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    Back Matter
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Full Text





LASA Forum


Latin American Studies Association


Vol. XIX, No. 2


Summer 1988


POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF THE PROPOSED
ALTAMIRA-XINGU HYDROELECTRIC
COMPLEX IN BRAZIL
by
Janet M. Chernela
Florida International University
Fellow at Cultural Survival, Harvard University


In the very near future the Amazon may again be
flooded with dollars. Perhaps as early as September of 1988,
a proposed Power Sector II loan of $250 million to the
Brazilian "energy sector" (rather than to any specifically
named project) may come up for a vote in a meeting of the
World Bank's executive board.
The implications of this transfer should be carefully
considered, especially in light of the World Bank's repeated
expression of its concerns for the environment and the needs
of rural and "tribal" peoples.' One of the major projects
that may be funded by the Power Sector II loan is a
hydroelectric project in the eastern Amazon basin, an area
known for its pristine tropical rain forests and large number
of diverse indigenous populations. The multipurpose
Altamira-Xing6 dam complex in the state of Pard will divert
water from the Xingf River, a southern tributary of the
Amazon, to create one of the world's largest reservoirs. It
promises to dwarf any previous hydroelectric project in
Brazil.

Potential Social Impacts

A series of as many as 47 potential dam sites are under
examination, 24 on the Xing6 and 23 on its tributary streams
(Andrade and Oliveira, p.2). Just two of these dams are
expected to flood between 4,735 and 7,365 square kilometers
(km2) on the lower Xingd. If only five of the dams now
under consideration are constructed, approximately 18,000
km2 will be flooded (Andrade and Oliveira, p.9), forming
the largest artificially created body of water yet known.
In addition to devastating thousands of acres of tropical
woodlands, the dam complex and the associated reservoirs
would cause the relocation of approximately 9,000
indigenous people (Gallagher, p.2). Two downriver
inundations will directly displace eight groups: Paquicamba,
Koatinemo, Yuruna (or Juruna), Arara, Karardo, Kikrin,
Continued on page 3


RESEARCH SEMINAR IN NICARAGUA
June 11-25, 1988
by
Thomas W. Walker
Ohio University
and
Harvey Williams
The University of the Pacific

LASA sponsored its fourth annual research seminar in
Nicaragua from June 11 through June 25, 1988. As in the
past, the purpose of the seminar, which was open to all
Spanish-speaking LASA members, was to provide the par-
ticipating scholars with intensive exposure to the current
situation in Nicaragua and with an introduction to univer-
sities, think tanks, research facilities, and colleagues there.
The sixteen participants included twelve professors, two
Ph.D. candidates, one religious educator, and one retired
U.S. Army officer. The academic disciplines represented
were anthropology, economics, history, political science,
sociology, and Spanish language and literature.
The seminar was designed and coordinated by Thomas
W. Walker (Political Science, Ohio University) and Harvey
Williams (Sociology, The University of the Pacific). In
Nicaragua, Walker and Williams were assisted by the
Nicaraguan professional association, CONAPRO H6roes y
Martires. Although the group spent a number of days in
other areas, its central base of operations was Managua. The
participant fees of $1160 ($960 for students) covered all
seminar costs including round-trip travel between Mexico
City and Managua.
The itinerary reflected the general interests of the group,
which this year included war and peace, mass organizations,
agrarian reform, the role of women, indigenous minorities,
democratization, and the economy. Specific interests of par-
ticipants were also considered and individual activities
arranged where possible. The two-week itinerary included
the following activities:

Saturday, June 11. Arrival in Managua, dinner, and
introduction.

Sunday, June 12. Morning trip to Boaco, the capital
of Region V, one of the few areas in the country in which
the contras have had a substantial civilian base. Accompany-
Continued on page 7








CONTENTS


Potential Impacts of the Proposed Altamira-
Xingd Hydroelectric Complex in Brazil ............... 1
By Janet M. Chernela
Research Seminar in Nicaragua ..................... 1
By Thomas W. Walker and Harvey Williams
LASA Book Award Established ................. ....9
Nominations Invited for 1989 Slate ................... 9
Resolutions Ratified ............................. 10
Call for Silvert Award Nominations ................. 10

Visa Denials on Political Grounds ................... 10
Constitution and By-Laws of the
Latin American Studies Association ................. 11
LASA vs. the U.S. Customs Service: Final Resolution .. 15
The 1984 Nicaraguan Election Observation:
A Final Comment .............................. 16
XIV Congress Papers Available....................20


XV International Congress, San Juan
Report from the Program Committee .............. 23
Proposal for Paper Presentation ................. 25
Proposal for Organized Session .................. 27
Proposal for Special Events and Meetings.......... 29
Proposal for Film Festival Submission ............. 30

Lourdes Casal Fund..............................31
Contributors to LASA Endowment Fund............. 31
For LASA Members Abroad:
Distributors for UNESCO Coupons ................. 32
Letters ......................................... 33
Announcements...... ...................... 33
Forthcoming Conferences.........................35
Employment Opportunities ......................... 36
Research & Study Opportunities ................... 37
Publications ........... ...................... ... 38


Latin American Studies Association


President:
Vice President:
Past President:


Executive Council:
(For term ending October 1989):


(For term ending April 1991):



Executive Director:
Assistant to the Executive Director:
Publications Director:

Forum Editorial
Advisory Board:


Paul Drake (University of California, San Diego)
Jean Franco (Columbia University)
Cole Blasier (Library of Congress)


Peter Bell (Edna McConnell Clark Foundation), Lorenzo
Meyer (Colegio de Mexico), Marta Tienda (University of
Chicago).
Peter Evans (University of New Mexico), Adolfo Figueroa
(Universidad Cat6lica del Peru), Cynthia McClintock
(George Washington University).

Reid Reading (University of Pittsburgh)
Lynn M. Young (University of Pittsburgh)
June S. Belkin (University of Pittsburgh)

Marta Morello Frosch (University of California, Santa
Cruz), Enrique Mayer (University of Illinois at Urbana-
Champaign), Alexander W. Wilde (Washington Office
on Latin America).


The LASA Forum is published in the winter, spring, summer and fall. Deadlines for receipt of copy are November 20, February
20, May 20 and August 20 respectively. All contributions should be directed to Reid Reading, Editor, LASA Forum, William Pitt
Union, 9th Floor, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260. Opinions expressed herein are those of individual authors and
do not necessarily reflect the views of the Latin American Studies Association or its officers. We welcome responses to any
material published in the Forum. ISSN 0890-7218








Chernela
Arawete, and Parakand. Three other dams on the lower
Xing6 and two on the Iriri River will affect the Xipaia-
Curuaia and several uncontacted indigenous groups
inhabiting the region surrounding the upper Iriri. Subse-
quent dams programmed further upriver on the Xingf will
inundate official reserve lands, legally recognized as belong-
ing to four groups of Kaiap6 (Kokraimoro, Aukre,
Kuben-kra-kei and Kikretum) as well as many other Kaiap6
groups situated inside the well-known Xingf National Park.2
While the aforementioned nations will be directly affected-
that is, displaced-by flooding, the number of indigenous
groups affected by the project increases when related indirect
impacts, such as access roads, electrical installations, and
centers of operations are considered. Eleven additional
populations are likely to be affected by the full complex
(Andrade and Oliveira, p. 15). In sum, it is not unreasonable
to project that at least twenty-four distinct indigenous
populations may be affected either directly or indirectly by
the project.
The Xingi River valley has long remained remote from
the wide-reaching communication networks of large urban
centers and industry. It may be considered a refuge area for
representative language groups of the major linguistic stocks
in lowland South America. Speakers of all four major
linguistic trunks are found there: Cariban, G8, Arawakan
and Tupian. Indeed, many of the groups inhabiting the
region moved gradually upriver to distance themselves from
European contact. The Yuruna, for example, have migrated
over 1,000 miles upriver since the sixteenth century when
their habitations on the Amazon River were noted by de
Carvajal (NimuendajA).

Resettlement

Forced resettlement of any kind carries an inestimable
cost. A resettlement scheme that might be considered
acceptable, or even successful, would be one in which disease
and other deleterious consequences of relocation were
mitigated. Under the best of conditions, a successful
resettlement program would be one in which no human life
is lost. The cases to be reviewed in Amazonia, however, will
illustrate that this goal is difficult to achieve. Even if
resettlement were to be successful in the sense of saving lives,
any resettlement scheme will bring about cultural
disintegration.
Culture is a body of cumulative knowledge, the con-
struction of which is developed over millenia. This is
nowhere better illustrated than in the case of the Kaiap6,
one of the groups to be directly threatened by the dam com-
plex. The richness of Kaiap6 thought and expression has
been documented by many researchers (among them Turner,
Bamberger, Posey and Werner). Within the complex,
integrated body of meanings that constitutes "culture" is
a vast quantity of information regarding the local biological
and physical environment. This information includes not
only means to utilize it but also, as Posey (1982) convincingly


argues, the measures necessary to sustain it. Western
scientists have only begun to penetrate the vast amount of
valuable environmental information contained in the tradi-
tional belief systems as well as the cumulative observations
of tribal peoples who have persisted in a single habitat over
generations. The death of traditional culture will end access
to information crucial to our understanding of the tropical
rain forest and its uses.

The Impact of Two Recent Projects
Elsewhere in Amazonia, where similar though smaller-
scale projects were undertaken, the consequences for
indigenous peoples were disastrous. Let us review two of
these cases.
The hydroelectric project at Balbina3 is situated in
pristine tropical rain forest in the state of Amazonas, some
145 kilometers from the city of Manaus. A reservoir of 2,346
km2 was created for the generation of 240 megawatts (mw)
of electricity intended for Manaus. The Balbina project inun-
dated about 311 km2 of indigenous area (excluding the areas
reached by the dam), including the lands of the Waimiri-

Atroari peoples. Although this group had suffered a series
of massacres and epidemics since the late nineteenth cen-
tury, in 1975 there were some 1,000 persons living on lands
legally decreed them by the government in 1971. The area
belonging to the Waimiri-Atroari was reduced by one-third
in 1981, to allow for the entrance of mining interests and
the Balbina hydroelectric project. Although the Balbina
project forced the resettlement of the population, by April
1987 no resettlement plan was yet underway. Today fewer
than 400 Waimiri-Atroari survive (Schwartzman, p.2).
The hydroelectric project at Tucurui on the Tocantins
affluent of the Amazon in the state of Para, flooded some
2,430 km2 to produce 3,960 mw of electricity (Biswas, p.33).
In this case, nearly 60 to 70 percent of the indigenous
territory was invaded by roads, tractors, transmission
towers, and clearings for operations (Andrade and Oliveira).
The new city of Tucurui was constructed across the river
from one indigenous group, the Gaviao. When transmission
towers were constructed alongside them, the Gaviio
abandoned their territory.4
Thirty-six percent of the lands flooded by the reservoir
at Tucurui belonged to the Parakana nation. Two groups,
the Paranati and Marudjewara, found their territories
inundated. According to Paiakd Kaiap6, many Parakana
were not advised of the need to resettle (address to the World
Bank in January 1988). He reports from their own account
to him: "Fleeing from the rising waters, some found
themselves on the lands of large landholders, where they
were shot as trespassers; others fled to the road where they
were arrested by the police." Eventually resettled onto lands
they did not know and on which they had no prepared
cultivated areas, they were confronted by hostile whites
challenging their entitlement. This was not the first forced
relocation of the Parakana; they had been forcibly relocated
five times in the six years between 1971 and 1977 (CEDI).









Now, a remaining group of Parakand (located at Born
Jardin) will be threatened by the Altamira-Xing6 complex.
In "The Environmental Assessment of the Tucurui
Hydroproject," Goodland seriously addresses the problem
of introduced diseases that result from impounding water.
The report describes vector habitats and, wherever possible,
suggests measures for monitoring and biological control. In
the case of malaria, for example, the report recommends
several biological steps, among them the introduction of fish
that feed on mosquito larvae.
Other diseases discussed as potential hazards of reser-
voir formation are schistosomiasis, a deadly disease for
which there is no cure, transmitted by a snail vector that
inhabits still or slow-moving waters; leishmaniasis, an infec-
tion of the cutaneous tissues (with symptoms similar to
leprosy) transmitted by a sandfly vector known to inhabit
newly cleared forest edges; and onchocerciasis, or river
blindness, whose vector is the blackfly simulid(e), with
breeding patterns closely linked to conditions of water tur-
bidity. Two of the four diseases, schistosomiasis and oncho-
cerciasis, had not existed in the area before the onset of the
project. While I find no recent health reports to indicate the
current status of these diseases, the report makes quite clear
the strong possibilities of water-borne diseases introduced
by reservoirs and the resulting decline in health standards
of the populations adjacent to any of the associated dam
operations.

Potential Environmental Impacts: The Xingu River
The above examples indicate some of the probable
social consequences of a project such as the Altamira-Xing6i,
consequences that could result from the habitat changes
accompanying water impoundment, deforestation, and
other major alterations in the local habitat. Our discussion
has been focused on the potential impacts to the indigenous
inhabitants of the region. Although the two are not in fact
separable, we now turn to the bio-physical impacts of the
damming proposal. When impacts on the watershed itself
are also taken into account, it will be clear that the project
has wide-reaching potential for destruction. In addition to
the numerous and diverse indigenous nations threatened by
the project, an important environmental zone, rich in
economic resources, is also seriously endangered by the pro-
spective Altamira-Xingi hydroelectric complex.
The Xingfi River, approximately 1500 miles long, is one
of the few productive clear-water rivers in the Amazon
system. Amazonian river types are categorized by ecologists
into black, white and clear waters, with each name refer-
ring to a specific set of hydrochemical features.5 Each river
type is subject to factors that limit primary production; this,
in turn, affects the total biomass productivity of the river.
In white-water rivers, where the nutrient content is high due
to rich suspended solids carried from the Andes, these same
suspended particles obstruct the passage of sunlight and thus
limit photosynthetic action. In black-water rivers (which are
tea-like in appearance), light can penetrate to several meters;


but factors such as acidity, nutrient-deficiency, and lack of
substantial oxygen limit in situ productivity.
Only the clear-water rivers, which have fewer limiting
factors for productivity, permit the penetration of light to
relatively deep levels, thus allowing photosynthesis in the
absence of inhospitable limnochemical conditions that
characterize black-water rivers. Many clear-water rivers,
however, have low levels of nutrient content, a condition
that generally prevents the development of extensive aquatic
communities (Goulding, p. 15). Several clear-water rivers do
carry substantial nutrient loads and are highly productive
of the phytoplankton on which higher aquatic organisms
feed. Such rivers (called by some "green-water rivers") are
highly productive in flora and fauna but are relatively scarce
in the Amazon system. The Xingi River is one of the few
clear-water rivers rich in aquatic wildlife.
Several scientists have remarked about the unusual
abundance of fish in the Xingi River. Kalervo Oberg, whose
work also took him to the highly productive rivers of north-
western North America, describes the fishery harvests of the
upper Xing6 this way:
The Kuluene [a tributary stream of the
Xingi] and Upper Xing6 proper are plentifully
stocked with many varieties of fish. In one catch
of some 80 fish, 20 species were counted. In my
experience these waters were the richest ever seen.
Fishing in the main streams with hook and line
for one minute was usually sufficient to catch a
fish or to lose the bait from the hook. (Obetg,
p.25)
In researching the migratory patterns of Amazonian
fishes, Goulding observed that numerous species hatch on
the main river or near the mouths of tributaries, migrate
upriver as juveniles, and descend the same streams as adults.
A complex of dams on this valuable river system would bring
about the irrevocable loss of many species whose life cycles
require migrating through the blocked areas. Furthermore,
the changed water conditions will result in a loss of all the
fish species that inhabit or in other ways are dependent upon
rapidly flowing waters. Unless fish ladders are provided, the
amount of valuable wildlife potentially lost by such a system
of dams and associated reservoirs will be devastating. Since
fishing is the principal protein food of the Xinguan Indians
(Oberg, p.25), we can expect indigenous groups located
upstream from the dam complex to experience a dramatic
decline in their main source of sustenance.
Certain technical considerations that have not been
discussed deserve at least brief mention, for they carry impli-
cations for the future of the watershed and the advisability
of the project. Deforestation and changes in hydrological
patterns are likely to produce soil erosion, siltation, and
unforeseen flooding. Sediment deposition resulting from soil
erosion may in turn jeopardize the turbine blades, affecting
the turbidity of the water, the conditions for a healthy fish
population, and the life of the generating facility. Nutrient
inflows from sediment may cause eutrophication (decreased








oxygen content) and aquatic weed problems. The sediment
caused by erosion may eventually displace the water in the
reservoir, pollute the drinking water, and ultimately decrease
the storage capacity and utility of the operation. Scenarios
such as these have occurred in many parts of the world and
have been carefully documented (see, for example, Dixon).

Project Costs
The financing of electric power projects was one of the
first types of lending from the World Bank to Latin
American nations. The very first request ever made to the
World Bank for substantial funds to be used in a develop-
ing country came from Brazil in 1947, when a loan was
sought to expand Brazil's electrical power capacity (Payer,
p.103). Since its first loan to Brazil's electrical power com-
plex in 1949 (then owned by a private Canadian corpora-
tion), the World Bank has invested $3.1 billion to this sec-
tor (Foster). The combined result of government priorities
and bank preference, electrical power continues to account
for a major portion of World Bank lending. In the case of
Brazil, "According to a well-established government pro-
gramme, hydroelectric production will increase at an average
rate of 11.3 percent until 1995" (Biswas, p. 33).
The Altamira-Xing6 dam complex, estimated to cost
a total of $10.6 billion, is expected to generate at least 17,000
mw of electricity6 for hypothetical "boomtowns," for
mineral exploitation and processing, and for population
centers or industries located hundreds or indeed thousands
of miles from the site. Since Brazilian electricity is largely
subsidized by the government, the costs of energy-expensive
mineral processing, such as the smelting of aluminum, will
be eventually transferred to the taxpayer. The estimated cost
of the project is approximately 10 percent of Brazil's cur-
rent indebtedness. The burden of the increased debt,
together with other costs (such as subsidies to large transna-
tional corporations) will be born by Brazilian taxpayers and
by the peoples displaced and otherwise affected by the con-
struction of the project.

Accountability

Multilateral lending agencies such as the World Bank
would be remiss in financing any area or sector in which
its financial assistance could result in such widespread social
and natural devastation. Such consequences contradict the
Bank's own guidelines. In its public statement on indigenous
peoples and bank policy, "Tribal Peoples and Economic
Development," the World Bank states its intention not to
undertake projects in areas inhabited by indigenous peoples
"unless the tribal society is in agreement with the project."
The same publication, a document which must be taken as
policy, assures the self-determination of tribal peoples,
guarantee of their land rights, and respect and maintenance
of their ethnic identity and cultural autonomy.
Two more recent statements by the World Bank
reiterate its strong official stance with regard to the social


and environmental impacts of projects in which their funds
are utilized. The Bank Development Committee's report,
released in April 1987 and entitled "Environmental Growth
and Development," and President Conable's speech to the
World Resources Institute on May 5, 1987, both address the
World Bank's concern for the environment.
Whether sector loans are subject to the Bank's accoun-
tability for any single project within the sector is an issue
of controversy. This is of specific importance to the
Altamira-Xing6 complex, since it falls within a loan to Brazil
that is targeted for the electrical power sector rather than
for a specifically-defined project. Yet despite statements that
the Bank's environmental advisors do not scrutinize sector
loans in the same way as individual projects, Dr. Jane Pratt,
World Bank Chief of Environmental Operations and
Strategy, informed the New England Environmental Con-
ference (March 27, 1988) that "The Bank has both the
capacity and the authority to review environmental impact
of individual projects within sector loans."
Groups such as the Environmental Defense Fund and
the National Wildlife Federation have called into question
the economic rationale of these projects (see, for example,
Rich). Pressure from these groups previously resulted in the
World Bank's U.S. Executive Director voting against alloca-
tion of a $500 million loan to Brazil's first Power Sector.
When Sector Loan I to the Brazilian Electric Power Sec-
tor was voted on in June 1986, Hugh W. Foster, the U.S.
Alternate Executive Director to the Board of Executive
Directors, explained his opposition in these terms:
We have serious concerns about the poten-
tial environmental impact of several of the proj-
ects to be financed by this loan . [including]
the total absence of any possibility that the reset-
tlement will take place without extensive human
suffering and bitter recriminations . . There
has been virtually no planning to address the
needs of the Amerindian population or the need
for protection of the environment in the imme-
diate area of the dam. Futhermore, the dam will
flood a portion of an Indian reserve which
previous Bank financing helped establish. This
is pure folly.
Sector Loan II, to the same sector, possesses many of these
same flaws.
Brazilian national policy is also restricted by guidelines
set by its environmental agencies. Such policy, as established
by the National Council on the Environment (CONAMA
res. 001/86, via Brazilian federal Law Number 6,938 of
8/31/1981), states that any activity that would "modify the
environment" requires their approval. For such an evalua-
tion, a report on environmental impact (Relat6rio de
Impacto Ambiental or RIMA), based upon field study, is
required. There is no evidence that environmental impacts
of the Altamira-Xing6 project have been studied, or that
alternatives to the project have been considered. In the case
of Tucurui, the impact assessment studies were carried out










in less than one month (Andrade and Oliveira). Moreover,
it is imperative that such studies be conducted by expert and
independent monitoring teams to ensure that the impact
studies do not merely serve the interests of the project's
designers.
Postimpact studies, where carried out, have shown
population decimation due to disease and improper reloca-
tion schemes, severe physical and psychological stress,
increased impoverishment, as well as massive ecological
destruction, including the extinction of many endemic or
endangered species. There are numerous precedents to sug-
gest that were this project to be carried out, an entire water-
shed could be destroyed, and its peoples made to bear the
immense, yet hidden, costs of a project of which they are
not the beneficiaries.





NOTES

Along with Darrell Posey, Barbara Bramble and Bruce Rich, Janet
M. Chernela accompanied Kaiap6 leaders Paiak5 and Kubei-I on their fact-
finding mission to the World Bank in February 1988.



1. Both Brazilian law and World Bank policy statements combine
environmental impact into two components: "socioeconomic" and
"natural." The Brazilian National Council on the Environment defines
environment as including physical and biological characteristics as well as
socioeconomic.
2. The Xingti National Park was guaranteed as indigenous territory
to numerous groups who were relocated there. A substantial portion of
the park has already been lost to make way for the construction of highway
B.R. 080 in 1971.
3. The World Bank was involved in the Balbina Project in its last stages;
it was called in to resolve initial faulty planning.
4. After seven years of struggle, they were recently indemnized by the
government (Andrade and Oliveira).
5. The two major contributing affluents of the Amazon, the Solim6es
and the Rio Negro, are respectively white- and black-water rivers. In addi-
tion to the Xingti River, the Tapaj6s, Tocantins, and the right-bank
tributaries of the Madeira River are clear-water rivers.
6. Generating an expected 17,000 mw, the Altamira-Xing6 complex
would produce nearly 30 percent more energy than that produced by Itaipd,
on the Parand River. Itaipfi, however, is underutilized. Expanding the energy
output of Itaipt is one of the economically sound alternatives to the more
massive, costly, and environmentally destructive Altamira-Xingi complex.







REFERENCES CITED

Andrade, Lucia and Leinad Ayer Oliveira Santos
1988 Hydroelectrics of the Xingu and Indigenous People. Publication
of the Pro-Indian Commission of Sdo Paulo, Brazil. In press.


Bamberger, Joan
1967 Environment and Cultural Classification. Ph.D. Dissertation, Har-
vard University.
1979 "Exit and Voice in Central Brazil: The Politics of Flight in Kayap6
Society." In Dialectical Societies, ed. David Maybury-Lewis. Cam-
bridge: Harvard University Press, pp. 130-146.
Biswas, Asit K.
1983 "World Status Report on Hydroelectric Energy." Mazingira 7,
no. 3.
CEDI
1985 "Sudeste do Pard." Povos Indigenas no Brasil, vol. 8.
Dixon, John A. et al.
1986 Economic Analysis of the Environmental Impacts of Development
Projects. Asian Development Bank Economic Staff Paper No. 31.
Foster, Hugh W.
1986 Statement on Brazil Electric Power Sector Loan, June 19.
Gallagher, Colleen
1988 "Indian Leaders Plant One Foot in Forest, Other on Concrete."
The Miami Herald, March 17.
Goldsmith, Edward
1987 The Ecologist 17, no. 2/3.
Goodland, Robert
1978 "The Environmental Assessment of the Tucurui Hydroproject, Rio
Tocantins, Amazonia, Brazil." Electronorte, S.A., Brasilia.
Goulding, Michael
1981 The Fishes and the Forest: Explorations in Amazonian Natural
History. University of California Press.
Nimuendaj6, Curt
1946-50 "Tribes of the Upper Xing6i Basin." In Handbook of South
American Indians: Vol. 3, The Tropical Forest Cultures, ed. Julian
Steward. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of
American Ethnology, Bulletin 143.
Oberg, Kalervo
1953 Indian Tribes of Northern Mato Grosso, Brazil. Washington, D.C.:
Smithsonian Institution, Institute of Social Anthropology Publica-
tion No. 15.
Payer, Cheryl
1982 The World Bank: A Critical Analysis. New York: Monthly Review
Press.
Posey, Darrell
1981 "Wasps, Warriors, and Fearless Men: Ethnoentomology of the
Kayap6 Indians of Central Brazil." Journal of Ethnobiology 1, no.1,
pp. 165-174.
1982 "The Keepers of the Forest." New York Botanical Garden Magazine
6, no. 1, pp. 18-24.
Pratt, Jane
1988 Presented at the New England Environmental Conference, Tufts
University, Medford, Mass., March 27.
Rich, Bruce
1985 "Multilateral Development Banks: Their Role in Destroying the
Global Environment." The Ecologist 15, no. 1/2.
Schwartzman, Steve
1987 "Memorandum: Environmental and Social Concerns Related to
the World Bank." Environmental Defense Fund, January 11.
Turner, Terence
1965 Social Structure and Political Organization Among the Northern
Cayap6. Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University.
1979 "Kinship, Household, and Common Structure Among the Kayap6."
In Dialectical Societies, ed. David Maybury-Lewis. Cambridge, Mass.:
Harvard University Press.
Werner, Dennis
1982 "Chiefs and Presidents: A Compairson of Leadership Traits in the
United States and Among the Mekranoti-Kayap6 of Central Brazil."
Ethos: Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology 10, no.
2, pp. 136-148.
1984a Amazon Journey: An Anthropologist's Year Among Brazil's
Mekranoti Indians. Simon and Schuster.
1984b "Mulheres Solteiras entire os Mekranoti-Kayap6." Anuario
Antropologico/82, Rio de Janeiro, pp. 69-81.








Nicaragua
ing the group were Luis Serra, a professor at the Jesuit
Universidad Centroamericana (UCA) and a popular
educator and researcher for the National Union of Cat-
tlemen and Ranchers (UNAG), and Marta Juirez of the
Women's Section of the Rural Workers Association (ATC).
Afternoon visits to two war relocation camps (asentamien-
tos): the Santa Rosa State Farm (UPE) where we talked with
Jesds Velasco of the ATC, and the Jos6 Dolores Cantillano
Sandinista Agrarian Cooperative (CAS) at Vaguas where we
talked with Jos6 Cornelio Amador, the coordinator of the
CAS.

Monday, June 13. Meeting with National Assembly
Deputy (FSLN) Ray Hooker; topic: "The Autonomy Pro-
cess and the Atlantic Coast." Late morning visits to a super-
market (Plaza Espafia) and a public market (Roberto
Hiiembes). Lunch with Argentine academician Eduardo
Baumeister, a research associate at the UCA; topic:
"Agrarian Reform and the War." A welcome gathering with
colleagues from ANICS, The Nicaraguan Association of
Social Scientists (Marvin Ortega, Bayardo Salmer6n, and
Eva Margarita Sanchez) and the Nicaraguan professional
association, CONAPRO H6roes Y Mirtires (Freddy Cruz,
president). Late afternoon meeting with researchers at
IHCA, The Central American Historical Institute (Judy
Butler, Keith Johnson, and Donna Vukelich). Dinner with
Laura Enriquez, U.S. sociologist working with PAN, The
National Food Program; topic: "Food and Rural
Agriculture."

Tuesday, June 14. Meeting with N6stor Leiva, the
general coordinator of Red Cross affiliates in Nicaragua;
subject: "The Role of the Red Cross in Revolutionary
Nicaragua." Interview with Joel Zamora, Coordinator of
C1DCA, Center for Investigation and Documentation of the
Atlantic Coast. Lunch with members of the Managua Lions
Club Silvio Alvarado (Abbott Co.), Noel Parrales (Ahters
Co.), and Larry White (Restaurante "La Botija"). Visit to
INIES, The Institute for Economic and Social Investigation
and meeting with its Subdirector, Jaime Bismark, and Inter-
national Relations Director, Maria Aminta Diaz. Visit to
a new independent research institute, Itztani. Interviews with
Cirilio Ortero subdirectorr), Robinson Salazar (head of
research on parties, democracy and grassroots participation),
and Orlando Morilez (head of research on agricultural mat-
ters). Dinner with Alejandro Bendafia, General Secretary
of the Ministry of Foreign Relations; topic: "The Peace Pro-
cess." Also in attendance as invited guests were his wife
Mary and Francisco Campbell, Nicaraguan Ambassador to
Zimbabwe.

Wednesday, June 15. Meeting with Father Alvaro
Argiiello, Vice Rector of the Central American University
and former member of the Council of State; topic: "Higher
Education and the Role of UCA." Visit to the Instituto de
la Mujer and an interview with its Director of Research,


Paola Perez. Lunch with Carlos Vilas, Argentine social
scientist and author of The Sandinista Revolution: National
Liberation and Social Transformation in Central America
(1986), the Spanish version of which won the 1984 Casa de
las Americas Prize. Visit to the headquarters of the opposi-
tion Independent Liberal Party and interview with its Presi-
dent and National Assembly Deputy, Virgilio Godoy. Late
afternoon visit to the bookstore of the Centro Ecum6nico
Antonio Valdivieso.

Thursday, June 16. Beginning of a four-day excursion
through the north. Visit to the Luis Hernandez Aguilar trac-
tor repair state school at Chaguitillo and interviews there
with Fred Royce (its founder and currently the CARE pro-
gram coordinator) and Director C6sar Gonzalez. Noon and
afternoon in Matagalpa with free time to sightsee and talk
with townsfolk.

Friday, June 17. Visit to the Genaro Aguilar coffee-
growing state farm (UPE) at TepeyAc. There we saw new
housing, visited a rural day-care center (SIR), and talked
with Juan Antonio Cruz Hernandez, a member of the ATC.
Late morning visit to MACRU (Movement for the Anima-
tion of Rural Cultures) at la Praga; interviews there with
Brian and Patti Erickson of the Bamboo Project. Lunch in
Matagalpa with two international volunteers, Lali Salinas
(Ecuador) and Juan Burgneijer (Holland). Travel to Esteli
and late afternoon visit to the "la Chicara" prison. At the
latter institution, which houses common criminals, counter-
revolutionaries, and government personnel who commit
abuses, the group interviewed a variety of prisoners as well
as Lieutenant Rafael Moncada, Chief of Penal Control.
Evening lecture on "Grassroots Organizations" by Gary
Ruchwarger, the author of People in Power: Forging a
Grassroots Democracy in Nicaragua (1987).

Saturday, June 18. The group divided into three
subgroups. One went with Florinda Alarniz of AMNLAE
(the Sandinista Woman's Association) to Miraflor, a heavily
war-impacted potato-growing region an hour's drive north
of Esteli and talked with members of the asentamiento at
Puertas Azules. A second group attended a meeting of the
Plenary Council of the Oscar Turcios Chavarria State Farm
(UPE) in Esteli. The third group visited the SOS Children's
Village (orphanage), talked with its director and founder,
Luisa Zinnhuber, and then visited the nearby mixed-crop
Gamez/Garmendia CAS. That evening the group as a whole
visited a "Casa Sandinista" for an ad hoc discussion with
Sandinista Defense Committee (CDS) activists, coor-
dinators, and a zonal official in Barrio El Rosario; topic:
"Problems of the CDSs."

Sunday, June 19. Visit to the Pedro Altamirano
Subregional Hospital in La Trinidad. Introduction and
guided tour by Sara Laguna Benavides, secretary general
of the local health worker's union, and Dr. Ren6 Mueller,









subdirector of the hospital. Sightseeing visit to the volcanic
sulphur vents at San Jacinto on the road to Le6n. Short visit
to Le6n where members of the group dispersed to visit sites
such as the cathedral where poet Rub6n Dario is buried and
the 16th century church in the Indian neighborhood at Sub-
tiava, where Father Bartolom6 de las Casas preached. Late
afternoon swim in the pacific at El Velero, a workers' vaca-
tion area run by INSSBI, the National Institute of Social
Security and Welfare.

Monday, June 20. Visit to INSSBI and a briefing by
Vice-Minister Ricardo Chavarria on "The Social and
Economic Impact of the War." Visit to the National
Assembly and a presentation by Mili Vargas, Head of Legal
Advisors, on "The Legal Institutionalization of the Revolu-
tion." Lunch with Edgard Parrales, general director of
national and international relations of the National
Assembly; topic: "The Peace Process: From Contadora to
the Present." Afternoon interview with Mirna Santiago and
Sister Mary Hartman of the Nicaraguan Commission for
the Protection and Promotion of Human Rights. Dinner
with Mayra Pasos, Vice-Minister of External Cooperation
in charge of the socialist countries; topic: "The Economic
Crisis and Foreign Assistance."

Tuesday, June 21. The group attended a "De Cara al
Pueblo" (Face the People) held for representatives of sister
city and other international groups. Answering questions
were President Daniel Ortega, Foreign Minister Miguel
D'Escoto, and Cte. M6nica Baltodano. Lunch with Mar-
vin Happel, principal of the American high school in
Managua; topic: "Running a U.S.-Sponsored High School
in Revolutionary Nicaragua." Afternoon briefing at the
U.S. Embassy with Louis Falino, Public Affairs Officer and
Director of U.S.I.S.; John Hope, Economic Consul; and
David Nolan, Political Officer and author of FSLN: The
Ideology of the Sandinistas and the Nicaraguan Revolution
(1984). Dinner with Deborah Berry of the Regional Coor-
dination for Social and Economic Research (CRIES); topic:
"The Peace Process in Regional Perspective."

Wednesday, June 22. Visit by part of the group to a
large Catholic high school, Colegio el Divino Pastor. After
sitting in on part of a religion class, the group interviewed
Sister Gloria Serna, director of secondary education, Sister
Sara Osorio, and Vilma Salinas, head of natural sciences.
Late morning visit to the Mercado Hiiembes and the
Museum of the Revolution. Lunch with Silvia Amelia
Carasco of AMNLAE; topic: "The Women's Movement
and the History of AMPRONAC/AMNLAE." Visit to the
opposition daily, La Prensa. Interview with editor and PLI
National Assemblyman, Juaquin Mejia. Late afternoon visit
to the Galeria Josephine to see a display of Nicaraguan art.
Evening performance of reggae music by a creole group,
the "Soul Vibrations" and Greg Landau of "El Grupo Man-
cotal" at the headquarters of the Sandinista Association of
Cultural Workers (ASTC).


Thursday, June 23. Visit to the children's park and
some of the buildings which survived the 1972 earthquake
in the center of Old Managua. There the group witnessed
a parade of children gathering at the tomb of Carlos Fonseca
Amador to celebrate the 52nd anniversary of Fonseca's
birth. Late morning visit to COSEP, the Superior Council
of Private Enterprise where the group interviewed Jaime
Bengochea (president of the Chamber of Industry and vice-
president of COSEP) and Nicholas Bolafios (director of
UPANIC, Union of Agricultural Producers of Nicaragua,
and a member of the directorate of the right opposition,
Conservative Party of Nicaragua). Late afternoon interview
with the new national coordinator of the CDSs, Guerrilla
Commander Omar Cabezas. The author of Fire From the
Mountain: The Making of a Sandinista (1985), Cabezas
discussed both the reasons for the decline of the CDSs and
his plans for their reformation and revival.

Friday, June 24. Trip through the Carazo highlands to
Masaya. Stops in Niquinhomo (birthplace of Sandino) and
San Juan de Oriente (where the Auxiliary Bishop of
Managua Bosco Vivas was officiating at a saints day celebra-
tion). Shopping and lunch in Masaya. That evening, some
group members marched part of the "Repliegue," an all-
night march commemorating the strategic retreat staged by
thousands of Sandinistas from Managua to Masaya in late
June 1979.

Saturday, June 25. Departure from Managua.

This year we were again successful in obtaining group
interviews with almost all of the individuals with whom inter-
views were requested. These included a variety of govern-
ment officials as well as a wide spectrum of opposition
spokespersons.
Given the overall success of the first four seminars, it
is likely that LASA will sponsor a fifth trip in June or
August of 1989. As in the past, it will be open to all LASA
members, regardless of political point of view. For further
information write or call: Thomas W. Walker, Political
Science, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (614-593-4376
or 4373) or Harvey Williams, Sociology, University of the
Pacific, Stockton, CA 95211 (209-946-2101).
- mm









LASA BOOK AWARD ESTABLISHED



On behalf of the Executive Council of LASA, the
Association is pleased to call for nominees for the first Bryce
Wood Book Award, described below. Susan Eckstein and
the Council worked for two years to devise a formula that
would give both feasibility and integrity to an award in the
far-reaching field of Latin American studies. The most vex-
ing problem was how to limit the potentially enormous pool
without excluding books written by Latin Americans.
To truly reflect the international community of scholars
in Latin American studies, we wanted to include, as would
Bryce Wood, books published in Spanish and Portuguese.
It seemed nearly impossible, however, to acquire a represen-
tative and manageable sample of publications from so many
countries. On practical grounds, the Executive Council
regretfully decided to limit the award initially to books
published in English. At least some works by Latin
Americans appear in that language.
The Executive Council is still considering ways in which
a separate award might be established for books in other
languages. LASA officers will appreciate any suggestions
for broadening the scope of these awards. Meanwhile, the
existing award will cover a vast intellectual territory and
should bring great distinction to the winner.

Paul W. Drake
President



THE BRYCE WOOD BOOK AWARD

At each International Congress, the Latin American
Studies Association will present the Bryce '" d Award to
the outstanding book on Latin America in the social sciences
and humanities published in English in the United States.
Eligible books will be those published in an eighteen-month
period prior to the Congress. Although no book may com-
pete more than once, translations may be considered. Nor-
mally not in contention for the award are anthologies of
selections by several authors, or reprints or re-editions of
works published previously. Books will be judged on the
quality of the research, analysis, and writing, and the
significance of their contribution to Latin American studies.
Books may be nominated by authors, LASA members,
or publishers. Whoever does the nominating is responsible
for confirming the publication date and for forwarding one
copy directly to each member of the Award Committee, at
the expense of the authors or publishers. For the September
1989 XV International Congress of LASA in San Juan,
Puerto Rico, books will be eligible published from July 1,
1987, to December 31, 1988. All books nominated must
reach each member of the Award Committee by February
1, 1989.


The interdisciplinary Award Committee will consist of
three members of LASA. They will be appointed every eigh-
teen months by the President, in consultation with the Exec-
utive Council. LASA members may suggest appointees to
the President. No one may serve on the committee with a
book under consideration.
One month before the International Congress, the com-
mittee will select a winning book. It may also name an
honorable mention. The author or authors of the winning
book will have their expenses paid by LASA to attend the
Congress, where the award will be presented at the Business
Meeting. Ideally the winner should be a member of LASA,
but that is not a requirement to receive the award. The only
criterion is scholarly excellence.
The members of the Bryce Wood Book Award Com-
mittee for 1989 are John D. Wirth, Chair (Department of
History, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305); Fran-
cine Masiello (Department of Spanish and Comparative
Literature, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720);
and Karen L. Remmer (Department of Political Science,
University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131).


- .. .. .. -------.. .. -a ..



NOMINATIONS INVITED FOR 1989 SLATE

LASA members are invited to suggest potential
nominees for Vice President and three members of the Exec-
utive Council, for terms beginning November 1, 1989.

Criteria for nomination include professional credentials,
character, and credible previous service to LASA. Candidates
must have been a member of the Association in good standing
for at least one year prior to nomination. Biographic data and
the rationale for nomination must accompany suggested
names and be sent by November 15, 1988, to: James M.
Malloy, Chair, LASA Nominations Committee, Department
of Political Science, 4L27 Forbes Quadrangle, University of
Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260.

The winning candidate for Vice President will serve in
that capacity until April 30, 1991, as President from May 1,
1991, until October 31, 1992, and as Past President for an
additional eighteen months. The winning candidates for
members of the Executive Council will serve a three-year term
from November 1, 1989, until October 31, 1992.

The members of the Nominations Committee are James
M. Malloy, chair; Maria Patricia Fernindez-Kelly, Johns
Hopkins University; Elizabeth Garrels, Massachusetts Insti-
tute of Technology; Peter Knight, Washington, D.C.; Steve
Stern, University of Wisconsin; Marta Tienda, University
of Chicago; and Julio Samuel Valenzuela, University of
Notre Dame.









RESOLUTIONS RATIFIED

The seven resolutions passed during the March 18,
1988, business meeting in New Orleans [see Spring 1988
Forum, pp. 12-15] were ratified by mail ballot of the full
LASA membership, as follows:

I. RESOLUTION ON HAITI
Affirmative: 455; Negative: 27; Abstain: 20

II. RESOLUTION ON AMNESTY FOR U.S.
IMMIGRANTS
Affirmative: 442; Negative: 43; Abstain: 23

III. RESOLUTION ON COLOMBIA
Affirmative: 492; Negative: 11; Abstain: 10

IV. THE LATIN AMERICAN DEBT
Affirmative: 436; Negative: 44; Abstain: 32

V. RESOLUTION ON PARAGUAY
Affirmative: 480; Negative: 11; Abstain: 18

VI. PACCA'S ALTERNATIVE U.S. POLICY FOR
PEACE IN CENTRAL AMERICA
Affirmative: 431; Negative: 41; Abstain: 25

VII. PACCA'S ALTERNATIVE POLICY TOWARD
CUBA
Affirmative: 428; Negative: 39; Abstain: 31


--------- .. --------.. .. .. -"


CALL FOR SILVER AWARD NOMINATIONS

The Kalman Silvert Award Committee invites LASA
members to nominate candidates for the 1989 award, to be
made at the XV International Congress in San Juan,
September 21-23, 1989. Nominations should be sent to the
LASA Secretariat, William Pitt Union, 9th Floor, University
of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, by September 15, 1988.
Proposers should include biographic information and a
rationale for each nominee.

The Silvert Award recognizes senior members of the pro-
fession who have made a distinguished lifetime contribution
to the study of Latin America. Four scholars have received the
award to date: John J. Johnson (1983), Federico Gil (1985),
Albert O. Hirschman (1986), and Charles Wagley (1988).

The selection committee consists of Cole Blasier (chair),
Past President; Wayne Cornelius and Helen Safa, imme-
diately preceding past presidents; and Gilbert Merkx, Editor
of the Latin American Research Review.


VISA DENIALS ON POLITICAL GROUNDS

The following article, reprinted from the Washington
Post (May 11, 1988), reports developments opposing govern-
ment efforts to deny U.S. visas to foreigners because of their
political beliefs.

Mrs. Allende and Mr. Frank
After years of controversy and much litigation over the
government's right to deny visas for reasons of national
security, Congress last December set sensible, if temporary
limits. The State Department authorization bill provides that
no alien shall be denied a visa "because of any past, cur-
rent or expected beliefs which, if engaged in by a United
States citizen, would be protected under the Constitution
of the United States." For the time being, at least, that
means that no one will be excluded because of what he might
say here or deported because of what he has written or advo-
cated. The problem is that this provision of law will expire
when a new authorization bill is passed, and without fur-
ther action by Congress, the State Department might go back
to the old practice of keeping out leftist political figures,
radical playwrights and the like.
Two developments in recent weeks, however, encourage
the hope that there will be no backsliding. On April 12, a
subcommittee of the House Judiciary Committee reported
out a bill sponsored by Rep. Barry Frank that sets a new
and permanent national security standard for denying visas.
The following day, a U.S. court of appeals in Boston inter-
preted the original McCarran-Walter Act in a way that
would not allow the government to deny a visa (in this case
to Hortensia Allende, widow of the Chilean president)
because an applicant's mere entry into the United States
would be detrimental to the public interest. There must be
a reasonable belief that the applicant will engage in activity
prejudicial to the public interest. Because of last year's
amendment to the authorization bill, speech alone does not
constitute prejudicial activity, so applicants such as Mrs.
Allende cannot be denied visas.
If the opinion in the Allende case is sustained and if
Rep. Frank's bill eventually becomes law, some of the worst
vestiges of the McCarthy era will be relegated to history.
There are still some unresolved issues in the legislation. Ter-
rorists can be excluded, for example, but how should ter-
rorism be defined? Should members of some
organizations-the Palestine Liberation Organization, for
example, or communist labor unions-be excluded on
grounds of membership? We most emphatically believe not,
but this will be debated. Finally, the State Department seeks
an amendment that will allow exclusion where "entry could
potentially cause serious foreign policy consequences." That
puts a broad and vaguely defined power right back into the
hands of the State Department and seriously undermines the
intent of the bill's sponsors to make visas more widely
available. If damaging amendments can be avoided, the
Frank bill will be a victory for civil liberties and common
sense.









CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS
OF THE
LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES ASSOCIATION

[Printed below is LASA's revised constitution and by-laws,
as approved by the membership (609 for, 29 against) in
March 1988.]


CONSTITUTION

Article I. Name and Status

1. The name of this organization shall be The Latin
American Studies Association (LASA).
2. It shall be a nonprofit corporation that shall qualify
and remain qualified as exempt from federal income tax
under Section 501(c)(3) of the United States Internal
Revenue Code of 1954, as the same may be from time to
time amended.
3. LASA is an independent professional association
and is not affiliated with any government.

Article II. Purposes

The purposes of the Association are: to foster the con-
cerns of scholars interested in Latin American studies;
encourage more effective training, teaching, and research
in connection with such studies; and provide a forum for
dealing with matters of common interest to the scholarly
professions and to individuals concerned with Latin
American studies.

Article III. Membership

Membership in the Association is open to anyone with
a scholarly or other professional interest in Latin American
studies. Only members in good standing shall be eligible to
vote and to serve on the Executive Council, as officers of
the Association, or as members of committees and task
forces. Student members, who shall enjoy voice and vote
in the conduct of the association, are defined to mean
students who are pursuing a degree at a university or col-
lege. No one may hold student membership for more than
five years.

Article IV. Officers

1. The officers of the Association shall be a President,
Vice-President, and a Treasurer.
2. The President shall serve one term of eighteen
months. Upon retirement as President, she/he shall remain
on the Executive Council as a voting member of that body
for an additional period of eighteen months.
3. The Vice-President shall serve in that capacity for
a term of eighteen months, upon completion of which she/he


shall become the President. The membership of the Associa-
tion shall elect a new Vice-President every eighteen months,
by mail ballot, procedures for which are prescribed in the
By-Laws. In the event that the Vice- President is unable to
assume the office of President, nominations and election
for the Presidency shall then be carried out as prescribed
in the By-Laws for the Vice Presidency. If the Vice-
President's inability to advance to the Presidency becomes
known after the regular annual elections but before the time
when the new President is to take office, the Executive
Council shall call a special election for the Presidency, to
be carried out as prescribed in the By-Laws for the Vice
Presidency. In the event of absence, death, resignation, or
incapacity of the President, her/his duties shall fall upon
the Vice-President, who shall serve as President through the
current and succeeding eighteen-month terms.
If neither the President nor the Vice-President is able
to serve, the Executive Council shall elect one of its own
members to serve as Acting President through the current
eighteen-month term; nominations and elections for the
Presidency for the succeeding eighteen-month term shall be
carried out as prescribed in the By- Laws for the Vice
Presidency.
4. The President shall serve as chairperson of the Exec-
utive Council and shall be responsible for preparing the
annual budget for submission to the Council. The President,
with the advice and consent of the majority of the Council
members, shall appoint such committees as are specified in
the By-Laws as well as any task forces deemed useful in pur-
suing the general objectives of the organization.
5. The Executive Council shall elect from its member-
ship a Treasurer, who shall exercise that office during
her/his term of membership on the Council.
6. The Executive Council shall appoint an Executive
Director who shall serve at the pleasure of the Council, under
the terms and conditions specified in writing by the Coun-
cil and accepted in writing by the Executive Director. She/he
shall carry out the instructions and policies prescribed by
the membership and/or the Executive Council, and shall
supervise the work of the Secretariat. Once each year the
Executive Director shall prepare the annual financial report
of the Association for review by the Executive Council. the
Executive Director will be responsible for the publication
of the LASA Forum, the official LASA newsletter, on a
regular basis, as determined by the Executive Council. The
Executive Director shall also prepare annually a list of the
members in good standing, which shall be open for inspec-
tion and may be published by direction of the Council. The
Executive Director shall be a nonvoting member of the Exec-
utive Council.
7. The Ways and Means Committee assists and pro-
vides guidance to the President and Executive Director
between meetings of the Executive Council. It is composed
of the President, Vice-President, Past President, Treasurer,
and Executive Director, the latter to have voice but no vote.










8. Any person made a party to any action, suit, or pro-
ceeding by reason of the fact that she/he is or was an officer
of the Association or of any corporation in which she/he
served as such at the request of the Association, shall be
idemnified by the Association against the reasonable
expenses incurred by her/him in connection with the defense
of such action, suit, or proceeding, except in relation to mat-
ters as to which it shall be adjudged that such an officer
is liable for negligence or misconduct in the performance
of her/his duties.

Article V. Executive Council

1. The Executive Council shall administer the affairs
of the Association, and for corporate purposes be considered
as its Board of Directors.
a. The Executive Council shall consist of nine voting
members: the Immediate Past President, President,
Vice-President, and six elected members; and three
ex-officio members with voice but not vote: the LASA
Executive Director, the editor of the Latin American
Research Review, and chair of the Consortium of Latin
American Studies Programs (CLASP) Steering
Committee.
b. The terms of the elected members shall be for three
years. Three shall be elected every eighteen months by
mail ballot as prescribed in the By-Laws.

2. The Executive Council shall carry out the Associa-
tion's purposes and promote its professional interests.

3. The Executive Council shall conduct and supervise
the business of the Association, manage its properties,
receive gifts, grants, donations, approve and implement
annual budgets, and take all the necessary actions in the
interest of the Association.

4. The Executive Council shall meet as frequently as
the interests of the Association dictate, and at least once a
year. The President is empowered to call meetings of the
Executive Council, and is required to do so on the petition
of four council members.

5. The Executive Council is authorized to call meetings
of the membership.

Article VI. CLASP

The Consortium of Latin American Studies Programs
(CLASP) is the institutional affiliate of the Association.
Nothing in the CLASP constitution may be contrary to the
Constitution and By-Laws of the Association.

Article VII. Annual Audit

There shall be an annual audit or financial review of
the accounts of the Association, the results of which shall
be reported to the membership.


Article VIII. Amendments

Amendments to this Constitution may be proposed by
two-thirds of the membership of the Executive Council, or
by a petition of one hundred members in good standing.
Ratification of such amendments shall require approval of
a majority of those members who vote within ninety days
following the distribution of ballots to all members, either
through publication in the Forum or by mailing. The date
by which ballots must be received will be printed on the
ballot. The Executive Director is responsible for the distribu-
tion, counting, and reporting of results to the Executive
Council and to the membership.

Article IX. Latin American Research Review

The official journal of LASA will be the Latin
American Research Review (LARR). The appointment of
the Editor shall be made by the Executive Council. This
appointment and that of Associate and/or Assistant Editors
and Editorial Board; selection of the publisher of LARR;
policies regarding their tenure, dismissal, and replacement;
conduct of the journal; the conditions of bidding; and the
relations between the journal and LASA shall be governed
by the LASA-LARR Articles of Understanding.

Article X. Ethics and Professional Conduct

It is incumbent upon all members to carry out their pro-
fessional actions in ways that convey respect for the integrity
of LASA as an organization, and the status and rights of
all members as professional persons regardless of gender,
age, sexual preference, nationality, ethnicity, race or belief.

BY-LAWS

Article I. Nominations

1. A Nominations Committee of no fewer than five
persons nor more than seven, including a chairperson, shall
be appointed by the Executive Council every eighteen
months to select candidates for Vice President and Executive
Council. One member of the current Executive Council shall
be designated by the EC to serve on the Nominations Com-
mittee, but never as chair. The chair of the previous Nomina-
tions Committee may be a member, but not chair, of the
new committee. The Committee will be selected at least six
weeks prior to the formulation deadline for the ballot.
a. In constituting the Nominations Committee, the
Executive Council shall endeavor to achieve diversity
of region, discipline, gender, and by such other criteria
as may be judged appropriate.
b. In considering candidates for membership on the
Nominations Committee, the Executive Council should
select persons with ample experience in their respective
fields and who have broad knowledge of the personnel
in their disciplines.









c. The Nominations Committee must put forth at least
two candidates for each position opening to be elected.
d. The Nominations Committee will submit its choices
of candidates to the Executive Council, accompanied
by a brief report which summarizes the Committee's
deliberations, including the names and numbers of can-
didates for each position, pertinent comments describ-
ing the reasons for the selections, and recommendations
to the Executive Council. The Executive Council shall
review the ballot of candidates suggested by the
Nominations Committee prior to its submission to the
electoral process to verify that candidate qualifications
are in order and the By-Laws followed. The Executive
Council may alter this ballot only by a two-thirds vote
of all members of the Council with a right to vote.
e. The Executive Director will assist the Nominations
Committee as needed in the provision of information,
and the placing of any announcements in the LASA
Forum, pertinent to the selection process.

2. The Nominations Committee in making its selec-
tions, and Executive Council in reviewing them, shall take
into account the following attributes for candidates, adher-
ing to these guidelines:
a. Each nominee for office on the official ballot must
have been a member of the Association in good stand-
ing for at least one year prior to her/his nomination;
b. Disciplines: The Committee shall seek to assure that
at least four different disciplines are represented on the
Executive Council at all times;
c. Geography: The Committee shall seek to assure
representation on the Executive Council from the
various regions in which members reside;
d. Age and academic rank or its equivalent: The Com-
mittee shall seek to assure that younger members are
represented on the Executive Council at all times;
e. Gender: The Committee shall seek to assure that
women be represented among the nominees for the
Executive Council at all times.

3. Candidates for the Vice Presidency shall be
nominated according to the following procedures:
a. The Nominations committee shall nominate two
candidates each election;
b. Members of the Association may propose additional
candidates by submitting petitions signed by at least one
hundred members in good standing for each candidate:
c. The Executive Director shall enter on an official
ballot the names of the two candidates proposed by the
Nominations Committee and the names of all can-
didates proposed by petition.

4. In the event that an incumbent LASA Vice-President
assumes the office of LASA President, resigns, or is other-
wise unable to continue as Vice-President, the Vice Presi-
dency thus vacated shall be filled in the following manner:


a. If a regular LASA election has already been held,
the Vice-President-elect shall immediately assume the
office and duties of the Vice Presidency,
OR
b. If the regular LASA election referred to above has
not yet been held, the Executive Council shall name
from among its number one member to serve as Vice-
President until such election is held.

5. Members of the Executive Council shall be
nominated according to the following procedure:
a. The Nominating Committee shall nominate six can-
didates for each election for three vacancies on the Ex-
ecutive Council for three-year terms;
b. Members of the Association may propose additional
candidates for the Executive Council by submitting a
petition signed by at least twenty members in good stan-
ding for each such candidate;
c. The Executive Director shall enter on an official
ballot the names of the candidates proposed by the
Nominations Committee together with the names of the
candidates by petition.

6. In the event that a member of the Executive Coun-
cil does not attend two consecutive Executive Council
meetings, said member shall vacate the office and be
replaced by an alternate. In the event of the death or resigna-
tion of a member of the Executive Council, two candidates
will be nominated for each vacancy at the next regular elec-
tion. Pending that election, however, the alternate member
of the Executive Council who received the highest number
of votes in the preceding election shall serve as a member
of the Executive Council in place of the member who has
died or resigned.

Article II. Elections

1. The Vice-President and the members of the Exec-
utive Council shall be elected by mail ballot sent every eigh-
teen months by the Executive Director to all members in
good standing. The Executive Director shall be responsible
for counting ballots and submitting a report to the Exec-
utive Council. Election results will be published in the LASA
Forum.
2. Of the candidates for the Executive Council on the
ballot, the three receiving the highest number of votes shall
be declared elected to the Council for the ensuing three years.
The three receiving the next highest number of votes in that
order shall be alternates for eighteen months to serve in the
event of temporary inability of a regular member of the
Executive Council.

Article III. Treasurer

The Treasurer is the officer principally concerned with
financial oversight of the Association's affairs. The









Treasurer will review and report to the Executive Council
on all annual and quarterly financial reports of the Associa-
tion, making such recommendations as she/he sees fit. The
Treasurer will cooperate with the President in proposing
financial policies and plans.

Article IV. Removal of Officers and Council Members

Any elected officer or member of the Executive Coun-
cil may be removed from office by a petition bearing the
signatures of two-thirds of the members. In such an event
the Council shall call a special election to fill the vacated
post.

Article V. Committees and Task Forces

1. There shall be three standing committees: the Ways
and Means Committee, the Membership Recruitment Com-
mittee, and the Nominating Committee. The Executive
Council may, if it so decides, assume the functions of the
Membership Recruitment Committee. The Executive Coun-
cil is empowered to create other committees to be governed
by a Memorandum of Understanding approved by the Exec-
utive Council.
2. The Executive Council may, by majority vote, create
ad hoc task forces, specifying in each case the duration of
the existence of such task forces if different from the nor-
mal term. The President of the Association shall appoint
the chairperson and members of such groups, with the advice
and consent of the Council. To the maximum extent feas-
ible, committee and task force appointments shall be used
to broaden membership participation in the Association.
3. The size and terms of office of all committees shall
be determined by the Executive Council. Each standing com-
mittee shall ordinarily include a member of the Executive
Council. The chairperson of each committee shall make such
report on the work of her/his committee as may be requested
by the Executive Council. The names of the members of each
committee and their terms of office shall be made known
to the membership of the Association at least annually.
4. No funds shall be solicited or accepted by any com-
mittee without the prior approval of the Executive Council.
5. All committees and task forces shall normally be
appointed for the specific term of eighteen months, to coin-
cide with the cycle of international congresses, and all task
forces shall dissolve at the end of their term.
6. No committee or task force shall be allowed, without
explicit Executive Council authorization, to create or ask
to have created any subordinate bodies such as subcommit-
tees or working groups.

Article VI. International Congress

1. At each International Congress there shall be a
Business Meeting, during which only members in good


standing may vote. Such a vote shall be effective for any
legislative purpose consistent with the Constitution and By-
Laws of the Association. Neither the Constitution nor the
By-Laws can be amended at the meeting. Nonmembers may
speak at the Business Meeting with the consent of a major-
ity of members present, but not make motions or vote.
2. The agenda for the Business Meeting at the Inter-
national Congress will be arranged by the President in con-
sultation with the Executive Council and the Executive
Director, and normally will include: (1) reports from the
Standing and Ad Hoc Committees and Task Forces; (2) a
summary of the current report of the Executive Director for
the previous 18 months; (3) the Treasurer's report for the
fiscal year; and (4) a concise statement by the new Presi-
dent on the "State of the Association" which outlines forth-
coming plans and discusses issues of importance to
members. Place will be reserved on the agenda for discus-
sion of the items presented.
3. Any legislative action of the members taken at a
National Meeting shall be submitted to a mail ballot of all
members.
4. The proceedings of the National Meeting shall be
governed by Robert's Rules of Order, newly revised.
5. All votes in the Business Meeting shall require a
quorum, which shall consist of ten percent of those members
registered for the Congress.
6. On each occasion for voting, the presiding officer
shall determine if a quorum is present and shall call for three
categories of preference: yeas, nays, and abstentions.
7. Resolutions for consideration at the International
Congress must be signed by at least five LASA members
and received by the LASA Secretariat thirty days prior to
the beginning of each Congress. All proposed resolutions
shall be reviewed by a Subcommittee on Resolutions con-
sisting of three members of the Executive Council, appointed
by the President. This Subcommittee may seek advisory
opinions from the relevant LASA task forces as well as indi-
vidual scholars with appropriate expertise, and may recom-
mend revisions. The Subcommittee shall report its findings
to the full Executive Council and recommend action to be
taken. Resolutions to be referred to the Business Meeting
must be approved by a two-thirds majority vote of both the
Subcommittee on Resolutions and the Executive Council.
The vote on a resolution in its final form at the Business
Meeting shall be by secret ballot. A resolution approved by
the Business Meeting shall be submitted to the full member-
ship for a mail ballot along with the tabulation of the secret
ballot.
8. At business meetings, motions other than those deal-
ing with procedural matters will be accepted only when they
address unforeseen new events that preclude the use of nor-
mal resolution procedures. Such motions must be signed by
five LASA members and presented in writing to the Presi-
dent of the Association at least twenty-four hours before
the Business Meeting.










Article VII. Dues

The annual membership dues shall be set by a two-
thirds vote of the Executive Council. The Council may set
differential rates of dues for special categories of members.
When the Council sets a special rate for student members,
whose status is certified by their principal faculty advisers,
such special rate shall be applicable to a member for a max-
imum of five years.

Article VIII. Amendments

Amendments to these By-Laws may be proposed either
by two-thirds of the members of the Executive Council or
by petition of fifty members. Ratification procedures shall
be as follows:
1. Amendments proposed by two-thirds of the
members of the Executive Council must be published and
distributed to the membership by the Executive Director;
2. Such amendments shall be considered ratified unless
at least one hundred members object in writing to the Exec-
utive Director within ninety days of distribution of the
proposals.
3. Any proposed amendments that have been so pro-
tested must be submitted to a mail ballot and shall be con-
sidered ratified if approved by a majority of the voting
membership that responds within ninety days of the distribu-
tion of the ballot.
4. Amendments proposed by petition and subsequently
endorsed by two-thirds of the Executive Council shall then
be subject to the same ratification procedure as provided
in sections 1-3 of this same Article.
5. Amendments proposed by petition but not endorsed
by two-thirds of the Executive Council shall be submitted
to a mail ballot of the members in good standing and shall
be ratified if approved by a majority of those members
whose vote is postmarked not later than ninety days after
the postmarked distribution of the ballot.


---------. .---------------------------



LASA VS. THE U.S. CUSTOMS SERVICE
FINAL RESOLUTION

The Center for Constitutional Rights (CCR), which had
filed a class action against the U.S. Customs Service on
behalf of LASA and other plaintiffs with regard to the prac-
tice of seizing written materials carried by U.S. citizens
returning from Nicaragua, [see LASA Forum, Fall 1986,
pages 11-12 and Spring 1987, page 11] has reported that the
two remaining issues were resolved favorably. The follow-
ing article, which appeared in Movement Support Network
News (Vol.4, No.1, Spring 1988, p.7), describes the court's
decision.


JUDGE BARS CUSTOMS FROM TURNING OVER
TRAVELERS' WRITTEN MATERIALS TO FBI

On March 3, 1988, Judge Spencer Letts of the United
States District Court for the Central District of California
(Santa Ana) issued a permanent injunction against the U.S.
Customs Service regarding their review, copying, and deten-
tion of travelers' written materials at the border.
The decision came in Heidy v. U.S. Customs Service,
a class action filed by the center for Constitutional Rights
and cooperating attorney Barrett Litt of Litt & Stormer,
challenging Customs and FBI abuses against travelers retur-
ning from Nicaragua. The case was brought after CCR
received a series of complaints from U.S. citizens who, com-
ing through Customs upon their return from Nicaragua, had
personal diaries, letters, address books, magazines, research
notes, and other written materials seized by Customs agents
and turned over to the FBI.
The suit succeeded in forcing Customs to issue two
policy directives to all Customs agents informing them of
the severe constitutional restrictions on their power to
review, detain, or photocopy travelers' written materials.
Under these directives, issued in June and August of 1986,
Customs is permitted to detain materials only if they "are
intended and likely to produce imminent lawless action,"
and must turn the materials over to a U.S. Attorney to seek
a court ruling to that effect wherever they have probable
cause to believe the materials fit this very narrow descrip-
tion. (No materials have ever been found to fit this descrip-
tion.) Customs may keep the materials only for the limited
purpose of deciding whether to turn them over to a U.S.
Attorney for court review, must make this decision or return
the materials within fourteen days, and may make no copies
or other use of the materials unless a probable cause deter-
mination is made by a Customs supervisor.
The March decision by Judge Letts reinforces those
directives, and further enjoins Customs from turning over
the materials for review to any agency that does not agree
to be bound by the Customs policy restrictions. Under the
Customs policy, Customs maintained that it could give the
materials to the FBI, and the FBI maintained that it could
do with the materials whatever it pleased, as long as they
were of any "investigative" interest. Judge Letts' ruling in
effect prohibits the FBI from seeing documents detained by
Customs unless it changes its policy and agrees to be bound
by Customs policy. This will preclude the FBI from using
Customs seizures as an easy way to gather intelligence about
U.S. citizens traveling to Nicaragua and other countries out
of favor with the Reagan Administration.
David Cole, CCR staff attorney who handled the case,
stated: "This is an important affirmation that U.S. citizens
are free to travel and to return with written materials and
information, without fearing the scrutiny of Customs and
the FBI upon their return. Particularly given the FBI's
demonstrated proclivity for monitoring opponents of the
Reagan Administration's foreign policy, this is an impor-
tant and necessary safeguard."









THE 1984 NICARAGUAN ELECTION
OBSERVATION: A FINAL COMMENT

In recent months, much independent evidence cor-
roborating the most significant findings of the LASA report
on the Nicaraguan election has come to light, through the
disclosures of Arturo Cruz, Oliver North, and other public
figures who influenced the events analyzed in the LASA
report. The investigative journalism of Roy Gutman, author
of the article reproduced below and of a forthcoming book
on the same subject, demonstrates the lengths to which U.S.
officials went to limit the scope of participation in-and
thereby discredit-the 1984 election in Nicaragua.
I have always regarded our delegation's attempt to dig
into and shed light on the U.S. role in these events as the
report's most important contribution to knowledge and
public debate. Our critics almost uniformly have chosen to
ignore or downplay this key element of the report, while
focusing on its characterization of the domestic policies of
the Sandinista government.
While we were forced to work under extreme time con-
straints, and obviously had no access to the key players in
Washington, we sensed that something was terribly wrong
in the U.S. "handling" of the potential opposition party
candidates in this election, and we were able to turn up some
fragmentary but compelling evidence that confirmed our
suspicions.
Unfortunately, it proved impossible, in the immediate
aftermath of the event, to provoke a sustained public or
Congressional debate on the U.S. role in sabotaging the
Nicaraguan electoral process. Oliver North, however, was
taking note. In a letter to the editor published by The
Washington Post in December 1984, he dismissed the LASA
delegation's report as fiction.
Wayne A. Cornelius
Chair, LASA Delegation
to Observe the 1984
Nicaraguan Election;
Past President, LASA
June 13, 1988

The following article is reproduced, by permission of
the author, from The Nation, May 7, 1988. Roy Gutman
is national security correspondent for Newsday. This arti-
cle was adapted from his recently published book, Banana
Diplomacy (Simon & Schuster, 1988).

NICARAGUAN TURNING POINT
HOW THE 1984 VOTE WAS SABOTAGED
ROY GUTMAN

Nicaragua's elections of November 4, 1984, were a turn-
ing point not only in the post-Somoza history of Nicaragua
but also in U.S. policy. Of the many missed opportunities
to achieve at least some of the stated U.S. goals in


Nicaragua, perhaps none compared with this. Policy divi-
sions in Washington all but assured an inconclusive contest.
"One of the biggest mistakes of all, maybe the biggest
mistake, was the handling of the election," said a high-level
U.S. diplomatic source. "The idea of the CIA and White
House staff was to avoid participation in the elections. The
debate was over whether to go halfway or not." The State
Department's planning for the elections, meanwhile, had
gone into high gear following Nicaraguan President Daniel
Ortega's announcement on February 21, 1984, of the voting
date.
In late March of that year, Deputy Assistant Secretary
of State L. Craig Johnstone met Arturo Cruz Sr., the former
Nicaraguan Ambassador to Washington, to discuss the elec-
tions. Over lunch at Germaine's, a Vietnamese restaurant
in upper Georgetown, Johnstone asked Cruz if he would
be interested in running for the presidency. "We had to be
sure there would be a candidate," Johnstone said. "He was
the one leader we thought they might be able to allow into
an electoral process."
However, while the State Department supported Cruz's
candidacy in hopes it would foster a deal in which the con-
tras would "go away," members of the hard right-William
Casey and Jeane Kirkpatrick at the Cabinet level, Oliver
North and Constantine Menges on the National Security
Council staff-believed the use of force was the only way
to bring about democracy in Nicaragua and that the San-
dinistas also had to go away, either through overthrow or
removal. They supported Cruz in the expectation that he
would not participate in the elections, thereby discrediting
the vote. They regarded a U.S. negotiated deal with the San-
dinistas as a sell-out.
For the U.S. hard-liners, the actual political situation
in Nicaragua was irrelevant. They argued by syllogism.
Communists never allow fair elections; the Sandinistas are
Communists; for the opposition to participate in elections
would legitimize Communist rule.
Although the conservatives kept a low profile, they were
able to exercise substantial influence over events. Even Cruz
was receiving Central Intelligence Agency funds by this time.
"The other guys were able to run it by their complete
penetration of the opposition," said a senior diplomat.
"None of these people is independent any more."
The hard-liners worked to convince the internal
Nicaraguan opposition to insist on election rules so com-
prehensive the Sandinistas would never accept them.
Johnstone viewed these demands as "killers." President
Reagan, as usual, did not choose between competing
strategies or impose discipline on his subordinates but
allowed the different power centers to pursue policy accor-
ding to their interpretation of the goals.
In addition to the obstacles in his path at home,
Johnstone faced a number of challenges in Managua. A
major hitch was the divisiveness of the internal opposition,
a central feature of Nicaraguan political culture that
predated Sandinista rule. In an effort to gain cohesion, in










1982 the opposition formed an umbrella group, the Coor-
dinadora Democritica, which tried to forge unity through
making decisions by consensus. The group consisted of four
political parties, two trade unions and representatives of six
business organizations. The Coordinadora generated
rhetoric and wish lists, but its cumbersome decision-making
method lent itself to the tyranny of the minority of conser-
vative businessmen, and it proved incapable of crafting a
workable election strategy.
By early July, the Coordinadora had yet to choose a
candidate. Under prodding by a visiting West German
parliamentary delegation, a sort of rump Coordinadora con-
sisting of two political figures, representing each end of the
spectrum, got together and made the decision. They were
Enrique Bolafios, a wealthy cotton grower and head of the
Superior Council of Private Enterprise (COSEP), and
Azucena Ferrey, one of the more dynamic women in
Nicaraguan politics, who headed the Social Christian Party.
The selection process took place "in the darkness of a tun-
nel," Bolafios said. They wrote down five names: Arturo
Cruz; Adolfo Calero; Ismael Reyes, head of the Nicaraguan
Red Cross; Alfonso Robelo; and Eduardo Rivas Gasteazora,
deputy leader of the Coordinadora. "I said, 'Number one
is O.K. with COSEP,"' Bolafios recalled. 'Number two
has his finger on the trigger, no good. Number four is the
same as number two. Number five is very sick.' So numbers
one and three were O.K. with us, in that order."
Ferrey flew to Washington and asked Cruz to run. It
was July 11, and the Sandinistas had set a deadline of July
25 for the registration of candidates. Bolafios and Ferrey
agreed that if Cruz was willing, he should be the candidate
of the entire Coordinadora. He agreed.
Besides diverging from democratic practice, the pro-
cedure for choosing the Coordinadora candidate deprived
the anointed candidate of a political base; by virtue of the
timing, he had no way of creating one on returning to
Nicaragua. Cruz was everyone's candidate and no one's can-
didate. Ferrey wanted him to run under any circumstance.
Bolafios's view was close to that of conservatives in
Washington-he could not foresee circumstances in which
Cruz should run. Cruz's main constituency was in
Washington, and Washington was split. Johnstone clearly
hoped Cruz could find his way clear to register. White House
officials said they supported the goal, but their sincerity was
quickly called into question. Constantine Menges at the
N.S.C. played a double game. According to Cruz, Menges
encouraged him to enter the contest. Behind the scenes,
Menges was busy drafting a rhetoric for Reagan that sug-
gested the election would be a farce before Cruz had even
tested the waters. In back-to-back speeches in mid-July,
Reagan blasted Nicaragua as a "totalitarian jungle" and
belittled the election as a "Soviet-style sham." The words
had an immediate impact on the ground.
"Reagan's rhetoric produces the triumphalism of the
hard-liners. It means you abandon strategy," said Bill Baez,
a close associate of Cruz, who, as head of the leading


organization of Nicaraguan cooperatives, was one of the
representatives of COSEP in the Coordinadora. Cruz con-
curred. "As long as the recalcitrant opposition has a reading
of things that the United States eventually will invade
Nicaragua and kick the Sandinistas out and say, 'Here, now,
we will pick a king,' we will not be able to articulate our
own policy and really address the issues we have to as
Nicaraguans."
Even before setting foot on Nicaraguan soil, Cruz had
reason to be ambivalent. With U.S. counsel divided, he was
on his own. On the eve of his departure, Cruz gave a long
interview to Fred Francis, an NBC television reporter, in
which he assessed his chances. As the crew packed up, Cruz
approached Francis. "You know I'm really not going to run.
You know that." Francis threw out the interview.
Meanwhile, in Washington, the struggle had intensified
between Johnstone on the one side and Menges, North and
Casey on the other. Johnstone had been working with staff
to prepare a new list of demands without the maximalist
"killers," while his adversaries worked to avert a moderating
impact. North's role by this time extended well into the
policy process. At one Restricted Interagency Group
meeting, Johnstone sought approval for a concept to test
Sandinista promises for a pluralistic political system. North
was trying to block it. "At least Constantine believes in
democracy," Johnstone snapped. "You don't."
Johnstone won agreement in Washington on a modified
set of conditions for participation in the elections, which
Cruz essentially adopted as his own. They were: freedom
of the press; freedom of assembly; access to voter registra-
tion lists and election returns; international observation of
the elections; security of voting places; freedom to campaign
on military bases; and postponement of the elections to allow
at least ninety days of campaigning. The demand for a
national dialogue between the Sandinistas and the contras
was dropped.
But the scale-back of demands only galvanized oppon-
ents in Washington and Managua. Calero withdrew his com-
mitment to back Cruz, and some U.S. officials urged the
internal opposition to ignore the stated policy that Cruz
should run if he obtained fair conditions. One such message
came from the U.S. Ambassador to Costa Rica, Curtin Win-
sor Jr., a conservative businessman who was a political
appointee and an outspoken proponent of overthrowing the
Sandinistas. (Winsor once compared their rule to "an
infected piece of meat" that attracts "insects.")
Winsor had known Bill Baez through business contacts
for many years. At breakfast in San Jos6 on August 29, Win-
sor told Baez he had received word that the White House
did not want the opposition to participate. "I think you
should be aware of the problems and situation," Baez
quoted Winsor as having said. "There is a division in the
government. Some people in the State Department are say-
ing you should participate. I represent the views of the White
House. My opinion is that it is not appropriate to go."
Johnstone learned of the Baez-Winsor conversation









from embassy reporting and flew to San Jos6 for a dinner
with the Ambassador. "I don't know who you're getting
your instructions from, but it is no known organ of govern-
ment," he told Winsor. Once again, Menges was at work.
He was certain that the Sandinistas would not hold a fair
election and had said as much to Winsor. A further obstacle
on the ground was CIA operatives in Central America. "I
know the CIA was all against it. They were transmitting this
loudly and clearly," said a source familiar with the think-
ing of Alfonso Robelo, the opposition leader who at the time
was in San Jos6. Cruz's son, Arturo Jr., who was frequently
in the Costa Rican capital, concurred. "The State Depart-
ment behaved in a very civilized way. But the sergeants of
'the Company' were behaving differently in the field. They
were talking to their clients and saying 'Cruz is going to sell
you out."' And a Congressional source stated that Bolafios
had at least two meetings with the CIA station chief in San
Jose at about this time.
The CIA signals fortified the hard-liners in the Coor-
dinadora in Managua, but also led to a profound
misunderstanding. Those in Managua agreed'with their
counterparts in Washington on the intermediate goal of
discrediting the elections but not on who should be the
beneficiaries. The hard-liners in Managua hoped to destroy
the legitimacy of the elections on the assumption that they
themselves would profit. Those in Washington did it in
hopes that the contras and the external military solution
would benefit.
The crunch came in Rio de Janeiro on September 30,
when Bayardo Arce, in charge of political affairs for the
Sandinista Party, met with Cruz in the hotel suite of Carlos
Andr6s P6rez, a senior Socialist International official and
former President of Venezuela.
These were the first real negotiations between the San-
dinistas and the opposition since the election had been
announced. It was the last best chance to resolve the
Nicaragua dispute through political means. It was the
decisive moment for U.S. policy. Johnstone said that, of
all the efforts to reach a peaceful settlement, "that one came
the closest."
The importance of the talks is undisputed. Exactly what
went wrong in Rio is very much disputed. Nearly two years
later, even P6rez, who chaired the talks, said he had not
figured it out.
One reason is that both sides were engaged in
gamesmanship. For Cruz, having registered so late in the
election process, it was essential to gain a delay in the vote
to avoid being accused by his associates of a sell-out. For
the hard-liners in the Coordinadora, who wanted to discredit
the process, it was essential to block Cruz from reaching
a deal. The Sandinistas wanted to avoid a delay but also
to avoid blame for the collapse of the mediation.
P6rez urged Arce to accept conditions within which
Cruz could participate. He began with nine demands that
the Coordinadora had presented to the Sandinistas,
separating out statements that would be regarded as
ultimatums. The meeting lasted three and a half hours.


Arce and Cruz met again the following morning, Mon-
day, October 1, this time in the presence of Hans-Jiirgen
Wischnewski, a close associate of Socialist International
President Willy Brandt, and several West German Social
Democrats. Cruz was accompanied by vice-presidential can-
didate Adin Fletes and Coordinadora President Luis Rivas
Leiva. Hanging over the talks was the latest deadline for
registration, running out at midnight.
In one hour, the negotiations made remarkable prog-
ress. The Coordinadora presented its demands. In return
for satisfaction, they promised to participate in the election
if the date was postponed to February 24, 1985. Arce readily
agreed to all the guarantees.
Cruz and his two colleagues asked for a break to con-
fer with Managua. At the other end, opposition leaders
gathered around a speaker phone in the offices of the Social
Christian Party. Bolalios kept a low profile; the spokesman
was Daniel Bonilla, an industrial associate of Bolafios and
perhaps the hardest of the hard-liners. And he was deeply
skeptical. Bonilla was an ideologue. "Communists don't
convene an election unless they have all the means to win
it," he said in an interview more than a year later. "We don't
believe in the elections. We would have lost. And there is
nothing worse in politics than losing. That is not the worst
thing .. . It is that we would have made the Sandinistas
win with our presence. My God, do you know what that
means?"
After lunch the three negotiators denounced Arce's con-
cessions as demagogy, demanded additional access to the
official news media as a condition and required that the San-
dinistas immediately agree to February 24 or some other
postponement of election day. Then Arce dropped a bomb-
shell. If the Coordinadora registered before midnight, the
contest would be delayed until January 13, 1985, provided
there was an effective cease-fire with the contras. Arce
insisted that the Coordinadora declare a cease-fire by Octo-
ber 10 and that contra forces led by Adolfo Calero and Ed6n
Pastora withdraw from Nicaragua by October 25. On the
other hand, if the Sandinistas did not live up to their part
of the bargain, the opposition could withdraw its registra-
tion any time up to October 25. The atmosphere in the room
was suddenly electrified.
Cruz called Managua again. "My advice to you is you
go and register," Cruz told his associates. "Do it, register,
because we have all the necessary safeguards not to be
trapped. Do something really meaningful, and we will really
grow in stature."
"Arturo," Bonilla intoned, "whatever is going to be
done is going to be done here. That is what the Coor-
dinadora wants." Bonilla objected that the Coordinadora
could not represent both the armed and the civic resistance.
"I cannot have one single man representing the whole,
because that would get the civic in bed with the military."
In Washington, Johnstone closely monitored the prog-
ress. He was in frequent touch with Baez, who was in
Washington. Johnstone asked to be kept informed but felt
Cruz should proceed. He also was in touch with Socialist









International officials. "The United States government
asked the SI to do its utmost to to help the Coordinadora
reach a deal," said a close associate of Brandt.
Working along with Johnstone was a senior CIA
official. Johnstone said each called contacts in the opposi-
tion and the Nicaraguan Democratic Front (FDN) contras
to keep them from backing away in the midst of the negotia-
tions. The FDN "were extremely concerned about not being
undercut by third-force representation in elections that
would legitimize the Sandinista regime," Johnstone said.
He asserts that the CIA supported his plan. "I was work-
ing out of the same room as the CIA guy and unless some
other part of the agency was trying to undermine him, we
were giving the same advice: Take part if you can get fair
terms."
Despite the cold reception, Cruz thought he saw a way
to bridge the differences. "This is the most exhilirating day
in my whole life," he said that night. But the deadline passed
without action.
A dejected looking P6rez received Wischnewski the next
morning and pronounced the negotiations a failure. Actu-
ally, he had another card up his sleeve. Without telling his
SI colleagues, Perez had asked Arce to prepare a typed sum-
mary of the points of agreement, including the election
postponement on condition of a cease-fire. Unannounced,
an aide to Arce appeared with the document.
Perez gave a copy to Cruz, who promised to return with
a response at 4 PM. Cruz checked with Managua, where
he received more discouragement. Bonilla reiterated that the
decision must be made in Managua.
Now Cruz dropped his own bombshell. Appearing at
the appointed time, he went through Arce's paper point by
point, wrote changes of wording, then agreed to it. He con-
ditioned his signature upon a "vote of confidence" by the
Coordinadora in Managua. If they did not back him, he
would withdraw as their candidate. Arce reacted angrily.
"In the beginning, they said a big fat no," P6rez said of
Arce. "They said it was a joke to discredit the electoral pro-
cess by doing this."
"I represent the Sandinista Front, and although only
five comandantes are now in Nicaragua, I have committed
myself here and now," Arce said. "But I have received no
comparable pledge from Arturo Cruz; otherwise, the Coor-
dinadora could have registered before the deadline. Either
you sign now," he insisted, "or I don't sign."
P6rez stressed the significance of Cruz's personal com-
mitment to return to Managua and put his name on the
ballot, and for a brief moment Arce seemed to relent.
It was about 5 PM. "For twenty minutes we had an
agreement, said Thorvald Stoltenberg (now Norway's
Minister of Foreign Affairs), who had joined the talks for
the SI. The two sides shook hands. "They were very, very
pleased. We were starting to drink cognac." Stoltenberg sug-
gested they type out the contents of the accord. Cruz dic-
tated the final wording to Perez. "Luis Rivas Leiva, as Presi-
dent of the Coordinadora, accompanied by Adin Fletes and


Arturo Cruz, also agrees, both parties ad referendum to their
respective organizations." Stoltenberg took a call from
Dagbladet, a Norwegian newspaper, and broke the story to
the press. An hour later, he had to phone the newspaper
back and say the negotiations had fallen through.
Arce suddenly stood up, shook hands with West Ger-
man SI participants and bolted without further explanation.
Cruz thought the signal had been given in New York City
by Daniel Ortega. In an interview that morning in The
Washington Post, Ortega had declared that the election
would take place on schedule. "We were flexible on the date
until a few days ago," he said. "The elections are going to
take place on November 4. At this point we cannot continue
to play with the date."
"Extending the campaign was never a position for us,"
said Sergio Ramirez, the campaign manager and candidate
for vice president of the ruling party. "We always considered
that it would be damaging for us because people would not
be confident about our own elections if we did." Arce had
made the offer in the knowledge it was unacceptable.
Moreover, according to Ramirez, "Cruz never had authority
over [contra military commander Enrique] Bermfidez and
Calero...and the Coordinadora didn't have that authority."
Cruz said he had known that the Sandinistas were bluf-
fing. "We had to be forthcoming and call their bluff, or
to reach a real agreement if it was possible."
Arce went before a press conference. "Yesterday at
midnight they lost their last chance to register. There is no
longer any question. The elections will be held in Nicaragua
on November 4."
P6rez said that information he received subsequent to
the Rio meeting gave the impression that "the CIA had given
instructions, had put pressures [on representatives of the
Coordinadora] against Cruz's candidacy, and therefore it
wasn't accepted. They just didn't want someone with the
prestige of Cruz to enter the elections, because it would
validate them. They wanted to demonstrate there was no
freedom of elections in Nicaragua." Perez felt the "game"
of the Coordinadora had been "simply to take away
legitimacy."
On October 11, more than a week after the breakup
in Rio, the Coordinadora changed its mind and backed the
election accord. Stoltenberg of the SI flew to Managua,
followed by Brandt, to ask for a postponement of the vote.
But the Sandinistas refused. "The case was lost in Rio,"
Stoltenberg said.
P6rez said he never expected that the Sandinistas would
let go of power, but thought the elections might have put
Nicaragua on a course similar to Mexico: with left-of-center,
semidemocratic, broadly based one-party rule. It was "not
a solution to the problem, but it certainly was an opening."
Cruz agreed, and his will be the judgment that lasts. "In
hindsight," said Cruz, "we should have gone, with or
without conditions."









XIV CONGRESS PAPERS AVAILABLE


The following papers from the XIV International Con-
gress in New Orleans may be ordered from the Secretariat for
$3.00 each. LASA attempted to retain at least one copy of
every paper submitted. If your paper is not listed below,
please send a copy to the Secretariat, and we will include it in
future listings. A limited number of programs (xerox copies)
are also available for $4.50 each. Prices include postage.

Adams, Anna. Women's Tales of Torture
Agosin, Marjorie. La casa de los espiritus
Alvares, Sonia E. Women's Participation in the "People's
Church"
Alves, Maria Helena. Dilemmas of the Consolidation of
Democracy from the Top in Brazil
Angotti, Thomas. The Cuban Revolution: A New Turn
Arana, Mario. Deuda, estabilizaci6n y ajuste: La
transformaci6n en Nicaragua 1979-1986
Archila, Mauricio. La formaci6n de la clase obrera colom-
biana (1910-1945)
Auchter, Craig W. Democracy for Masters or Majorities? A
Comparative Analysis of Political Development in Cen-
tral America
Azuela, Alicia. Diego Rivera in the 1930s. Views from Both
Sides of the Border
Balan, Jorge. Profesi6n e identidad en una sociedad dividida:
La medicine y el origen del psicoandlisis en la Argentina
Barker, Wendy J. Banks, Industry and the State in Brazil
Barkin, David. Environmental Degradation and Productive
Transformation in Mexico: The Contradictions of
Crisis Management
Bartra, Eli. Notas sobre el arte popular y las mujeres
Baumann, Renato. Brazil-Argentina Economic Integration:
A Partial Approach
Baumeister, Eduardo. Agrarian Transformation and Revolu-
tion in Nicaragua
Bennett, Vivienne. How Popular Movements Shape the State:
Radical Oppositions in JuchitAn and Monterrey, Mex-
ico 1973-1987
Berryman, Phillip. Liberation Theology and the U.S.
Bishop's Letters on Nuclear Weapons and on the
Economy
Block, Miguel Angel Gonzalez. Decentralization of the
Health Sector in Mexico 1930-1987
Blondet, Cecilia. Pobladoras, Dirigentas y Ciudadanas: El
caso de las mujeres populares de Lima
Borja, Arturo T. Alternative Explanations of Regime
Breakdown. A Comparison of the Uruguayan and
Costa Rican Democracies
Braga, Carlos A.P. Monetary Reform and Trade in Brazil &
Argentina
Brockett, Charles D. A Comparative Analysis of Peasant
Mobilization and Demobilization in Central America


Brown, Lyle C. Some Political Memoirs of Mexico Since 1910
Buchanan, Paul. Reflections of Institutionalizing Democratic
Class Compromise in the Southern Cone
Budowski, Gerardo. Developing the Choco Region of
Colombia
Bustamante, Fernando. Los militares y la creaci6n de un
nuevo orden democritico en Peri y Ecuador
Cademartori, Jose. Chile: Aspectos econ6micos de la
democratizaci6n
Cardoso, Eliana A. Seigniorage and Repression: Monetary
Rhythms of Latin America
Carrillo, Teresa. Working Women and the "19th of
September" Mexican Garment Workers Union: The
Significance of Gender
Castrill6n-Hoyos, Dario. From Gutierrez to Ratzinger and
Beyond: The Debate on Liberation Theology
Child, Jack. Antarctica: Arena for South American Coopera-
tion or Conflict
Chirif, Alberto. Realidad 6tnica y realidad national
Ciria, Alberto. Democracy & Authoritarianism in Argentina:
Politics and Culture
Clements, Benedict J. Sectoral Performance, Income
Distribution, and Efficiency: The Case of Brazil
Coddou, Marcelo. La casa de los espiritus y la historic
Collings, Richard J. Debt, Dependence, and Default: Is Peru
the Wave of the Future
Cook, Maria Lorena. Organizing Dissent: The Politics of
Opposition in Mexican Unions
Dagnino, Renato. Arms Production and Technological
Spinoffs: The Brazilian Aeronautics Industry
Denevan, William M. The Nature of Fragile Lands in Latin
America
Dent, David W. North American vs. Latin American Subjects
of Investigation 1960-1985
Diniz, Eli. Post-1930 Industrial Elites
Dix, Robert H. Colombia: Social Change and Party System
Stability
Duany, Jorge. From the Periphery to the Semi-Periphery:
Caribbean Migration to Puerto Rico Since 1960
Durand, Francisco. Los empresarios y alianzas political: El
caso del Peru bajo Alan Garcia
Evenson, Debra. Criminal Justice in Cuba: A Preliminary
Report of the National Lawyers Guild
Falc6n, Romana. La centralizaci6n political en el Porfiriato
alcances y limits en el caso de Coahuila
Foweraker, Joseph. Popular movements and the Transfor-
mation of the Mexican Political System
Frundt, Henry J. Esquipulas II y las posibilidades para una
reconciliaci6n national: Perspectivas guatemaltecas
Garner, William R. Chile: The Limits of Empirical Analysis
in a Milieu of Political Repression
Gereffi, Gary. Industrial Structure and Development
Strategies in Latin America and East Asia
Gerlero, Elena. Las artes mecdnicas como via de redenci6n:
Fundamento teol6gico para la 6tica del trabajo pro-
movida por la orden franciscana en sus escuelas de artes









y oficios en La Nueva Espana en el siglo XVI
Giacalone, Rita de Romero. Major Trends and Changes in
Relations between Venezuela and the English-Speaking
Eastern Caribbean
Gill, Lesley. Senioras and Sirvientas: Women and Domestic
Services in La Paz, Bolivia
Gismondi, Michael. Conceptualizing Religion from Below:
An Approach to Popular Religious Values
Gordon, Sara. Guatemala y El Salvador: Dos regimenes de
exclusion
Griesgraber, Joe Marie. Transitions Do not Lead Inevitably
Toward Democracy
Grindle, Merilee S. The Response to Austerity: Political &
Economic Strategies of Mexico's Rural Poor
Groth, Terrie R. Debating Latin American Democratization:
"A Theoretical Guide"
Hallin, Dan. Trends in Network Television Coverage of Cen-
tral America 1979-1988
Helwege, Ann. Latin American Agricultural Performance in
the Debt Crisis
Interamerican Research Center. Central American and Mex-
ican Public Opinion on U.S. Foreign Policy
Jim6nez, Michael F. "Travelling Far in Grandfather's Car."
The Life Cycle of Central Colombian Coffee Estates:
The Case of Vioti, Cundinamarca
Jimenez-Pelayo, Agueda. Problems de tierras de com-
unidades indigenas en el norte de la Nueva Galicia
Kirk, John M. The Church-State Rapprochement in Revolu-
tionary Cuba
Krause, Monika. Sex Education in Cuba
Lancaster, Roger N. The Church and Revolution in
Nicaragua
Langton, Kenneth P. The Reform of Autocratic Social Insti-
tutions and the Transition to Political and Economic
Democracy
Lehoucq, F. Edouard. Explaining the Origins of Democratic
Regimes: Costa Rica in Comparative Perspective
Le6n, Jorge. Composici6n social y escena political en el sin-
dicalismo ecuatoriano
Lesser, Jeff H. Refugees as Immigrants: The Case of
Brazilian Jewry
Lipsett, Sonya. Land and Water in Colonial Puebla
Lisi, Francisco L. Cultura popular, cultural de masas, cultural
de elite
Llambi, Luis. Emergence of Capitalized Family Farms in
Latin America
Lobel, Jules. The Meaning of Democracy
Londero, Elio. Sources of Revealed Comparative Advantage
in Manufacturing Exports: A Preliminary Report on
Argentina
L6pez, Jose Roberto. La deuda externa en Centroambrica:
Lecciones de la teoria y prictica de su administration
reciente
Luciak, Ilja A. Grassroots Movements in Nicaragua: A Com-
parative Analysis of the Rural Workers (ATC) and
Small Farmers (UNAG) Associations


Lugo, Elisa Vargas. Primeros historiadores del arte colonial
Lutz, Christopher H. Core and Periphery in Colonial
Guatemala
Maingot, Anthony P. Problems of a Transition to Democracy
in Haiti
Malloy, James M. Statecraft, Social Policy and Regime Tran-
sition in Brazil
Mars, Perry. Left Wing Politics and Caribbean Democracy
Martin, Cheryl. Gender and Socio-Political Order in Latin
America
Mauch, James E. Analysis of Research and Lecturing Pro-
posals That Meet Fulbright Quality Standards
Maybury-Lewis, Biorn. The Debate over Agrarian Reform in
Brazil
McClintock, Cynthia. The Trajectory of Values Toward
Enterprise and Electoral Democracy Among the Peru-
vian Peasantry 1968-1988
McCoy, Jennifer. Democratic Class Compromise, Concerta-
tion and the Social Pact in Venezuela
McCreery, David. State Power, Indigenous Communities,
and Land in Nineteenth-Century Guatemala
McIntyre, Kellen Kee. The Martinez Hacienda, Taos, New
Mexico: Development of an Architectural Form and Its
Historical Relevance
Meyer, Mary K. Double Discourse: Reagan, Contadora, and
the Paradigms of Inter-American Relations
Mitchell, Christopher. U.S. Foreign Policy and Dominican
Migration to the U.S.
Montgomery, Tommie Sue. Pacts and Politics in El Salvador
1979-1988
Mraz, John. Videotaping the History of the Latin American
Working Class
Nagy, Silvia M. El process de transformaci6n de la cultural
indigena durante la Colonia y la Rep6blica
Nichols, John Spicer. U.S. Government Funding of La Pren-
sa: Uses and Abuses of the Nicaraguan Opposition
Newspaper
Ogliastri, Enrique. Clases sociales y desarrollo empresarial en
Santander: Apuntes sobre la economic political de
Bucaramanga en el Siglo XIX
Ortiz, Edgar. Crisis econ6mica y papel estrat6gico de la
empresa pdblica mexicana
Oviedo, Jos6. Estructuraci6n political y partido 6nico en la
Repdiblica Dominicana
Oxhorn, Phillip. Bringing the Base Back in. The Resurrection
of Civil Society Under an Authoritarian Regime and
Chilean Shanty Town Organizations
Pardo, Teresa. La dinimica sociocultural y las perspectives
de las comunidades indigenas: El caso de la sierra,
Juirez de Oaxaca
Pastor, Manuel. Capital Flight and the Latin American Debt
Crisis
Paul, Benjamin. Entrepreneurs and Economic Inequality in
San Pedro de Laguna, Guatemala: A Hundred Years of
History
Payne, Leigh A. The Brazilian Labor Movement and the New
Republic









Penalosa, Fernando. Incipient Trilingualism Among Mayans
in Los Angeles
P6rez Escamilla Costas, Juan Ricardo. The Mexican State
and Business: Recent Revolution and Perspectives of
Financial Policy
Peritore, N. Patrick. Brazilian Attitudes Toward Agrarian
Reform: A Q-Methodology Opinion Study of a Con-
flictual Issue
Pittman, Howard T. Southern Cone Antarctic Claims, Ter-
ritories and the Ibero-American Club vs. the Common
Heritage of Mankind Theory
Plank, David N. Issues in Brazilian School Finances
Poitras, Guy. The Reagan Doctrine and Latin America: A
Premature Post-Mortem
Polakoff, Erica G. Opening Urban Frontiers: Squatter Set-
tlements in Managua
Polanco, Jorge Diaz. Tres actors politicos en el process de
salud en Venezuela
Prevost, Gary F. The Development of the Political
Philosophy of the FSLN: From Sandino to State Power
Priego, Rosalba P6rez. Los cardcteres femeninos en la
literature del Porfiriato
Ranis, Peter. Argentine Workers: Rethinking Class
Consciousness
Reiche, Carlos E. Centro Agron6mico Tropical de
Investigaci6n y Ensenanza, Catie Turrialba, Costa Rica
Reinhardt, Nola. Economic Development and Rural Fertil-
ity in Theory and Practice: Evidence of Change from
Rural Colombia
Robbins, James. Ideas of Change in Cuban Popular Music
Rodriguez, Adrian. La deuda pdblica eterna de Costa Rica:
Crecimiento, moratoria y renegociaci6n
Roldain, Mary. Guerrillas, Contrachusma, and Caudillos:
Local Challenges to Elite Control During La Violencia
in Antioquia, Colombia, 1949-1953
Rus, Diane. Changing Economic Roles of Indigenous
Women in the Chiapas Highlands
Rus, Jan. The Revolution and Its Aftermath in Four Tzotzil
Communities of Highland Chiapas, Mexico
Ryan, Jeffrey J. The Effects of External Support on Latin
American Insurgencies
Safa, Helen I. Gender and Social Science Concepts in Latin
America
Sanborn, Cynthia.; Elfuturo diferente? The Legacy of the
1970s for Peruvian Populism in the '80s
Sanderson, Steven E. Economy of Political Violence in the
New Republic of Brazil
Schmidt, Gregory D. Regime Type, Political Alliances, and
Bureaucratization: Explaining Variations in Regional
Development Organizations and Decentralized Public
Investment in Peru, 1944-1988
Schwartzman, Simon. Brazil: Opportunity and Crisis in
Higher Education
Scurrah, Martin J. Civil Institutions and Democratic Par-
ticipation in Peru


Selser, Gregorio. La Internacional Socialista: Contradic-
ciones e incoherencias de su presencia en America
Latina y el Caribe
Nicaragua: El presunto incumplimiento del gobierno de
la revoluci6n sandinista, de sus compromises asumidos
en visperas del triunfo sobre Somoza
Paraguay: En elecciones de carnaval, Alfredo
Stroessner se hace president por octava vez
Serra, Luis. Peasant Stores: A Democratic and Feasible
Model for the Feeding of the Rural Sector in Nicaragua
Sigmund, Paul E. The Catholic Church and Social Change in
Latin America
Sikkink, Kathryn. The "New Institutionalism" and
Economic Policy Making in Latin America: State
Autonomy and Developmentalist Policy Making in
Argentina and Brazil
Smith, Lois M. Teenage Pregnancy and Sex Education in
Cuba
Smith, William C. Heterodox Shocks and the Political
Economy of Democratic Transition in Argentina and
Brazil
Soifer, Ricardo J. Advanced Technologies in Latin America
Spalding, Rose J. The Agricultural Bourgeoisie and the
Nicaraguan Revolution
Spoor, Max. Agricultural Price Policy in Transition: The
Case of Nicaragua 1979-1988
Stahler-Sholk, Richard. Stabilization, Destabilization and the
Popular Sector in Nicaragua, 1979-87
Staples, Anne. El estado y la iglesia en la reptiblica restaurada
Steele, Cynthia. Gender and Class in Women's Testimonio
Stephen, Lynn. Culture as a Resource: Four Cases of Self-
Managed Indigenous Craft Production
Stephens, Evelyne Huber. Economic Development, Social
Change, and Political Contestation and Inclusion in
South America
Stewart-Gambino, Hannah W. The Catholic Church and
Redemocratization in Chile
Stokes, Susan C. Peru's Urban Popular Sectors in the 1980s:
Autonomy or a New Multi-Classism?
Suzigan, Wilson. Consolidating Industrialization: Market
Creation in Post-1964 Brazil
Tarris Barraza, Luisa. Los campos de acci6n de la mujeres:
Una alternative para el andlisis de su participaci6n
social y political
Taylor, Michelle M. Presidential Initiatives Toward Latin
America: Do They Receive Funding and Where Does
the Money Go?
Taylor, Patrick. Religion, Social Science, and Liberation: An
Afro-Caribbean Perspective
Thompson, Carol B. Economic Coordination Under Crisis
Conditions: Lessons from Southern Africa
Thoumi, Francisco E. Long-Term Industrialization Trends in
Two Small Caribbean Countries: The Cases of the
Dominican Republic and Trinidad and Tobago
Twomey, Michael J. The Debt Crisis and Latin American
Agriculture









Urrutia, Eugenio Rivera. La dinimica inflacionaria y las
political de estabilizaci6n en Centroam6rica y Panama
en la d6cada de los 80
Valenzuela, Maria Elena. Del sufragismo al feminismo: La
morilizaci6n de la mujer y su cuestionamiento del orden
patriarcal en Chile
Van Bodegraven, Donna. La geometria en el studio nar-
rativo de La casa de los espiritus
Vera Luna, Eduardo. Interest Groups and Popular
Democracy: Dilemmas of the Nicaraguan Transition
Verhine, Robert E. Formal, Nonformal, and Informal
Education and Occupational Opportunity: Research
Outcomes from Northeast Brazil
von Mettenheim, Kurt. Social Policy and the Brazilian Voter
in the Transition to Democracy
Welch, John. The Possibilities of Financial Integration
Between Brazil and Argentina: Preliminary Remarks
West, Terry. Souvenirs: The Role of Tourist Handicraft
Markets in Regional Development in Cusco, Peru
Williams, Harvey. War and Austerity: The Impact on Social
Programs
Williams, John H. Social Issues in Post-Stroessner Paraguay
Willis, Eliza. Investing in the Poor: State Autonomy and
Social Distribution in Brazil
Wise, Carol. Peru's Political Economy 1980-1987: Responses
to the Debt Crisis from Neoliberalism to the New
Heterodoxy
Wolf, Daniel H. Falling off the Bandwagon: Speculations of
Electoral Politics and the Scope Available to Loyal
Oppositions in Nicaragua
Woodward, Ralph L. The State and the Indian in Conser-
vative Guatemala 1839-1865
Xianglin, Mao. Some Tentative Views on the Contemporary
Caribbean Socialist Movement
Yiinez-Naude, Antonio. Agricultural Development and
Terms of Trade: The Case of Mexico
Zabin, Carol. Cultural Promotion and Economic and
Political Development: A Case Study in the Sierra
Juarez, Oaxaca, Mexico
Zapata, Roger A. La Nueva Cr6nica: Ambiguedad y
contradicci6n en el discurso colonial
Zimbalist, Andrew. The Cuban Economy Toward the Fourth
Decade: A Critical Review
Zirker, Daniel. Contemporary Brazilian Foreign Policy:
Transcending a Sub-Imperialist Role?


i 0


Cristo Chapel


REPORT FROM THE PROGRAM COMMITTEE
XV INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS
SAN JUAN, PUERTO RICO
SEPTEMBER 21-23, 1989



The XV International Congress of the Latin American
Studies Association (LASA) will be held in San Juan, Puerto
Rico, September 21-23, 1989.

In addition to the usual topics that are discussed and
debated at LASA congresses, the 1989 meeting presents us
with an opportunity to focus comparatively on issues of par-
ticular significance to Puerto Rico and the Caribbean. This
would include topics such as race and ethnicity, cultural
minorities and the national question, international migration,
and critical public policy issues.

The Program Committee anticipates that this congress
will have the largest registration and the greatest diversity of
scholarly activities in LASA's history. The committee will
work to ensure the highest attendance ever by scholars from
Latin America and the Caribbean and encourages the LASA
membership to propose innovative activities that enhance
multidisciplinary perspectives on the region.


Four types of sessions will constitute the major part of
the program:

1. PANELS: consisting of presentations of formal
papers prepared especially for the occasion, and
related discussion of them.

2. WORKSHOPS: consisting of several participants
who exchange ideas about common research prob-
lems, techniques and perspectives, or teaching inter-
ests in new fields of study.

3. ROUNDTABLES: sessions consisting of no more
than ten persons who wish to discuss a topic of com-
mon interest. Participants and organizers must sign
up in advance for roundtables; session organizers
serve as discussion leaders.

4. MEETINGS AND SPECIAL EVENTS

In addition, the program will include film showings,
public forums, receptions, and other special activities.

If you wish to organize a session for the San Juan
meeting, please send us the information requested on the
forms that follow. We deeply appreciate your interest in con-
tributing to the next LASA congress.










PROGRAM COMMITTEE POLICIES AND
GUIDELINES FOR SESSION ORGANIZERS



All those who have roles at the 1989 LASA congress
should be current members of the Latin American Studies
Association. Participants in the San Juan meetings will be
limited to one role on the program so as to broaden oppor-
tunities for all applicants. The exceptions to this are panel
organizers, who may also present a paper on their own panel,
and those who are attending from outside the continental
United States and Puerto Rico.

Panels, workshops, and roundtables will be limited in
size to assure orderly and full discussions. An "ideal" panel
would consist of three paper presenters who summarize their
work and two discussants. Ample time must be allowed for
questions and discussion. An "ideal" workshop would con-
sist of six persons, while an "ideal" roundtable would consist
often.


Responsibilities of Session Organizers


Session organizers are asked to:

(1) submit 7 copies of their proposal form to the Pro-
gram Committee by September 15, 1988;

(2) ensure that all participants in their sessions are paid-
up members of LASA;

(3) provide complete, accurate and up-to-date informa-
tion for each participant; i.e., current address and
telephone number, and for participants who will or
may be coming from abroad, the status of their
need/request for a travel grant (It is imperative that
we know where and how to reach participants for
whom funding is requested.);

(4) inform participants of requirements and respon-
sibilities for the session, including submission of
papers in advance;

(5) notify the Program Committee of any audiovisual
needs for their session by August 18, 1989.

The Program Committee will communicate directly with
session organizers and will provide them with infor-
mation and assistance on a timely basis.


Mark B. Rosenberg, Chair
Latin American and
Caribbean Center
Florida International
University
University Park PC 237
Miami, Florida 33199


Gary Gereffi
Department of Sociology
Duke University
Durham, N.C. 27706



Patricia Pessar
Center for Immigration
Policy and Refugee
Assistance
Georgetown University
Washington, D.C. 20057


Steve Stein
Department of History
University of Miami
Coral Gables, Florida 33124


Joan Dassin
The Ford Foundation
Praia de Flamengo 100
Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil



Sergio Miceli
ANPOCS
Avenida Dr. Arnaldo 1973
Sumare 01-255
Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil


Marcia Rivera
Centro de Estudios de la
Realidad Puertorriquena
Tanca 150PH
Viejo San Juan, Puerto
Rico 00901


C6sar A. Rey Hernandez
University of the Sacred
Heart
P.O. Box 12383,
Loiza Station
Santurce, Puerto Rico 00914


Members of the 1989 Program Committee:






Pages
25-30
Missing
From
Original










LOURDES CASAL FUND

A group of friends and colleagues of Lourdes Casal
(1938-1981) has donated $5,000 to the LASA Endowment
Fund in her memory. Lourdes, a member of the LASA
Executive Council in 1977, was an associate professor of
social psychology at Rutgers University, Newark, N.J. At
the time of her death, she was working on a book manuscript
about contemporary Cuba. Her research had been funded
by the Woodrow Wilson International Center and the Social
Science Research Council.
Lourdes' interests also included literature and the arts.
Los fundadores: Alfonso y otros cuentos (Miami: Ediciones
Universal, 1973) is a collection of her short stories. Palabras
juntan revolucidn is a book of poems that received a 1981
Casa de las Americas award. During the 1970s, Lourdes was
one of the founding members of INTAR Theatre in New
York.
Her native Cuba was at the center of Lourdes' life. She
left Cuba in 1961, disenchanted with the revolution. Dur-
ing the next decade, however, she reconsidered the Cuban
revolution and became its advocate. Within the Cuban
American community, she was an activist in support of nor-
malization of relations between the United States and Cuba.
Lourdes was one of the founders of Areito magazine and
of the Institute for Cuban Studies. She also participated in
the 1978 dialogue between the Cuban government and the
Cuban-American community. During a trip to Cuba in
December 1979 she had a relapse of a long-term illness. She
died on February 1, 1981, in Havana, where she is buried.
The donation in memory of Lourdes Casal is to sup-
port scholarly exchanges with Cuba within LASA. Addi-
tional contributions to the LASA Endowment Fund on her
behalf and for these exchanges are welcomed.


CONTRIBUTORS TO LASA
ENDOWMENT FUND

We want to thank the following members who contributed
to the LASA Endowment Fund from June 1, 1987, to June
20, 1988:


Miguel Basafiez
Emilie Bergmann
Nettie Lee Benson
Miguel Antonio Bernal V.
Carole Browner
Jack Child
Antonio Cornejo-Polar
Edward Dew
Agnes L. Dimitriou
Georgette Dorn
Paul Drake
Pamela Falk
Alberto Garcia
Galo GonzAlez
H. McKennie Goodpasture
James Nelson Goodsell
Ana Lorena Gustave
Donald Herman
Ram6n HernAndez
C. W. Heywood
Roland Hoksbergen
James Howe


Barbara Kantz
Erick Detlef Langer
David Lehmann
Peter Linder
Lanham McCauley
Patricia Melvin
Carmelo Mesa-Lago
Kevin Middlebrook
Carlos Miranda
Maxine Molyneux
Arturo Ortiz
Romilio Osses
Alfred Padula
David Popper
Alvaro Ramos
Guillermo Kelley Salinas
Suzanne Sausville
Lars Schoultz
Hugh Schwartz
Valentin Soto
SRose Spalding
Silvio Torres Saillant


If you have contributed to the LASA Endowment Fund and
your name does not appear either in the Summer or Fall
1987 Forum or on the above list, please notify the
Secretariat.


LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES ASSOCIATION
ENDOWMENT FUND



The LASA Endowment Fund was created with an initial grant from the Ford Foundation. Its purpose is to assure the financial
stability of the Latin American Studies Association. Earnings generated by this fund will be used to support travel by Latin
Americans to LASA International Congresses, to fund the activities of the LASA Task Forces, and to support LASA publica-
tions and other special projects that cannot be covered by regular income.

We invite you to join the generous members who have already contributed and to share in this important investment in the future
of Latin American studies. Please indicate below the amount you wish to contribute.

$25 $50 $75 $100 $150 $__ Other

Name
Address
City ____________State __Zip

Please send form, accompanied by check payable to Latin American Studies Association, to: LASA Secretariat, 9th Floor
William Pitt Union, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260.









FOR LASA MEMBERS ABROAD


UNESCO coupons make it possible to pay LASA dues
or other fees in national currency rather than U.S. dollars. A
coupon for the cost of the payment being made is purchased
from the local UNESCO National Commission. The coupon
is paid for in national currency at the official United Nations
rate of exchange on the day of purchase. A surcharge may be
added to cover handling costs, but this should not be more
than 5 percent of the coupon's value. The coupon, made out
in the amount of your payment, should be sent to the LASA
Secretariat. Upon receipt, the Secretariat will update its
records accordingly.

Distributors for UNESCO Coupons

Comisi6n Nacional Argentina para la Unesco
Avenida Eduardo Madero 235-6 piso
Buenos Aires, ARGENTINA

Comisi6n Nacional para la Unesco
Ministerio de Educaci6n y Cultura
Casilla postal 4107
La Paz, BOLIVIA

Institute Brasileiro de Educacao, Ciencia
e Cultura (1.B.E.C.C.)
Praia de Botafogo, Terreo, Salas 101/102
Rio de Janeiro, BRASIL

Tr6sorerie g6nerale
YAOUNDE
CAMEROON

C.O.N.I.C.Y.T.
Direcci6n de Operaciones y Desarrollo
de Programs
Canada 308-Casilla 297-V
Santiago de CHILE

Universidad de Concepci6n
Casilla 2187
Concepci6n, CHILE

1.C.E.T.E.X. Oficina de Relaciones
Nacionales o Internacionales
Cra. 3A. No. 18-24
Apartado Aereo 5735
Bogota D.E., COLOMBIA

Comisi6n Nacional Cubana de la Unesco
Avenida Kohly 151, Nuevo Vedado,Esq.32
La Habana, CUBA


Bibliotheque national
Service des Bons de I'Unesco
65, rue de Richelieu
75002 Paris, FRANCE

Centre national de la
cin6matographie francaise
12, rue de Lubeck
75116 Paris, FRANCE

Centre national de la
recherche scientifique
Service des Bons de l'Unesco
13, quai Anatole-France
75007 Paris, FRANCE

Indian National Commission for
Cooperation with Unesco
Ministry of Education and Social Welfare
"C" Wing, Shastri Bhawan
New Delhi 1, INDIA

Commission national iranienne
pour l'Unesco
B.P. 1533
Teheran, IRAN

Commission national italienne
pour l'Unesco
Piazza Firenze 27
Roma, ITALY

Japan Society for the
Promotion of Science
(Nihon Gakajutsu Shinko-ku)
2-1-2 Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda-ku
Tokyo 101, JAPAN

Institute Nacional del Libro Espanol
Calle de Ferraz no. 13
Madrid 8, SPAIN

Lloyds and Bolsa-Int. Bank Ltd.
P.O. Box 241
40,66 Queen Victoria Street
London EC4P-4EL, UNITED KINGDOM

Oficina de Ciencias para Am6rica Latina
Bulevar Artigas 1320-24
Casilla de Correo 859
Montevideo, Uruguay










LETTERS






To the Editor, LASA Forum:
I loved James Petras's spoof on Stalinist agit-prop in
the Winter 1988 issue of the LASA Forum. His listing of
types of states-"authoritarian capitalist" and "democratic
socialist"-was a wonderfully subtle touch. Not citing by
name anyone other than Norman Vincent Peale shows that
he caught perfectly the delicate manner of polemics against
unidentified, yet most hostile, "circles."
The LASA Forum should be congratulated on the
courage shown in publishing this blurb. The only other
places where it could appear in print are Cuba and Rumania
(Albania no longer?), but there it would be taken seriously.
Forced to study the text, peasants and workers, tormented
by the guilt of making personal fortunes as neoliberals,
would dreamily fantasize about casting pieces of paper into
boxes.
Adam Przeworski
University of Chicago
April 9, 1988


Petras Replies

Professor Przeworski's comments are inappropriate to
a scholarly discussion. The issue is, and continues to be, the
Latin American state and the transition to democracy.

James F. Petras
May 2, 1988


ANNOUNCEMENTS






The Social Science Research Council has announced the
1988 recipients of its Latin American and Caribbean Pro-
gram's Fellowships for International Doctoral Research and
Advanced Grants for International Research. The
Fellowship Selection Committee awarded fellowships to
eleven Ph.D. candidates. In addition, the Joint Committee
on Latin American Studies selected the following winners
of advanced research grants: Samuel Baily, Rutgers Univer-
sity, for research in Argentina on descendants of Italian
immigrants in Buenos Aires and New York City, 1925-1975;
Heraclio Bonilla, University of California, San Diego, for
research in Peru on the shift of power from landowners to
civil servants, 1895-1985; David Collier, University of
California, Berkeley, for research on comparative method
in Latin American studies; Stephanie Kane, Philadelphia
Folklore Project, for research in Panama on kinship, race
and gender; Herbert Klein, Columbia University, for
research in Brazil on wealth distribution in the 19th century;
Robert Levine, University of Miami, for research in Brazil
on the Canudos peasant uprising; Daniel Levy, State Univer-
sity of New York, Albany, for research in Mexico and Chile
on the impact of U.S. private and public assistance on Latin
American higher education; Hugo L6pez, University of
Antioquia, for research in Colombia on labor mobility and
social security; Peter McDonough, University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, for research in Chile and El Salvador on Jesuit
priests; Arthur Miller, University of Maryland, for research
in Mexico on Native American encounters with European
literacy, 1500-1700; Anne Paul, Institute of Andean Studies,
for research in Peru on images of fabric elements and struc-
tures in textile iconography; Marifeli P6rez-Stable, State
University of New York, Old Westbury, for research in
Cuba on reformist nationalism between revolutions,
1930-1950; Juan Carlos Portanteiro, University of Buenos
Aires, for research in Argentina on state reform in periods
of democratic transition; Leonardo Senkman, University of
Jerusalem, for research in Argentina on the ideology of
Argentine intellectuals 1939-1948 as illustrated by the images
of Jews in works by Borges and Marechal; Knut Walter,
Millikin University, for research in Nicaragua on the state
and revolution, 1956-1979; Lorna Williams, University of
Missouri, Saint Louis, for research in Washington on the
representation of slavery in Cuban fiction; Peter Winn,
Tufts University, for research in Chile on participatory
socialism in a Chilean factory; Leon Zamosc, University of
California, San Diego, for research in Peru, Ecuador and
Colombia on changes in the political role of the national
peasant federations.


ARTICLES INVITED

The Forum invites the submission of brief, research-based
articles of timely interest to LASA members. Please sub-

mit two clear copies with all material, including extracts,
notes, and references typed double-spaced; notes and/or
references should be typed separately at the end of the
manuscript. Please consult the latest edition of A Manual
ofStyle, University of Chicago Press, for matters of style,
especially format for notes and bibliographies. The Forum
is published four times a year: January, April, July, and
October. Address contributions to: Editor, LASA Forum,
William Pitt Union, 9th Floor, University of Pittsburgh,
Pittsburgh, PA 15260.









The Howard Heinz Endowment, Pittsburgh, announces
the recipients of its 1988 research grants on current Latin
American issues: Jeanine Anderson, Lima Working Group
on Low-Income Families, Women, and Urban Services,
"The Middle Sectors in Peru: A Retrospective Study
1970-88"; Cole Blasier, University of Pittsburgh/Library of
Congress, "Soviet Relations with Latin America Since Gor-
bachev"; Paul G. Buchanan, University of Arizona, "Labor
Administration and Democratic Consolidation in the
Southern Cone"; Jorge I. Dominguez, Harvard University,
"U.S.-Cuban Relations in the 1990s"; William Glade,
Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars/Univer-
sity of Texas, "The Prospects for Privatization in Latin
America"; Susana Lastarria-Cornhiel, University of
Wisconsin, "Land Parcelization and Rural Families"; and
Hernin Pozo, FLACSO, Santiago, Chile, "Extreme Poverty
and Council Social Action in Santiago, Chile."

El Museo Hist6rico Cultural Juan Santamaria, con sede
en la ciudad de Alajuela, Costa Rica, convoca al Primer Cer-
tamen "Premio Juan Santamaria" que versard en torno a
la guerra contra los filibusteros en 1856-1857 y sus repercu-
siones en la formaci6n de una conciencia centroamericana.
La fecha limited de recepci6n de trabajos es 22 de abril de


1989. El certamen esta abierto a todos los estudiosos e inves-
tigadores de cualquier nacionalidad u origen, y la
participaci6n puede ser individual o colectiva. El premio es
tinico e indivisible de c150.000.oo en efectivo; o su
equivalent en d6lares si se tratare de que el autor o autores
no residan en el pais. El ganador recibird ademis un
pergamino, la publicaci6n de la obra y los gastos de traslado
para retirar el premio en caso de que resida en el exterior.
Requisitos de los trabajos: Ser in6ditos; no haber sido
premiados en otros certtmenes; mostrar originalidad y
rigurosidad cientifica y estar en idioma espafiol con una
extension minima de 250 cuartillas de texto, a miquina,
double espacio, en papel tamaino carta por un solo frente y
foliadas. La entrega se harA en original y tres copias
haciendo constar en el sobre el nombre del trabajo, el nom-
bre del certamen y el pseud6nimo con que se participa.
Adjunto al trabajo se enviard la plica, en cuya cubierta se
anotard el nombre del trabajo y el pseud6nimo empleado.
En hoja internal: nombre y firma del autor o autores;
pseud6nimo que lo ampara; lugar de residencia, direcci6n
y nimero de tel6fono del autor o autores; curriculum vitae
del autor o autores. Solicite informaci6n complementaria
a: Comisi6n Coordinadora, Primer Certamen "Premio Juan
Santamaria", Apdo. Postal 785-4050, Alajuela, Costa Rica;
tel6fonos: 41-4775 y 42-1838.


I I
I I
THE ARGENTINE & IBERO-AMERICAN FOLK ART FOUNDATION, INC. (AIFA)
is a non-profit educational corporation whose purpose is the promotion of the Ibero-
American culture in educational and cultural institutions, in academia and among the
general public.
The programs created by AIFA are the ideal choice for Latin American Studies Program
Depts., Intl. Studies Depts., History Depts., Political and Social Science Depts.,
Anthropology Depts., as well as Music and Dance Depts. for curricular and extra
curricular activities.
Lectures, lecture-demonstrations, residencies, workshops, master classes, multi-media
presentations, choreographic commissions and exhibitions of artifacts are some of the
programs offered by AIFA.
Vocal and instrumental artists and groups
Solo dancers and dance groups
Visual artists
Cultural, research and fact-finding trips to Central and South America
(individuals and groups) via scheduled service of major airlines
at substantial savings.
For further information please call or write:
AIFA FOUNDATION, INC.
P.O. Box 624, FDR Station
New York, N.Y. 10150-0624
Attn.: Alice Wichmann
FOUNDATION Phone: 718-784-7488

I a I -- aaaa -aeiK aQO- oeeoeoooa'Boa-Boa-Boooooooeooooooeoooo









The Smithsonian Institution announces a new intern-
ship opportunity in its Office of Public Affairs. For a
minimum term of nine weeks the intern will assist in pro-
cessing news releases, a calendar of events and news clip-
pings, and be responsible for updating mailing lists. The suc-
cessful applicant must be fluent in Spanish and English, and
preferably should have a background in journalism.
Although no payment or allowance is provided, the intern
can expect to acquire useful experience and have an oppor-
tunity to be involved in a number of outreach activities for
Latinos. Send letter of application and transcript of grades,
anytime during the year, to: Eileen Hall, Special Assistant
to the Director, Office of Public Affairs, Smithsonian Insti-
tution, Arts & Industries 2410, Washington, D.C. 20560.
Selection criteria focus on applicant's fluency in Spanish and
English, scholastic achievement, and relevant experience.


Exhibition of Latin American Artists. "The Latin
American Spirit: Art and Artists in the United States,
1920-1970," a major critical presentation of Latin American
artists, will have its premiere showing at The Bronx Museum
of the Arts in New York September 29, 1988 through
January 29, 1989. The exhibition will then travel to the El
Paso Museum of Art (February 27-April 23, 1989), the San
Diego Museum of Art (May 22-July 16, 1989), and-of
special interest to LASA members-the Institute of Puerto
Rican Culture in San Juan from August 14 through October
8, 1989 (covering the dates of the LASA XV International
Congress in San Juan). Over 200 paintings, sculptures, and
works on paper will be displayed. The more than 140 artists
featured represent fourteen Spanish and Portuguese-
speaking countries of Latin America and include Jacobo
Borges, Fernando Botero, Antonio Frasconi, Luis Jim6nez,
Friday Kahlo, Wifredo Lam, Marisol, Matta, Rafael
Montanez-Ortiz, Jos6 Clemente Orozco, Emilio Pettoruti,
Candido P6rtinari, Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros,
Rufino Tamayo and Joaquin Torres-Garcia.


CRIES (Coordinadora Regional de Investigaciones
Econ6micas y Sociales), Managua, has established a specific
area for research on the Caribbean and linkages between
the Caribbean and Central America. They foresee a regional
network of research centers, grass-roots organizations, and
other groups willing to collaborate in the production of alter-
native strategies for dealing with the area's socioeconomic
and politico-military problems. Projects are already being
coordinated with ISER and the Association of Caribbean
Economists (ACE) in Jamaica, CERLAC at York Univer-
sity in Canada, and PACCA in the United States. CRIES
is interested in establishing collaborative research ventures
and publications exchanges, and invites the submission of
works on the Caribbean (in Spanish) for publication in its
journal, Pensamiento Propio, and working papers series,
Cuadernos de Pensamiento Propio.


FORTHCOMING CONFERENCES



The Business Association of Latin American Studies
(BALAS) will hold its annual conference in Boca Raton,
Florida, February 15-18, 1989. Providing a forum for the
exchange of ideas and the discussion of issues that affect
the economy and business environment in Latin America,
this year's conference will focus on the service industries;
however, papers in all areas of business and economics are
welcomed. The deadline for papers, abstracts, or panel sub-
missions is October 8, 1988. Accepted papers will be pub-
lished in the Proceedings. All submissions and inquiries
should be directed to Dr. Robert P. Vichas, Conference
Director, Florida Atlantic University (International
Business), Business Association of Latin American Studies,
Post Office Drawer 7638, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33338.


The Society for Spanish and Portuguese Historical
Studies will hold its annual meeting at the Downtown Mar-
riott Hotel in St. Louis, Missouri, April 20-23, 1989. Pro-
posals for panels and papers should be sent as soon as pos-
sible to Ms. Suzanne Burkholder, c/o Department of
History, University of Missouri, St. Louis, 8001 Natural
Bridge Road, St. Louis, MO 63121.



The Southwestern Historical Association will meet in
conjunction with the Southwestern Social Science Associa-
tion in Little Rock, Arkansas, 29 March-1 April 1989. Pro-
posals for sessions or papers in Latin American and African
History, U.S. History, and European and Asian History
should be sent to Prof. Lowell L. Blaisdell, Department of
History, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409. Pro-
posals for complete sessions are especially encouraged, as
are suggestions for interdisciplinary sessions, panels, and
roundtables. The deadline for proposals is 1 October 1988.
Paper prizes of $100 will be awarded in each of the three
categories.


The Southeastern Council on Latin American Studies
(SECOLAS) invites abstracts and organized sessions for its
annual meeting April 13-15, 1989, at Myrtle Beach, South
Carolina. The conference theme is "Literature, Culture and
Revolution in Latin America"; interdisciplinary approaches
are especially welcome. Send inquiries and one-page paper
abstracts before October 30, 1988, to Dr. Michael
Handelsman, SECOLAS Program Chair, Romance
Languages, 601 McClung Tower, University of Tennessee,
Knoxville, TN 37996-0460. For information on local
arrangements, contact Dr. James Henderson, Department
of Government and International Studies, U.S.C.-Coastal
Carolina College, Box 1954, Conway, SC 29526.









The New England Council of Latin American Studies
(NECLAS) will hold its annual meeting on October 22, 1988,
at Wellesley College, Wellesley, Massachusetts. Prof. Mar-
jorie Agosin-Wiggins, Department of Spanish, is in charge
of local arrangements.




The Journal of Communist Studies is sponsoring a con-
ference on "Cuba, 30 Years on: The Dynamics of Change
and the International Dimension" at the University of War-
wick, 12-14 May 1989. The program includes scholars from
the United States, England, and Cuba discussing grass-roots
political structures in Cuba, Cuban economic development
since 1959, Cuban ideology, Soviet-Cuban relations, the
army and leadership succession of the Cuban Communist
Party, and comparative views of the Cuban revolution and
of the dynamics of change in the Cuban and Nicaraguan
revolutions. For further information, contact Richard
Gillespie, Department of Politics, University of Warwick,
Coventry CV4 7AL, England.




The Institut Pluridisciplinaire pour les Etudes sur
L'Am6rique Latine A Toulouse plans a colloquium on "25
Ans d'Am6rique Latine" in Toulouse, France, November
22-24, 1988. For information write IPEALT, Chateau du
Mirail, Universit6 de Toulouse le Mirail, 5 All6e Antonio
Machado, 31058 Toulouse Cedex.




The Institute for the Study of Genocide is calling a
"Genocide Watch" conference on how to detect, deter and
stop genocide and mass political killing for May 22-23, 1989.
Proposals for papers (and abstracts), discussants and round-
tables are requested by October 15, 1988; papers are due
December 15, 1988. For more information, write or call the
Secretary, ISG, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Room
3114S., 444 W. 56 St., New York, NY 10019; 212-489-3284.




The 11th National Conference on Third World Studies
will be held at the University of Nebraska at Omaha Octo-
ber 20-22, 1988. Beginning this fall conference proceedings
will be published in a new journal, Third World Studies and
Review. For information, write or call Third World Studies
Conference, University of Nebraska, Omaha, NE 68182;
402-554-2376.


EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES

University of California, Los Angeles. The Graduate
School of Education announces an opening in Comparative
and International Education with an area focus in Latin
American studies. This is a full-time position, rank open,
effective July 1, 1989; teaching duties begin September 1989.
Qualifications include a doctorate in a social science field
or education from an institution emphasizing theory and
research training and evidence of scholarship in areas rele-
vant to education in Latin America. University-level teaching
experience is highly desirable. Candidates must demonstrate
expertise in some special sphere of inquiry, such as nonfor-
mal education, education and national development, educa-
tion and intergroup relations, teachers and teaching, or
educational planning and policy. Vita and the names of three
referees should be sent to: Norma D. Feshbach, Chair,
Department of Education, University of California, Los
Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1521. UCLA is an equal
opportunity/affirmative action employer; applications from
women and minorities are particularly welcome. The
deadline for applications is December 1, 1988.


Denison University. The Department of Sociology/An-
thropology invites applications for a three-semester visiting
assistant professor position beginning January 1989. Can-
didates must be committed to excellence in liberal arts educa-
tion and to the principles and organization of a joint depart-
ment with a fully merged curriculum. Areas of specializa-
tion should include minority relations, social change/revolu-
tion, classical social theory, and Latin America or the U.S.
Applicants should have a background in both anthropology
and sociology, and be able to teach an interdisciplinary intro-
ductory course. Ph.D. required by time of appointment.
Vita and names of three referees should be sent to Bahram
Tavakolian, Chair, Department of Sociology/Anthro-
pology, Denison University, Granville, OH 43023. Denison
University is an equal opportunity/affirmative action
employer; women and minority candidates are especially
encouraged to apply. The deadline for applications is August
31, 1988.



University of Arizona. Applications are invited for
Director of the Women's Studies Program and the
Southwest Institute for Research on Women. The appoint-
ment will be three-year renewable, on a fiscal contract.
Applicants must have the Ph.D. and be tenurable as an
associate or full professor, discipline open. Other qualifica-
tions include a substantial publication record in their
discipline and in feminist scholarship, experience in secur-
ing and administering grants, and the ability to work with









faculty, students and the community. Vita, letter of intent,
and names of three references should be sent to: Karen
Anderson, Search Committee, Women's Studies, 102
Douglass Building, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ
85721. The University of Arizona is an affirmative action
employer and actively seeks the candidacy of minorities and
women. The processing of applications will begin November
1, 1988.



University of Pittsburgh. The Department of Sociology
invites applications for a tenure-track position as an assis-
tant professor beginning in September 1989. Applicants
should have completed the Ph.D. before starting the posi-
tion and show potential for significant scholarship. The
department is interested in persons pursuing research in
Latin American studies or East Asian studies, with substan-
tive specialty open. Early applications are encouraged. Vita,
letters of reference, and copies of relevant publications
should be sent to: Chair of Search Committee, Department
of Sociology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA
15260. The University of Pittsburgh is an affirmative action/
equal opportunity employer; minorities and women are
encouraged to apply. Position is subject to budgetary
approval.







RESEARCH & STUDY OPPORTUNITIES


Howard Heinz Endowment. The Center for Latin
American Studies at the University of Pittsburgh announces
the 1989 competition for Howard Heinz Endowment grants
supporting research on current issues in Latin American
economics, politics, foreign policy, or social development.
Applicants must have a Ph.D. or equivalent degree and be
affiliated with a scholarly institution. Applications for
dissertation research will not be considered. The maximum
amount awarded is $25,000; the Howard Heinz Endowment
will not pay university overhead costs. Grants may be used
for travel, salary, release time, uncovered sabbatical,
research or administrative assistance, computer or reproduc-
tion costs, publication or other costs directly related to the
research. Deadline for receipt of applications is December
31, 1988; awards will be announced in the Spring of 1989.
For further information contact: John Frechione, Center
for Latin American Studies, 4E04 Forbes Quadrangle,
University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA; (412)
648-7395.


Institute of International Education. Approximately 56
grants will be awarded under the Fulbright and other pro-
grams during the 1989-90 academic year for graduate study
in the American republics area. Candidates must be U.S.
citizens who will hold a bachelor's degree or the equivalent
by the beginning date of the grant, but who do not hold
the Ph.D. at the time of application. A good command of
Spanish or Portuguese is required at the time of applica-
tion. Grants provide round-trip international travel, tuition,
maintenance for one academic year, and health and acci-
dent insurance. Specific eligibility requirements and other
information are contained in the brochure, "Fulbright and
other grants for graduate study abroad, 1989-90," which
may be obtained from campus Fulbright program advisers
or from IIE regional offices. Fulbright program advisers
establish campus deadlines for receipt of applications;
students not enrolled in a college or university at the time
of application must submit completed applications to the
U.S. Student Programs Division, Institute of International
Education, 809 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017,
by October 31, 1988.





John Carter Brown Library Fellowships. The John
Carter Brown Library will award approximately fifteen
research fellowships for the year June 1, 1989-May 30, 1990.
Short-term fellowships, for periods of two to four months,
carry a stipend of $800 per month. They are open to
Americans and foreign nationals who are engaged in pre-
or postdoctoral, or independent research. The Library will
also receive applications for long-term fellowships funded
by the National Endowment for the Humanities: six months
with a stipend of $13,750 or twelve months with a stipend
of $27,500. Applicants for NEH Fellowships must be
American citizens or have been resident in the United States
for three years immediately preceding the term of the
fellowship. Graduate students are not eligible. A limited
number of travel grants ($700 maximum) are also available
for scholars wishing to be at the library for one to two
months. Fellowships are awarded on the basis of the appli-
cant's scholarly qualifications, the merits of the project, and
the appropriateness of the inquiry to the holdings of the
John Carter Brown Library (e.g. European accounts of the
voyages of exploration, accounts of the American Indians,
religious writings, and literature on the growth of the col-
onies, the colonial wars, and wars for independence). Eleven
of the twenty-seven scholars receiving awards for 1988-89
had projects relating to Latin America or the Caribbean.
For application forms, write: Director, John Carter Brown
Library, Box 1894, Providence, RI 02912. The deadline for
applications is January 15, 1989; awards will be announced
by March 15, 1989.









Newcombe Dissertation Fellowships. Forty
nonrenewable Charlotte W. Newcombe Dissertation Year
Fellowships of $10,000 each will be awarded to Ph.D.,
Th.D. or Ed.D. candidates in a doctoral program at a
graduate school in the United States. The fellowships are
for twelve months of full-time dissertation research and
writing. Candidates must have fulfilled all predissertation
requirements by December 31, 1988, and expect to complete
the dissertation by 1990. Eligible proposals are those that
have a central focus on ethical or religious values and
elucidate the ways in which such values govern choices made
by people and societies. Application forms should be
requested, before December 9, 1988, from: Newcombe
Dissertation Fellowships, Woodrow Wilson National
Fellowship Foundation, P.O. Box 642, Princeton, NJ 08542.
The deadline for applications is December 31, 1988; awards
will be announced by April 14, 1989.



PUBLICATIONS

Borderline: A Bibliography of the United States-Mexico
Borderlands, edited by Barbara G. Valk. UCLA Latin
American Center and UC Consortium on Mexico and the
United States, 1988, 736 p.; $65 (individuals and Mexican
agencies/institutions), $150 (agencies/institutions outside
Mexico). Encompasses all major academic disciplines in the
sciences, social sciences, and the humanities as well as
popular subjects such as travel, recreation, folk and
domestic arts. Nearly 9,000 entries in English, Spanish, and
other Western European languages identify sources treating
the four U.S. and six Mexican states that form the boun-
dary region. Relevant materials on issues such as immigra-
tion and U.S.-Mexican relations are also covered. The
bibliography is arranged by subject and is accompanied by
an author index. It includes books, journal articles,
documents, manuscripts, serial titles, chapters and sections
of books, government publications, conference proceedings,
unpublished papers, maps, slides, phonograph records, and
video cassette recordings; most cited works have appeared
since 1960. To order, send check or money order payable
to "Regents-U.C." (include applicable taxes and $2.50 per
volume for postage and handling) to: UCLA Latin American
Center, University of California, Los Angeles, CA
90024-1447.


Annual Review of Nicaraguan Sociology, Institute of
Human Relations, Loyola University. A new annual publica-
tion in English containing articles selected from Cuadernos
de Sociologia, Revista Nicaragiense de Ciencias Sociales,
and other independent scholarly journals from Nicaragua.
Presents original research on such issues as agrarian reform,
autonomy on the Atlantic Coast, religion and revolution,
mass organizations, social justice, mixed economy, and
other topics concerning the popular consolidation of the
Sandinista Revolution. Annual subscriptions for individuals:
$25 (U.S./Canada); $30 (all other countries); for libraries
and institutions: $35 (U.S./Canada); $42 (all other coun-
tries). To subscribe, send check payable in U.S. dollars to
"Institute of Human Relations" to: ARNS, Editors, Insti-
tute of Human Relations, Loyola University, Box 12, New
Orleans, LA 70118, USA.

Yearbook on Latin American and Caribbean Foreign
Policies, 1987, PROSPEL (Programa de Seguimiento de las
Politicas Exteriores Latinoamericanas), Academia de
Humanismo Cristiano, Chile; US$25 (plus US$7 air mail
postage). Analyzes the external behavior of each country
in the region as well as general issues such as external debt,
relations with the United States, Europe and the Soviet
Union, and Latin American cooperation. (An English ver-
sion of the 1986 Yearbook will soon be published by the
University of Miami). For further information or to order,
write: PROSPEL, Catedral 1063, Of.34, Santiago, Chile.

Picture Collections: Mexico, edited by Martha David-
son. Scarecrow Press, 1988, $49.50. A directory to over 500
public and private collections of pictorial documents belong-
ing to archives, libraries, museums, universities and other
institutions, government sources, photographers, private col-
lectors and publishers in Mexico that are accessible to
researchers. Source entries are arranged by type of repository
and are indexed alphabetically by source name, location,
artist, or photographer and by topic, person or place
depicted. The volume also contains suggestions for conduc-
ting picture research in Mexico, information on current Mex-
ican copyright law, a Spanish/English glossary of picture
research terms, two maps, and forty black-and-white full-
page reproductions. To order, send check or money order
(include appropriate sales tax and $3 for postage and
handling) to: Scarecrow Press, 52 Liberty Street, P.O. Box
4167, Metuchen, NJ 08840.








LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES ASSOCIATION
LASA Secretariat
William Pitt Union, 9th Floor
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, PA 15260
1988 Membership Renewal or Application

Please use this form to renew your membership or to become a LASA member. Dues are for one calendar year: January 1 -
December 31, 1988.
Membership Categories and Rates: 1988 only Amount
Introductory (for new members only) O $21 $_
Regular:
Under $20,000 annual income l $28 $_
Between $20,000 and $29,999 annual income L] $32 $
Between $30,000 and $39,999 annual income 0 $38 $__
Over $40,000 annual income L $44 $
Joint Membership (for second member at same mailing
address as first member; one copy of publications sent.
Add to rate (above) for highest income of the two, or to
categories below: l $13 $
Student Associate (five-year limit)
[Professor's signature certifying student status]:
__ $18 $
Latin Americanists permanently residing in
Latin America or the Caribbean (incl. Puerto Rico) o $18 $_
Emeritus Member (for retired members) D $18 $_


All members receive three issues of the Latin American Research Review and four issues of the LASA
Forum per year. If you wish to receive the Forum by air mail, please add the following amount per
year for postage: Canada and Mexico, $3; all other countries, $13. If you desire air mail delivery of
LARR, please contact the LARR office at the latin American Institute, 801 Yale NE, University of
New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131.
We encourage you to make a contribution to the LASA Endowment Fund. $
TOTAL PAYMENT ENCLOSED ........................................................ $
Please make checks payable to the Latin American Studies Association and mail along with this page to: LASA Secretariat, William
Pitt Union, 9th Floor, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260. Members residing outside the U.S. must send either a money
order, a check in U.S. dollars drawn on a U.S. bank, or a UNESCO coupon for the U.S. dollar amount payable. There will be a
$10 charge for all returned checks.


PERSONAL DATA

(If this is a new application for membership, please provide the information requested below; if a renewal, please fill in your name
and any information that has changed since you last renewed.)


Name Discipline

Mailing Address

City, State, Zip, Country
Business Telephone Home Telephone

Institutional Affiliation

Country Interest/Specialization




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