribution for sample 9-08-28-96-ED

B-31




Sample 11-09-06-96-ED

10-2 10
diameter(mm)
Figure B.63 Grain size distribution for sample 11-09-06-96-ED

Sample 14-08-27-96-ED

10 -3 10-2 10-1
diameter(mm)
Figure B.64 Grain size distribution for sample 14-08-27-96-ED

B-32




Sample 15-08-26-96-ED

Figure B.65 Grain size distribution for sample 15-08-26-96-ED

Sample 17-09-05-96-ED

diameter(mm)
Figure B.66 Grain size distribution for sample 17-09-05-96-ED

B-33




Sample 19-08-28-96-ED
0 . . . I .. .. . . .
0..
0**
n

diameter(mm)
Figure B.67 Grain size distribution for sample 19-08-28-96-ED Sample 23-08-30-96-ED

4

2

8

6

4

0 ....... .... . . . .
0 . . . .. . .... . ... ...... .. .. ..i i i ) i l
0
0 -

diameter(mm) Figure B.68 Grain size distribution for sample 23-08-30-96-ED
B-34

2




Sample 04-9704 17-Cl -A

Diameter (mm)
Figure B.69 Grain size distribution for sample 04-970417-ClI-A

Sample 04-970417-Cl-B
------------------------------------------------- ------------------- .J....4.J.L-------------

0i
Diameter (mm) Figure B.70 Grain size distribution for sample 04-970417-ClI-B
B-35

I

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