• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Summary
 Table of Contents
 List of Figures
 List of Tables
 Main
 Core descriptions
 Grain size distributions
 Erosion rate versus bed shear...
 Bulk density and organic content...














Title: Determination of selected sedimentary properties and erodibility of bottom sediments from the lower Kissimmee River and Taylor Creek-Nubbin Slough bas
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 Material Information
Title: Determination of selected sedimentary properties and erodibility of bottom sediments from the lower Kissimmee River and Taylor Creek-Nubbin Slough bas
Series Title: Determination of selected sedimentary properties and erodibility of bottom sediments from the lower Kissimmee River and Taylor Creek-Nubbin Slough bas
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Rodriguez, Hugo N.
Publisher: Coastal & Oceanographic Engineering Dept. of Civil & Coastal Engineering, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
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Volume ID: VID00001
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Summary
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    List of Figures
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    List of Tables
        Page 13
    Main
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
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        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Core descriptions
        Page A-1
        Page A-2
        Page A-3
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    Grain size distributions
        Page B-1
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        Page B-3
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    Erosion rate versus bed shear stress
        Page C-1
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    Bulk density and organic content profiles
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Full Text



UFL/COEL-97/09


DETERMINATION OF SELECTED SEDIMENTARY
PROPERTIES AND ERODIBILITY OF BOTTOM
SEDIMENTS FROM THE LOWER KISSIMMEE RIVER
AND TAYLOR CREEK-NUBBIN SLOUGH BASINS,
FLORIDA






By

Hugo N. Rodriguez
Jianhua Jiang
and
Ashish J. Mehta


October, 1997


Submitted to:

Soil & Water Engineering Technology, Inc.
Gainesville, FL 32605









SUMMARY


Selected sedimentary properties and erosion characteristics of sediments collected during
three field sampling campaigns are presented. The areas include the Lower Kissimmee River Basin
and the Taylor Creek-Nubbin Slough Basin, both located approximately north and adjacent to Lake
Okeechobee in south-central Florida. The first of these campaigns, meant to be a preliminary
exercise, occurred on 10/25/95. The second and third, more extensive, samplings took place during
8/26/96 through 9/6/96 and 4/15/95 through 5/5/97, respectively. For the first campaign, laboratory
sedimentary analyses for density, organic content, grain size distribution and settling velocity were
carried out for two shallow cores and a bottom surface grab-sample. The cores were subdivided just
prior to these analyses according to visual stratigraphic horizons, and each sub-sample thus obtained
was assayed for the above sedimentary parameters. The grab-sample was analyzed in bulk for the
same. In addition, the rate of erosion of a bed prepared using the grab-sample was measured in the
Particle Erosion Simulator (PES). The same procedures were generally followed for the second and
third suites of samples. In the second suite there were twenty cores and twelve grab-samples and, in
the third, twenty-five cores and twenty grab-samples.

Overall, the fifty-seven cores varied in length from 16.5 cm to 78.7 cm, and the sub-divided
segments from 2.0 to 35.6 cm. The bulk density (sample volume divided by sample mass) of the sub-
samples varied from as low as 1,014 kg/m3 for a core with very high water content to 2,242 kg/m3
for a dense core substrate. The corresponding range of dry density (dry sediment mass per unit
volume of sediment-water mixture) was 48 kg/m3 to 1,872 kg/m3. The respective composite
granular density (sediment mass divided by sediment volume) varied from 1,029 kg/m 3 for a sample
composed mainly of organic matter (obtained as percent loss on ignition), to 2,987 kg/m3 for a
predominantly inorganic sample.

While the organic content in some samples was practically nil, one sample contained 75.9%
organic. The inorganic component typically consisted of medium to fine sand, and finer fractions
mainly in the silt size range. The overall median grain size range was found to vary from 0.008 mm
(medium silt) to 0.394 mm (medium sand). The sandy material at many sites seems to be moderately
well sorted, i.e., comparatively uniform in size, but increasing fractions of organic cause the
composite material to be increasingly graded (non-uniform). The sorting coefficient, i.e., the square-
root of the ratio of 75 percentile (by weight) grain size divided by 25 percentile grain size, ranged
from 1.05 to 5.27, with the exception of one sample, which seemed exceptionally graded, with a
sorting coefficient of about 12. This material was a mixture of organic floccules and silt- and clay-
sized inorganic matter. It was also one of two with the lowest settling velocity of 0.1 mm/s,
corresponding to the median particle size. The highest settling velocity of 168.1 mm/s was recorded
for a sandy sample.

Eight out of the total of thirty-three grab-samples consisted of significant amounts of
vegetative matter of such coarseness and consistency that their bulk properties could not be defined
except for organic content, which ranged from 20.2% to 90.1%. Ten samples were effectively sand-








dominated despite organic matter, with size ranging from 0.148 mm to 0.391 mm. The remaining
fifteen samples ranged in bulk density from watery 1,003 kg/m 3 to dense 1,995 kg/m 3.

The overall range of dry density of the grab-samples was 131 kg/m3 to 1,616 kg/m 3, and
the respective granular density varied from 1,024 kg/m 3 to 2,639 kg/m 3. This variation reflects the
presence of organic; high percentage of organic matter giving a low composite density, and low
percentage yielding high density. The organic content in the grab-samples ranged from 11.0% to
47.1%. The median grain size varied from 0.015 mm (medium silt) to 0.391 mm (medium sand), and
the sorting coefficient from 1.07 to 2.98. Finally, the settling velocity range was 0.1 mm/s
corresponding to slowly falling organic floccules, to 146.5 mm/s for 0.391 mm sand.

Over depths on the order of 30 to 90 cm cored, the organic content showed a trend of
decrease from surface, where it ranged from -10% to -40%, to values on the order of 5% or less
below about 30 cm. The bulk density correspondingly increased from -1,100 kg/m 3 at surface to
2,200-2,800 kg/m3 in the 30-90 cm deep zone. The organic-rich sediment within the top -10 cm
appears to have a fluid-like consistency, with bulk densities less than 1,200 kg/m 3. Similar "fluid
mud" layering has also been observed in the nearby Lake Okeechobee.

The upper organic layer seems to have a high potential for scour, given its low critical shear
stress for erosion (or shear strength), which is on the order of 0.1 Pa. On the other hand, sand grains
seem to be somewhat more resistant to erosion. As a result, given that the organic are inter-bedded
with sand at many sites, at these sites, in the lower layers, sand may act to sequester the organic and
thereby contain their transport by erosion.








TABLE OF CONTENTS

SUM M ARY ............. ......................... ............. ........ 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................... ............... 4
LIST OF FIGURES ..................................................... 5
LIST OF TABLES ..................................................... 13
INTRODUCTION ..................................................... 14
PARAMETERS AND METHODS FOR CHARACTERIZATION ................ 14
Bulk Density ................................................... 14
Dry Density .................................................... 14
Granular Density ................................................ 15
Organic Content ................................................. 15
Particle Size Distribution ......................................... 15
Settling Velocity/Particle Size ................ ..................... 15
Critical Shear Stress and Erosion Rate Constant ......................... 15
RESULTS ........................................................... 16
Sedimentary Properties ................ .......................... 16
Erodibility ..................................................... 19
Bed Profiles .................................................... 20
CONCLUDING COMMENTS ........................................... 20
REFERENCES ....................................................... 21
APPENDIX A: CORE DESCRIPTIONS
APPENDIX B: GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS
APPENDIX C: EROSION RATE VERSUS BED SHEAR STRESS
APPENDIX D: BULK DENSITY AND ORGANIC CONTENT PROFILES








LIST OF FIGURES


1 Sampling sites (pilot and final) in the study area. Station numbers correspond to those
identifying the cores and grab-samples in this study ............................ 35
2 Variation of granular density with organic content. The mean line is described by the
stated equation ........................................................ 36
3 Erosion rate constant variation with critical shear stress. Dashed-line box shows
the bounds of analogous data obtained by Mehta et al. (1994) from the Rodman
Reservoir in North Florida ............................................... 36
A.1 CoreNo.SWET 1,P11 ............................................. A-1
A.2 Core No. SWET 1, P4.5 ................................... ........... A-1
A.3 Core No. 4-09-03-96-C (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches. The height,
H, of each sub-section selected for sedimentary analysis is enumerated, 1, 2 and 3 in
this case. In some case, e.g., sub-section 1, the stratigraphy is not entirely uniform,
as indicated by the dashed-line divider) ................................... A-2
A.4 Core No. 21-09-04-96-C (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ........ A-2
A.5 Core No. 5-09-04-96-C (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ......... A-3
A.6 Core No. 24-09-03-96-C (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ........ A-3
A.7 Core No. 17-09-05-96-Cl(Note: 24" core taken in 5 ft of water; not drawn to scale.
Heights are in inches.) ............................................ A-4
A.8 Core No. 17-09-05-96-C2 (Note: 24" core; this core was driven deeper but otherwise
was in same cross-section as core No. 17-09-05-96-C1; not drawn to scale. Heights
are in inches.) ..................................................... A-4
A.9 Core No. 7-09-06-96-C (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ......... A-5
A.10 Core No. 18-09-06-96-C (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ........ A-5
A.1 1 Core No. 11-09-06-96-C21 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ...... A-6
A.12 Core No. 11-09-06-96-C11 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ...... A-6
A.13 Core No. 11-09-06-96-C12 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ...... A-7
A.14 Core No. 8-08-28-96-C (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ......... A-7
A.15 Core No. 23-08-30-96-C (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ........ A-8
A.16 Core No. 19-08-28-96-C1 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-8
A.17 Core No. 19-08-28-96-C2 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-9
A.18 Core No. 9-08-28-96-C1 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ........ A-9
A.19 Core No. 9-08-28-96-C2 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-10
A.20 Core No. 14-08-27-96-C20 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ..... A-10
A.21 Core No. 14-08-27-96-C40 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ..... A-11
A.22 Core No. 15-08-26-96-C (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-11
A.23 Core No. 10-970417-C1 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-12
A.24 Core No. 05-970416-C1 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-12
A.25 Core No. 10-970417-C2X (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ..... A-13
A.26 Core No. 04-970417-C1 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-13
A.27 Core No. 30-970415-C1 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-14
A.28 Core No. 48-970422-C1 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-14








A.29 Core No. 21-970424-C1 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-15
A.30 Core No. 21-970424-C2 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-15
A.31 Core No. 35-970421-C2 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-16
A.32 Core No. 35-970421-C1 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-16
A.33 Core No. 60-970421-C1 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-17
A.34 Core No. 60-970421-C2 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-17
A.35 Core No. 33-970424-C2 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-18
A.36 Core No. 33-970424-C1 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-18
A.37 Core No. 22-970424-C1 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-19
A.38 Core No. 22-970424-C2 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-19
A.39 Core No. 11-970505-C1 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-20
A.40 Core No. 11-970505-C2 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-20
A.41 Core No. 54-970502-C1 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-21
A.42 Core No. 54-970502-C2 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-21
A.43 Core No. 08-970501-C1 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-22
A.44 Core No. 08-970501-C2 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-22
A.45 Core No. 50-970429-C1 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-23
A.46 Core No. 50-970429-C2 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-23
A.47 Core No. 42-970429-C1 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-24
A.48 Core No. 42-970429-C2 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-24
A.49 Core No. 41-970429-C1 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-25
A.50 Core No. 25-970502-Cl(Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-26
A.51 Core No. 41-970429-C1A (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ..... A-26
A.52 Core No. 19-970428-C1 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-27
A.53 Core No. 25-970502-C2(Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-27
A.54 Core No. 36-970429-Cl(Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-28
A.55 Core No. 19-970428-C2 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-28
A.56 Core No. 36-970429-C2 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-29
A.57 Core No. 56-970502-C1 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.) ....... A-29
B.1 Grain size distribution for sample SWET 1, P11-1 ............................ B-l
B.2 Grain size distribution for sample SWET 1, P11-2 ............................ B-1
B.3 Grain size distribution for sample SWET 1, P11-3 ............................ B-2
B.4 Grain size distribution for sample SWET 1, P4.5-1 ........................... B-2
B.5 Grain size distribution for sample SWET 1, P4.5-2 ........................... B-3
B.6 Grain size distribution for sample SWET 1, P4.5-3 ........................... B-3
B.7 Grain size distribution for sample SWET 1, P4.5-4 ........................... B-4
B.8 Grain size distribution for sample SWET 1, P4.5-5 ......................... B-4
B.9 Grain size distribution for sample E-l ..................................... B-5
B.10 Grain size distribution for sample 4-09-03-96-C-A ............................ B-5
B.11 Grain size distribution for sample 4-09-03-96-C-B ............................ B-6
B.12 Grain size distribution for sample 4-09-03-96-C-C ............................ B-6
B.13 Grain size distribution for sample 21-09-04-96-C-A ........................... B-7
B.14 Grain size distribution for sample 21-09-04-96-C-B ........................... B-7








B.15
B.16
B.17
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B.19
B.20
B.21
B.22
B.23
B.24
B.25
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B.30
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B.45
B.46
B.47
B.48
B.49
B.50
B.51
B.52
B.53
B.54
B.55
B.56
B.57


Grain size distribution for sample 5-09-04-96-C-A .......
Grain size distribution for sample 5-09-04-96-C-B .......
Grain size distribution for sample 24-09-03-96-C-A ......
Grain size distribution for sample 24-09-03-96-C-B ......
Grain size distribution for sample 17-09-05-96-C1-A .....
Grain size distribution for sample 17-09-05-96-C1-B .....
Grain size distribution for sample 17-09-05-96-C2-A .....
Grain size distribution for sample 17-09-05-96-C2-B .....
Grain size distribution for sample 7-09-06-96-C-B .......
Grain size distribution for sample 7-09-06-96-C-C .......
Grain size distribution for sample 18-09-06-96-C-A ......
Grain size distribution for sample 18-09-06-96-C-B ......
Grain size distribution for sample 11-09-06-96-C21-A ....
Grain size distribution for sample 11-09-06-96-C21-B ....
Grain size distribution for sample 11-09-06-96-C11-A ....
Grain size distribution for sample 11-09-06-96-C11-B ....
Grain size distribution for sample 11-09-06-96-C12-A ....
Grain size distribution for sample 11-09-06-96-C12-B ....
Grain size distribution for sample 8-08-28-96-C-A .......
Grain size distribution for sample 8-08-28-96-C-C .......
Grain size distribution for sample 23-08-30-96-C-A ......
Grain size distribution for sample 23-08-30-96-C-B ......
Grain size distribution for sample 19-08-28-96-C1-A .....
Grain size distribution for sample 19-08-28-96-C1-B .....
Grain size distribution for sample 19-08-28-96-C1-C .....
Grain size distribution for sample 19-08-28-96-C2-A .....
Grain size distribution for sample 19-08-28-96-C2-B .....
Grain size distribution for sample 19-08-28-96-C2-C .....
Grain size distribution for sample 9-08-28-96-C1-A ......
Grain size distribution for sample 9-08-28-96-C1-B ......
Grain size distribution for sample 9-08-28-96-C2-A ......
Grain size distribution for sample 9-08-28-96-C2-B ......
Grain size distribution for sample 14-08-27-96-C20-A ....
Grain size distribution for sample 14-08-27-96-C20-B ....
Grain size distribution for sample 14-08-27-96-C40-A ....
Grain size distribution for sample 14-08-27-96-C40-B ....
Grain size distribution for sample 14-08-27-96-C40-C ....
Grain size distribution for sample 15-08-26-96-C-A ......
Grain size distribution for sample 15-08-26-96-C-B ......
Grain size distribution for sample 6-08-27-96-C1-East-A
Grain size distribution for sample 6-08-27-96-Cl-East-B..
Grain size distribution for sample 6-08-27-96-Cl-East-C..
Grain size distribution for sample 6-08-27-96-C2-West-A.


....... B-8
....... B-8
....... B-9
....... B-9
...... B-10
...... B-10
...... B-11
...... B-11
...... B-12
...... B-12
...... B-13
...... B-13
...... B-14
...... B-14
...... B-15
...... B-15
...... B-16
...... B-16
...... B-17
...... B-17
...... B-18
...... B-18
...... B-19
...... B-19
...... B-20
...... B-20
...... B-21
...... B-21
...... B-22
...... B-22
...... B-23
...... B-23
...... B-24
...... B-24
...... B-25
...... B-25
...... B-26
...... B-26
...... B-27
...... B-27
...... B-28
...... B-28
...... B-29








B.58
B.59
B.60
B.61
B.62
B.63
B.64
B.65
B.66
B.67
B.68
B.69
B.70
B.71
B.72
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B.76
B.77
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B.80
B.81
B.82
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B.84
B.85
B.86
B.87
B.88
B.89
B.90
B.91
B.92
B.93
B.94
B.95
B.96
B.97
B.98
B.99
B.100


Grain size distribution for sample 6-08-27-96-C2-West-B .
Grain size distribution for sample 6-08-27-96-C2-West-C .
Grain size distribution for sample 6-08-27-96-ED .......
Grain size distribution for sample 8-08-28-96-ED .......
Grain size distribution for sample 9-08-28-96-ED .......
Grain size distribution for sample 11-09-06-96-ED ......
Grain size distribution for sample 14-08-27-96-ED ......
Grain size distribution for sample 15-08-26-96-ED ......
Grain size distribution for sample 17-09-05-96-ED ......
Grain size distribution for sample 19-08-28-96-ED ......
Grain size distribution for sample 23-08-30-96-ED ......
Grain size distribution for sample 04-970417-C1-A ......
Grain size distribution for sample 04-970417-C1-B ......
Grain size distribution for sample 05-970416-C1-A ......
Grain size distribution for sample 05-970416-C1-B ......
Grain size distribution for sample 08-970501-1--A ......
Grain size distribution for sample 08-970501-C1-B ......
Grain size distribution for sample 08-970501-C2-A ......
Grain size distribution for sample 08-970501-C2-B ......
Grain size distribution for sample 10-970417-C1-A ......
Grain size distribution for sample 10-970417-C1-B ......
Grain size distribution for sample 10-970417-C2X-A ....
Grain size distribution for sample 10-970417-C2X-B .....
Grain size distribution for sample 11-970505-C1-A ......
Grain size distribution for sample 11-970505-C1-B ......
Grain size distribution for sample 11-970505-C2-A ......
Grain size distribution for sample 11-970505-C2-B ......
Grain size distribution for sample 11-970505-C2-C ......
Grain size distribution for sample 19-970428-C1-A ......
Grain size distribution for sample 19-970428-C1-B ......
Grain size distribution for sample 19-970428-C2-A ......
Grain size distribution for sample 19-970428-C2-B ......
Grain size distribution for sample 21-970424-C1-A1 .....
Grain size distribution for sample 21-970424-C1-B ......
Grain size distribution for sample 21-970424-C2-A ......
Grain size distribution for sample 21-970424-C2-B ......
Grain size distribution for sample 22-970421-C1-A ......
Grain size distribution for sample 22-970421-C1-B ......
Grain size distribution for sample 22-970421-C2-Al ....
Grain size distribution for sample 25-970502-C1-A ......
Grain size distribution for sample 25-970502-C1-B ......
Grain size distribution for sample 25-970502-C2-A ......
Grain size distribution for sample 25-970502-C2-B ......


... B-29
... B-30
... B-30
... B-31
... B-31
... B-32
... B-32
... B-33
... B-33
... B-34
... B-34
... B-35
... B-35
... B-36
... B-36
... B-37
... B-37
... B-38
... B-38
... B-39
... B-39
... B-40
... B-40
... B-41
... B-41
... B-42
... B-42
... B-43
... B-43
... B-44
... B-44
... B-45
... B-45
... B-46
... B-46
... B-47
... B-47
... B-48
... B-48
... B-49
... B-49
... B-50
... B-50








B.101 Grain size distribution for sample 30-970415-C1-A ........................ B-51
B.102 Grain size distribution for sample 30-970415-Cl-B ........................B-51
B.103 Grain size distribution for sample 33-970424-C1-A .........................B-52
B.104 Grain size distribution for sample 33-970424-C1-B ........................B-52
B.105 Grain size distribution for sample 33-970424-C2-A ..........................B-53
B.106 Grain size distribution for sample 33-970424-C2-B ........................B-53
B.107 Grain size distribution for sample 35-970421-C1-A .........................B-54
B.108 Grain size distribution for sample 35-970421-C1-B ........................ B-54
B.109 Grain size distribution for sample 35-970421-C2-A ........................ B-55
B.110 Grain size distribution for sample 35-970421-C2-B1 ........................ B-55
B.111 Grain size distribution for sample 36-970429-C1-A .......................... B-56
B.112 Grain size distribution for sample 36-970429-C1-B ........................ B-56
B.113 Grain size distribution for sample 36-970429-C2-A ......................... B-57
B. 114 Grain size distribution for sample 36-970429-C2-B ........................ B-57
B. 115 Grain size distribution for sample 41-970429-C1-A .......................... B-58
B.116 Grain size distribution for sample 41-970429-C1-B .........................B-58
B. 117 Grain size distribution for sample 41-970429-C1A-A ....................... B-59
B.118 Grain size distribution for sample 41-970429-C1A-B ....................... B-59
B. 119 Grain size distribution for sample 42-970429-C1-A ........................ B-60
B.120 Grain size distribution for sample 42-970429-C1-B ........................ B-60
B.121 Grain size distribution for sample 42-970429-C2-A ........................ B-61
B.122 Grain size distribution for sample 42-970429-C2-B ........................B-61
B.123 Grain size distribution for sample 48-970422-C1-A .........................B-62
B.124 Grain size distribution for sample 48-970422-C1-B ........................ B-62
B. 125 Grain size distribution for sample 50-970429-C1-A .......................... B-63
B.126 Grain size distribution for sample 50-970429-C1-B .......................... B-63
B.127 Grain size distribution for sample 50-970429-C2-A ......................... B-64
B.128 Grain size distribution for sample 50-970429-C2-B ........................ B-64
B.129 Grain size distribution for sample 54-970502-C1-A ........................ B-65
B.130 Grain size distribution for sample 54-970502-C1-B ........................ B-65
B.131 Grain size distribution for sample 54-970502-C2-A ........................ B-66
B.132 Grain size distribution for sample 54-970502-C2-B ........................ B-66
B.133 Grain size distribution for sample 56-970502-C1-A ........................ B-67
B.134 Grain size distribution for sample 56-970502-C1-B ........................ B-67
B.135 Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C1-A ........................ B-68
B.136 Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C1-B ........................ B-68
B.137 Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-A1 ....................... B-69
B.138 Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-B ......................... B-69
B.139 Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-B ......................... B-70
B.140 Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-B ......................... B-70
B.141 Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-B ........................ B-71
B.142 Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-B ........................B-71
B.143 Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-B .........................B-72








B.144
B.145
B.146
B.147
B.148
B.149
B.150
B.151
B.152
B.153
C.1


Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-B
Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-B
Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-B
Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-B
Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-B
Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-B
Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-B
Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-B
Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-B
Grain size distribution for sample 60-970421-C2-B
Erosion rate versus bed shear stress for sample E-1


.......................... B -72
.................. ....... B -73
.................. ....... B -73
.......................... B -74
.......................... B -74
.......................... B -75
.......................... B -75
.......................... B -76
.................. ....... B -76
.......................... B -77
........................... C -1


C.2 Erosion rate versus bed shear stress for 6-08-27-96-ED ........................ C-1
C.3 Erosion rate versus bed shear stress for 8-08-28-96-ED ........................ C-2


C.4
C.5
C.6
C.7
C.8
C.9
C.10
C.11
C.12
C.13
C.14
C.15
C.16


Erosion rate versus bed shear stress for 14-08-27-96-ED
Erosion rate versus bed shear stress for 19-08-28-96-ED
Erosion rate versus bed shear stress for 23-08-30-96-ED
Erosion rate versus bed shear stress for 11-970505-ED1
Erosion rate versus bed shear stress for 19-970428-ED1
Erosion rate versus bed shear stress for 21-970424-ED1
Erosion rate versus bed shear stress for 22-970424-ED1
Erosion rate versus bed shear stress for 30-970415-ED1
Erosion rate versus bed shear stress for 35-970421-EDI
Erosion rate versus bed shear stress for 36-970429-ED1
Erosion rate versus bed shear stress for 48-970422-ED1
Erosion rate versus bed shear stress for 50-970429-ED1
Erosion rate versus bed shear stress for 54-970502-ED 1


....................... C -2
....................... C -3
....................... C -3
....................... C -4
....................... C -4
....................... C -5
....................... C -5
....................... C -6
....................... C -6
....................... C -7
....................... C -7
....................... C -8
....................... C -8


D. 1 Depth variation of sediment bulk density: samples SWT, P11 and SWET 1, P4.5 ... D-1
D.2 Depth variation of sediment bulk density: samples 4-09-03-96-C; 21-09-04-96-C;
5-09-04-96-C and 24-09-03-96-C ....................................... D-1
D.3 Depth variation of sediment bulk density: samples 17-09-05-96-C1; 17-09-05-96-C2;
7-09-06-96-C and 18-09-06-96-C ....................................... D-2
D.4 Depth variation of sediment bulk density: samples 11-09-06-96-C21; 11-09-06-96-C 11;
11-09-06-96-C12 and 8-08-28-96-C ..................................... D-2
D.5 Depth variation of sediment bulk density: samples 19-08-28-96-C1; 19-08-28-96-C2;
9-08-28-96-C1 and 9-08-28-96-C2 ....................................... D-3
D.6 Depth variation of sediment bulk density: samples 23-08-30-96-C; 14-08-27-96-C20;
14-08-27-96-C40 and 15-08-26-96-C ..................................... D-3
D.7 Depth variation of sediment bulk density: samples 6-08-27-96-C1-East
and 6-08-27-96-C2-West ............................................... D-4
D.8 Depth variation of sediment bulk density: samples 04-970417-C1; 05-970416-C1;
08-970501-C1 and 08-970501-C2 ................ ...................... D-5
D.9 Depth variation of sediment bulk density: samples 10-970417-C1; 10-970417-C2X;
11-970505-Cl and 11-970505-C2 ........................................ D-5








D.10 Depth variation of sediment bulk density: samples 19-970428-C1; 19-970428-C2;
21-970424-Cl and 21-970424-C2 ................ ...................... D-6
D.11 Depth variation of sediment bulk density: samples 22-970421-C1; 25-970502-C1;
25-970502-C2 and 30-970415-C1 ....................................... D-6
D.12 Depth variation of sediment bulk density: samples 33-970424-C1; 33-970424-C2;
35-970421-C1 and 35-970421-C2 ................ ...................... D-7
D.13 Depth variation of sediment bulk density: samples 36-970429-C1; 36-970429-C2;
41-970429-C1 and 41-970429-C1A ...................................... D-7
D.14 Depth variation of sediment bulk density: samples 42-970429-C1; 42-970429-C2;
48-970422-C1 and 56-970502-C1 ....................................... D-8
D.15 Depth variation of sediment bulk density: samples 50-970429-C1; 50-970429-C2;
54-970502-C1 and 54-970502-C2 ................. .................... D-8
D.16 Depth variation of sediment bulk density: samples 60-970421-C1
and 60-970421-C2 ................................................... D-9
D.17 Depth variation of organic content: samples SWT, P11 and SWET 1, P4.5 ....... D-10
D.18 Depth variation of organic content: samples 4-09-03-96-C; 21-09-04-96-C;
5-09-04-96-C and 24-09-03-96-C .................................... D-10
D.19 Depth variation of organic content: samples 17-09-05-96-C1; 17-09-05-96-C2;
7-09-06-96-C and 18-09-06-96-C ....................................... D-11
D.20 Depth variation of organic content: samples 11-09-06-96-C21; 11-09-06-96-C 11;
11-09-06-96-C12 and 8-08-28-96-C .................................... D-11
D.21 Depth variation of organic content: samples 19-08-28-96-C1; 19-08-28-96-C2;
9-08-28-96-C1 and 9-08-28-96-C2 ...................................... D-12
D.22 Depth variation of organic content: samples 23-08-30-96-C; 14-08-27-96-C20;
14-08-27-96-C40 and 15-08-26-96-C .................................... D-12
D.23 Depth variation of organic content: samples 6-08-27-96-C1-East
and 6-08-27-96-C2- West ................ .......................... D-13
D.24 Depth variation of organic content: samples 04-970417-C1; 05-970416-C1;
08-970501-C1 and 08-970501-C2 ............... ....................... D-14
D.25 Depth variation of organic content: samples 10-970417-C1; 10-970417-C2X;
11-970505-C1 and 11-970505-C2 ............... ....................... D-14
D.26 Depth variation of organic content: samples 19-970428-C1; 19-970428-C2;
21-970424-C1 and 21-970424-C2 ............... ....................... D-15
D.27 Depth variation of organic content: samples 22-970421-C1; 25-970502-C1;
25-970502-C2 and 30-970415-C1 ..................................... D-15
D.28 Depth variation of organic content: samples 33-970424-C1; 33-970424-C2;
35-970421-C1 and 35-970421-C2 ...................................... D-16
D.29 Depth variation of organic content: samples 36-970429-C1; 36-970429-C2;
41-970429-C1 and 41-970429-C1A .................................... D-16
D.30 Depth variation of organic content: samples 42-970429-C1; 42-970429-C2;
48-970422-C1 and 56-970502-C1 ................ .................... D-17
D.31 Depth variation of organic content: samples 50-970429-C1; 50-970429-C2;
54-970502-C1 and 54-970502-C2 ...................................... D-17








D.32 Depth variation of organic content: samples 60-970421-C1 and 60-970421-C2 ... D-18








LIST OF TABLES


1 Sedimentary parameters for cores and grab-samples from the first field campaign ......... 24
2 Sedimentary parameters for cores and grab-samples from the second field campaign ...... 25
3 Sedimentary parameters for cores and grab-samples from the third field campaign ........ 29
4 Erosion rate parameters ...................................................... 33








DETERMINATION OF SELECTED SEDIMENTARY PROPERTIES AND
ERODIBILITY OF BOTTOM SEDIMENTS FROM THE LOWER
KISSIMMEE RIVER AND TAYLOR CREEK-NUBBIN SLOUGH
BASINS, FLORIDA



INTRODUCTION

This report presents laboratory measurements of selected sedimentary properties and erosion
characteristics of sediments collected during three field sampling campaigns in the Lower
Kissimmee River Basin and Taylor Creek-Nubbin Slough Basin, both located approximately north
and adjacent to Lake Okeechobee in south-central Florida (Fig. 1). Two collected shallow cores from
the first, preliminary, campaign carried out on 10/26/95 were analyzed for density, organic content,
size distribution and settling velocity. Core descriptions based on visual stratigraphy are given in
Appendix A. These descriptions correspond to sub-segments into which the total cores lengths were
divided according to identifiable and significant horizons. In addition to these cores, a bottom
surface grab-sample collected during the first campaign was also analyzed for the same sedimentary
properties as well as its erodibility under quasi-steady, flow-induced stressing. Results from these
analyses follow brief descriptions of parameters measured and the methods used. The main body of
results consists of similar analyses of twenty-two cores and twelve grab-samples obtained in the
second, more extensive, field campaign carried out during 8/27/96 through 9/7/96, and the third
campaign during 4/15/97 through 5/5/97.

PARAMETERS AND METHODS FOR CHARACTERIZATION

Bulk Density
The bulk density, p, was determined gravimetrically by weighing a sample of known volume
determined using a 10 cm3 cylinder, through the equation,
M
p (1)


where M is the mass of the volume, V, of the sample.

Dry Density
The bulk sample from the above test was then dried in an oven at 1050C for 24 hours and the
dry mass, MD, recorded (see Designation D4531-86 of ASTM, 1993). The dry density, PD, was then
calculated as:
MD
PD = (2)
V








Granular Density
Knowing the dry density, PD, the corresponding granular density, ps, was calculated from the
following on mass balance (Mehta, 1986):
PDPw
Ps = (3)
PD + Pw P


where p, is the density of water taken as 1,000 kg/m3.

Organic Content
The fraction of organic matter in the sediment, as defined by percent weight loss on ignition,
was determined using the standard combustion method per Designation D2974-87 of ASTM (1993).
This test was a continuation of the dry density determination whereby the dried sample was heated
again for 24 hours in a combustion furnace at 5500C. The ashed sample was removed from the oven
and placed in a desiccator to cool. After the cooled sample was weighed (MA), the percentage of
organic matter in the sediment was calculated as:

MD M,
OC = D x 100% (4)
MD


Particle Size Distribution
1. For sand-sized sediment (greater than 63 pm in diameter), quantitative determination of the
distribution of particle size, D, was achieved by mechanical sieving as described in Designation
D422-63 of ASTM (1993), and by using the Rapid Sand Analyzer (RAPSANDER) at the Coastal
and Oceanographic Engineering Laboratory of the University of Florida. A description of
RAPSANDER and the procedure for its use are provided by Charles (1994). The two methods (i.e.,
sieving and using RAPSANDER) have been shown in that study to yield comparable histograms of
grain size.

2. For fine-grained sediment (smaller than 63 pm in diameter), the standard hydrometer test can be
used to obtain the grain size distribution (ASTM, 1993, Section 4, pp. 93-99). However, in this
study the following method was used, given the presence of significant organic matter as part of the
sediment in many samples.


Settling Velocity/Particle Size
The method selected to measure the particle size distribution and the settling velocity of
suspended fine sediment was the well-known bottom withdrawal method using a settling tube (1.22
m long x 25 mm inside diameter), as described in Vanoni (1975). The general procedure for a
sediment sample consisting of both coarse-grained and fine-grained fractions was as follows:








1. Coarse Fraction: The distribution of the coarse fraction was first determined by wet-sieving the
grab-sample using three sieve sizes with 0.850 mm, 0.420 mm and 0.150 mm openings. The
fractions retained by these sieves were then analyzed according to the sieve analysis procedure cited
above. The settling velocity of sediment was obtained for the median size according to Eq. 5, which
relates the size (D) to settling velocity, w, according to:

18pwv
D = w (5)
Sg(ps p)



where v = kinematic viscosity of water.

2. Fine Fraction: The finer fraction that passed through the 0.150 mm sieve size was then transferred
to the bottom withdrawal tube. Once the suspension was uniformly distributed in the tube by tilting
and shaking it, the time of settling was begun and equal-volume aliquots were withdrawn at
subsequent time intervals to obtain the Oden Curve relating the percentage by weight in suspension,
W, and the time of fall, t. The intercept at the W-axis by the tangent drawn from the Oden curve at
time t represents the percentage by weight of the sediment in the sample that is finer than the size
corresponding to the observed time of fall. This information was then used to obtain the histogram
of particle diameter and a representative settling velocity based on Eq. 5. See details in Vanoni
(1975) for the exact procedure.

3. Size Distribution and Settling Velocity of Composite Sample: When both coarse and fine fractions
are significant, e.g., 50/50, the size distribution of the composite is obtained by combining the
histograms of the two fractions and calculating a single representative value of the settling velocity.
When only one fraction is dominant, e.g., 80% or greater, it suffices to report the settling velocity
of the dominant fraction.

Critical Shear Stress and Erosion Rate Constant
Erosion tests were conducted using the Particle Erosion Simulator (PES), which consists of
a cylindrical chamber inside of which a horizontal grid oscillates vertically (Tsai and Lick, 1986).
The chamber is 12.7 cm high with an outside diameter of 11.5 cm and inside diameter of 11.0 cm.
The sediment is placed at the bottom of the chamber and overlain by water. The grid is oscillated
in water and creates turbulence, which in turn generates a quasi-steady fluid stress at the bed surface.
When this stress exceeds the critical shear stress for erosion (or bed shear strength), sediment
entrainment occurs due to bed scour. During the test, suspended samples are withdrawn periodically
for concentration determination. The time-series of suspension concentration thus obtained at
different frequencies of grid oscillation, which is calibrated a priori to yield the applied shear stress,
T,, is then used to calculate the critical shear stress for erosion, Tc,, and the erosion rate constant, M,
using the following linear rate equation:








dm dC
dm hdC = M(Tb Tc); Tb > Tc (6)
dt dt

where m = sediment mass eroded per unit bed area per unit time, C = measured sediment
concentration at the end of the period of a constant applied stress, Tb, and h = depth of water in the
chamber (Lee et al., 1994).

For the complete test procedure the work of Tsai and Lick (1986) should be referenced. The
only noteworthy difference was the choice of the equation for converting the grid RPM to the bed
shear stress, Tb (Pa). The equation used in the present study was derived from a calibration of the
PES specifically for organic-rich samples (Mehta et al., 1994):
Tb = 0.0005914 x RPM (7)



RESULTS

Sedimentary Properties
Results from the First Campaign: As seen from Figs. A.1 and A.2 in Appendix A, the two cores
exhibit stratigraphic sub-divisions that range in color from sandy to grey to black. These sub-
divisions are between 9 cm and 18 cm in height, and correspond to visual horizons that presumably
reflect local depositional and erosional sequences.

Results based on sedimentary analysis for the sub-samples, each sub-sample corresponding
to a sub-division, are given in Table 1. The bulk density (sample volume divided by sample mass)
is observed to range between 1,360 and 1,800 kg/m3, and the corresponding dry density (dry
sediment mass per unit volume of sediment-water mixture) is between 690 and 1,440 kg/m3. The
composite granular density (sediment mass divided by sediment volume) is consistently lower than,
e.g., 2,650 kg/m3 characteristic of quartz sand. This is undoubtedly due to the presence of lighter
material, including organic matter. Loss on ignition is observed to vary from as low as 0.8% to as
high as 18.7%.

The cumulative gain size distributions are given in Figs. B.1 through B.8 in Appendix B.
The median diameter values indicate that with the exception of sub-sample P4.5-5, which was in the
fine-sand range, the remaining sub-samples were essentially in the medium sand size-range. The
sorting coefficients (obtained from the cumulative grain size distribution plot as the square-root of
the ratio of 75 percentile by weight grain size divided by the 25 percentile grain size) indicate
moderate to poor sorting, while the settling velocities correspond to the dominant sand sizes in the
sub-samples (Shore Protection Manual, 1984).

The bulk density of grab-sample E-1 (1,070 kg/m3) is characteristic of fluid-like mud (density
less than 1,200 kg/m 3), also found in the surficial sediment layers of Lake Okeechobee (Kirby et








al., 1994). This low bulk density is likewise reflected in the very low dry density (130 kg/m3), while
the granular density of the sediment (2,220 kg/m3) is consistent with those from the cores. The fluid
mud-like character of the grab-sample is certainly due to the high organic content (26%). The
material is poorly sorted (So = 1.77), indicative of its heterogeneous composition. The settling
velocity (0.39 mm/s) corresponding to median particle size is characteristic of fine-grained sediment
(Mehta, 1986).

Results from the Second Campaign: Results from this campaign are summarized in Table 2. The
sequencing of cores as presented is based on the order in which they were analyzed, and agrees with
the sequence in which they are presented in Appendix A. Note that when analyzing the cores for their
sedimentary properties, in several cases two or more sub-samples, as identified numerically in the
core descriptions in Appendix A, were combined because they were found to be visually similar.
These combinations required new alphabetic designations, which are given in Table 2. See also, note
at the end of that table for further comments in this context.

The cores varied in length from 22.9 cm (Core No. 17-09-05-96-C1) to 78.7 cm (19-08-28-
96-C1), and sub-segments from 3.2 cm [7-09-05-96-C2 A(1)] to 61 cm [9-08-28-96-C1 B(3)]. The
bulk density of the sub-samples varied from as low as 1,104 kg/m3 for a core with high water
content [19-08-28-96-C2 A(Top 6")] to 2,223 kg/m3 for a dense substrate [11-09-06-96-C12 B(5)].
The corresponding range of dry density was 48 kg/m 3 [19-08-28-96-C1 A(Top 6")] to 1,872 kg/m 3
[11-09-06-96-C12 B(5)]. The composite granular density varied from 1,085 kg/m3 for a sub-sample
composed mainly of organic material [4-09-03-96-C A(1)] to 2,885 kg/m3 for a core containing
mostly inorganic material [11-09-06-96-C12 B(5)].

Overall, while the percentage of organic matter in some sub-samples was practically nil (e.g.,
21-09-04-96-C B(2) with 2% organics, one sub-sample contained 75.9% [7-09-06-96-C A(1)]. The
inorganic component typically consisted of medium to fine sand, and the finer fractions were mainly
silt-sized. The median grain size range was found to be 0.020 mm [19-09-06-96-C12 A(Top 6")] to
0.316 mm [9-08-28-96-C1 A(l+2)]. The sandy material was generally moderately well sorted, i.e.,
reasonably uniform; however, increasing fractions of organic led to increasing non-uniformity.
Overall, the sorting coefficient ranged from 1.16 [19-08-28-96-C1 C(3)] to 4.12 [17-09-05-96-C2
A(1)]. The exception was a highly graded sub-sample [8-08-28-96-C A(l+2)], with a sorting
coefficient of 12. This material was a mixture of organic floccules and inorganic silt- and clay-sized
particles. It was one of the two samples with the lowest settling velocity of 0.1 mm/s. The highest
settling velocity of 48.4 mm/s was recorded for a sandy sample [9-08-28-96-C1 B(3)].

Three of the grab-samples (5-09-04-96-ED, 18-09-06-96-ED and 24-09-03-96-ED), consisted
mostly of vegetative matter. Given their coarseness, their bulk properties could not be defined, with
the exception of the organic content, which was naturally high. The highest value was 90.1% for
Core No. 24-09-03-96-ED. Among the remaining samples some were quite watery (e.g., 1,003
kg/m 3 for 19-08-28-96-ED) and others were denser. The densest was 9-08-28-96-ED with 1,995
kg/m3. The range of dry density was 137 kg/m3 (6-08-27-96-ED) to 1,616 kg/m3 (19-08-28-96-
ED), and the granular density varied from 1,024 kg/m 3 (19-08-28-96-ED) to 2,620 kg/m 3 915-08-








26-96-ED).


The organic content in the grab-samples varied from almost nil to 47.1%. The particle size,
which very approximately correlates with this change in the organic content, ranged from 0.018 mm
(8-08-28-96-ED) to 0.347 mm (9-08-26-96-ED). The sorting coefficient varied from 1.17 (15-08-26-
96-ED) to 2.58 (8-08-28-96-ED). Finally, the settling velocity was as low as 0.1 mm/s for fine
particles (e.g., 8-08-28-96-ED) to as high as 105.1 mm/s for a sample consisting of 0.347 mm sandy
particles (9-08-28-96-ED).

Results from the Third Campaign: Extensive results on core and grab-sample analyses obtained in
this campaign in Table 3 should be examined against the backdrop of analogous results obtained
from the second campaign, which was also extensive. An inspection of the data in all categories
(columns in the table) reveals no major trends that are significantly different from those in Table 2.
There are likely differences due to locality and season, which however are not examined here. In any
event, it is instructive to combine the results from this campaign and the previous two campaigns
to establish lower and upper limits with respect to the parameters in Table 3. In that context, the
following observations are made.

Overall, the fifty-seven cores varied in length from 16.5 cm or 6.5" (8-970501-C1) to 78.7
cm or 31" [19-08-28-96-C2 A (Top 6")]. The sub-divided segments varied from 2 cm or 0.8" [e.g.,
05970416-Cl-A(1+2)] to 35.6 cm or 14" [36-970429-C2-B(2)]. The bulk density of the sub-samples
varied from as low as 1,014 kg/m 3 for core material with a very high water content [19-08-28-96-C2
A(Top 6")] to 2,242 kg/m3 for a dense substrate [35970421-Cl-B(3)]. The range of dry density was
48 kg/m3 [ 19-08-28-96-C1 A(Top 6")] to 1,872 kg/m3 [11-09-06-96-C 12 B(5)]. The composite
granular density ranged from 1,029 kg/m 3 for a sub-sample composed mainly of organic matter [19-
970428-C2-B(lower 2+upper 3)] to 2,987 kg/m3 for inorganic matter [35-970421-C1-B(3)].

Overall, while the percentage of organic matter in some sub-samples was practically nil (e.g.,
21-970424-C2-B), one sub-sample [7-09-06-96-C A(1)] contained 75.9% organic. The overall
median grain size range was found to be 0.008 mm to 0.394 nun. The sorting coefficient ranged
from 1.05 [e.g., 21-970424-Cl-B(4)] to 5.27 [50-970429-C2 A(l+upper 2)] with the exception of
one sub-sample [8-08-28-96-C A(l+2)] with a sorting coefficient on the order of 12, noted
previously. This fine-grained, graded material along with another sub-sample [19-08-28-96-C1 (Top
6")] had the lowest median settling velocity (0. 1 mm/s). The highest settling velocity of 168.1 mm/s
was recorded for a sandy sub-sample [35-970421-C1B(3)].

Eight out of the total thirty-two grab-samples obtained in these two campaigns were
dominated by coarse vegetative matter, with organic content ranging from 20.2% (5-09-04-96-ED)
to 90.1% (24-09-03-96-ED). They also were not subjected to erosion tests in the PES because they
could not form well defined sediment-water interfaces necessary for PES testing. Eight samples
were sand dominated, with fine to medium sand ranging in size from 0. 148 mm (15-08-2696-ED)
to 0.391 mm (33-970424-ED1). The determination of their critical stress for erosion was based on
the well-known Shields' diagram, which relates this stress to the grain size (Vanoni, 1975).








The remaining grab-samples were tested for erodibility in PES. Of these, some were watery
and high in organic, with bulk density ranging from as low as 1,003 kg/m3 (19-08-28-96-ED) to
a dense, silty sample having a density of 1,380 kg/m 3 (11-970505-ED1). The range of dry density
was 131 kg/m3 (35-970421-ED1) to 61 kg/m3 (11-970505-ED1) and the granular density varied
from 1,024 kg/m3 (19-08-28-96-ED) to 2,638 kg/m3 (11-970505-ED1). The overall range of
organic content was from 6.6% (11-97505-ED1, which contained mostly inorganic fine-grained
material) to 47.1% (6-08-27-96-ED). The median grain size ranged from 0.015 mm (medium silt)
in 11-97505-ED1 to 0.276 mm (medium sand) in 30-970415-ED1. The latter sample however had
a relatively high organic content (13.6%). The sorting coefficient varied from 1.07 for a fairly
uniform core material (30-970415) to 2.57 for a graded sample (0-08-28-96-ED). The settling
velocity varied from 0.1 mm/s for a fine-grained sample (8-08-28-96-ED) to 29.6 mm/s (30-970415-
ED1); the latter corresponding to 0.276 mm grains.

Erodibility
The plots of erosion rate versus applied fluid stress based on all the PES data obtained are
given in Appendix C. Note that these only include samples that were generally fine-grained or
organic dominated, with the exception of grab-sample 30-970415-ED1, which was coarser. Table
4 gives the ensuing values of the erosion rate parameters, i.e., critical shear stress, Tc, and the rate
constant, M applicable to Eq. 6. Also given are values of tc for sand from Shields' diagram.

For PES test results, observe that Tc, ranged from practically nil to 0. 127 Pa with a mean of
0.088 Pa. The rate constant, M varied from 0.30 g/N-s to 4.47 g/N-s, with a mean of 1.61 g/N-s.
These values indicate the presence of a highly erodible (i.e., very low shear strength) sediment
surficial sediment (Lee et al., 1994).

The to values for the sandy material varied from 0.099 Pa to 0.236 Pa, with a mean of 0. 153
Pa. We note that the lower value (0.099 Pa) is within the bounds of the range of values for the finer
material, where as the upper value (0.236 Pa) is higher than that for finer sediment (0.153 Pa).
Comparing the mean values, 0. 153 Pa for sand is about twice as high as that for fines (0.088 Pa).
This difference implies that, in the mean, the finer material is potentially more erodible than the
sandy material. It also suggests that when erosion does occurs, once the top organic-rich layer is
soured, the finer material embedded with sand is more difficult to erode, and that sand may actually
assist in sequestering the fine material within its matrix.

Bed Profiles
Despite the paucity of data on the depth-variation of the various sedimentary properties, it
is instructive to examine the variability of bulk density and organic content with depth. These depth
profiles are given in Appendix D. Although no significantly strong trends seem apparent, some
general observations can be made. Thus we note that, notwithstanding numerous "anomalies" in the
data it can be concluded that, over the depths of about 30 to 90 cm cored, the organic content
characteristically decreases from the surface, where it tends to range from -10% to -40%, to values
on the order of 5% or less below about 30 cm. The bulk density correspondingly increases from -1,1
00 kg/m3 to at the surface to 2,200 2,800 kg/m3 in the 30 90 cm depth zone. The surficial








sediment on the submerged bottom appears to be fluid-like (p < 1,200 kg/m 3) and is often rich in
organic matter. The thickness of this very soft layer seems to be on the order of 10 cm, as within the
adjacent Lake Okeechobee. The sediment beneath this soft mud layer down to ~ 90 cm (at least)
appears to be essentially sandy, with dark pigmentation due to organic matter.

CONCLUDING COMMENTS

The surficial sediment on the submerged bottom at many sites appears to be fluid-like and
rich in organic matter. Such sediment is also reported to occur extensively in the region of Lake
Okeechobee where the bottom is muddy (Kirby et al., 1994). The sediment beneath this soft layer
down to about a meter depth (at least) is essentially sandy, with dark pigmentation imparted by the
organic matter, as noted. An outcome of the depth-decrease in organic content would be that the
mean granular density tends to increase from a very low value (-1,050 kg/m 3) characteristic of
organic matter that is only slightly heavier than water, to the density of inorganic (sand grains) in the
lower layers (-2,700 kg/m 3). A plot of organic matter versus granular density is given in Fig. 2
using data from the three field campaigns. In this plot, a weak trend of increasing density with depth
is seen in the mean, notwithstanding substantial smearing of data points. Data smear may actually
reflect wide ranging conditions of deposition and resuspension, which in turn are characteristically
contingent upon the locality and season. The mean line follows the following equation:

OC = 00e -0.0042(p-1025) (8)


in which psis measured in kg/m3 and OC is in percent.

Since clayey sediments can be stable against erosion up to stresses well in excess of 1 Pa (Lee
et al. 1994), the PES-obtained critical shear stress, tc, values in Table 4 indicate that in most cases
the collected sediment samples possessed very low strengths against erosion, on the order of 0.1 Pa.
Previous research (Lee et al., 1994) shows that the rate constant, M, is not wholly independent of to.
In fact, in general as tc increases, M decreases because increasing Tr implies increasing bed stability
against erosion. Hence the rate of erosion, as measured by M, must decrease accordingly. In Fig.
3, M is plotted against T- from Table 4 using all PES test data. Because of the lack of significant
variability in rc and expected smear usually inherent in sediment transport related experimental data,
M is not observed to vary systematically with -e. Curves drawn in the figure are from Lee et al.
(1994), based on a c versus M nomograph developed in that work using extensive erosion data sets
on comparatively well characterized sediments. The topmost curve is applicable to undisturbed
samples with high (55 milliequivalents per liter) total salt concentration in the pore fluid, while the
bottom-most curve is applicable to remolded beds with low (5 milliequivalents per liter) salt
concentration in the pore fluid. The curve in-between is for remolded beds with 10 milliequivalents
per liter salt concentration.

Given the data spread in Fig. 3 it is instructive, even though somewhat simplistic, to look at
the mean trend relative to erosion of the grab-samples. For the data points included in Fig. 3, as








noted the mean value of Tc, is 0.088 Pa and the corresponding M value is 1.61 g/N-s. These values
generally connote a remolded bed with low concentration of salts in the pore fluid, a description that
is also apt for the organics-rich samples tested in the PES (Mehta et al., 1994) from the Rodman
Reservoir on the Oklawaha River in north Florida (see dashed-line box, which denotes the bounds
of the data points). This comparison indicates that the erodibility of the basin sediments conforms
to the trends based on what is found elsewhere within the state.

REFERENCES

ASTM, 1993. Annual Book of A.S.TM. Standards. V.04.08, American Society for Testing and
Materials, Philadelphia, PA, 1470p.

Charles, L. L., 1994. Application of equilibrium beach profile concepts to Florida's East Coast. M.
S. Thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 115p.

Kirby R., Hobbs C. H. and Mehta A. J., 1994. Shallow Stratigraphy of Lake Okeechobee, Florida:
a preliminary reconnaissance. Journal of Coastal Research, 10(2), 339-350.

Lee S.-C., Mehta A. J. and Parchure T. M., 1994. Cohesive sediment erosion: Part I Test devices
and field instrument assemblies, Part II Relationship between the erosion rate constant and bed shear
strength. Report UFL/COEUIMP-94/02, Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Laboratory,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 75p.

Mehta A. J., 1981. A review of erosion functions for cohesive sediment beds. Proceedings of the
First Indian Conference on Ocean Engineering, Vol. 1, Madras, 122-130.

Mehta A. J., 1986. Characterization of cohesive sediment properties and transport processes in
estuaries. In: Estuarine Cohesive Sediment Transport, A. J. Mehta Ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin,
291-325.

Mehta A. J., Lee S.-C., Li Y., Vinzon S. B. and Abreu M. G., 1994. Analyses of some sedimentary
properties and erodibility characteristics of bottom sediments from the Rodman Reservoir, Florida.
Report UFL/COEL/MP-94/03, Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Department, University of
Florida, Gainesville, FL 63p.

Rodriguez H., Li Y. and Mehta A. J., 1996. Determination of some sedimentary properties and
erodibility characteristics of bottom sediments from Lake Okeechobee area, Florida. First Progress
Report, submitted to Soil & water Engineering Technology, Inc., Gainesville, FL, 19p.

Shore Protection Manual, 1984. Vol. 1, U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station,
Vicksburg, MS, variously paginated.

Tsai C. H. and Lick W., 1986. A portable device for measuring sediment resuspension. Journal of








Great Lakes Research, 12(4), 314-321.


Vanoni V. A. (Ed.), 1975. Sedimentation Engineering, ASCE Manuals and Reports of Engineering
Practice No. 54, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, NY, 771p.









Table 1: Sedimentary parameters for cores and grab-samples from the first field campaign
Sample/Sub-Sample H p pD Ps OC Dso So w
(cm) (kg/m3) (kg/m3) (kg/m3) (%) (mm) (mm/s)
SWET 1,P11-1 18.0 1720 1240 2390 10.7 0.21 1.32 27

P11-2 18.4 1470 970 1950 18.5 0.19 1.32 25

P11-3 16.4 1920 1530 2520 2.9 0.20 1.35 26

SWET 1,P4.5-1 12.2 1360 690 2090 6.1 0.21 1.40 27

P4.5-2 14.2 1770 1400 2210 0.8 0.28 1.35 41

P4.5-3 9.4 1750 1390 2160 1.5 0.16 1.30 17

P4.5-4 11.6 1800 1440 2250 0.9 0.14 1.25 14

P4.5-5 19.2 1500 920 2190 18.7 0.088 2.98 5.1

E-1 NAa 1072 130 2220 26.3 0.024 1.77 0.39


aNot applicable.


Symbols:

H: height of core sub-sample (cm);
p: bulk density (cm);
PD: dry density (kg/m3);
Ps: particle or granular density (kg/m3);
Dso: median particle size (mm);
So: sorting coefficient [ =(D75/D25)12];
D75: value of diameter D at 75 cumulative % (mm);
D25: value of diameter D at 25 cumulative % (mm); and
ws: settling velocity of median size particle (mm/s).









Table 2: Sedimentary parameters for cores and grab-samples from the second field campaign
Sample/ Ha P PD Ps OC D50 So w,
Sub-Sample (in) (kg/m3) (kg/m3) (kg/m3) (%)/ (mm) (mm/s)

4-09-03-96-Cb 5.00 1053 686 1085 13.5 0.178 1.39 1.5
A (1)

4-09-03-96-C 7.50 1276 982 1391 5.3 0.178 1.27 6.8
B (2)

4-09-03-96-C 7.50 1981 1708 2350 1.6 0.184 1.28 24.9
C (3)

21-09-04-96-C 7.00 1180 956 1233 5.0 0.171 1.24 3.7
A (1)_

21-09-04-96-C 2.00 1414 1228 1509 0.2 0.157 1.23 6.8
B (2)

5-09-04-96-C 6.00 1835 1378 2539 2.3 0.187 1.22 29.3
A (1+2)

5-09-04-96-C 11.00 1858 1553 2236 0.1 0.18 1.26 21.8
B (4)

24-09-03-96-C 1.50 1277 640 1765 7.8 0.164 1.20 11.2
A (1)

24-09-03-96-C 11.00 1274 1011 1372 3.6 0.167 1.26 5.7
B (2)

17-09-05-96-C1 3.50 1418 949 1786 2.4 0.217 1.64 20.2
A (1)

17-09-05-96-C1 5.50 1744 1431 2084 0.4 0.15 1.17 13.3
B (2)

17-09-05-96-C2 4.00 1070 501 1162 13.6 0.129 4.12 1.5
A (1)_

17-09-05-96-C2 9.00 1742 1406 2117 0.4 0.137 1.16 11.4
B (3)

7-09-06-96-C 1.25 NR" NR NR 75.9 NR NR NR
A(1)_

7-09-06-96-C 4.75 1706 1373 2058 0.3 0.119 1.22 8.2
B(2)

7-09-06-96-C 7.50 1886 1544 2345 0.2 0.131 1.26 12.6
C(3)______

18-09-06-96-C 5.00 1677 1256 2169 2.3 0.188 1.18 22.5
A (1+2)__ ____









18-09-06-96-C 9.00 1422 1193 1548 1.9 0.218 1.24 14.2
B (3+4)

18-09-06-96-C 2.00 NSd NS NS NS NS NS NS
C (2) _

18-09-06-96-C 3.00 NS NS NS NS NS NS NS
D (3)

11-09-06-96-C21 4.25 1700 1182 2453 2.8 0.168 1.19 22.4
A (1+2)

11-09-06-96-C21 4.00 1649 1362 1911 0.6 0.159 1.19 12.5
B (4) _

11-09-06-96-C11 3.00 1718 1294 2246 2.4 0.172 1.25 20.1
A (1+2+ top of 3)

11-09-06-96-C11 6.00 1961 1655 2387 1.3 0.177 1.22 23.7
B (5) _

11-09-06-96-C12 4.00 1765 1256 2559 1.8 0.217 1.58 40.0
A (1+2+3)

11-09-06-96-C12 7.00 2223 1872 2885 0.6 0.162 1.23 27.0
B (5)

8-08-28-96-C 17.50 1029 355 1088 9.5 0.025 -12 0.1
A (1+2) _

8-08-28-96-C 8.00 NS NS NS NS NS NS NS
B (3)

8-08-28-96-C 6.00 1756 1437 2110 1.7 0.148 1.30 13.2
C (4) _

23-08-30-96-C 9.25 1015 160 1101 50.1 0.069 2.99 0.3
A (1+2)

23-08-30-96-C 4.00 1711 1285 2236 0.3 0.21 1.28 29.7
B (4) _

19-08-28-96-C1 6.00 1015 48 1444 55.6 0.020 1.82 0.1
A (Top 6")

19-08-28-96-C1 13.00 1616 1252 1968 4.2 0.155 1.24 12.7
B (2)

19-08-28-96-C1 3.00 2082 1949 2249 1.8 0.154 1.16 16.1
C (3)_

19-08-28-96-C2 6.00 1014 55 1333 55.4 0.029 1.59 0.2
A (Top 6")

19-08-28-96-C2 14.00 1692 1297 2145 3.7 0.167 1.62 17.3
B (1 below top 6")









19-08-28-96-C2 10.00 1887 1430 2631 1.6 0.15 1.28 20.0
C (2+3)

9-08-28-96-C1 1.90 1318 1143 1386 0.5 0.316 1.27 21.0
A (1+2) _

9-08-28-96-C1 24.00 1504 1263 1665 0.5 0.252 1.25 23.0
B (3)

9-08-28-96-C2 3.10 1740 1471 2013 0.2 0.296 1.19 48.4
A (1+2)

9-08-28-96-C2 4.00 1673 1365 1973 1.2 0.204 1.24 22.1
B (4) _

14-08-27-96-C20 4.50 1104 276 1607 10.5 0.146 2.36 7.0
A (1)

14-08-27-96-C20 11.50 1493 1237 1662 1.3 0.156 1.23 8.8
B (3+4)

14-08-27-96-C40 5.50 1063 190 1495 20.4 0.061 1.47 1.0
A (1+2)

14-08-27-96-C40 4.00 1554 983 2292 5.9 0.128 1.18 11.5
B (3+4)

14-08-27-96-C40 5.00 2103 1824 2529 1.1 0.151 1.20 19.0
C (5) _

15-08-26-96-C 8.25 1326 1047 1452 1.1 0.147 1.20 5.3
A (1+2)

15-08-26-96-C 8.50 1245 671 1575 12.8 0.165 1.18 8.5
B (3)

6-08-27-96-C1-East 2.50 1056 202 1381 41.2 0.095 2.35 1.9
A (1+2)

6-08-27-96-C1-East 9.00 1778 1474 2116 1.4 0.165 1.26 16.6
B (3)

6-08-27-96-C -East 8.00 1529 1299 1688 1.1 0.159 1.24 9.5
C (4)__

6-08-27-96-C -West 3.50 1031 154 1257 47.8 0.065 2.82 2.2
A (1+2)

6-08-27-96-Cl-West 5.00 1979 1566 2665 1.6 0.175 1.26 27.8
B (3)__

6-08-27-96-Cl-West 7.00 1248 997 1333 2.5 0.166 1.25 5.0
C (4) _

5-09-04-96-EDel NA 20.2









6-08-27-96-ED NA 1031.3 137.2 1296 47.1 0.097 2.24 1.5

8-08-28-96-ED NA 1128 300 1748 9.7 0.018 2.57 0.1

9-08-28-96-ED NA 1995 1616 2602 0.2 0.347 1.23 105.1

11-09-06-96-ED NA 1684 1175 2395 1.7 0.169 1.21 34.2

14-08-27-96-ED NA 1125 319 1645 11.4 0.077 1.87 2.1

15-08-26-96-ED NA 1743 1202 2620 2.26 0.148 1.17 19.3

17-09-05-96-ED NA 1350 579 2528 3.35 0.229 2.28 43.6

18-09-06-96-ED' NA -- 41.1 -- -- --

19-08-28-96-ED NA 1003 140 1024 34.7 0.029 1.63 0.1

23-08-30-96-ED NA 1054 169 1473 24.8 0.072 2.34 1.3

24-09-03-96-ED' NA -- -- 90.1 -- -- --
aIn Table 1, H values are reported in cm.
bC designates a core.
cNot required.
dNo sample.
eED designates a grab-sample.
'Only organic content measured.
Not applicable.









Table 3: Sedimentary parameters for cores and grab-samples from the third field campaign
Sub-sample H P PD Ps OC D50 So w,
(in) (krg/m3 tk/m\ (1m3 Mn3 (mm) (mm/4
04-970417-C1-Aa 2.5 1363 901 1676 4.2 0.299 1.38 32.9
(1+2" of 2)
04-970417-Cl-B 8.8 1447 1224 1575 4.2 0.310 1.14 30.1
(2 less top 2")
05-970416-C1-A 0.8 1526 930 2302 6.9 0.268 1.43 51.0
(1+2)
05-970416-C1-B 10.2 1121 881 1159 1.7 0.123 1.18 1.3
(3)
8-970501-C1-A 3.5 1430 955 1820 4.8 0.138 1.31 8.5
(1+ upper 2)
8-970501-C1-B 6.0 1834 1494 2263 0.7 0.272 1.06 50.9
(2)
8-970501-C2-A 3.6 1493 1047 1891 1.7 0.150 1.32 10.9
(1+2)
8-970501-C2-B 5.8 1732 1439 2035 0.3 0.272 1.06 41.7
(3)
10-970417-C1-A 0.8 1040 576 1074 11.0 0.230 1.58 2.1
(1+2)
10-970417-C1-B 10.2 2067 1656 2812 3.0 0.279 1.06 76.9
(3)
10-970417-C2X-A 0.8 1291 978 1423 4.8 0.144 1.54 4.8
(1+2)
10-970417-C2X-B 8.6 1643 1302 1977 2.9 0.281 1.07 42.0
(3)
11-970505-C1-A 2.0 1261 475 2215 10.8 0.009 4.63 0.1
(1+2)
11-970505-C1-B 11.0 1944 1488 2737 1.6 0.010 2.12 0.1
(3)
11-970505-C2-A 5.0 1131 283 1863 2.5 0.010 2.99 0.05
(1+ upper 2)
11-970505-C2-B 8.0 1275 452 2548 18.2 0.008 4.42 0.1
(3)
11-970505-C2-C 10.0 1727 1418 2054 0.3 0.324 1.05 60.3
(4)
19-970428-C1-A 6.0 1259 598 1766 12.1 0.187 1.55 14.6
(1+2)
19-970428-C1-B 8.0 1173 963 1218 1.4 0.296 1.13 10.4
(3)
19-970428-C2-A 6.6 1310 678 1841 11.7 0.192 1.55 16.9
(1+ upper 2)
19-970428-C2-B 6.8 1019 654 1029 11.3 0.283 1.49 1.3
(lower 2+upper 3)_
21-970424-C1-A1 5.0 1074 753 1109 7.4 0.177 1.52 1.9
(1+2+3)









21-970424-C1-B 5.6 1292 1084 1368 0.3 0.327 1.05 21.5
(4)
21-970424-C2-A 3.0 1102 692 1174 10.0 0.168 1.31 2.7
(1)
21-970424-C2-B 7.0 1621 1373 1827 0.2 0.253 1.54 28.8
(2)
22-970424-C1-A 3.0 1047 595 1086 17.8 0.201 1.64 1.9
(1)
22-970424-C1-B 4.0 1320 1091 1414 1.4 0.274 1.08 17.0
(2+3)
22-970424-C2-A1 10.0 1048 599 1087 17.9 0.266 1.61 3.3
(1)
25-970502-C1-A 3.0 1114 311 1578 21.6 0.175 1.65 9.6
(1+2)
25-970502-C1-B 8.0 2004 1594 2701 2.1 0.321 1.07 95.5
(3+4)
25-970502-C2-A 4.8 1151 488 1450 25.1 0.172 1.63 7.3
(1+2)
25-970502-C2-B 8.8 1996 1575 2718 2.0 0.315 1.44 92.9
(3)
30-970415-C1-A 5.0 1105 216 1954 18.9 0.128 1.76 8.5
(1+2)
30-970415-C1-B 8.0 1186 341 2203 16.2 0.120 1.77 9.4
(3)
33-970424-C1-A 2.4 1118 525 1289 5.9 0.143 1.28 3.2
(1+ upper 2)
33-970424-C1-B 5.1 1269 913 1417 2.8 0.150 1.46 5.1
(lower 2+ upper 3)
33-970424-C2-A 2.5 1100 280 1552 33.1 0.136 1.27 5.6
(1)
33-970424-C2-B 6.5 1385 1098 1540 0.7 0.318 1.07 29.8
(2+ upper 3)
35-970421-C1-A 4.6 1053 180 1420 39.3 0.100 2.97 2.3
(1+2)
35-970421-C1-B 6.4 2242 1867 2987 0.2 0.394 1.25 168.1
(3)
35-970421-C2-A 2.2 1946 1471 2799 1.3 0.160 1.50 25.1
(1+2)
35-970421-C2-B1 8.2 1931 1576 2444 0.4 0.254 1.44 50.8
(3)
36-970429-C1-A 5.0 1042 589 1078 10.9 0.276 1.06 3.2
(1- upper 5")
36-970429-C1-B 5.0 1264 982 1369 2.8 0.274 1.06 15.1
(1- lower 5")
36-970429-C2-A 9.0 1024 269 1098 12.2 0.160 1.35 1.4
(1+ upper 2)









36-970429-C2-B 14.0 1100 853 1133 2.0 0.326 1.05 7.7
(2)
41-970429-C1-A 4.0 1638 963 2967 7.5 0.164 1.41 28.8
(1+2+ top 3)
41-970429-C1-B 5.0 1350 1161 1431 1.9 0.270 1.48 17.1
(3)
41-970429-C1A-A 2.6 1095 435 1279 19.1 0.157 1.68 3.8
(1+2)
41-970429-C1A-B 4.8 1801 1517 2120 1.7 0.327 1.05 65.3
(3)
42-970429-C1-A 3.0 1293 758 1629 4.1 0.154 1.28 8.1
(1+ upper 2)
42-970429-C1-B 4.0 1499 1222 1689 0.8 0.270 1.48 27.4
(2)
42-970429-C2-A 6.0 1281 535 2110 9.2 0.165 1.27 16.5
(1+ upper 2)
42-970429-C2-B 10.0 1591 1320 1812 1.5 0.257 1.54 29.2
(2)
48-970422-C1-A 3.4 1073 257 1399 15.1 0.122 1.36 3.2
(1+2+3)
48-970422-C1-B 5.0 1361 571 2720 18.2 0.275 1.06 70.9
(4+5)
50-970429-C1-A 4.8 1461 697 2956 12.0 0.155 1.77 25.6
(1+ upper 2)
50-970429-C1-B 8.8 1467 1121 1712 3.1 0.267 1.67 27.7
(lower 2+3)
50-970429-C2-A 3.6 1301 521 2368 15.9 0.067 5.27 3.3
(1+ upper 2)
50-970429-C2-B 7.0 1635 1159 2213 5.2 0.274 1.05 49.6
(lower 2+3)
54-970502-C1-A 3.0 1120 351 1521 31.0 0.187 1.62 9.9
(1+2)
54-970502-C1-B 9.8 1278 1023 1372 1.8 0.149 1.26 4.5
(3)
54-970502-C2-A 5.2 1283 566 1996 16.2 0.185 1.52 18.6
(1+2)
54-970502-C2-B 5.6 1387 1138 1516 1.0 0.270 1.31 20.5
(3+4)
56-970502-C1-A 5.8 1063 391 1193 22.0 0.178 1.56 3.3
(1+2)
56-970502-C1-B 8.8 1083 871 1105 2.0 0.262 1.44 3.9
(4+5)
60-970421-C1-A 4.0 1037 303 1137 27.3 0.130 1.42 1.3
(1)
60-970421-C1-B 4.6 2033 1602 2816 1.9 0.267 1.41 70.6
(2+3)









60-970421-C2-A1 4.6 1069 148 1871 28.5 0.166 1.58 13.1
(1+2)
60-970421-C2-B 6.0 1659 1395 1896 0.9 0.327 1.05 52.2
(3)
04-970417-ED1b NAC 1540 905 2478 5.5 0.290 1.39 67.8
05-970416-ED1d NA -- -- 73.3 -- -- --
08-970501-ED1 NA 1584 940 2639 3.9 0.165 1.60 24.3
10-970417-ED1' NA -- -- 54.9 -- -- --
11-970505-ED1 NA 1380 611 2638 6.6 0.015 2.32 0.2
19-970428-ED1 NA 1030 431 1074 15.3 0.205 1.58 1.7
21-970424-ED1 NA 1039 544 1078 24.0 0.199 1.59 1.7
22-970424-ED1 NA 1028 531 1056 26.9 0.160 1.38 0.8
25-970502-ED1d NA -- -- 50.4 -- -- --
30-970415-ED1 NA 1100 241 1713 13.6 0.276 1.07 29.6
33-970424-ED1 NA 1992 1556 2758 0.7 0.391 1.16 146.5
35-970421-ED1 NA 1031 131 1309 41.6 0.201 1.48 6.8
36-970429-ED1 NA 1229 415 2234 17.5 0.144 1.38 14.0
41-970429-ED1 NA 1496 865 2343 9.3 0.203 1.34 30.2
42-970429-ED1 NA 1078 211 1582 16.3 0.278 1.11 24.5
48-970422-ED1 NA 1238 393 2536 11.3 0.135 1.38 15.3
50-970429-ED1 NA 1274 570 1925 11.0 0.220 1.48 24.4
54-970502-ED1 NA 1012 191 1068 41.2 0.120 1.97 0.5
56-970502-ED1d NA -- 56.6 -- -- --
60-970421-ED1 d NA -- 90 -- --
a C1, C2 designate cores.
bNot applicable.
cED1 denotes a grab-sample.
dOnly organic content obtained.









Table 4: Erosion rate parameters
Sample I M
(Pa) (g/N-s)

E-1 0.093 2.15

5-09-04-96-EDa --

6-08-27-96-ED 0.109 2.64

8-08-28-96-ED 0.127 1.64

9-08-28-96-EDb 0.207 --

11-09-06-96-EDb 0.117

14-08-27-96-ED 0.076 1.61

15-08-26-96-EDb 0.099 --

17-09-05-96-EDb 0.075 0.61

18-09-06-96-ED' -- --

19-08-28-96-ED 0.101 2.37

23-08-30-96-ED 0.102 3.30

24-09-03-96-EDa -- -_

04-970417-ED1b 0.163 --

05-970416-ED1 -- -

08-970501-ED1b 0.128 --

10-970417-ED1a --

11-970505-ED 0.119 2.32

19-970428-ED1 0.111 4.47

21-970424-ED1 0.074 1.54

22-970424-ED1 0.068 2.27

25-970502-ED1a --

30-970415-ED1 0.066 0.30

33-970424-ED1b 0.236 --

35-970421-ED1 0.108 0.77

36-970429-ED1 -0 0.45

41-970429-ED1b 0.136 --









42-970429-ED1b 0.147 --

48-970422-ED1 -0 0.58

50-970429-ED1 0.094 2.55

54-970502-ED1 0.113 2.20

56-970502-ED1a -

60-970421-ED1"
aPredominantly vegetation no PES test.
bTexturally dominated by sand no PES test; critical stress, Tu determined from Shields' diagram for incipient motion
of sand (Vanoni, 1975).


Note, the erosion rate expression is:


C= M(rb TC)


Symbols:
E: erosion rate (g/m2-s);
Tb: bed shear stress (Pa);
T,: critical erosion shear stress (Pa); and
M: erosion rate constant (g/N-s).











Pilot Sampling Site
Final Sampling Site


LAKE OKEECHOBEE, FLORIDA


A
N


2 0 2 4 6 Miles
[_ I-


Figure 1. Sampling sites (pilot and final) in the study area. Station numbers correspond to those
identifying the cores and grab-samples in this study.


; i ,* *
















F101
0
o


100
O


1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
Particle Density (kg/m3)
Figure 2. Variation of granular density with organic content. The mean line
is described by the stated equation.


103


2 ------_ ___Undisturbed/55.

W10


SMostly remolded/1

( 10
-- _Mostly remolded/5





10-2
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
Critical Shear Stress (Pa)
Figure 3. Erosion rate constant variation with critical shear stress. Dashed-
line box shows the bounds of analogous data obtained by Mehta et al. (1994)
from the Rodman Reservoir in North Florida.









APPENDIX A: CORE DESCRIPTIONS



Note: Descriptions of the two cores from the first (preliminary) field campaign (Figs. A.1
and A.2) include sub-sample coloration and height. Descriptions of cores from the second and third
campaigns (Figs. A.3 through A.22 and A.23 through A.57, respectively) provide additional
stratigraphic information. Core sequence upto Fig. A.23 matches that in Tables 1 and 2. For
sequence beginning Fig. A.23 see List of Figures.






Sand colored 1 18.0 = H
-t


Black 2 18.4 cm



Gray 3 16.4 cm







Figure A.1 Core No. SWET 1, P11


* Black


* Sand colored

* Grey


* Sand colored


* Black


19.2 cm


11.6cm

9.4 cm


14.2 cm


12.2cm


Figure A.2 Core No. SWET 1, P.45












H
1



2


3


Detrital material

-- Dark, heavily rooted, dry sand


- Sand and organic marbling with some roots


Uniform, dark brown sand


Figure A.3 Core No. 4-09-03-96-C (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches. The height, H,
of each sub-section selected for sedimentary analysis is enumerated, 1, 2 and 3 in this case. In some
cases, e.g., sub-section 1, the stratigraphy was not entirely uniform, as indicated by the dashed-line
divider.)


23.0
16.0
16.0


-- Grey, top soil type, dry sand with lots of roots


-- Dark brown sand


-- Light-brown, coarse sand


-- Some organic staining


Figure A.4 Core No. 21-09-04-96-C (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.)


A-2















1


2


3


-- Thin flocculent layer

- Light-grey sand with leaves and twigs

-- Dark/black sand


-- Light-grey sand with organic staining


4 Light-grey sand


Figure A.5 Core No. 5-09-04-96-C (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.)


24.0


21.5r -


1





2


-- Clear water

-- Blue-green algal mat on organic material with lots of
oaks leaves
- Fibrous organic material (leaves and water oak)

-- Darker sand with oak leaves

Brown sand with oak leaves


-- Lighter brown sand with oak leaves


Figure A.6 Core No. 24-09-03-96-C (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.)


A-3


25.5 V


21.5


19.5


15.5


11.0














Water


Small macrophytes floating in water

9.0 Thin flocculent layer

1 Dark-brown/black fine sand with organic matter
5.5

2 Light-brown sand with organic staining


Figure A.7 Core No. 17-09-05-96-C1 (Note: 24" core taken in 5 ft of water; not drawn to scale.
Heights are in inches.)


V


17.6
1
13.0


2



3


-- Murky water


-- Black/dark brown, fine sand

-- Light-brown sand with a lot of black organic staining




-- Light-brown sand with some sediment layering and
organic staining


Figure A.8 Core No. 17-09-05-96-C2 (Note: 24" core; this core was driven deeper but otherwise was
in same cross-section as core No. 17-09-05-96-C1; not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.)


A-4















13.5


12.25



7.5


1



2



3


- Dry detrital material from grass and pickleweed
roots


-- Very light-grey, coarse sand


-- Light-brown sand


Figure A.9 Core No. 7-09-06-96-C (Note: 24" core; not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.)












14.0 Dark, 1/4" thick flocculent layer

1 -- Light-brown sand
11.0

2 Dark organic-stained sand
9.0
3 Brown sand, appeared to be a native spodic layer
6.0

4 Dark-brown sand


Figure A.10 Core No. 18-09-06-96-C (Note: 24" core; not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.)


A-5












Clear water
12.25
12.0- -- Dark, 1/4" thick flocculent layer
1
-- Dark-brown sand
10.5

2 Light-brown sand with a little organic staining
8.0

3 Dark-brown sand
4.0

4 -- Light-grey sand/clay


Figure A. 11 Core No. 11-09-06-96-c21 (Note: 24" core; not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.)






-- Very clear water


15.3
1 Fibrous (with needle-like plants) organic material
15.0
(macrophytes)

2
--- Light-brown sand with organic material
13.0
3 Dark-brown sand
8.0

4 Light-grey sand
6.0

5 Grey clay/sand



Figure A. 12 Core No. 11-09-06-96-c11 (Note: 24" core; not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.)


A-6













- Very clear water


15.0
4 1 Organic material
14.0

2 Light/medium-brown sand
12.0

3 Light-brown sand
11.0

4
Dark-brown sand
7.0

5 Grey clay/sand



Figure A.13 Core No. 11-09-06-96-C12 (Note; 24" core; not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.)



31.5 ?


-- Field mark (22.75)
22.3 -
1 --- Grey-clay type flocs


2 -- Dark-grey clay
14.0
-- Light-grey silt/clay

6.0
-- Light-grey sandy clay/coquina shells, greenish blue
marbling

Figure A. 14 Core No. 8-08-28-96-C (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.)


A-7










166


S-- Field mark (16.5)
16.5 Fibrous organic, brown flocs
16.25
2 Brown organic material with plant
7.0 detritus

3 -- Organics/sand
5.0
4
-- Brown sand
1.0
5 Coquina shells



Figure A.15 Core No. 23-08-30-96-C (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.)


34.0 V


1



2



3


-- Field Mark (31.8)
-- Fibrous material (note: upper layer philamental algae)


2 Dark organic, fibrous material

-- Sandy, brown organic soil


-- Dark-brown sand


Figure A.16 Core No. 19-08-28-96-C1 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.)


A-8


V








33.25


30.0

10.0

10.0


- Field mark (31.25)


- Dark organic matter (with lots of fibrous material)


S Dark-brown sand with some roots


- Dark-brown clay material with heavy root mass


Figure A.17 Core No. 19-08-28-96-C2 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights in inches.)


25.9
25.5
2
24.0


- Field Mark (26.00)
- Organic flocculent layer
.. Light-grey sand with light organic staining


- Light-grey material


Figure A.18 Core No. 9-08-28-96-C1 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.)


A-9


V










34.5
Field Mark (30.25)

30.1
.9 1 Organic flocculent layer
29.9

2 Light-grey sand with light organic staining
27.0

-- Light-grey sand

3
Minor organic stain
4.0
4 Light-grey sand with organic straining; leaf parts,
possibly laurel oak




Figure A.19 Core No. 9-08-28-96-C2 (Note: not drawn to scale. Height in inches.)





35.0 -
-- Clear water

17.5
1 Dark organic flocs and sediment
13.0
2 Dark-brown sand
11.5
3 --Medium dark-brown sand

9.0

4
__ Medium/light-brown sand
0.0


Figure A.20 Core No. 14-08-27-96-C20 (Note: Site 14: Core depth referenced from bottom; not
drawn to scale. Heights in inches.)


A-10







35.0

-Water clear


18.0
S 1 -- Light-brown floating flocs
17.0

2 Dark organic matter
12.5
-- Dark organic and brown sand marbling
3
8.5
4 Medium/dark-brown sand
5.0

5 -Light-colored sand


Figure A.21 Core No. 14-08-27-96-C40 (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.)





19.25 v On mark from field

-Clear water

17.25
17.00 1 -- Organic flocculent layer

-- Dark sand
2
9.00
Dark organic matter with some sand marbling;
organic of "oak" leaves interleafed
3

-- 1/4" to 1/2" thick white sand layer




Figure A.22 15-08-26-96-C (Note: not drawn to scale. Heights are in inches.)


A-11











15.0
--- Clear water
11.0 -1 -- Fibrous material
10.5 -1 -Organic flocculent material
10.25 '-- Grey sand


3 -Dark organic material (sandy)






Figure A.23. Core No. 10-970417-C1 (Not drawn to
scale. Heights are in inches).









18.0 V
-<-Very clear water

10.5
10.5 1 -- Leave debris (no flocs)
9.5
2 Beige sand with organic staining
7.0

3 (-Dark organic material (roots)
(Sandy)


Figure A.24. Core No. 05-970416-C1 (Not drawn to
scale. Heights are in inches).


A-12












-<-No water


-<--Dark organic material
"- Grey sand


<--Dark organic material


Figure A.25. Core No. 10-970417-C2X (Not drawn to
scale. Heights are in inches).


1I(


-<- Clear water


Organic flocs
A little sand
Dark organic material
(sandy-reddish iron color)


Figure A.26. Core No. 04-970417-C1 (Not drawn to
scale. Heights are in inches).


A-13


1
2


3


17.0 7


11.25--


10.75




















3



4


SThin flocculent layer

Fine blue/grey material
-- Organic marbling



SDark organic material


SGrey sand


Figure A.27. Core No. 30-970415-C1


SFlocculent layer

-- Grey sand
-"- Dark organic material
*-- Dark grey sand

("- Sandy organic layer (dark/blue)

-<- Beige sand


Figure A.28. Core No. 48-970422-C1 (Not drawn to
scale. Heights are in inches).


A-14


17.5

16.0
15.0
2
11.0


17.0 V


12.9
12.5 1 ^

9.5

7.0

4.5


1
2
3

4

5

6











Dry core
Leaves on top
10.5
1 85- Dark organic material
8.5
2 <7- Beige sand
7.25
3 5- 3Dark organic material


4 (- Light beige sand






Figure A.29. Core No. 21-970424-C1 (Not drawn to
scale. Heights are in inches).


10.0
1
7.0


Dry green plants

-(- Dry organic material


- Light grey sand


Figure A.30. Core No. 21-970424-C2 (Not drawn to
scale. Heights are in inches).


A-15











19.0
15.25
15.0
13.0


-<- Flocculent layer
(-- Grey/brown sand


(-- Beige sand light organic marbling




--- Very coarse beige sand


Figure A.31. Core No. 35-970421-C2 (Not drawn to
scale. Heights are in inches).


v


--- Flocculent layer

"- Dark organic material/sand


4-- Beige sand


Figure A.32. Core No. 35-970421-Cl (Not drawn to
scale. Heights are in inches).


A-16


2


3


5.0


17.0


11.0 -
10.25











Dry

1 -<- Dry organic material

2 -- Dark grey sand
3 Very dark organic material


--Grey sand


Figure A.33. Core No. 60-970421-C1 (Not drawn to
scale. Heights are in inches).


- Flocculent layer

--- Dark organic material



-- Beige sand organic marbling


Figure A.34. Core No. 60-970421-C2 (Not drawn to
scale. Heights are in inches).


A-17


13.5

9.5
6.0
5.0


10.5
10.0

5.9















-- Dark organic material

-- Beige sand
- Thin organic staining

-- Beige sand


Figure A.35. Core No. 33-970424-C2 (Not drawn to
scale. Heights are in inches).


-- Flocculent layer

-(- Grey sand, organic staining




-(- Grey/brown sand, organic staining


Figure A.36. Core No. 33-970424-C1 (Not drawn to
scale. Heights are in inches).


A-18


13.0

10.5

8.0


1

2


18.01 V-2


1 I


11.0
10.25


7.01













12.0
1
9.0
2
6.0
3
5.0

4


--Dry

-- Dark organic material

(-- Brown sand

-- Dark sand/organic material


--- Light beige sand


Figure A.37. Core No. 22-970424-C1 (Not drawn to
scale. Heights are in inches).
















10.0
1 Dark organic material/some sand
0

CO- Air pockets

0




Figure A.38. Core No. 22-970424-C2 (Not drawn to
scale. Heights are in inches).


A-19











35.01 V


1


2


3


-<- Flocculent layer
(-- Dark sediment


'<- Dark sands


Figure A.39. Core No. 11-970505-C1 (Not drawn to
scale. Heights are in inches).


1
2

3


10.0 -


Figure A.40. Core No.
Heights are in inches).


--- Flocculent layer
(<- Dark sand

"-- sand


-<- Beige sand


11-970505-C2 (Not drawn to scale.


A-20


34.01 v











18.71


14.75 -- Flocculent layer
14.25
2 Dark sand
11.7


3 -- Grey sand-organic stains
SCoarse sand
2.0 -
2.-- Dark organic material




Figure A.41. Core No. 54-970502-C1 (Not drawn to
scale. Heights are in inches).









19.25
SSurface mark (16.0)
15.75
15.75 1 Flocculent layer
14.75
2 Dark organic sand
10.5
3 Grey/beige sand
6.5
4 -- Dark organic material
5.0
5 -- Grey/beige sand
1.0
1. Dark organic material



Figure A.42. Core No. 54-970502-C2 (Not drawn to
scale. Heights are in inches).


A-21
















6.5
6.0


(-- Flocculent layer


-4- Grey sand


Figure A.43. Core No. 8-970501-C1 (Not drawn to scale.
Heights are in inches).


1

2


3


- Flocculent layer

- Grey sand


-(- Beige sand


Figure A.44. Core No. 8-970501-C2 (Not drawn to scale.
Heights are in inches).


A-22


16.5 V-














13.5
12.4 1
2
5.0


- Very dark organic flocculent layer

- Dark organic sand


- Beige sand


Figure A.45. Core No. 50-970429-C1 (Not drawn to
scale. Heights are in inches).


1 1 Dark organic flocculent layer


2 --


Dark organic sand


- Sand/organic sand


-(- Beige sand


Figure A.46. Core No. 50-970429-C2 (Not drawn to
scale. Heights are in inches).


A-23


19.0


15.7
15.25

9.0


5.0










19.0 v


10.0
9.0
2
5.0


Flocculent layer

- Beige sand


--- Dark sand with pieces of shell


Figure A.47. Core No. 42-970429-C1 (Not drawn to
scale. Heights are in inches).


% Vegetation
-- Flocculent layer


- Beige sand with pieces of shell


Figure A.48. Core No. 42-970429-C2 (Not drawn to
scale. Heights are in inches).


A-24


16.0 V


12.5
11.0
10.0






























13.0 V


6.5
6. 1 Flocculent layer with leaves

2 "- Dark sand
5.0

3 .-- Beige sand (yellow/gold)




Figure A.49. Core No. 41-970429-C1 (Not drawn to
scale. Heights are in inches).


A-25











(Wet)


-- Detritus (vegetation and leaves)


2 -- Dark sand


(- Beige sand


"-,- Dark beige sand


Figure A.50. Core No. 25-970502-C1 (Not drawn to
scale. Heights are in inches).


7.5
7.0
2
5.0


--- Flocculent layer with leaves

- Dark sand


SBeige sand (yellow/gold)


Figure A.51. Core No. 41-970429-C1A (Not drawn to
scale. Heights are in inches).


A-26


11.0
10.0


4.5


13.51 V










17.0


14.0
13.0
2
8.0


'- Flocculent material

- Dark sand


-(- Beige sand


Figure A.52. Core No. 19-970428-C1 (Not drawn to
scale. Heights are in inches).













(Dry)

14.5
1 -- Detrital material (vegetation)
12.0
2 Dark sand
9.0

3 Beige sand


Figure A.53. Core No. 25-970502-C2 (Not drawn to
scale. Heights are in inches).


A-27














10.5


1 <- Dark organic material






Figure A.54. Core No. 36-970429-C1 (dry) (Not drawn to
scale. Heights are in inches).


18.0 V


15.0
14.0


3.0
3


- Flocculent material

(- Dark sand



- Beige sand


Figure A.55. Core No. 19-970428-C2 (Not drawn to
scale. Heights are in inches).


A-28















1 -- Flocs and detrital material
2 Dark organic material


3

4


Beige sand

- Dark organic material

-- Beige sand


Figure A.56. Core No. 56-970502-C1 (Not drawn to
scale. Heights are in inches).


1



2


Flocculent layer



-- Sand with organic material


Figure A.57. Core No. 36-970429-C2 (wet) (Not drawn to
scale. Heights are in inches).


A-29


14.0
13.7
13.3

8.0

7.0


4.51


18.0 V









APPENDIX B: GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS

Note: Figures B.1 through B.9 provide data from the first field campaign, Figures B.10
through B.68 are for the second campaign, and Figures B.69 through B.153 present data from the
third campaign.


Sample SWET 1, P11-1


Figure B.1
P11-1


10-
diameter (mm)
Grain size distribution for sample SWET 1,


Sample SWET 1, P11-2


diameter (mm)
Figure B.2. Grain size distribution for sample SWET 1,
P11-2.












Sample SWET 1, P11-3
inn.


80




60




40




20 -




0
10-2 10-1 1(
diameter (mm)
Figure B.3 Grain size distribution for sample SWET 1, P 11-3


Sample SWET 1, P4.5-1


10-2 10-1 10'
diameter (mm)
Figure B.4 Grain size distribution for sample SWET 1, P4.5-1


B-2










Sample SWET 1, P4.5-2


102 10-1 100
diameter (mm)
Figure B.5 Grain size distribution for sample SWET 1, P4.5-2



Sample SWET 1, P4.5-3
100



80



S60



40



20



0
10- 10-1 100
diameter (mm)
Figure B.6 Grain size distribution for sample SWET 1, P4.5-3


B-3










Sample SWET 1, P4.5-4


C .. .

40 .. ..




20 .: : : : : : : : .: : : : :




0
102 10- 10'
diameter (mm)
Figure B.7 Grain size distribution for sample SWET 1, P4.5-4


Sample SWET 1, P4.5-5


diameter (mm)
Figure B.8 Grain size distribution for sample SWET 1, P4.5-5










Sample E-1


4 0 .. ... .... .. .. .



20
2 0 .. ....... .... ... .. ', .. ........ .. ... .. .. .. .. ..........





10 10-2 10-1
diameter (mm)
Figure B.9 Grain size distribution for sample E-l

Sample 4-09-03-96-C-A


diameter(mm)
Figure B.10 Grain size distribution for sample 4-09-03-96-C-A













Sample 4-09-03-96-C-B
Inn 1


40- ...


diameter(mm)

Figure B. 11 Grain size distribution for sample 4-09-03-96-C-B

Sample 4-09-03-96-C-C
I nn,


80 ....


60 ......


40 ........


20 ........


10-2 10-1
diameter(mm)

Figure B.12 Grain size distribution for sample 4-09-03-96-C-C











B-6


80 ......


60 ........


100


............


. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .






. . . .. . . . . . . .






. . . . . . . . . . . . .






. . . ... . . . . . . ..


I-






::1


. ............. ......


...................:


) : -- - - 7' --( -: ........... )













... ..... . ... ... ......


. . . .... . . .










Sample 21-09-04-96-C-A


60 ....... ..


40 ........


20 ..........


diameter(mm)
Figure B.13 Grain size distribution for sample 21-09-04-96-C-A
Sample 21-09-04-96-C-B
inn


60 ....


40 ..........


20 ....... ....


10- 1
diameter(mm)


Figure B.14 Grain size distribution for sample 21-09-04-96-C-B








B-7


Sample 21-09-04-96-C-A


. . . .... . . . . . . .. .. .


S.......... ..... .:........... .........~..... .











Sample 5-09-04-96-C-A
100




80



6 0 .... ......... ..... .. ... . ... .......... .... ........ ... .
60










20..




0
0 .. . . . .. ...... . I ..




04 ....... ... .. .......... ... . .. .... .:.. -.: .. ..-.- ... ................ .. ... ...;- .- .;..











10-2 10- 1
diameter(mm)

Figure B. 15 Grain size distribution for sample 5-09-04-96-C-A
Sample 5-09-04-96-C-B


10-2 10 1
diameter(mm)
Figure B.16 Grain size distribution for sample 5-09-04-96-C-B









B-8


60Q .......


40 ..........


20 .........


...........









.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... ..




....... ... ... .. ........ .. ....... ...












Sample 24-09-03-96-C-A
1inn


80-


60


40


102 10- 1
diameter(mm)

Figure B.17 Grain size distribution for sample 24-09-03-96-C-A

Sample 24-09-03-96-C-B


40 ...


0 ---------' ---' -' --' -' 'X M --------- -- ---- - -*
10-2 10-1 1
diameter(mm)

Figure B.18 Grain size distribution for sample 24-09-03-96-C-B










B-9


601 .......


20 .........


.. . . ............... ...........- .................... . ......





....... .... ... ... ....... ...- . .





............... ....... . ..... .... .. ~ ~ .... .. . ... .


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . ... .











.. ..... .... ..... .
..............




.. ........... .... ..... .... ...... .. ...... ... .... .. .. ..... ........










Sample 17-09-05-96-Cl-A


S50


440


30


20


10
2 0 ........;....... . . . : : : : : : : :





0
10 10-2 10-1 1(
diameter(mm)
Figure B.19 Grain size distribution for sample 17-09-05-96-C1-A


Sample 17-09-05-96-C1-B
100




80




6 0 ..... ....................... .. ........ .. ... ..... ....... : .. : :
.. . .. ... .
6,0


.)
CF


10-2 10-1 100
diameter(mm)
Figure B.20 Grain size distribution for sample 17-09-05-96-C1-B


B-10












&u


80


70


60

:E
5 50


40


30


20


10
10


Figu


Sample 17-09-05-96-C2-A


-3


re B.21


10-2 10-1 100
diameter(mm)
Grain size distribution for sample 17-09-05-96-C2-A


Sample 17-09-05-96-C2-B


7o


70. .....


60 .


50


4 0 .. . . .. .... . ....... ... ....... .

30



20


10



10-2 10-1 100
diameter(mm)
Figure B.22 Grain size distribution for sample 17-09-05-96-C2-B







B-ll


; ;--- : .. .. .. .. ... ... .....; .


: - --- : I : .. ... .. .. ... .. - :-


. . .. . . . . . . .. -- -











/ ...........








Sample 7-09-06-96-C-B


diameter(mm)
Figure B.23 Grain size distribution for sample 7-09-06-96-C-B


Sample 7-09-06-96-C-C


80 ......... ..


. . .......


diameter(mm)
Figure B.24 Grain size distribution for sample 7-09-06-96-C-C




B-12


(I -- - .-.-.-1


...................


..............


.................


................


.. .. .












Sample 18-09-06-96-C-A
i n..


80


20-


10-2 10-1
diameter(mm)

Figure B.25 Grain size distribution for sample 18-09-06-96-C-A

Sample 18-09-06-96-C-B


diameter(mm)

Figure B.26 Grain size distribution for sample 18-09-06-96-C-B










B-13


80 ..........


40 ..........


20 -.


-.............; ........ ...:. :..:.;... ........... ..... ..........;


. ... . ... . ..... . . . . . . ... . . . ... . .... . .... .





.. ............ .... ...





..... ...... ... .. ...... ... .... .......





. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .







Sample 11-09-06-96-C21-A
100





6 0. ..... . ... : : : : :
80


,60


40


20


10-2 10-1 10
diameter(mm)
Figure B.27 Grain size distribution for sample 11-09-06-96-C21-A
Sample 11-09-06-96-C21-B


80 -


40 .......


102 10-1 100
diameter(mm)
Figure B.28 Grain size distribution for sample 11-09-06-96-C21-B




B-14


. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .


20 -.













Sample 11-09-06-96-C11-A
100


80 ..........


60 ......


40 ....


20 F........


102 10-1 10
diameter(mm)

Figure B.29 Grain size distribution for sample 11-09-06-96-C11-A

Sample 11-09-06-96-C11-B


80 .......


60 ......


40 .......


20 ......


10-2 10-1 100
diameter(mm)

Figure B.30 Grain size distribution for sample 11-09-06-96-C11-B











B-15


,vv


. . ... . . ... . ... . ... . ... ... ... . . . . . . ... . . . ... .. .... . ... . : :












... ... .... ... .. .. .... ...






.. ... . .. . . ... . .... . ...... .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . ... . . : i -: :


I W


....................












..... ...... .... .. ......





..................... ......................


.................



















..................


i:.~-













~1111


40 ....


20 .....


10-2 10-1 100
diameter(mm)

Figure B.31 Grain size distribution for sample 11-09-06-96-C12-A

Sample 11-09-06-96-C12-B


80 .......


40 .





20 ...


10- 10-1 100
diameter(mm)

Figure B.32 Grain size distribution for sample 11-09-06-96-C12-B











B-16


80 ..........


IU I


..............


Sample 11-09-06-96-C12-A


...........


60 .....


... ............ ... . ...... ..... ...... ... ... ...... .. ...... ...












....... .... ......... ... ............ ..... ..... .. ...... ........





................
................. .....................................











Sample 8-08-28-96-C-A















...... . . . .I :. . . .






........ .... .


90 -....



80 ..



70 -


60 ....


40 .....


30
103 10-2 10- 1
diameter(mm)

Figure B.33 Grain size distribution for sample 8-08-28-96-C-A
Sample 8-08-28-96-C-C
100




80-







ca


40




20





10-2 10-1 1
diameter(mm)

Figure B.34 Grain size distribution for sample 8-08-28-96-C-C








B-17


A











Sample 23-08-30-96-C-A
90
90 -...! !.!.!. !!.... .: :.:. .. . . .



70


60


S50-


Z40






0
20 .... . .. ..



0. .... : . ... . .


103 10-2 10- 1I
diameter(mm)
Figure B.35 Grain size distribution for sample 23-08-30-96-C-A


Sample 23-08-30-96-C-B


60 F


40 --


10-2 10-1
diameter(mm)
Figure B.36 Grain size distribution for sample 23-08-30-96-C-B


B-18


'~' `'~'" `~''' ..... ............... ..........''' '''''''`~'' `'` '~

... .. .. .. ... ...... ... .. .. .. .... .... ....~';


20k "













Sample 19-08-28-96-C1-A
n- --


60 .......


40 ....


20 .......


103 10-2 10-1 10
diameter(mm)

Figure B.37 Grain size distribution for sample 19-08-28-96-C1-A

Sample 19-08-28-96-C1-B


80 ....


40F


20 -...


10-'
diameter(mm)


Figure B.38 Grain size distribution for sample 19-08-28-96-C1-B











B-19


10


. .. . . .. ... . . . .. .. . .


--





, i i , i1










: ::::
: :







i ~ ~ i i :-


80 ....


..................



















..................


............-












Sample 19-08-28-96-C1-C
inr .


80 ....


60-


40 ....


20 ..........


102 10-1 10
diameter(mm)

Figure B.39 Grain size distribution for sample 19-08-28-96-C1-C

Sample 19-08-28-96-C2-A
100





80 ... . : .





60





40 .....










20

103 102 10-' 10
diameter(mm)

Figure B.40 Grain size distribution for sample 19-08-28-96-C2-A










B-20


10


.........................


. ......................... ....................





.... . . . . . . . . . . ... . .





. . . . .. . . . . . . . ..





. . . .... . . . .. . . .... . .. .


- : : i-

















: ,-







Sample 19-08-28-96-C2-B
90
9 0 . | ------:.--.--. : . : .:: : : : : : :.|

80 ...... ..... .

70 -.............. ..
60


40

30

20

10

103 10-2 10-1 1(
diameter(mm)
Figure B.41 Grain size distribution for sample 19-08-28-96-C2-B
Sample 19-08-28-96-C2-C


60 ....


40....


0-2 10 100
diameter(mm)
Figure B.42 Grain size distribution for sample 19-08-28-96-C2-C



B-21


. . . . .










Sample 9-08-28-96-C1-A




. . . . .


80 I-


10-2 10-1 100
diameter(mm)
Figure B.43 Grain size distribution for sample 9-08-28-96-C1-A
Sample 9-08-28-96-C1-B
90


70. : ..... : : :
80. .

70............

60




40... ...

30
0 ............. ........... ... .. .. ..................... .... ... ... ......




20






10-2 10-1
diameter(mm)
Figure B.44 Grain size distribution for sample 9-08-28-96-C1-B


B-22










Sample 9-08-28-96-C2-A


diameter(mm)
Figure B.45 Grain size distribution for sample 9-08-28-96-C2-A
Sample 9-08-28-96-C2-B


80 .....


40 .-.


20 ...


. .


10-2 10-
diameter(mm)
Figure B.46 Grain size distribution for sample 9-08-28-96-C2-B


B-23


.. ...........









Sample 14-08-27-96-C20-A
10lO O ------ -- * ! I -------- -- ---! !, . .
100

90 ...

80 ...........

70-




5 50

40

30




10
10 10-1 100
diameter(mm)
Figure B.47 Grain size distribution for sample 14-08-27-96-C20-A
Sample 14-08-27-96-C20-B
100



80




C 60 ......



40
4 0 . . . : : : : : :

2 4 0 ........ ... ........ .. .. .... ...| .. . .......... ........ ........... .. . .




20 -




102 10-1 10
diameter(mm)
Figure B.48 Grain size distribution for sample 14-08-27-96-C20-B







B-24
















8


4


Sample 14-08-27-96-C40-A





0 ...




'0








I0



r " ; ; 1 . ;


diameter(mm)

Figure B.49 Grain size distribution for sample 14-08-27-96-C40-A
Sample 14-08-27-96-C40-B
100




80




600 : :




40
4 0 ....... ...... . ....... .... . .... ... ............... .... .... I ..... . :




20 -





10-2 10-1 100
diameter(mm)

Figure B.50 Grain size distribution for sample 14-08-27-96-C40-B








B-25
















..............


80 ..


40 .....


20 .....


10- 10-1 10
diameter(mm)
Figure B.51 Grain size distribution for sample 14-08-27-96-C40-C
Sample 15-08-26-96-C-A
100




80-




,60









20 -



0
10-2 10-1 10
diameter(mm)
Figure B.52 Grain size distribution for sample 15-08-26-96-C-A


B-26


Sample 14-08-27-96-C40-C









Sample 15-08-26-96-C-B

















... .. .. .. .. .. ... .... .. ..1 0..


80 ..........


40 ........


20 .......


10-2 10-1
diameter(mm)
Figure B.53 Grain size distribution for sample 15-08-27-96-C-B


Sample 6-08-27-96-C1-EAST-A
. . . .. . . . !


60 ..


40 .....


20F-


103 10-2 10 1
diameter(mm)
Figure B.54 Grain size distribution for sample 6-08-27-96-C1-
EAST-A


B-27


IUv










Sample 6-08-27-96-C1-EAST-B


c --








20




0
10-2 10-1 10
diameter(mm)
Figure B.55 Grain size distribution for sample 6-08-27-96-C1-
EAST-B
Sample 6-08-27-96-C1-EAST-C
100




80 .................... . . ....
80




,60
ci


40






20-


10-2 10-' 100


diameter(mm)
Figure B.56 Grain size distribution for sample 6-08-27-96-C1-
EAST-C


B-28









Sample 6-08-27-96-C2-WEST-A


30 ....... .......... ............... .........

20........ .. ........ ..
20 :


10- 10-2 10- 100
diameter(mm)
Figure B.57 Grain size distribution for sample 6-08-27-96-C2-
WEST-A

Sample 6-08-27-96-C2-WEST-B
100



80......... .............................



60 -......



40........ ................... .................................
40 -



20




10-2 101 100
diameter(mm)
Figure B.58 Grain size distribution for sample 6-08-27-96-C2-
WEST-B


B-29









IUU


80- ......


60 ....


40- ..........


20 ........


U, -
10z 10
diameter(mm)


Figure B.59
WEST-C


Grain size distribution for sample 6-08-27-96-C2-


Sample 6-08-27-96-ED


diameter(mm)
Figure B.60 Grain size distribution for sample 6-08-27-96-ED


B-30


Sample 6-08-27-96-C2-WEST-C


i !












Sample 8-08-28-96-ED


60 O

5 50

40


30

20

10 2
103 10-2 10-1 100
diameter(mm)
Figure B.61 Grain size distribution for sample 8-08-28-96-ED


Sample 9-08-28-96-ED
100




80




S60




40-




20





10-2 10-1 10
diameter(mm)
Figure B.62 Grain size distribution for sample 9-08-28-96-ED


B-31










Sample 11-09-06-96-ED


10-2 10
diameter(mm)
Figure B.63 Grain size distribution for sample 11-09-06-96-ED


Sample 14-08-27-96-ED


10-3 10-2 10-'
diameter(mm)
Figure B.64 Grain size distribution for sample 14-08-27-96-ED


B-32









Sample 15-08-26-96-ED


Figure B.65 Grain size distribution for sample 15-08-26-96-ED


Sample 17-09-05-96-ED


diameter(mm)
Figure B.66 Grain size distribution for sample 17-09-05-96-ED


B-33










Sample 19-08-28-96-ED












.0

0 . . . . .... . . . . . .
0..


diameter(mm)
Figure B.67 Grain size distribution for sample 19-08-28-96-ED
Sample 23-08-30-96-ED


4


2


8(


61


4(


0 . ... . .. .... .




0 -




0*


diameter(mm)
Figure B.68 Grain size distribution for sample 23-08-30-96-ED







B-34


2









Sample 04-970417-C1-A
I 0,0


02 1
102 10
Diameter (mm)
Figure B.69 Grain size distribution for sample 04-970417-C1-A


Sample 04-970417-C1-B




--------------------------- --- --- ---- -- ----------- --- ------ --- --- *-- -- --



------------............... ---- ------- --------.





.il ii i l


0
10-2 10-1 1
Diameter (mm)
Figure B.70 Grain size distribution for sample 04-970417-C1-B



B-35


IIur


-------------------- ---- --- --'-------- ----------- ------ ---- ---- -- --- -- -



------------ -----,-...... -- ... L. ------------ ------.. .. ..J-







- -- ------------ -- - -- -- ^ ^ -------- --- I ------- - -- -
4 4 L o .5.55. s





so an




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