Council initiates new fellowship...
 Exploring research on science and...
 Child development in life-span...
 Activities of the joint area...
 Other activities at the counci...
 Recent council publications

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Table of Contents
    Council initiates new fellowship program in international security
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Exploring research on science and technology
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
    Child development in life-span perspective
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Activities of the joint area committees
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Other activities at the council
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Recent council publications
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
Full Text




Council Initiates New Fellowship Program

in International Security
by Kenneth Prewitt*

WITH SUPPORT FROM the John D. and Catherine T.
MacArthur Foundation, the Council has initiated a
program of training and research awards for
MacArthur Foundation Fellows in International Se-
curity. These awards will assist doctoral candidates
and recent postdoctoral scholars to undertake work
that may bring fresh perspectives to the study of
peace and security issues. The fellowships will be
multiple-year awards (for a minimum of two years) to
support a combination of advanced training and re-
search at universities or other institutions in which
fellows can obtain training in fields other than their
present specialities. There are no citizenship or resi-
dency requirements, and fellows may study at any
appropriate institution in the world.
The program is intended to broaden the base of
research in security studies. Accordingly, applications
are encouraged from doctoral candidates and scholars
in the physical and biological sciences or the social/
behavioral sciences, including foreign area studies.
Because the program is designed to attract new talent
and fresh perspectives to the field, doctoral candi-
dates who have specialized in the study of interna-
tional peace and security issues are not eligible to
apply for dissertation research and training awards.
(The MacArthur Foundation has also granted fellow-
ship funds directly to selected universities with major
graduate programs in security studies.) The program
has been funded for an initial period of three years.

The author, a political scientist, is president of the Council.
The text of this announcement is based in part on the "Annual
Report of the President," Social Science Research Council,
1983-1984 Annual Report, pages xiii-xxv.

A recent review of the field
During the past year, the Council has collaborated
with the MacArthur Foundation in examining the
nature and extent of existing training and research
activities related to national security-broadly de-
fined. This study of training and research resources
in the field of security studies confirmed the conclu-
sions of a number of scholars and national organi-
zations that there is a thinness and a narrowness to

61 Council Initiates New Fellowship Program in Inter-
national Security-Kenneth Prewitt
66 Exploring Research on Science and Technology-
Robert W. Pearson
72 Child Development in Life-Course Perspective-Lonnie
R. Sherrod
76 Activities of the Joint Area Committees
-Joint Advisory Committee on International Programs
(page 76)
-African research overview papers (page 76)
-African agriculture: conceptualizing the household
(page 77)
-"Afrodisk": creating archives for visual materials
(page 78)
-Discourse in the humanities and social sciences in
African studies (page 78)
-Myths and realities of the Zairian crisis (page 79)
-Gender issues in Japanese studies (page 80)
-Party, state, and society in the Russian civil war (page
-Summer Workshop on Soviet and East European
Economics (page 82)
83 Other Activities at the Council
-Findings from the Census of 1980 (page 83)
-Conceptions of class (page 83)
-Survey of Income and Program Participation (page
85 Recent Council Publications

security studies that few outside the field have per-
ceived.' This situation exists even though several key
private funders, notably the Ford Foundation, the
Rockefeller Foundation, the Carnegie Corporation of
New York, and most recently the MacArthur Foun-
dation, have invested heavily in the development of
major university graduate training programs. The
number of younger scholars at both the pre- and
postdoctoral levels has been relatively low and limited
to a few disciplinary backgrounds.
Consider the following data on Ph.D. production
taken from Dissertation Abstracts Online. During the
five-year period 1979 to 1983, approximately 30,000
Ph.Ds. were granted in the social and behavioral sci-
ences by American universities. Of these, only 155
dissertations were directly related to international
peace and security: alliance structures, economic war-
fare, nuclear proliferation, key confrontations of the
nuclear powers, regional instabilities, the evolution of
military strategy and weapons, and the field's core
issues of deterrence theory, nuclear strategy, and the
consequences of nuclear war.

* The Ford Foundation
International peace, security and arms control issues should
be studied broadly. It is not sufficient-and is indeed mis-
leading and constricting-to focus narrowly on technical mili-
tary capabilities, either nuclear or conventional, strategic doc-
trines or arms control negotiations. Rather, it is necessary to
explore the broader political, economic, historical, social, psy-
chological and organizational dimensions of how states iden-
tify and seek to achieve their security objectives, and the con-
ditions required to mitigate or resolve conflicts.
("Results of the Ford Foundation's 1983 International Competition
for Institutional Research and Training Grants in International Peace,
Security and Arms Control." New York: Ford Foundation, 1983, un-
published report, page 2.)

There are about 650 graduate departments in the so-
cial and behavioral sciences in U.S. universities; from
1979 to 1983, only nine of these produced as many as
one dissertation per year on the security topics listed
above. During the same period, more than 5,600 Ph.Ds.
were earned in economics-only seven of these in-
volved issues related to international peace and se-
curity. Political science departments trained most of
the students of international security-122 of them.
But while these 122 students were being trained,
more than five times as many political science disser-

Several foundations and national organizations have recently
reviewed the field of international peace and security studies and
have issued reports on some of their conclusions. Quotations
from four of these reports are located in boxes throughout this

stations were being written on electoral behavior and
public opinion alone. Indeed, there were almost as
many dissertations on how children and youth ac-
quire their political beliefs as there were on deter-
rence theory, nuclear strategy, and the consequences
of nuclear war. Although the trend in Ph.D. produc-
tion in peace and security studies is up, strongly so,
the personnel base will remain small for some time. It
will also remain small in the closely-related field of
Soviet studies, which has also suffered a period of
neglect. There exist, however, important training
programs in the Soviet studies field.2
Expanding training and research in international
peace and security studies is not a modest task. A
broadened conception of security requires that we go
beyond familiar forms of interdisciplinary exchange,
in which cross-interrogation assists disciplines to bor-
row from each other. The more demanding endeavor
called for is an intellectual integration that synthesizes
and thereby creates a new basis for scientific work and
policy discourse. The task is complicated by two di-
mensions of traditional security studies: their roots in
the natural sciences and their close connection with
national policy.

Roots in the natural sciences

Among the disciplines traditionally represented in
security studies are physics, engineering, and opera-
tions research. These disciplines have conducted the
fundamental studies of the strategic implications of

2 The Council and the American Council of Learned Societies
(ACLS) currently sponsor two programs related to the Soviet
Union. The Joint Committee on Soviet Studies, administered by
the Council, funds dissertation write-up expenses for doctoral
candidates in Russian and Soviet studies. The International Re-
search and Exchanges Board (IREX), administered by ACLS,
manages a variety of research exchange programs with the Soviet
Union and the countries of Eastern Europe, as well as a devel-
opmental fellowship program for special advanced training prior
to exchange visits to the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe (IREX
is located at 655 Third Avenue, New York, New York 10017.)
Columbia University administers on behalf of the Ford Founda-
tion a Program in Soviet and East European International Secur-
ity Studies, which awards fellowships to students in Soviet area
studies to acquire competence in international security studies or
to students of international security studies to acquire compe-
tence in Soviet area studies. Three academic programs that have
recently received major foundation support are the W. Averell
Harriman Institute for Advanced Study of the Soviet Union,
Columbia University; the University of California, Berkeley/
Stanford University Program on Soviet International Behavior;
and the Rand/UCLA Center for the Study of Soviet International
Behavior. A guide to graduate programs in Soviet international
behavior is being prepared by the Joint Committee on Soviet
Studies and will be available in early spring, 1985.


complex weapon systems, which involve the analysis
of developments in such technologies as micro-
electronics, metallurgy, radar, directed energy, and
supercomputers. Social and behavioral scientists in-
tent on seriously engaging peace, security, and dis-
armament issues will have to attend to the relevant
technical literature, not to mention the theories and
findings of a long-established field. The arms race has
its own grammar, one based on a technical vocabulary
for which few social scientists are prepared by their
formal training.

The Rand Corporation
Questions of maintaining peace or waging war have
traditionally been the province of strategy and policy analysis,
but other disciplines may have knowledge that could be
translated into useful responses, including the ultimate ques-
tion of how to avert nuclear war. In particular, the behavioral
sciences [very broadly defined in this document], which gener-
ally address issues of decisionmaking, judgment, perception,
and social influence, may offer suggestions for policy based on
concrete applications drawn from those general topics.
(J. P. Kahan et al.,Preventing Nuclear Conflict: What Can the Behavioral
Sciences Contribute? Santa Monica, California: The Rand Corporation,
December 1983, page 1.)

Connections with national policy
If contemporary international peace and security
studies have a pervasive technical dimension, they
also have a strong policy focus, and consequently are
deeply enmeshed in the political process. Scholars
now promising to make a contribution must learn to
operate in that ambiguous arena where a research
agenda and a policy agenda overlap. This does not
preclude criticism of prevailing policies, just as it has
not precluded a strong critical tradition in established
peace and security studies. But it does assume that
advancing the policy discussion will rank high on the
list of purposes to be served. This is not a familiar, or
comfortable, position for many foreign area scholars
and other social scientists. Nor will many scholars be
prepared for the intense politization that espe-
cially impinges upon arms control and disarmament

Rationale for a new fellowship program
In cooperation with the MacArthur Foundation,
the Council explored various strategies that might
respond to these concerns for new research and
training in international peace and security. Not sur-
prisingly, attention quickly focused on a national fel-

lowship program that would combine advanced
training and research, encourage scholarly interest
from the full range of relevant academic disciplines,
stress the recruitment of junior scholars at the doc-
toral and postdoctoral level, and involve scholars
from many nations. Fellowship competitions have
frequently been a major impetus for field develop-
ment. Notable examples are the Ford Foundation
Foreign Area Fellowship Program (transferred to the
American Council of Learned Societies and the So-
cial Science Research Council in 1962); the Depart-
ment of Labor Dissertation Awards Program (1966 to
1983, transferred to the National Council on Em-
ployment Policy, 1979-1980, and then to the Council,
1980-1983); the Council's Research Training Fellow-
ship Program (1930-1981); and the recently-estab-
lished Mellon Fellowship Program in the Hu-
manities. In each case, the availability of substan-
tial support for training and research in the early
career period has:

* Attracted young scholars to the field
* Broken down existing disciplinary boundaries
* Allowed young scholars to broaden their training
through exposure to instructors at more than one
* Created research networks and self-conscious
* Stimulated new research approaches

Selection processes typically involve knowledgeable
program staff working closely with screening and
selection committees of leading scholars who have a
broad vision of field development needs and oppor-
tunities. Further, successful programs have been de-

signed with sufficient flexibility to respond to
emerging research trends, to provide feedback and
guidance to awardees, and to create and sustain new

* The National Research Council
... there are a number of areas of past and current research
in the behavioral and social sciences that may be relevant,
directly or indirectly, to one or another aspect of the problem
of reducing the risks of nuclear conflict. Even more important,
it seems likely that future research in these disciplines could
yield insights 6f potential utility to decision makers,
negotiators, opinion leaders, and the public.
("Prospectus for an Ad Hoc Meeting to Explore Potential Contribu-
tions of the Social and Behavioral Sciences to Reducing the Risk of
Nuclear Conflict." Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and
Education, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Coun-
cil. Washington, D.C.: The Council, June 1984, page 1.)


MacArthur Foundation Fellowships in International Security


Postdoctoral and Dissertation Fellowships

* To encourage new approaches to the study of peace and
* To encourage the application of theories and methods
from diverse disciplines to issues of international peace and
* To support advanced training and research in interna-
tional peace and security studies for scholars and doctoral
students in the physical and biological sciences or the
social/behavioral sciences, including foreign area studies

Postdoctoral fellowships include support for one year of
advanced training and one year of research applying
knowledge gained during the training year. For scholars
entering the field of international peace and security
studies, the year of advanced training must be in a specific
area of peace and security studies that will inform the re-
search to be conducted during the second year. For scholars
who have previously specialized in international peace and
security studies, the year of advanced training must be in a
specific area of the physical and biological sciences or the
social/behavioral sciences, including foreign area studies,
that will inform the research to be conducted during the
second year.
Dissertation research and training fellowships add one year of
training to the normal graduate program. During this year,
fellows will have an opportunity to combine their previous
disciplinary skills with specialized training in international
peace and security. A second year of support is provided
for dissertation research which should reflect the
broadened perspectives acquired during the training year.
Training may occur at an institution of the applicant's
choice and may consist of formal course work, tutorials, or
supervised study with relevant faculty.

An award of $30,000 per year for postdoctoral fellows
and $15,000 per year for dissertation fellows is provided to
cover living expenses, travel, and research costs. Ad-
ditionally, funds are available for the payment of fees at
institutions hosting a fellow's training or research. Fellow-
ships may begin immediately upon announcement of the
award but no later than 18 months following the an-
nouncement of postdoctoral awards and no later than 12
months following the announcement of dissertation

These fellowships are administered by the Social Science
Research Council as part of its program in International
Peace and Security Studies. Funds for the fellowships are
provided by a grant to the Council from the John D. and
Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.

Selection Procedure
Awards are made on the basis of evaluations and recom-
mendations of a Council-appointed Fellowship Selection
Committee for International Peace and Security Studies.
This committee is interdisciplinary and international in
composition. Preliminary screening may be conducted by
review panels with expertise in an applicant's area of schol-
arly interest.

Open to scholars of any nationality and from any
For scholars in any recognized field of the physical and
biological sciences or the social/behavioral sciences, includ-
ing foreign area studies
At the postdoctoral level, for scholars who hold or will
.hold (when the fellowship commences) an earned Ph.D.
degree or its equivalent in any one of these disciplines
At the dissertation level, for students who are candidates
for the PhD. degree or its equivalent in any one of these
disciplines, who have completed all requirements for the
degree except the dissertation or who will have met these
requirements when the fellowship commences. (Students
who have specialized in the study of international peace and
security issues are not eligible for awards at the dissertation

March 31, 1985
July 31, 1985

of awards
June 1, 1985
October 1, 1985

For a brochure or application materials, write:

Social Science Research Council
Program in International Peace
and Security Studies
605 Third Avenue
New York, New York 10158
(212) 661-0280


research networks-all purposes desirable for inter-
national peace and security studies.
The MacArthur Foundation Fellowships in Inter-
national Security, at both the pre- and postdoctoral
levels, will combine training and research. The intent
is both to strengthen and to broaden security studies.
"Strengthen" here means adding to the numbers of
active scholars in the field while providing training
support to those already committed to peace and se-
curity studies. "Broaden" is used in three closely re-
lated ways. First, the program will allow students to
place their previous training in a broader context and
encourage them to frame more ambitious research
questions than would have been likely in the absence
of this training opportunity. For example, a
Sovietologist trained in defense policy might do ad-
vanced training in Russian history, and then design
research which places contemporary defense policy in
a historical context. A physicist trained in the analysis
of complex weapon systems might do advanced
training in the economics and politics of weapons
procurement, and then design research which places
disarmament negotiations in an economic-political
Second, the program will broaden the field by re-
cruiting scholars trained in a diversity of scientific
disciplines who in the absence of the program might
never have focused their methodologies and ana-
lytical approaches on issues of international peace
and security. A specialist in African politics might be
encouraged to consider the consequences of South
Africa's strategic mineral deposits for both the local
political economy and patterns of international ten-
sion; a sociologist of complex organizations with ad-

ditional training might conduct research on military
command and control hierarchies; or a computer sci-
entist might receive advanced training in deterrence
theory in order to consider how developments in
supercomputing affect crisis management.
Finally, as a consequence of this multidimensional
effort to broaden the field, the research and training
program will seek out and fund junior scholars who
can frame research problems which connect domains
of inquiry that are now largely separate. If suc-
cessful, the program will each year add to the supply
of scholars who show promise for innovative, synthetic
research. The program will view favorably candidates
who anticipate research careers at the intersection of
such policy domains as energy resources, population
movements, international economics, and other areas
of study not commonly considered central to the se-
curity field.

Applications for fellowships

Approximately 30 MacArthur Foundation Fellow-
ships in International Security will be awarded in
1985. In order that some fellows will be able to begin
work as early as September 1985, the Council has
disseminated information rapidly to a wide audience.
An advertisement was placed in Science magazine,
announcements have been sent to professional news-
letters, and brochures have been mailed to more than
6,000 deans, directors, and departments. Highlights
of the fellowship program are summarized on page
64. Interested readers are encouraged to write to the
Council for a brochure or application materials. D


* The Carnegie Corporation and the MacArthur Foundation
... it is highly important to broaden the range of disciplines from which engaged and effective contributions are made, and also to
deepen the capacity of both individuals and groups for the kind of analysis that requires understanding of more than one scholarly
topic. The connection between physics and politics in nuclear weapons policy is obvious, but the number of workers who have direct
mastery of both subjects is exceedingly small. ... When we widen our perspective to include the ways of thought of the psychologist
and the historian, or the student of organizations or decision-making or mammalian behavior, we see that connections of many sorts
are both possible and promising.
("To Make a Difference: A Report on Needs and Opportunities for Philanthropic Action in the Field of International Security." Unpublished
report prepared for the Carnegie Corporation and the MacArthur Foundation by a committee under the chairmanship of McGeorge Bundy, New
York University, April 1984, pages 5-6.)

Exploring Research on Science and Technology
The reflections of six scholars at
a board symposium

by Robert W. Pearson*

RECENT YEARS have witnessed an accelerated
growth of scholarly interest in the relationship be-
tween society, science, and technology.1 This atten-
tion is easily understood. Communication tech-
nologies alter patterns of social interaction; develop-
ments in chemistry and biology affect the products
and processes of agricultural production and thus
patterns of human settlement; and advances in ma-
terial sciences and their technologies permit the
continued development of more sophisticated and
potentially destructive weaponry, contributing to
changes in the way in which nations relate to each
other. Moreover, scientists and engineers have be-
come more numerous and visible in the developed
world and are more eagerly sought by less developed
countries as science and technology are increasingly
thought to provide the basis for advantages in a com-
petitive international economy.
The Council has attempted to encourage and
facilitate research in this broad area through several
programs. The Subcommittee on Science and
Technology Indicators (supported by a grant from
the National Science Foundation to the Committee
on Social Indicators) sought to improve the mea-
surement and quantitative analysis of the conditions
of science and technology. Current Council activities
on the role of computers in contemporary society
(supported by a grant from the John and Mary R.
Markle Foundation) are intended to facilitate re-
search on the social consequences of a particular-
albeit extremely complex-technology in a nascent
field that is characterized by a fugitive literature and
little empirical research.

The author, a political scientist, is a staff associate at the
Council, where one of his assignments is the Council's exploratory
program on the social consequences of computers.
SIncreasing membership and activity characterize such organi-
zations as the History of Science Society, the Philosophy of Sci-
ence Association, the Society for the History of Technology, and
the Society for Social Studies of Science. Journals in this area now
include: British Journal for the History of Science; The Bulletin of
Science, Technology, and Society; Centaurus; History of Technology; Isis;
Minerva; R&D Management; Research Policy; Science, Technology,
and Human Values; Scientometrics; Social Studies of Science; Sociology
of the Sciences: A Yearbook; Technological Forecasting and Social
Change; Technology and Culture; and the 4S Review.

The ending of the Council's program in science
and technology indicators and the initiation of a new
program on the social consequences of computers
marks a junction in the Council's concern for science
and technology studies. It also provides an opportu-
nity to reflect on this field of inquiry and to consider
questions in the study of science, technology, and
society that call for greater attention. This reflection
was the purpose of a Symposium on Science and
Technology Studies that the Council's board con-
vened on June 11, 1984.
To reflect this dual purpose, the symposium was
divided into two panels. The morning panel, "The
Politics of Knowledge," included presentations by
Arnold Thackray, University of Pennsylvania, "An
Overview of the Field of Study"; Theda Skocpol,
University of Chicago, "Governmental Structures,
Social Science, and the Development of Economic
and Social Policies"; and Loren Graham, Massachu-
setts Institute of Technology, "Science Policy in the
United States and the Soviet Union: Citizen Partici-
pation in Policies Toward Molecular Biology." The
afternoon panel, "Studying the Social Consequences
of Technologies," included presentations by Gavriel
Salomon, Tel Aviv University, "The Computer as
Educator: Lessons from Television Research"; Roger
E. Kasperson, Clark University, "Information as a
Hazardous Commodity"; and Melvin Kranzberg,
Georgia Institute of Technology, "Looking Back-
wards: Studying the Social Consequences of the
Computer in the Year 2000."

A fragmented field of study
As with many fields of inquiry in the social and
behavioral sciences, science and technology studies
have grown increasingly divided along traditional dis-
ciplinary boundaries. In his presentation, Arnold
Thackray suggested that this field is fragmented into
three major intellectual communities across which
discourse is extremely limited. Scholars interested in
(1) the history and sociology of science proceed inde-
pendently of scholars concerned with (2) the eco-
nomics of R&D and science policy. And each of these
streams of inquiry within the broader field of science


and technology studies tends to proceed apart from
those who study (3) the ethics and values of science
and technology.2
Thackray noted that the size and fragmented
structure of this international field of inquiry is simi-
lar to that in the social sciences when the Council was
founded in 1923. Diverse approaches to the study of
science and technology call for a mechanism with
which scholars can explore the possibility of common
One such theme around which common research
agenda might be developed is the politics of science,
an area that Thackray stated is relatively neglected
within the social studies of science.

The scholarly neglect of the politics
of science
The scholarly neglect of this area is surprising. As a
loosely defined enterprise, science is (1) large (esti-
mated expenditures for R&D within the United States
alone amounted to nearly $100 billion in 1984);
(2) international (e.g., 55 per cent of all citations found
in U.S. physics journals in 1980 were to publications
in other countries); and (3) linked closely to economic
and military concerns (e.g., private industry sup-
ported half of all R&D in the United States in 1984
and 70 per cent of federal funds for R&D were de-
voted to defense).3 Scientific knowledge and the
people and institutions that produce it are embedded
within political and cultural systems that shape, en-
courage, impede, and give it social meaning. Science
has taken on a symbolic meaning, largely positive in
many cultures, that people use to confer legitimacy or
status on themselves or their activities.
The politics of the social sciences. Nowhere does a con-
cern for understanding the politics of scientific
knowledge arise with greater force or more practical
consequence for social scientists than in the study of
the relationship between social science and social pol-
icy, as Theda Skocpol argued in her presentation,
"Governmental Structures, Social Science, and the
Development of Economic and Social Policies."

2 Assessments regarding the "fragmentation" and "Balkaniza-
tion" of studies of science, technology, and society can be found
in Ina Spiegel-Rosing and Derek de Solla Price, editors, Science
Technology, and Society. London and Beverly Hills, California: Sage
Publications, 1977; and Howard D. White and Belver C. Griffith,
"Authors as Markers of Intellectual Space,"Journal of Documenta-
tion, 38 (4):255-272, 1982.
3 See National Science Board, Science Indicators-1982. Wash-
ington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1984.

Skocpol suggested that historical and comparative
studies make it clear that governments and their ac-
tivities have profoundly affected the emergence, so-
cial organization, and intellectual orientations of the
social sciences. In turn, variously organized and
oriented social sciences have influenced the overall
shape and content of social and economic policies.
Agricultural economics and rural sociology have
been separately organized in many American univer-
sities in part because of the prominence of the U.S.
Department of Agriculture and the federal-state ex-
tension services within America's generally weak and
decentralized public administration. From the late
19th century through the 1920s, these government
agencies provided the resources-and incentives-for
partially distinct disciplines oriented to accumulating
appropriate, policy-relevant social knowledge
through empirical research on farmers and farm
conditions. In part because of their inclinations and
career experiences, social scientists within these
policy- and practice-oriented disciplines were better
prepared than many other knowledge-bearing pro-
fessions to help fashion federal programs during the
During the same period that agricultural economics
and rural sociology acquired these characteristics and
experiences, a full array of university-based social
science disciplines developed in the United States.
These disciplines included those committed to "pure"
theories and "basic" research using increasingly
sophisticated quantitative methods as well as the more
"practical" and "applied" perspectives of agricultural
economics. Skocpol noted that the relatively delayed
emergence of a national American welfare state may
help explain why American sociology turned from its
turn-of-the-century normative preoccupations with
specific urban social problems toward a more
theoretically-oriented set of questions and a more
statistically-based set of research strategies aimed at
understanding society as a whole. The lack of "de-
mand" from the national government for answers to
practical problems made it possible for them to turn
toward theory and systematic research.
American government is both fragmented in its
structure and adversarial in its processes. It may not
be surprising, therefore, that American social science
is as fragmented and competitive as one of the sources
of its support and object of its study. Nor is it sur-
prising that many academic social scientists who have
tried to influence national public policy have not suc-
ceeded. American social science has attained interna-
tional recognition for its extraordinary methodologi-
cal sophistication and analytical creativeness, not for


its criticism of the premises of existing lines of public
The intellectual fruits of comparative analysis: the Soviet
Union and the United States. Perhaps no better illustra-
tion of the rewards of comparative historical research
is provided than by comparing science policy in the
Soviet Union and the United States. Loren Graham
described the role of lay participation in the evalua-
tion of scientific research and the use of computers in
the United States and the Soviet Union to illustrate
the need for cautiously interpreting or forecasting the
consequences of science and technology.
The Soviet Union poses some rather intriguing in-
tellectual puzzles for those who wish to study the
politics of science. If, for example, the structure and
processes of a nation's science policy play an impor-
tant role in the content and quality of scientific en-
deavors, why do France and the Soviet Union, which
have such similar science policies, produce such dif-
ferent results? Why, if the apparatus of the state is so
important, does the Soviet Union tend to excel
primarily in those areas of science in which it was
strong prior to 1917? Why-despite the absence of lay
participation-did a politically autonomous commis-
sion in the Soviet Union draft rules in 1978 for re-
search on recombinant DNA that mirrored those
formulated in the United States, where there had
been considerable public debate and participation two
to three years before?
The arms-length distance between many social sci-
entists and policy makers in the United States is con-
sistent not only with governmental structures and
processes but also with the widespread distinction
between fact and value; scientists claiming (and being
given) special authority with respect to "finding the
facts." The unique claim to authority in this latter
domain by scientists, however, has been increasingly
challenged in the United States as the boundary be-
tween fact and value becomes permeable in such sub-
jects as the definition of death, the regulation of re-
search using human subjects, and the creation or
modification of the genetic makeup of living or-
Lay participation in the evaluation of scientific re-
search is now well established in hundreds of univer-

4 Martin Bulmer, "Science, Theory, and Values in Social Sci-
ence Research on Poverty: The United States and Britain," Com-
parative Social Research, 6:353-369, 1983; Walter Korpi, "Ap-
proaches to the Study of Poverty in the United States: Critical
Notes from a European Perspective," in Vincent T. Covello,
editor, Poverty and Public Policy: An Evaluation of Social Science
Research. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Schenkman, 1980.

sites and research institutions in the United States
through Institutional Review Boards. These are con-
siderably less well established in the Soviet Union. It is
perhaps ironic that Marxist philosophers have joined
with Russian Orthodox priests in clamoring-thus far
unsuccessfully-that they be appointed to research
review committees. Members of the Soviet Academy
have successfully resisted such "intrusions" by argu-
ing that their membership in the Party largely ob-
viates any further outside control. Moreover, Soviet
Academicians resist state intervention by pointing
toward its damaging consequences. The most promi-
nent example is the government's former ideo-
logically-based antipathy toward Mendelian ge-
netics which, under T. D. Lysenko, helped cripple
biological research.
Comparative historical research helps illuminate
the study of the consequences of both technology and
science. Graham used the example of computers to
illustrate two common errors of noncomparative re-
search: (1) the failure to recognize the breadth of
possible applications of such technologies, and (2) the
failure to recognize that societies (or their governing
elite) can modify, facilitate, or impede the use of
technologies to protect the prevailing social and
political order. Here it is instructive to observe that
the fear of some Western observers that computers
provide the means to realize the Orwellian images of
1984 finds its counterpart in the Soviet Union where
government leaders fear that the widespread use of
personal computers may lead to the loss of govern-
ment control over information and the disruption of
social order. In the Soviet Union, the computer
represents-i.e., can be used as-an unregulated and
uncensored printing press. To date, computers in the
Soviet Union have been institutionally housed and
controlled, but at the costs of retarding the growth of
computer literacy and of limiting the efficiencies of
information processing that computers have brought
about elsewhere.

Studying the social consequences of computers
The computer is championed (and criticized) as the
defining technology of contemporary society. It is
easy to find prognoses of its current or imminent
consequence for the way we live, communicate, work,
and think of ourselves. Claims are made, for example,
that the computer will reveal and amplify the logic of
reasoning or that the computer will remake and rede-
fine man's relation to nature and to himself, thus
endowing people with the qualities of the technology
as well as animating the technology in their likeness.


There are few topics on which so much has been
written recently in the press yet on which so little
empirical research has been conducted.
There are signs, however, that the scholarly com-
munity is responding to the need for such research.
The very way in which social research is concep-
tualized, funded, and conducted has become in-
creasingly affected by personal computers and word
processors, enhanced facilities to manipulate data,
and changing ways in which scholars can communi-
cate with colleagues or students. Many institutions
have committed themselves to providing their mem-
bers with these tools. In several instances, universities
and businesses have done so with sufficient scientific
self-consciousness, self-questioning, and self-doubt to
have opened themselves to scholars who are assessing
the computer's effect on performance, cognitive pro-
cesses, and the well-being of their members.
In some instances, recently completed research and
work still in progress has been designed to permit
observation before, as well as continued and repeated
observation after, the introduction of computers. In
some studies, subjects have been randomly assigned
to "treatment" and "control" groups of students or
workers, thus permitting investigators to unravel the
effects of the computer from the complexity of other
factors that affect performance, cognition, etc. Other
less "controlled" studies and more fine-grained case
studies promise to enrich the disciplines' descriptive
understanding of the phenomena and to generate
new concepts and theories. But if the above observa-
tions about the structure of research on science and
technology-and perhaps the social sciences in the
United States more generally-are applicable in this
area, we can expect research on the effects of the
computer to be fragmented, theoretically narrow,
and uncoordinated.
The computer as educator: lessons from television re-
search. Gavriel Salomon called attention to what he
feared may be lost in the predicted onslaught of re-
search on the consequences of the computer. He
noted that earlier predictions-both dire and
wonderful-have been made about the cognitive ef-
fects of the printing press, radio, and television. But
regretably, the relevant social sciences have not un-
veiled the cumulative effects of these technologies.
Instead, most research has focused on such immedi-
ate effects as arousal and entertainment. Rarely has it
been conceptualized or designed to study more
long-term effects.
The effects of computers are unlikely to fit com-
fortably within the frameworks of technological de-
terminism and uniform effects that research on other

technologies has too often employed. People are
agents as well as objects of change and can be ex-
pected to use (or ignore) the computer in ways that
mirror, reinforce, or amplify pre-existing personal
characteristics or social relationships, as well as
change them. Computers are a technology with an
infinite number and variety of functions; there is no
computer with a capital "C." Computers are unlikely
to have any more uniform effects than research has
shown television to have. Similarly, the technology
may have offsetting consequences, as the automobile
may have both encouraged church attendance among
some geographically-dispersed farmers at the same
time that it discouraged the attendance of others by
providing recreational alternatives.5
Salomon further urged that future research on
computers not naively assume that the technology in
itself has an impact. Already-completed research on
the effects of computer-based instruction (CBI) re-
veals appreciable short-term effects for CBI only
when comparisons are made between different
teachers of CBI and "conventional" classes. Little dif-
ference is found when the same teachers use both CBI
and conventional methods of instruction.6
Instructors and other influences thus mediate the
impact of a particular technology as it is applied in
school. Changes in instructors or classroom organiza-
tion frequently accompany the introduction of com-
puters, thereby confounding analyses that seek to un-
cover the unique consequences of computers while
underscoring the importance of research designs that
incorporate appropriate control groups.
Salomon also questioned the role of computers in
schooling. It is very likely that schools themselves
must be changed if they are to take full advantage of
the computer's potential effects. This is unlikely to
happen soon if at all; schools are more likely to adapt
new technologies to current practices and social
structures than vice versa. In many ways such "adap-
tations" are easily explained. The more difficult
question is evaluative or philosophical: Should
schools be required to change in such a way as to
obtain full value from this new technology?
The complexity of the question is revealed by the
realization that schools are more than simply institu-
tions for learning; they provide child care and they

5 Claude S. Fischer, "Studying Technology and Social Life," in
M. Castells, editor, Technology, Space, and Society: Emerging Trends.
Beverly Hills, California: Sage Publications, forthcoming.
6J. A. Kulik, C. L. C. Kulik, and P. A. Cohen, "Effectiveness of
Computer-Based College Teaching: A Meta-Analysis of Find-
ings," Review of Education Research, 50:525-544, 1980.


serve as agents for socialization. What effect would
changes in schools designed better to serve one func-
tion have on one of these other functions? Salomon
asked whether computers might not be introduced in
such a way as to amplify existing inequities and to
reinforce a belief among some children that they in-
deed know very little and that they have little hope of
learning more.
Assessing the risks of information. Understanding or
predicting the consequences of the computer is a sub-
set of a larger class of studies that attempt to measure
and assess the consequences of technology. A par-
ticular line of inquiry under this larger umbrella
traces its lineage to work that began initially in the
space and nuclear power programs of the 1960s. Risk
assessment-the subject of a presentation by Roger
Kasperson-seeks to identify, measure, and assess the
social meaning of risks posed to society by a given
Impetus for recent research on risk assessment
derives from the National Environmental Policy Act
of 1969 and from earlier advances in this country's
nuclear and space programs. Its twin underpinnings
are theories of probability and of decision making.
One approach to risk assessment attempts to develop
causal models that decompose the elements of a par-
ticular hazard into stages during which the risk can be
controlled or minimized.
Kasperson described three major realms of hazard:
energy, materials, and information. Considerable at-
tention has been paid to the first two of these realms
but very little to the potential risks of information.
Kasperson argued that insofar as hazards are defined
as threats to people and what they value, the exclu-
sion of information technologies from hazard assess-
ment is unwarranted. As information and the
technologies that facilitate its accumulation and dis-
persion increase, so also does the need to develop new
concepts of management or to apply existing meth-
odological tools to understand its consequences.
Information can be conceived of as falling into sev-
eral classes of hazard: (1) toxicity, e.g., violence on
television; (2) theft, e.g., copyright violations; and
(3) information overload.
The study of information as a hazard naturally
produces methodological and epistemological diffi-
culties similar to those presented by its metaphorical
kin in energy and materials. For example, there exist
major ambiguities in measuring the actual dosage of
information received by individuals. Multiple sources
of exposure are typical and difficult to disentangle
analytically. Furthermore, information persists in

time and may abbreviate space inasmuch as it can be
moved at great speed and volume. Managing the
hazards of information are similarly problematic: the
speed of its diffusion does not provide an opportunity
to learn through trial and error or simulation; the
values of liberal democracy (e.g., privacy, limitations
on government intervention) argue against its control
or regulation; and there are scientific limits to under-
standing the consequences of such complex causal
Analogous to Salomon's assertion that computers,
like television, are unlikely to produce uniform ef-
fects, risk assessment does not typically measure the
effects of an "average" dose on the "average" person.
Attention is usually directed toward identifying which
individuals or groups are sensitive to what levels of
exposure (although it is often necessary to create
control groups in order to establish base lines of ex-
posure to the types of information under considera-
Information differs in important respects from nu-
clear waste or toxic chemicals. Individuals can more
easily ignore information than they can ignore an
exposure to dioxin. Moreover, regulating informa-
tion raises a host of questions that touch upon a con-
cern for the protection of free speech and the unfet-
tered operation of the marketplace of ideas.
Looking backward from the year 2000: technology since
1984. Melvin Kranzberg applied the tools of a histo-
rian of technology to suggest how one might study the
consequences of computers. His metaphors and con-
cepts differ in several ways from Kasperson's. In
place of toxicity, a historian attends to, or expects to
find, lagged effects, clusters of related technologies,
unevenly-distributed consequences, and self-correc-
ting systems of purposive actors who are capable
of making both self-denying prophecies and self-
fulfilling ones. It is also likely that while the computer
grabs the headlines, other new technologies are or
will have equally important consequences for social
change and economic development. It would be a
mistake to attend only to the consequences of com-
puters while ignoring, for example, the need to study
the consequences of new composite and synthetic
If history promises a cautious guide to the future, it
is likely that the consequences of the computer will
not occur as quickly or as completely as they are now
anticipated or dreaded. "Technological revolutions"
do not take place as soon as a new technology ap-
pears. Kranzberg suggested that it may be instructive,
for example, to remember that nearly a century after


James Watt's engine began the "Age of Steam," more
aggregate power was generated in Britain by
waterwheels. It is equally instructive to remember
that the diffusion of technologies is not always linear
and cumulative. Twenty-five years after the dawn of
the nuclear age in the United States, more energy is
generated from the burning of wood, and the growth
of the nuclear power industry itself has come to a
nearly complete stop.
The variety of functions that computers serve sug-
gests that its consequences will be mixed, unevenly
distributed, and diffused, assimilated, and modified
at uneven rates. While computer technologies may
facilitate greater dispersion of more specialized man-
ufacturing production units, for example, trends
toward financial concentration may continue un-
abated for 10-20 years, encouraged by the same
Predictions about the likely future of research on
computers may be made with more confidence than
predictions about the likely consequences of com-
puters themselves. Kranzberg predicted that much of
this research will divide the problem into its simplest
elements. Although this philosophical reductionism
has contributed to the advancement of knowledge in
this and other areas, the very technology under
examination-along with its associated cluster of in-
creasingly sophisticated analytic software, simulation
models, and data bases-permits more complex
analyses than have been previously possible in the
social sciences. Kranzberg argued that it may now be
possible to take a more holistic approach that includes
social as well as natural ecology in investigating the
interactions of society with science and technology.
Kranzberg concluded by restating Thackray's call
for the Council to provide a mechanism for coor-
dinating diverse scholarship, to draw attention to un-
attended interdisciplinary questions, to suggest stan-
dards for research, and to encourage basic contribu-
tions in methodology. Heretofore, social science has
focused on the individual elements of social interac-
tion, the small parts, as in the dots of George Seurat's
Pointillism. The dots must and can now be put to-
gether into a meaningful picture of society and its
relationship to science and technology.

The Council's future program

In many respects, the symposium was intended to
initiate an ongoing discussion rather than determine
what and how the Council should proceed in the
domain of science and technology studies. It accom-
plished its purpose admirably. It also went beyond
this function by offering previews of several projects
in which the Council has or will soon begin work.
The Council's Committee on States and Social
Structures is establishing working groups that will
examine the relationship between social science and
state policy making. One such working group, States
and the Transnational Diffusion of Policy-Relevant
Economic Knowledge, plans to examine the spread
and adaptation of Keynesian economics among ad-
vanced industrial societies. This project seeks an
understanding of the "fit"-or lack thereof-between
economic doctrines and the structure and policies of
national governments, and the processes and social
and political networks through which economic ideas
and practices are diffused and adopted. A second
working group being developed by the committee will
examine through comparative and historical per-
spectives the relationships among governmental
structures, social science knowledge, and social
policies, along the lines outlined in Skocpol's sym-
posium presentation.
During the next year, the Council's exploratory
program on computers will sponsor several working
groups to plan workshops and seminars on the social
and psychological consequences of computers. These
meetings will provide a forum for the discussion and
critique of the early results of recently initiated re-
search and will draw upon existing research on the
consequences of other information technologies to
suggest concepts and methods that may be imported
into studies of computers. One such group, chaired by
Sherry Turkle, Massachusetts Institute of Technol-
ogy, has initiated plans to investigate the conditions
under which personal computers mirror, amplify,
reinforce, or change the pre-existing personality
characteristics of different types of people at dif-
ferent stages of their cognitive and affective devel-
opment. M


Child Development in Life-Span Perspective
by Lonnie R. Sherrod*

THE COUNCIL'S Subcommittee on Child Develop-
ment in Life-Span Perspective (1981- ) functions
under the auspices of the Committee on Life-Course
Perspectives on Human Development (1977- ).
Its program consists of conferences, workshops, and
other activities organized to examine conceptual and
methodological areas for interactions between the
fields of child development and adult life-span devel-
opment. Members of the subcommittee are Paul B.
Baltes, Max Planck Institute for Human Develop-
ment and Education (Berlin); Orville G. Brim, Jr.,
Foundation for Child Development (New York);
Judith Dunn, University of Cambridge; Glen H.
Elder, Jr., University of North Carolina; David L.
Featherman, University of Wisconsin; E. Mavis
Hetherington, University of Virginia; Richard M.
Lerner, Pennsylvania State University; John W.
Meyer, Stanford University; Ross D. Parke, Univer-
sity of Illinois; Martin E. P. Seligman, University of
Pennsylvania; M. Brewster Smith, University of
California, Santa Cruz; and Franz E. Weinert, Max
Planck Institute for Psychological Research (Munich).

Winning and losing across the life span
A conference, examining socialization, aspirations,
and achievement across the life span, was held on
December 2-3, 1983, in order to examine the pro-
cesses whereby discrepancies between aspirations and
achievements are resolved and to explore life-span
changes and continuities in these processes; hence the
title, "Winning and Losing." Data from varied sources
were reported showing how few differences there are
by gender, socioeconomic status, and geographic re-
gion in subjective happiness, or in reported sense of
well-being. Factors other than objective properties of
people's lives must, therefore, contribute to people's
sense of well-being. Other factors considered by pre-
sentations and discussions at the meeting included (1)
human drives of growth and mastery; (2) setting of
aspirations at levels of "just manageable difficulty" in
the many sectors of life; (3) specific experiences of
daily successes and failures, wins and losses, through-

The author, a psychologist, is a staff associate at the Council,
where one of his assignments is to staff the Committee on Life-
Course Perspectives on Human Development.

out life; and (4) the social approval of aspiration levels
by reference groups and significant others. It was
considered that rationally ordered changes in aspira-
tions, shifts in motives from one life-sector to another,
and a variety of defenses, hiding places, attributions,
and exits may be employed by individuals or groups
at various points in their lives to resolve discrepancies
between aspirations and achievements.
The meeting consisted of brief, informal presenta-
tions followed by discussions of presentations and
general discussions.
Participants other than the subcommittee included:

Steven Asher
Hans Bertram
Norman M. Bradburn

Sandra Graham

Susan Harter
Julius Kuhl
Gil Noam

Laurence Steinberg
Stanton Wheeler

University of Illinois
Federal College (Munich)
National Opinion Research
Center, University of
University of California, Los
University of Denver
University of the Ruhr
Harvard Medical School and
McLean Hospital (Boston)
University of Wisconsin
Yale University

The program was organized across broad and di-
verse areas. Fifteen-minute commentaries within ses-
sions focused on specific topics. The following ses-
sions were held:

Orville G. Brim, Jr., "Introduction" and "Opening"
Norman Bradburn, "Happiness and Subjective Well-Being"
M. Brewster Smith, "Reference Groups and Social Comparisons"
Steven Asher, Susan Harter, and Laurence Steinberg, "Develop-
ment of Aspiration/Achievement Discrepancies"
Gil Noam, Stanton Wheeler, and Martin E. P. Seligman, "Resolu-
tion of Aspiration/Achievement Discrepancies"
John Meyer, "Alternative Models"

Intellectual development and the schools
A conference on "Intellectual Development and the
Schools" was held on August 9, 10, and 11, 1984, at
the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral
Sciences (Stanford, California). This meeting was fo-
cused on interactions between the social structural
aspects of schools and individual psychological devel-
opment. The program was designed to address ques-
tions such as: To what extent do age-graded changes


in "intelligence" during childhood and adolescence
reflect the institutionalized routines of socialization
and the corresponding timetables of contextual de-
mands within the schools? To what degree are there
enduring or sequential changes in differentiated
school contexts which produce "normative" individ-
ual and subgroup variation in intellectual develop-
ment? Obversely, are there psychological or bio-
psychological developments which seem less responsive
to contextual or synergistic person/situation out-
comes? How multidimensional is intellectual devel-
opment; i.e., are there cognitive and social intelli-
gence elements of a single domain which change in
synchrony? What developmental relationships ensue
from the over-time interplay of structured social in-
teractions within schools and structured cognitive
programs (e.g., curricular differentials and shifts
Existing paradigms for examining such questions
were also appraised. For example, how "necessary"
for a theory of intellectual development is a model of
temporal shifts in exposure to differentiated school
contexts? How much does an understanding of the
impact of school structure on socialization patterns
depend upon knowledge about self-initiated learning,
choice, or role shaping? Is there more to intellectual
development than cognitive development, given that
the schools vary across time and space in their degrees
as "total institutions" over educational careers?
The general format of the meeting included an
opening session which provided a constructive cri-
tique of the foci (current and needed) of research and
conceptualizations of schools and of intellectual
change into adolescence. Over the subsequent two
days of the meeting, a series of five presentations (up
to an hour each) of research areas and projects ad-
dressed specific topics. A commentator initiated a
general discussion at the end of each session. The
final session offered a summary with three panelists,
each reflecting on (1) the presentations:and discus-
sions of the previous days; (2) the general questions
around which the meeting was organized; and (3)
his/her own perspective.
The program consisted of:

(1) Introduction
Wolfgang Edelstein, "Overview and Evaluation of the Status of
Research on Schools and Intellectual Development"

(2) Comparative studies of schooling and development
S. P. Heyneman, "Two-thirds of the World's Students: In-
tellectual Development and Schools in Developing Countries"


Harold W. Stevenson, "Schooling and Cognitive Development:
A Study in Peru"
Herbert J. Walberg, "Environmental and Educational Influences
on Academic Development"

(3) How schools work: classrooms, friendship networks, ability
Robert Dreeben, "The Social Organization of Schools and Indi-
vidual Learning"
Maureen T. Hallinan, "Interracial Friendships in Elementary
School Classrooms"

The participants and their affiliations were:

Nancy A. Busch-Rossnagel
Robert Dreeben
Wolfgang Edelstein

K. Anders Ericsson
Maureen T. Hallinan
S. P. Heyneman
Nancy L. Karweit
Marion Perlmutter
Matilda White Riley
Peter Roeder

Yossi Shavit
Harold W. Stevenson
Herbert J. Walberg

Fordham University
University of Chicago
Max Planck Institute for
Human Development and
Education (Berlin)
University of Colorado
University of Notre Dame
The World Bank (Washington)
The Johns Hopkins University
University of Minnesota
National Institute on Aging
Max Planck Institute for
Human Development and
Education (Berlin)
University of Haifa
University of Michigan
University of Illinois at

Because the conference was held during the Sum-
mer Institute on Individual Development and Social
Change (see pages 75-76), institute participants were
also invited to the meeting.

Attributions in mothers and children:
a life-span approach
A workshop was organized by the subcommittee to
focus on emotional development and attributions of
causality across the life span. Although in recent years
there has been some research examining attributions
of causality, the style of attributions, and relationships
to cognitive and emotional development in adults and
children eight years or older, there is relatively little
attention to children at younger ages. As a result, little
is known about the age at which attributions emerge
or about the origins of childhood attributions. The
instruments which have been developed to measure
attributions in adults and older children are simply
not appropriate for preschoolers. Thus, it was con-
sidered necessary to examine the early childhood ori-
gins of causal attributions and of attributional styles as
a preliminary step to life-span investigations of attri-


butional style and its relationship to emotional devel-
The workshop was held on December 8-11, 1983,
on Kiawah Island, South Carolina. The objective of
the meeting was to use existing data sets contain-
ing transcripts of mother-child conversations to ad-
dress such questions as: What is the earliest age at
which children make attributions? Is there an attri-
butional style in preschool children? How does the
formal structure of causal attributions and attribu-
tional style change over time? What is the relationship
between a mother's and a child's attributions? During
the meeting, participants examined transcripts of
mother-child conversations from several studies, and
determined that such materials do allow the analysis
of mothers' and preschoolers' attributions. Tran-
scripts from several studies were analyzed as one part
of the workshop agenda, and problems of analysis
and interpretation and topics for subsequent research
were discussed. The program consisted primarily of
presentations by participants of their ongoing re-
search of relevance to the meeting theme. Follow-up
activities will be planned to examine continuities and
change in attributional processes from early child-
hood through adulthood and to search for contextual
influences on the development of attributional style.
Research on early childhood development, begun as a
result of the first workshop, will constitute one major
contribution to future activities.
Participants and their affiliations included:

Paul B. Baltes

Merry Bullock
Deborah Coates
James Connell
Judith Dunn
Frank Fincham
Joan Girgus
Hannelore Grimm
Robin Mount
Michael O'Hara
Christopher Peterson

Susan Nolen-Hoeksema

Marion Perlmutter
Deborah Phillips
Jon Rolf

Martin E. P. Seligman
Marilyn Shatz
Ellen Skinner

Peter Stratton

Max Planck Institute for
Human Development and
Education (Berlin)
University of British Columbia
Catholic University of America
University of Rochester
University of Cambridge
University of Illinois
Princeton University
University of Heidelberg
Harvard University
University of Iowa
Virginia Polytechnic Institute
and State University
University of Pennsylvania
University of Minnesota
University of Illinois
National Institute of Mental
University of Pennsylvania
University of Michigan
Max Planck Institute for
Human Development and
Education (Berlin)
University of Leeds

Ruth Wylie

National Institute of Mental

Historical perspectives on child development

On October 17-19, 1984, a meeting was held on
the general theme of "Children and Their Develop-
ment: Historical and Developmental Perspectives."
The goal of the meeting was to explore the value of
interchange between two fields of child study: the
behavioral science approach to the investigation of
child development and the social historical approach
to the study of children and their families. The two
lines of study have much to offer each other. Over the
last decade, child developmentalists have become
more appreciative of historical influences, and the
study of contemporary child development has gained
popularity among historians. Both fields are devel-
oping interests in the life course as a theoretical
Despite this promising movement toward fruitful
interchange, there has been little actual contact be-
tween the two fields. An initial planning meeting on
January 17, 1984, in New York indicated, however,
that both lines of study could be enriched by one or
more meetings that drew upon the life-course frame-
work. Because it addresses issues that are fundamen-
tal to both fields (e.g., contextual influences, temporal
variation and change, the dynamics of change and
stability), the life-course approach provides a com-
mon ground for discussion. The October meeting
thus addressed theories of change and stability,
methodologies of study, data collection strategies, an-
alytic procedures, and specific research questions.
The meeting was designed to draw upon the
strengths of the two fields, social history and child
development. The participants from history, skilled
in assessing the course of social change, were asked to
work on the implications for children and childhood.
Participants from child development brought exper-
tise on the social, cognitive, and affective develop-
ment of children and on the organismic and envi-
ronmental factors which affect these developments.
Thus, prior to the meeting, the child develop-
mentalists were charged with the task of identify-
ing at least five prominent behavioral phenomena in
the life experience of children: aggressive and other
problem behaviors; attachment and intimacy; aspira-
tions and achievement; intelligence and cognition;
and interventions. Likewise, the historians were
charged with identifying five social historical changes
since the 1920s in the United States that have major
implications for the well-being and development of


children; this historical period was chosen to avoid a
primary focus on the effect of industrialization and to
overlap with the chronological emergence of the field
of child development. The historians' nominees were:
television and other technological innovations;
changes in prosperity; the Depression and World
War II; changes in women's roles; and changes in
child-rearing ideologies and practices. The overall
goal of the meeting was to explore possible linkages
between the behaviors and/or life experiences of chil-
dren and social historical changes; possibilities and
strategies for researching such linkages were also
given a high priority.
The program consisted of an opening session on
Wednesday evening during which different analytical
models were discussed for examining linkages be-
tween historical changes and children's behavior; this
session was chaired by Glen H. Elder, Jr. and John
Modell. The first morning session consisted of brief
presentations from each field on the five respective
variables or domains:

(1) Child development
Robert Cairns, "Aggression/Problem Behavior"
Ross D. Parke, "Attachment/Intimacy"
Orville G. Brim, Jr., "Aspirations and Achievement"
Sheldon White, "Intelligence/Cognition"
Arnold Sameroff, "Intervention"

(2) History
Jay Mechling, "Television and Technology"
Viviana Zelizer, "Prosperity and Attitudes to Children"
William Tuttle, "The Depression and World War II"
Joan Brumberg, "Women's Roles"
Peter Stearns, "Child-rearing Ideologies and Practices"

The remaining sessions of the meeting consisted of
general discussion and specific discussion organized
by subgroups around specific topical or analytical
themes. Ross D. Parke and Peter Stearns served as
chair at these sessions.
Participants included:

Orville G. Brim, Jr.

Joan Jacobs Brumberg
Emily Cahan
Robert Cairns
John Demos
Glen H. Elder, Jr.
Tamara Hareven
Frances Degan Horowitz
Carl Kaestle
William Kessen
Jay Mechling
John Modell
Ross D. Parke

Foundation for Child
Development (New York)
Cornell University
Yale University
University of North Carolina
Brandeis University
University of North Carolina
Harvard University
University of Kansas
University of Wisconsin
Yale University
University of California, Davis
Carnegie-Mellon University
University of Illinois

Arnold Sameroff

Steven Schlossman

Yvonne Schiitze

Peter Tuttle
Sheldon White
Viviana Zelizer

University of Illinois at
Rand Corporation (Santa
Monica, California)
Max Planck Institute for
Human Development and
Education (Berlin)
University of Kansas
Harvard University
Barnard College

As a result of discussions at the meeting, four areas
were identified for further exploration: aggression
and problem behavior; attitudes and social values
towards children; children's play and folk games; and
the age structure and amount of choice in the child's
life experience. Glen H. Elder, Jr., and Ross D. Parke
organized the child development component of the
meeting, and John Modell, Peter Stearns, and
William Tuttle organized the historical component.

Summer Institute on Individual Development
and Social Change
The Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral
Sciences and the subcommittee cosponsored an in-
stitute, held at the Center July 9 through August 15,
1984. Subcommittee members Richard Lerner and
John Meyer codirected the six-week institute.
The institute focused on the relation between indi-
vidual development and social change. This issue has
attracted recent theoretical interest and empirical at-
tention. For instance, there has been much interest in
historical changes that alter the social structures in
which individual development takes place. And there
is renewed interest in the impact of individual and
cohort development upon social changes. Finally, in
several fields there is a renewed inclination to see
individual development as not only situationally af-
fected, but also as contextually structured. The insti-
tute emphasized theoretical issues that emerge from
these new lines of work. It also emphasized method-
ological problems raised by the foci, and options
available to deal with them. Such theoretical and
methodological problems were illustrated through
diverse substantive literatures: for instance, concep-
tions and studies of mental abilities, temperamental
individuality and psychosocial adjustment, the social
context of "mothering roles," historical changes in
childhood settings, and other topics of interest to
institute participants.
An announcement of the institute was distributed
widely during the fall of 1983. Applications were due
during January 1984 and reviewed during March.


The participants in the
tions were:
David Baker

Roy F. Baumenster

Geraldine K. Brookins
Roger A. Dixon

Nancy Eisenberg
Martin E. Ford
Jennifer L. Glass

Sandra Graham

Anita L. Greene
William B. Harvey

institute and their affilia-

The Catholic University of
Case Western Reserve
Jackson State University
Max Planck Institute for
Human Development and
Education (Berlin)
Arizona State University
Stanford University
University of Southern
University of California, Los
West Virginia University
North Carolina State

Mary R. Holley
K. Jill Kiecolt
Tri Van Nguyen
Vilma Ortiz
Sally I. Powers
J. Arturo Silva

Mark J. Stern
David L. Stevenson
Ross A. Thompson
Barbara J. Tinsley
Alexander von Eye

Montclair State College
Louisiana State University
Cornell University
University of Wisconsin
Harvard Medical School
Stanford University Medical
University of Pennsylvania
Oberlin College
University of Nebraska
University of Illinois
Max Planck Institute for
Human Development and
Education (Berlin)

A report prepared by the directors and the partici-
pants is available from Lonnie R. Sherrod at the
Council or Robert Scott at the Center. El

Activities of the Joint Area Committees

Joint Advisory Committee on
International Programs
Meeting for the first time on December 14, 1984,
the new Joint Advisory Committee on International
Programs began to lay out a long-term agenda con-
cerned with the programs and core funding of the 11
joint area committees, as well as the larger intellectual
and structural issues in international research which
provide the context for the area committees' activities.
The committee was appointed on the recom-
mendation of the Committee on Problems and Polico
by the presidents of the Council and the American
Council of Learned Societies-Kenneth Prewitt and
John William Ward. It is composed of Richard D.
Lambert, University of Pennsylvania (chair); Robert
Darnton, Princeton University; James W. Fernandez,
Princeton University; Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty,
University of Chicago; Jonathan D. Spence, Yale
University; Rodolfo Stavenhagen, El Colegio de
M6xico; Francis X. Sutton, Dobbs Ferry, New York;
and Immanuel Wallerstein, State University of New
York, Binghamton. Messrs. Stavenhagen, Sutton, and
Wallerstein are also members of the Council's Com-
mittee on Problems and Policy. David L. Szanton
serves as staff.
At its initial session, the members of the committee

were joined by the presidents of the two Councils, as
well as the professional staff that works with the area
committees. The meeting itself was largely devoted to
reviewing the background and mandate of the com-
mittee and to preliminary discussions of the diversity
of current area committee programs and funding, as
well as to discussions of broad issues, trends, and
opportunities-intellectual, organizational, and
financial-for international research generally. The
committee expects to consult with the area commit-
tees on these issues before its next meeting in May

African research overview papers
In a continuing effort to stimulate a dialogue that
will assess the state of social scientific and humanistic
research on Africa, the Joint Committee on African
Studies commissions papers which review the state of
research on particular topics for presentation at the
annual meetings of the African Studies Association.
Papers presented at the 1983 meeting of the
association-"The Food Crisis and Agrarian Change
in Africa: A Review Essay" by Sara S. Berry, Boston
University, and "Labor and Labor History in Africa"
by Bill Freund, University of the Witwatersrand-have


been published as a special issue of the association
journal, the African Studies Review (27:2, June 1984;
see review on pages 87-88, below).
At the 1984 meeting of the association, held Octo-
ber 25-28 at the Los Angeles Hilton Hotel, papers
were presented on three topics:
"The Social Origins of Health and Healing in Africa," by Ste-
ven Feierman, University of Wisconsin
"African Gnosis: Philosophy and the Order of Knowledge," by
V. Y. Mudimbe, Haverford College
"African Oral Tradition and Literature," by Harold Scheub,
University of Wisconsin
Topics of future papers include: Comparative Re-
ligious Movements; The Person and the Life-Cycle in
African Social Life and Thought; The Visual Arts;
Peasants and Rural Social Protest; Popular Culture;
Rural Development; The Military in Africa; and
Marx, Africa, and the West.

African agriculture: conceptualizing
the household
Macrolevel data on production, food imports, and
nutrition in Africa all point toward a significant post-
war deterioration in many regions and sectors of the
rural economy, particularly in staple food produc-
tion. Far less clear, however, are the underlying pro-
cesses which account for this situation. The Joint
Committee on African Studies has initiated a project,
"African Agriculture: Crisis and Transformation,"
which aims to clarify these processes by establishing a
framework for multidisciplinary analysis of the com-
plex interaction of social, political, and ecological
structures which have resulted in the current crisis in
African agriculture. In seeking to develop new re-
search themes, analytical concepts, and field
methodologies to assess the complex processes of
change in African and other rural economies, the
project will emphasize the interdependent function-
ing of households, regional economies, and national
and international systems.
The committee initiated work on the project's
component on Gender, Household, and Association
with an international workshop on Conceptualizing
the Household: Issues of Theory, Method, and Ap-
plication. As the study of household and family
dynamics has gained greater importance, both in
long-term historical studies and in household
decision-making analyses, the methods of description
and analysis have become more sophisticated and
have been subjected to greater scrutiny. Particular
issues of controversy concern the boundaries of
households and of significant units of production,

consumption, and investment; the linkages between
such units; the intrahousehold relations with special
reference to gender; and the short- and long-term
implications of particular household strategies for
broader socioeconomic patterns. These concerns
have become particularly important in the African
context where all analytical models centered on the
corporate household have become problematic in
their empirical application. To explore different dis-
ciplinary and theoretical approaches to household
dynamics in Africa and their methodological implica-
tions, an international workshop was organized by
Jane I. Guyer and Pauline Peters, both of Harvard
University. The meeting, which took place November
2-4, 1984 at Harvard, brought together scholars who
have responded to the challenge of conceptualizing
the household and collecting household data in their
local research situations by critiquing and modifying
existing models and inventing new approaches. The
workshop sought to facilitate the exchange of critical
and innovative insights, experiments, and successes
and failures which participants had experienced in
the field.
Workshop participants were concerned with
adapting methods which incorporate and document
the differential roles, work, values, contributions,
and welfare of women and children within house-
holds; methods which enable the short-run data and
synchronic analysis to be integrated with analy-
sis of mid-term developmental cycles and long-term
trends; and methods which permit relations within
the household units to be set within a wider social con-
text. In the workshop discussions, participants shared,
examined, and critiqued creative innovations which
they had developed in response to the challenge
posed by these concerns in their particularistic field
situations, within particular disciplinary frameworks,
or within particular research groups and institutions.
The workshop began by examining different ways
of conceptualizing and approaching the household,
and ways in which theoretical and/or practical policy
concerns of participants have determined the form-
ulation of field questions and methods. Subsequent
sessions focused on methods developed at the
microeconomic level to address internal household
organization and its relationship to patterns of alloca-
tion; distributive relationships which may cross
household boundaries and involve members in wider
units and networks of resource access, for production
as well as consumption and investment; and inter-
familial relations in broader contexts, especially in
regard to labor access and allocation. Special attention
was given to the influence of past policies-for exam-


pie, family and land law, taxation, and rural devel-
opment projects-on household and family relations;
and conversely, to the implications of concepts and
methods of household research for policy issues. The
workshop also considered methods of defining di-
mensions of family change which encompass political
and economic change, and the problem of recon-
structing history and extrapolating trends which can
be linked back to microeconomic methods.
The workshop participants were:

Osmund Anigbo
Mark Beittel

Eileen Berry
Sara Berry
Deborah Bryceson
Lynne Brydon
Graham Chipande
Elizabeth Eames
Felicia Ekejiuba
Eleanor Fapohunda
Hilary Feldstein

James Ferguson
Jean-Marc Gastellu
Martha Gephart

Mitzi Goheen
Luisella Goldschmidt-Clermont
Jeanne Henn
Allen Hoben
Christine Jones

Priscilla Kariuki
Diane Kayongo-Male
Eileen Kennedy
Fassil Kiros
Shbuh Kumar
G. Kamau Kuria
Mothokoa Mamashela
Elias Mandala
William Martin

James McCann
Katherine McKee
Della McMillan
Joyce Lewinger Moock

Colin Murray
H.W.O. Okoth-Ogendo
Onigu Otite
Pepe Roberts
Beatrice Rogers
Parker Shipton
Fatou Sow
Megan Vaughan
H. Leroy Vail
Ann Whitehead

University of Nigeria
State University of New York,
Clark University
Boston University
St. Antony's College (Oxford)
University of Liverpool
Chancellor College
Harvard University
University of Nigeria
University of Lagos
Harvard Institute for
International Development
Harvard University
ORSTOM (Paris)
Social Science Research
Tufts University
Free University of Brussels
Northeastern University
Boston University
Harvard Institute for
International Development
University of Nairobi
University of Nairobi
IFPRI (Washington, D.C.)
OSSREA (Addis Ababa)
IFPRI (Washington, D.C.)
University of Nairobi
University of Lesotho
University of Rochester
State University of New York,
Boston University
Ford Foundation (New York)
University of Florida
Rockefeller Foundation (New
University of Liverpool
University of Nairobi
University of Nigeria
University of Sussex
Tufts University
Harvard University
University of Dakar
University of Cambridge
Harvard University
University of Sussex

"Afrodisc": creating archives for
visual materials

The Joint Committee on African Studies sponsored
a planning meeting to explore the feasibility of
creating a videodisc archive for visual materials. Or-
ganized by Jean M. Borgatti, Clark University, the
meeting was held at the Museum of African Art in
Washington, D.C. on June 28, 1984. Representatives
of two commercial firms demonstrated the possibilities
of the videodisc technology for preserving photo-
graphic materials in a presentation both to the plan-
ning committee organized by Ms. Borgatti and to
members of the Smithsonian Institution. A videodisc
archive would record private collections of fragile
photographic materials in a more durable format; it
could also house videodisc records of institutional
image collections. During the coming year, the plan-
ning committee will explore the feasibility of securing
funding for a pilot project.
The participants in the meeting were:

Jean M. Borgatti
Margaret Child
Karen Dubiler
Ekpo Eyo

Bryna Freyer
Valentine Grigorians
Ivan Karp
Peter Koehn
Ed Lifschitz
Mary McCutcheon
Donald Morrison
Robert Nicholls
Simon Ottenberg
Claude Savary

Harold Scheub
Roy Sieber
Janet Stanley
Sylvia Williams

Clark University
Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
Department of Antiquities
Museum of African Art
Gaithersburg, Maryland
Smithsonian Institution
University of Montana
Museum of African Art
Smithsonian Institution
Harvard University
Howard University
University of Washington
Ethnographic Museum
University of Wisconsin
Museum of African Art
Smithsonian Institution
Museum of African Art

Discourse in the humanities and
social sciences in African studies

In an effort to promote a reflexive dimension in
African studies, the Joint Committee on African
Studies sponsored a series of panels at the 1984 an-
nual meeting of the African Studies Association
which sought to examine the manner in which the
field of African studies and its different national
traditions have drawn upon an already-constituted set
of images and ideas about Africa to conduct its work.
Four panels examined the effect of social and cultural


backgrounds in the production of Africanist knowl-
edge and evaluated the consequences of utilizing
scholarly formats and written modes of transmission
to represent the range of experience in Africa. The
speakers and discussants in the panels were:

African Humanities: The Impact of Western Conceptualizations
Chair: Donald J. Cosentino, University of California, Los Angeles
Speakers: Timothy Asch, University of Southern California
Kwabena Nketia, University of Pittsburgh
Discussant: Warren D'Azevedo, University of Nevada

Discourse in Africanist Social Science
Chair: Ivan Karp, Smithsonian Institution (Washington, D.C.)
Speakers: Lual Acuek L. Deng, University of Wisconsin
Denyse de Saivre, AUDECAM (Paris)
David Parkin, School of Oriental and African Studies

Africanisms I: Historical Trends
Chair: V. Y. Mudimbe, Haverford College
Speakers: Fernando Lambert, Laval University
Laurent Monnier, Lausanne University
Alf Schwarz, Laval University
Discussants: Wyatt MacGaffey, Haverford College
Nzongola-Ntalaja, Howard University

Africanisms II: Epistemological Issues
Chair: V. Y. Mudimbe, Haverford College
Speakers: Bogumil Jewsiewicki, Laval University
Denis Martin, International Center for Political Sci-
ence, Paris
Paul Rabinow, University of California, Berkeley
Discussant: Immanuel Wallerstein, State University of New York,

Myths and realities of the Zairian crisis

The Republic of Zaire has been in a nearly-
continuous state of crisis since its independence in
1960. A major dimension of this social and institu-
tional crisis has been the chronic inability of this
resource-rich country to generate and sustain eco-
nomic growth and development. To date, scholarly
analyses have failed to explain the nature and under-
lying causes of this crisis and its consequences for the
people of Zaire. To examine the reasons for this fail-
ure, and to generate new ideas and approaches, the
Joint Committee on African Studies sponsored a re-
search workshop on "Myths and Realities of the Zai-
rian Crisis" on October 5-6, 1984 at Howard Univer-
sity. Organized by Nzongola-Ntalaja, Howard Uni-
versity, the workshop began with a session on the

nature of the crisis of the state in postcolonial Africa.
Presentations on Zaire considered the historical back-
ground of the Zairian crisis, its international dimen-
sions, and survival strategies in urban and rural areas.
The Zairian case was then assessed in light of com-
parative analyses of Burundi, Chad, Ghana, Rwanda,
and Uganda.

Participants in the workshop were:

Mario Azevedo
Eyamba G. Bokamba
Thomas Callaghy
Walter C. Carrington
Robert J. Cummings
Walter T. Davis, Jr.

Dibinga wa Said

Paul-Albert Emoungu
Emmanuel Hansen

Mervat Hatem
Galen Hull

Ilunga Kabongo
Bogumil Jewsiewicki
Ghislain C. Kabwit

Kalonzo Ilunga

Edward Kannyo

Rene Lemarchand
Winsome Leslie
Janet MacGaffey
Makidi Ku Ntima
Philomene Makolo
Etienne Mbaya
Bonaventure Mbida-Essama

William Minter

V. Y. Mudimbe
T. L. Mukenge
Francois Muyumba
Catharine Newbury
David Newbury
Sulayman S. Nyang
Jean-Philippe Peemans
Allen F. Roberts
S. N. Sang-Mpam
Bereket Habte Selassie
Herbert F. Weiss
Stephen R. Weissman

Jackson State University
University of Illinois
Columbia University
Howard University
Howard University
San Francisco Theological
Omenana Research Center
(Roxbury, Massachusetts)
Howard University
The Open University, London
Howard University
The Pragma Corporation
(Washington, D.C.)
University of Kinshasa
Laval University
International development
consultant (Washington,
Zairian National Railroad
Human rights and
development consultant
(New York)
University of Florida
Columbia University
Bryn Mawr College
Atlanta University
University of Ottawa
University of Cologne
World Bank (Washington,
Contributing editor, Africa
Haverford College
Morris Brown College
Indiana State University
Wesleyan University
Bowdoin College
Howard University
Howard University
Catholic University of Louvain
University of Michigan
DePauw University
Howard University
Brooklyn College
Staff associate, House
Subcommittee on Africa,
U.S. Congress


Gender issues in Japanese studies

The Joint Committee on Japanese Studies spon-
sored a workshop on June 28-29, 1984, at the Uni-
versity of Washington to consider possible new direc-
tions for research on gender in Japan as part of its
effort to direct attention to important but underde-
veloped areas within Japanese studies. The commit-
tee convened this workshop with several goals in
mind: to provide an opportunity for members of the
committee and others to consider issues raised by
research on gender; to inform the committee's discus-
sions of future projects it may be called upon to eval-
uate or sponsor; and to encourage the development
and dissemination of new analytic perspectives on
gender throughout Japanese studies. In particular,
the committee hoped that discussion of analytical and
theoretical perspectives on gender issues developed
in various disciplines and in other area studies fields
might provide insights not only about the roles and
position of Japanese women but also about the nature
of Japanese society and culture as a whole. This ex-
ploratory meeting, however, was a brainstorming ses-
sion, not an attempt to develop specific research
The workshop's participants included specialists in
anthropology, economics, history, political science,
and sociology. Several scholars who are not Japan
specialists were invited because their work has exam-
ined gender issues comparatively, and Japan spe-
cialists included both those who have and those who
have not previously focused on gender issues.
At the outset, discussions centered on whether
existing research has focused too narrowly on women
and women's studies, and whether recasting the in-
quiry as a study of Japanese gender would signifi-
cantly broaden and enrich the general understanding
of Japan. In proposing gender as an organizing con-
cept, several workshop members argued that almost
all institutions, relationships, ideologies, and domains
of activity may be considered genderedd," to the ex-
tent they affect or reflect definitions of structured
relations between male and female roles. Participants
agreed that by using gender as a general category of
analysis, a wide variety of political, cultural, social,
and economic institutions, relationships, ideologies,
and forms of behavior that are not usually considered
in terms of "women's roles" could be linked concep-
tually in ways that would illuminate general features
of Japanese society.
Under the broad rubric of gender studies, several
major conceptual themes emerged from the discus-
sions. These included: (1) historical transformations

of gender ideologies and roles; (2) the intersection of
gender with class and other systems of structured
inequality; (3) symbolic conceptions of gender, and
the social and cultural construction of gender roles
and differentiation; and (4) international dimensions
of gender concepts. A fuller report on the workshop
will appear in the Journal of Japanese Studies, Volume
11, Number 1, Winter 1985.
The workshop was held at the Jackson School of
International Studies at the University of Washing-
ton. The participants and their affiliations were:

Jane M. Atkinson
Janet Z. Giele
Susan B. Hanley
Hara Hiroko
Barbara Molony
Susan J. Pharr
David W. Plath
Thomas P. Rohlen
Gary R. Saxonhouse
Patricia G. Steinhoff
Sylvia J. Yanagisako

Lewis and Clark College
Brandeis University
University of Washington
Ochanomizu University
University of Santa Clara
University of Wisconsin
University of Illinois
San Anselmo, California
University of Michigan
University of Hawaii
Stanford University

W. Dean Kinzley, University of California, San
Diego, served as the workshop's rapporteur; Theo-
dore C. Bestor served as staff.
Although the committee has no immediate plans to
organize workshops, conferences, or seminars that
specifically address issues surrounding gender as a
category of analysis in the study of Japan, it wishes to
encourage scholars throughout the field to address
issues of gender more centrally in their research and
to develop new analytical approaches that consider
Japan as a genderedd society." The committee will
welcome news from those whose research has in-
volved or will incorporate such perspectives.

Party, state, and society in the
Russian civil war
On October 27-28, 1984, the fourth substantive
meeting of the National Seminar on the Social His-
tory of Russia in the Twentieth Century was con-
vened at the University of Pennsylvania under the
cosponsorship of the National Endowment for the
Humanities and the Joint Committee on Soviet
Studies. Its principal aim was to explore the essential
analytical issues of Russian social history during the
civil war period (1918-21), in order to clarify current
research problems and to set, in effect, a new research
agenda. Thirty-two scholars participated directly;
eight or nine others attended by invitation and par-
ticipated in the discussions.
The seminar was initially organized in the fall of


1979 at the initiative of Moshe Lewin and Alfred J.
Rieber, both of the University of Pennsylvania. The
seminar's objective from the start has been to bring
together at an annual meeting a small number of
scholars with a direct and active research interest in
modern Russian and Soviet social history. Initial ses-
sions focused on ways in which the social history of
Russian and Soviet society might be better under-
stood and advanced, on key research issues, and on
the conceptual dimensions of Russian and Soviet so-
cial history more broadly. Subsequent seminars
brought together individuals actively studying two
problems identified as central to understanding Rus-
sian and Soviet social development: the peasantry and
the bureaucracy.
In contrast to scholarly conferences of the sort as-
sociated with professional organizations, the seminar
has sought to explore intensively a common research
problem, rather than present summaries of com-
pleted work. As such, it has served the valuable (and
unique) function of advancing serious work in the
area of Russian and Soviet social history at its early
stages, allowing researchers to present aspects of their
ongoing work for serious and constructive criticism.
Presenters have either been active researchers in the
common topic under review or analysts of relevant
historiographical and theoretical issues. All seminar
participants have shared the presenters' research
interests in some way; and all have assumed by their
participation the obligation to read each paper care-
fully in advance and to contribute seriously to the
discussions. (With the exception of introductory and
summary presentations, presenters have been limited
to two or three brief observations about their papers.
Designated discussants and the seminar participants
as a whole have then addressed the problems in each
The seminar on "Party, State, and Society in the
Russian Civil War" focused on five major themes:

(1) changes in social and demographic structures
(2) urban-rural relations
(3) state and party institutions
(4) the role of the intelligentsia
(5) classes and nationalities

Introductory analyses of the civil war and its relation-
ship to social processes generally in early 20th century
Russia, and of the civil war and social revolution in
the historical literature, were presented by Leopold
Haimson, Columbia University, and Sheila Fitzpat-
rick, University of Texas. A summary presentation
was given by Moshe Lewin.

In addition to the introductory and concluding ses-
sions, the seminar's program included the following:
(1) Social and demographic change
Chair: Alfred J. Rieber, University of Pennsylvania
"The Impact of World War I, the 1917 Revolution, and the Civil
War on the Civilian Population of the Soviet Union," Barbara
A. Anderson, University of Michigan
"Russian Cities in Crisis: The Urban Population in the Civil War,"
Daniel R. Brower, University of California, Davis
"The Impact of the Civil War on Women and Family Relations,"
Barbara Evans Clements, University of Akron
Discussants: Carol Hayden, University of California, Berkeley
Diane Koenker, University of Illinois

(2) City and countryside
Chair: Roberta Manning, Boston College
"The Evolution of District Soviets in Petrograd, 1917-1920: The
Case of the First City District Soviet," Alexander Rabinowitch,
Indiana University
"Bread Without the Bourgeoisie," Mary McAuley, University of
Discussants: Donald Raleigh, University of Hawaii
Robert Johnson, University of Toronto

(3) State and Party institutions
Chair: Neil Weisman, Dickinson College
"State Building in the Russian Revolution: The Role of the 'Petty
Bourgeoisie,' Daniel T. Orlovsky, Southern Methodist Uni-
"The Rationalization of State Kontrol'," Thomas F. Remington,
Emory University
"The Early Development of the Soviet Government Bureaucracy,
Center, Localities, Nationality Areas," Jonathan R. Adelman,
University of Denver
Discussants: Victoria Bonnell, University of California, Berkeley
Richard Wortman, Princeton University

(4) The role and fate of social elites
Chair: Abbott Gleason, Brown University
"Social Elites in the Russian Civil War: The Professoriate," James
C. McClelland, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
"Natural Scientists and the Soviet System," Kendall E. Bailes,
University of California, Irvine
"Artists in theProletkul't: The Problem of Expertise," Lynn Mally,
Vassar College
Discussants: Peter Kenez, University of California, Santa Cruz
Gregory Freiden, Stanford University

(5) Classes and nationalities
Chair: Allan Wildman, Ohio State University
"Social Democrats in Power: Menshevik Georgia and the Russian
Civil War," Ronald Grigor Suny, University of Michigan
"The Social Background to Tsektran," William G. Rosenberg,
University of Michigan
"Moscow Workers During the Transition to NEP," William
Chase, University of Pittsburgh
Discussants: Reginald Zelnik, University of California, Berkeley
Diane Koenker, University of Illinois


Other seminar participants included David Macey,
Middlebury College, who chaired the concluding ses-
sion; Dorothy Atkinson, American Association for the
Advancement of Slavic Studies; William Husband,
Princeton University; Andrew Verner, Swarthmore
College; and Mark von Hagen, Columbia University.
Under the sponsorship of the Joint Committee on

Soviet Studies and the direction of Messrs.
Rabinowitch and Rosenberg, two further seminars
have been planned for the fall or winter of 1986-87
and of 1987-88.

-William G. Rosenberg
University of Michigan

Summer Workshop on Soviet and East European Economics

The Joint Committee on Soviet Studies announces
a new program of Summer Workshops on Soviet and
East European Economics. The first workshop, to be
held in the two-week period, July 8-21, 1985, at the
University of Illinois, will be directed by Herbert S.
Levine of the University of Pennsylvania. It is spon-
sored by the committee in cooperation with the Joint
Committee on Eastern Europe. Funds for the work-
shop are provided by the Ford Foundation.
Objectives: The workshop is intended to counteract
the sense of isolation felt by many graduate students
and junior scholars dispersed widely over many cam-
puses by providing them with an opportunity to
interact with their peers, to discuss their research and
matters of mutual concern, and to establish contacts
with each other that it is hoped will continue.
The workshop will also explore the use of new
sources and methods of analysis and important cur-
rent issues in the field. The ultimate goal of the work-
shop is to stimulate high quality research that will
contribute to the revitalization of the field of Soviet
and East European economics.
The program: The program for the workshop will
include seminar discussions of the research being
conducted by each of the participants; and discus-
sions and lectures by senior specialists on their own re-

search, major issues in the field, the use of source
materials, and employment opportunities in Soviet
and East European economics. Specialized language
training will be provided on an individual tutorial basis.
Financial assistance: All workshop costs, including
transportation and stipends for participants ($600 for
graduate students and $1,000 for junior scholars) will
be provided by the Council. Housing will be pro-
vided by the Soviet and East European Center of
the University of Illinois with funds from the Andrew
W. Mellon Foundation.
Eligibility, applications, and selection: Workshop par-
ticipants will be selected on the basis of a national
competition to be administered by the Council. Ap-
plications will be accepted from (1) students in Soviet
and East European economics who are enrolled in
Ph.D. programs in the United States or Canada; and
(2) junior scholars in Soviet and East European eco-
nomics who received their Ph.Ds after June 1978, and
who are affiliated with United States or Canadian
universities or are United States or Canadian citizens
or residents. The application deadline is March 15,
1985. For application forms and further information,
write the Joint Committee on Soviet Studies, Social
Science Research Council, 605 Third Avenue, New
York, New York 10158.


Other Activities at the Council

Findings from the Census of 1980
The 1984 annual meeting of the American Statisti-
cal Association included a session at which early re-
sults were reported from research being conducted
under the sponsorship of the Council's Committee
for Research on the 1980 Census. The committee has
commissioned a series of research projects that will
lead to books intended to serve as authoritative de-
scriptions of American society, exploiting the area
detail, the information on subgroups of the popula-
tion, and the extended time series which characterize
decennial census data.
The annual meeting of the association (in Philadel-
phia, August 13-16, 1984) offered an opportunity
for researchers in this project to obtain comments and
criticism from their colleagues in statistics and other
social sciences, and for the research community to
learn more about the project and the results it is
producing. Papers were presented by:
Donald J. Hernandez, U.S. Bureau of the Census, and David E.
Myers, Decision Resources, Inc.
"The Changing Living Circumstances of America's Chil-
Alden Speare, Jr., Brown University, and William Frey,
University of Michigan
"Correlates of Metropolitan Growth and Decline, 1970-1980"
Michael J. White, Princeton University
"Measuring Neighborhood Differentiation in Metropolitan
Jacob S. Siegel, Georgetown University, and Cynthia M.
Taeuber, U.S. Bureau of the Census
"A Profile of America's Older Population: A Generation of

Ann Miller, University of Pennsylvania, discussed
the papers; Richard C. Rockwell served as staff.

Conceptions of class
The Committee on Comparative Stratification Re-
search sponsored a workshop on "Conceptions of
Class," held in Budapest, September 7-8, 1984. The
workshop was organized by John H. Goldthorpe,
Nuffield College (Oxford), and Walter Miiller, Uni-
versity of Mannheim. Support was provided by a
grant from the National Science Foundation.
The workshop focused on alternative approaches
to the study of class and the structure of occupations.
Presentations were made by researchers affiliated
with two projects in which rather different perspec-

tives are being taken on related bodies of data. The
first project, the Comparative Analysis of Social Mo-
bility in Industrial Nations (based at the University of
Mannheim and directed by Messrs. Goldthorpe and
Miiller), is an effort to archive and make comparable
the social mobility studies that have been conducted
in over a dozen nations since 1962. The other is the
Comparative Project on Class Structure and Class
Consciousness, involving comparable surveys of the
populations of (currently) seven nations, under the
direction of scholars in universities and research in-
stitutes in those nations, with leadership from Erik
Olin Wright. These two projects are the principal
international efforts to conduct comparative stratifi-
cation research. Contributions to the workshop were
also made on the analysis of change in long-term
occupational structures. The committee hopes that
this exchange of views and of early results of research
can be useful in informing and perhaps shaping the
ongoing research of participants.
Papers were presented at two sessions:
(1) Conceptualizing class structures
Tom Colbjdrnsen, "Revealing the Empirical Relevance of Marx:
Some Theoretical and Methodological Issues"
John H. Goldthorpe, "Social Mobility and Class Formation: On
the Renewal of a Tradition in Sociological Inquiry"
Howard Newby, Carolyn Vogler, David Rose, and Gordon Mar-
shall, "From Class Structure to Class Action: British Working
Class Politics in the 1980s"
Erik Olin Wright, "Class Structure and Class Consciousness in
Contemporary Capitalist Society: A Comparative Analysis of
Sweden and the United States" and "A General Framework for
the Analysis of Class Structure"

(2) Explaining changes in class structures
Giorgio Gagliani, "Long Run Changes in the Occupational

Joachim Singelmann and Marta Tienda, "The Process of Occu-
pational Change in a Service Society: The Case of the United
States, 1960-1980"

Participants included:

Rudolph Andorka

Tom Colbjzrnsen
Robert Erikson

David L. Featherman
Giorgio Gagliani
John H. Goldthorpe
Robert M. Hauser

Karl Marx University of
Economic Sciences
University of Bergen
Swedish Institute for Social
Research (Stockholm)
University of Wisconsin
University of Calabria
Nuffield College (Oxford)
University of Wisconsin


Tamas Kolosi

Wolfgang K6nig
Gordon Marshall
Karl Ulrich Mayer

Walter Miiller
Howard Newby
Natalie Rogoff Rams4y

Albert Simkus
Joachim Singlemann
Ken'ichi Tominaga
Erik Olin Wright

Peter B. Read and Richard C. Rockwell served as

Survey of Income and Program
Participation (SIPP)
The Committee on Social Indicators' Subcommittee
on the Survey of Income and Program Participation
sponsored a symposium on "The Scientific Potential
of SIPP: Critiques of Its Content and Methods," held
at the Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C.,
November 11-13, 1984. The symposium, organized
by Martin H. David, University of Wisconsin, was
supported by a grant from the National Science
Foundation and funds from the U.S. Bureau of the
Census. It is anticipated that papers will be published
in the June 1985 issue of The Review of Public Data
Use, under the guest editorship of Mr. David.
The SIPP is the major new Bureau of the Census
panel data collection program that is intended to
measure changes in economic well-being (see the
March 1983 issue of Items, pages 26-27, and the
March 1984 issue, pages 16-17, for further details).
This program was preceded by a pilot project that
developed techniques for measuring monthly in-
comes from a wide variety of sources. Much less at-
tention was given in the pilot project to measures in
other areas-perhaps of considerable analytical
importance-such as education, fringe benefits, fam-
ily structure, and health.
The principal contributions from outside the
Bureau to the design of these measures have come
from federal program agencies, whose data needs are
not necessarily the same as those of researchers out-
side the government. The subcommittee sponsored
this symposium to provide an opportunity for the
nonfederal research community to comment (1) on
the measures being implemented in the SIPP; (2) on
the design of its sample, panel, and data collection

Institute for Social Sciences
University of Mannheim
University of Essex
Max Planck Institute for
Educational Research
University of Mannheim
University of Essex
Institute for Applied Social
Research (Oslo)
University of Michigan
University of Duisburg
University of Tokyo
University of Wisconsin

Murray Aborn
Harold Beebout

Carolyn Shaw Bell
Steven Carlson

John Coder
Evan Davey
Martin H. David
Greg J. Duncan

National Science Foundation
Mathematica, Inc.
(Washington, D.C.)
Wellesley College
U.S. Department of
U.S. Bureau of the Census
U.S. Bureau of the Census
University of Wisconsin
University of Michigan


procedures; and (3) on the plans for dissemination of
The symposium included the following sessions,
participants, and presentations:
(1) Core concepts
Chair, Martin H. David
Harold W. Watts, "The Scientific Potential of SIPP for Analyses
of Living Arrangements for Families and Households"
Greg J. Duncan, "Remarks on the Measurement of Household
and Family Relationships Based on the PSID Experience"
Reynolds Farley, "Understanding Racial Differences and Trends:
How the Survey of Income and Program Participation Can
Timothy M. Smeeding, "The Scientific Potential of SIPP: Its
Content and Methods Regarding Fringe Benefits, Noncash In-
come, and the Value of Government Services"

(2) Areas of social concern
Chair, Reynolds Farley
Thomas J. Espenshade and Douglas A. Wolf, "SIPP Data on
Marriage, Separation, Divorce, and Remarriage: Problems,
Opportunities, and Recommendations"
Gail R. Wilensky, "Survey of Income and Program Participation:
Health and Health Care Issues"

(3) Work and education
Chair, Harold Beebout
Gary S. Fields and George H. Jakubson, "Labor Market Analysis
Using the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP)"
Carolyn Shaw Bell, "SIPP and the Female Condition"
Michael R. Olneck, "Critique of Questions Pertaining to Educa-
tion in the Survey of Income and Program Participation"

(4) Methodological problems
Chair, Daniel G. Horvitz
Martin H. David, "The Distribution of Income in the United
States: Implications for the Design of the Survey of Income and
Program Participation Panel"
James D. Smith, "A Little SIPP-Old Wine in New Bottles: Let's
Re-cask It"
Graham Kalton and James Lepkowski, "Following Rules in the
Survey of Income and Program Participation"
Sheldon E. Haber, "Some Applications of a Micro Worker and
Firm Data Base"
Informal presentations were also made by Murray
Aborn, Roger A. Herriot, Daniel Kasprzyk, and Den-
ton Vaughan.
The participants were:

Thomas J. Espenshade

Suzann Evinger

Reynolds Farley
Gary Sheldon Fields
Harvey Galper

Gordon Green
Sheldon E. Haber
Donald J. Hernandez
Roger A. Herriot
Daniel G. Horvitz

Daniel Kasprzyk
Helen P. Koo

James Lepkowski
David B. McMillen
Jack McNeil
Franklin W. Monfort
Peter A. Morrison

The Urban Institute
(Washington, D.C.)
U.S. Office of Management
and Budget
University of Michigan
Cornell University
The Brookings Institution
(Washington, D.C.)
U.S. Bureau of the Census
George Washington University
U.S. Bureau of the Census
U.S. Bureau of the Census
Research Triangle Institute
(Research Triangle Park,
North Carolina)
U.S. Bureau of the Census
Research Triangle Institute
(Research Triangle Park,
North Carolina)
University of Michigan
U.S. Bureau of the Census
U.S. Bureau of the Census
University of Wisconsin
Rand Corporation (Santa
Monica, California)

Art Norton
Martin O'Connell
Michael R. Olneck
Charles G. Renfro
Alice Robbin
Paul Ryscavage
Douglas Sater
Thomas Scopp
Paul Seigel
Raj Singh
Timothy M. Smeeding
James D. Smith
Robert P. Strauss
Teresa A. Sullivan
Denton Vaughan

Harold W. Watts
Daniel H. Weinberg

Gail Wilensky

Douglas Wolf

U.S. Bureau of the Census
U.S. Bureau of the Census
University of Wisconsin
Review of Public Data Use
University of Wisconsin
U.S. Bureau of the Census
U.S. Bureau of the Census
U.S. Bureau of the Census
U.S. Bureau of the Census
U.S. Bureau of the Census
University of Utah
University of Michigan
Carnegie-Mellon University
University of Texas
U.S. Social Security
Columbia University
U.S. Department of Health
and Human Services
Project Hope (Washington,
The Urban Institute
(Washington, D.C.)

Richard C. Rockwell served as staff.

Recent Council Publications

Many of the 70-80 meetings, workshops, and con-
ferences that the Council sponsors each year lead
to activities and results other than conference
volumes-further meetings, articles in journals,
perhaps even new directions for research on the part
of the participants. But many do lead to conference
volumes, and a number of committees sometimes
commission the preparation of other volumes as well.
Council books are always described in Items, and are
listed in the Annual Report as well. The last months of

1984 witnessed the publication of an unusually large
number of Council books; in order to guide the
reader to books of interest, we have grouped them in
this section according to their content.
Included in this section are books sponsored by two
joint area committees that are administered by the
American Council of Learned Societies: the Joint
Committee on Chinese Studies and the Joint Com-
mittee on Eastern Europe.

From Nationalism to Revolutionary Islam, edited by Said Amir Arjomand (page 86)
Social Stratification in the Middle East and North Africa: A Bibliographic Survey, pl epa red by Ali Banuazizi with the assistance of Prouchestia
Goodarzi (page 86)
"The Food Crisis and Agrarian Change in Africa: A Review Essay," by Sara S. Berry; "Labor and Labor History in Africa: A Review of
the Literature," by Bill Freund (page 87)
Theories of the Arts in China, edited by Susan Bush and Christian Murck (page 88)
Popular Chinese Literature and Performing Arts in the People's Republic of China, 1949-1979, edited by Bonnie S. McDougall (page 88)
Class and Social Stratification in Post-Revolution China, edited by James L. Watson (page 89)
Japanese Studies in the United States: The 1980's (page 89)
Conflict in Japan, edited by Ellis S. Krauss, Thomas P. Rohlen, and Patricia G. Steinhoff (page 90)
The Japanese Colonial Empire, 1895-1945, edited by Ramon H. Myers and Mark R. Peattie (page 90)

(continued on next page)


Contents (continued)
Agrarian Power and Agricultural Productivity in South Asia, edited by Meghnad Desai, Susanne Hoeber Rudolph, and Ashok
Rudra (page 91)
Moral Conduct and Authority: The Place of Adab in South Asian Islam, edited by Barbara Daly Metcalf (page 91)
Centers, Symbols, and Hierarchies: Essays on the Classical States of Southeast Asia, edited by Lorraine Gesick (page 92)
Regional Development: Problems and Policies in Eastern and Western Europe, edited by George Demko (page 92)
Russia and the Formation of the Romanian National State, 1921-1978, by Barbara Jelavich (page 93)
Order and Conflict in Contemporary Capitalism, edited by John H. Goldthorpe (page 93)
L'organizzazione degli interessi nell'Europa occidental: Pluralismo, corporativismo, e la trasformazione della political, edited by Suzanne
Berger (page 93)
Soviet Economy (page 94)
The Political Economy of the Latin American Motor Vehicle Industry, edited by Rich Kronish and Kenneth S. Mericle (page 94)
Latin America in the 1930s: The Role of the Periphery in the World Crisis, edited by Rosemary Thorp (page 95)
Kinship Ideology and Practice in Latin America, edited by Raymond T. Smith (page 96)
Blacks and Whites: Narrowing the Gap? by Reynolds Farley (page 97)
Capital Flows and Exchange Rate Determination, edited by Lawrence R. Klein and Wilhelm E. Krelle (page 98)
Culture Theory: Essays on Mind, Self, and Emotion, edited by Richard A. Schweder and Robert A. LeVine (page 98)
Emotions, Cognition, and Behavior, edited by Carroll E. Izard, Jerome Kagan, and Robert B. Zajonc (page 99)

From Nationalism to Revolutionary Islam, edited by
Said Amir Arjomand. Papers from a conference
sponsored by the Joint Committee on the Near and
Middle East. London: Macmillan; Albany: State Uni-
versity of New York Press, 1984. xxii + 256 pages.
U.S. edition: cloth, $39.50; paper $14.95.

The papers in this volume were, with one excep-
tion, originally presented at a conference on social
movements and political culture in the contemporary
Near and Middle East held in Mt. Kisco, New York,
on May 14-17, 1981. The essays by the various au-
thors focus on the endogenous factors contributing to
the emergence and growth of social movements in
which nationalism or Islam is the driving force. The
emerging pattern of the declining significance of
nationalism and the concomitant shift to Islam as the
focus of popular movements during the last two dec-
ades serves as the central unifying theme for the
The contributors and their affiliations are:

Akbar Ahmed
Said Amir Arjomand

Shaul Bakhash
Richard Cottam
Eric Davis
Farhad Kazemi

Harvard University
State University of New York,
Stony Brook
Princeton University
University of Pittsburgh
Rutgers University
New York University

Rashid Khalidi
Binnaz Toprak
Peter von Sivers

American University of Beirut
Bogazici University (Istanbul)
University of Utah

Social Stratification in the Middle East and North
Africa: A Bibliographic Survey, prepared by Ali
Banuazizi with the assistance of Prouchestia
Goodarzi. A volume produced under the auspices of
the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East.
London and New York: Mansell Publishing Limited,
1984. xiii+248 pages. Cloth, 31.00; $36.00.

This bibliography of 1,913 entries is a product of
an activity of the Task Force on Social Stratification in
the Near and Middle East designed to contribute to
the study of institutionalized inequalities in the distri-
bution of life chances and economic resources in the
Middle East and North Africa. The sources covered
are those that appeared in English and French be-
tween 1946 and 1982. The material is arranged al-
phabetically by author under 20 country headings,
with a separate section for the area in general.
The subject index, subdivided alphabetically by
country, includes the following headings: bour-
geoisie, business elites, and merchants; demographic
studies; elites, local; elites, political; fertility/mo-
tality and social status; guilds; income distri-
bution; labor force and occupational structure;
labor unions and labor movements; landlords; land


reform; middle classes; migration, international; mi-
gration, rural-urban; military elites and personnel;
minorities, ethnic/linguistic; minorities, religious;
peasants; petite bourgeoisie; professionals, bureau-
crats, managers, etc.; religious groups; rural com-
munities and strata; slavery; social strata and groups;
social structure and change; students, teachers, and
education; tribal and nomadic communities; urban
communities and strata; women; working classes.

"The Food Crisis and Agrarian Change in Africa: A
Review Essay," by Sara S. Berry; "Labor and Labor
History in Africa: A Review of the Literature," by
Bill Freund. Research overview papers commissioned
by the Joint Committee on African Studies for pre-
sentation at the December 1983 annual meeting of
the African Studies Association. Special issue, African
Studies Review, 27:2, June 1984.

Recent assessments of the performance and pros-
pects of African economies portray a deepening eco-
nomic crisis centered on the problem of food
supplies. During the last ten years, domestic food
supplies in Africa have fallen further and further
behind domestic needs. Chronic hunger and malnu-
trition have spread and escalated quickly into famine
at times of environmental or financial crisis. Covering
food deficits from foreign sources has also become
more difficult in the last decade. World prices of
grains have risen; soaring petroleum prices have put
heavy strains on many African countries' balances of
payments and worsened their terms of trade; and
agricultural exports have not increased sufficiently to
cover rising import bills. Food aid to Africa has grown
at unprecedented rates in the last decade, but it is
neither adequate to meet short-term needs nor a so-
lution to the crisis in the long run.
In her review of the research on the food crisis and
agrarian change in Africa, Sara S. Berry, Boston
University, poses as her central question whether the
food crisis in Africa is mainly a result of lagging or
insufficient agricultural production or whether it is
part of a larger crisis of economic management, re-
flected in chronic balance of payments deficits, rising
foreign indebtedness, inflation, low productivity, cor-
ruption, waste, and deteriorating standards of living
for all but a privileged few. Sections of the paper
present a selective review of the social science lit-
erature on various aspects of African agriculture at
different levels of social agency, and suggest some
ways in which we might attempt to build on existing
insights to place the food crisis in clearer historical

and analytical perspective. Section I discusses prob-
lems with the evidence and arguments on aggregate
agricultural performance, while Section II argues
that many case studies of particular farming systems,
forms of rural social organization, and patterns of
rural-urban linkage in Africa are informed by com-
mon paradigms. The strengths and weaknesses of
these paradigms for understanding recent agrarian
trends are assessed. Section III argues that the limi-
tations of efforts to understand agrarian change in
terms of individual responses to technical or
structural parameters may be overcome, at least in
part, by tracing changing uses of agricultural surplus,
and analyzing the ways in which they have shaped
and been influenced by conditions of agricultural
production and linkages between agricultural and
nonagricultural sectors of African economies.
Ms. Berry concludes that there is no single expla-
nation or universal cure for African food deficits.
Her review has shown that to think through the va-
lidity of particular arguments or remedies for the
food crisis we need to take account of changing condi-
tions of access to economic opportunity and produc-
tive resources as well as examine changes in the way
agricultural resources are used. This suggests, in
turn, that the future growth of productive capacity
in agriculture and in other spheres of productive
activity will be closely related to the development of
more stable or less contentious conditions of access
and adjudication of rights to productive resources,
but it does not follow that the food crisis can be
resolved or eliminated merely by changing policies
until we find the right match between policy instru-
ments and economic conditions. She emphasizes that
governments' patterns of resource allocation and ac-
quisition, like farmers', are complex social processes
which need to be understood in dynamic perspective.
Bill Freund, University of the Witwatersrand, begins
his review by considering the historiography of labor
in Africa, and he emphasizes that what goes on at
work is increasingly complex and problematic. The
labor process combines technical elements, the use of
specific tools or premises, the hours spent laboring,
and the intensity of that labor. Social control at work
and outside takes many forms, not always internally
consistent or efficacious. The relationship of social
controls to economic exploitation is also often quite
problematic. He concludes that uncovering these re-
lationships and, more precisely, what goes on within
the labor process, constitutes the germ of the most
interesting current work being written on labor.
The first sections of his essay look anew at the great
themes of the 1950s and 1960s: the trade union,


self-conscious working class activity as usually de-
fined, and labor migration and stabilization. Next, he
focuses on the analysis of labor in the African past,
colonial and precolonial. From this, his essay moves
to look at the growing innovative literature expand-
ing the boundaries of African labor studies-labor in
agriculture, labor in the functioning of the so-called
informal sector of the economy, and the labor of
women and children. Finally, he returns to the ques-
tion of commitment, considering first the assessment
of workers' control in contemporary African work-
places and then the influence on recent scholarship of
the black labor insurgency in South Africa.
Mr. Freund concludes that there has been a
flourishing literature on African labor that has passed
rapidly and sometimes confusingly beyond the
boundaries conventionally set for the subject. If there
is a single issue that wittingly or unwittingly underlies
all the relevant literature, it is the question of class-
class formation, class history, class relationships, class
consciousness. To what extent and from when and
why can we speak of an African working class?
He suggests that the future of labor studies will
depend on extraneous and largely material factors
rather than the arguments of intellectuals. In other
words, the demands of Western capital, the needs of
intellectuals, and the actual course of political and
economic change in Africa will primarily determine
whether labor continues to be as seminal a subject and
how research on it will proceed. He suggests that
there is and will remain considerable vitality in labor
studies both as traditionally constituted and as in-
fused with new considerations, while labor will in-
creasingly be taken as a sine qua non for com-
prehending broader social and historical patterns.

Theories of the Arts in China, edited by Susan Bush
and Christian Murck. Papers from a conference held
in June 1979 sponsored by the Committee on Studies
of Chinese Civilization of the American Council of
Learned Societies, one of the two predecessor com-
mittees of the Joint Committee on Chinese Studies.
Princeton University Press, 1983. xxvi + 447 pages.
Cloth, $45.00.

The purpose of the conference on which this vol-
ume is based was to stimulate interest in Chinese
aesthetics. For five days, two philosophers and two
cultural historians, along with ten historians of
Chinese literature and eight of Chinese art, met to
comment on and debate about these papers.

The topics of the papers include literary theory,
images of nature, music theory and poetics, views of
the arts during the Sung dynasty, and issues in Ming
dynasty literary and artistic criticism.
The contributors and their affiliations are:

Richard Barnhart
Susan Bush
Kang-i Sun Chang
Jonathan Chaves
Kenneth DeWoskin
John Hay
Lothar Ledderose
Shuen-fu Lin
Richard John Lynn
Kiyohiko Munakata
Christian Murck

Susan E. Nelson
Maureen Robertson
Tu Wei-ming
John Timothy Wixted
Pauline Yu

Yale University
Harvard University
Yale University
George Washington University
University of Michigan
Harvard University
Heidelberg University
University of Michigan
Macquarie University
University of Illinois
Manufacturers Hanover Trust
Company (New York)
Indiana University
University of Iowa
Harvard University
Arizona State University
University of Minnesota

Popular Chinese Literature and Performing Arts in
the People's Republic of China, 1949-1979, edited
by Bonnie S. McDougall. Studies on China 2. Papers
from a workshop held in June 1979 sponsored jointly
by Harvard University, the Committee on Studies of
Chinese Civilization of the American Council of
Learned Societies, and the Joint Committee on Con-
temporary China-the precedessor committees of the
Joint Committee on Chinese Studies. Berkeley: Uni-
versity of California Press, 1984. xvi + 341 pages.
Cloth, $32.50.

The papers in this volume constitute a broad and
inclusive account of Chinese literature and the per-
forming arts since 1949. Extending beyond fiction to
poetry and drama, and covering songs, opera, and
film as well, the papers reveal a more lively and varied
cultural life than disclosed by studies confined to fic-
tion and literary politics.
Rather than stopping at the assumption that art
reflects Party or government policy, the papers un-
cover the traditional roots of popular literature and
the performing arts by employing literary and artistic
methods of analysis. While often lacking in appeal to
Western audiences, these popular arts have their own
artistic validity and convey complex meanings to
broadly-based Chinese audiences. The new materials
and analyses presented in the volume demonstrate
that variety and change, rather than monolithic uni-
formity, have characterized post-1949 cultural bu-
reaucracies, writers, performers, and audiences.


This is the second volume of a new series, Studies on
China, sponsored by the Joint Committee on Chinese
Studies. The first volume was Origins of Chinese
Civilization, edited by David L. Keightley.
The contributors and their affiliations are:

Paul Clark
Michael Egan
Edward Gunn
Robert E. Hegel
David Holm
Kai-yu Hsu
T.D. Huters
Perry Link

Wai-fong Loh
Bonnie S. McDougall
Isabel K.F. Wong
Bell Yung

Harvard University
Toronto, Canada
Cornell University
Washington University
Macquarie University
San Francisco State University
University of Minnesota
University of California, Los
Harvard University
Beijing Foreign Institute
University of Illinois
University of Pittsburgh

Class and Social Stratification in Post-Revolution
China, edited by James L. Watson. Studies on China 3.
Papers from a conference sponsored by the Contem-
porary China Institute, School of African and
Oriental Studies (London), and the Joint Committee
on Contemporary China, one of the predecessor
committees of the Joint Committee on Chinese
Studies. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge Uni-
versity Press, 1984. vii + 289 pages. Cloth, $49.50.

This volume of papers is a result of a conference
convened in Windsor Park, England, June 30 to July
4, 1980. The contributors include two anthro-
pologists, three sociologists, three political scientists,
and a historian.
This is the third volume of a new series, Studies on
China, sponsored by the Joint Committee on Chinese
Studies. The first volume was Origins of Chinese
Civilization, edited by David L. Keightley; the second
was Popular Chinese Literature and Performing Arts in the
People's Republic of China, edited by Bonnie S.
The contributors and their papers are:

Elisabeth Croll, Queen Elizabeth House (Oxford)
"Marriage Choice and Status Groups in Contemporary China"
Philip A. Kuhn, Harvard University
"Chinese Views of Social Classification"
William L. Parish, University of Chicago
"Destratification in China"
Stuart R. Schram, School of African and Oriental Studies (Lon-
"Classes, Old and New, in Mao Zedong's Thought, 1949-1976"
Susan L. Shirk, University of California, San Diego
"The Decline of Virtuocracy in China"

Jonathan Unger, University of Kansas
"The Class System in Rural China: A Case Study"
James L. Watson, University of Pittsburgh
"Introduction: Class and Class Formation in Chinese Society"
Lynn T. White III, Princeton University
"Bourgeois Radicalism in the 'New Class' of Shanghai, 1949-
Martin King Whyte, University of Michigan
"Sexual Inequality Under Socialism: The Chinese Case in Per-


Japanese Studies in the United States: The 1980's. A
report on a survey carried out by Kane, Parsons and
Associates for the Joint Committee on Japanese
Studies, with the support of the Japan Foundation.
Tokyo: The Japan Foundation, 1984. vi + 193.pages.
Paper. Available from the Council without charge.

During the 1982-83 academic year, the Joint
Committee on Japanese Studies commissioned the
firm of Kane, Parsons and Associates to carry out a
survey of American colleges and universities with
programs on Japan and of individual academically-
employed Japan specialists. The survey was sup-
ported by the Japan Foundation, which has now pub-
lished the results of the survey in both English and
The report is the third in a series of surveys of the
academic field of Japanese studies in the United
States. The first, published in 1970 by the Joint
Committee on Japanese Studies and commonly re-
ferred to as the "Hall Report," addressed conditions
in the academic year 1969-70. The second survey,
known as the "Massey Report," was published in 1977
by the CULCON Subcommittee on Japanese Studies.
It covered 1974-75 and was conceived of as a five-
year update of the 1970 survey. Although not entirely
comparable in scope and methodology, this most re-
cent survey attempts to update basic information on
the number of trained academic specialists; the
number of academic institutions at which they work;
and the number of student enrollments in Japanese
studies courses taught at these institutions. The re-
port demonstrates that the field has continued to
grow, albeit more slowly than in the past. More sig-
nificantly, over the past decade and one half,
Japanese studies has established a firm institutional
infrastructure; has achieved high standards of quality
in training, research, and publication; and has at-
tained a relatively secure position within many
American institutions of higher education.


An interpretative overview of the survey, written by
John W. Hall with the assistance of Theodore C.
Bestor and the members of the Joint Committee on
Japanese Studies, was also published in The Japan
Foundation Newsletter (Volume 12, Number 3, October
1984, pages 12-16). The overview argues that the
demographics of the field and the financial basis for
area studies at American universities require that spe-
cial attention be paid to issues of the training and
employment of scholars at the early stages of their
careers, as well as for research support to assist in
retaining scholars as active members of the field
during later stages in their careers.
Copies of the full English language report are
available free of charge upon request from the Coun-
cil's Japan program. Copies will be distributed on a
first-come, first-served basis, with priority given to
those scholars who participated in the survey.

Conflict in Japan, edited by Ellis S. Krauss, Thomas
P. Rohlen, and Patricia G. Steinhoff. Papers from two
conferences sponsored by the Joint Committee on
Japanese Studies. Honolulu: University of Hawaii
Press, 1984. x + 417 pages. Cloth, $24.95; paper,

Social science research on Japan during most of
the postwar period has emphasized harmony, not
conflict, visualizing a hierarchical society with strong
collective unity. Contemporary Japan has been char-
acterized as lacking both major schisms and as re-
solving its lesser conflicts with relative ease, thanks to
a consensual decision-making process. In this pre-
vailing paradigm, Japanese institutions are effective
and satisfying to their loyal and cooperative partici-
pants. This general image of Japan has been accom-
panied by microlevel studies of individuals and small
groups that portray the Japanese as "polite" people
seeking the social harmony idealized in traditional
Japanese culture. Rural villages as well as modern
organizations have been described as valuing group
identity, hierarchically-ordered interpersonal rela-
tions, and decision making by consensus.
That the qualities stressed in this model exist to a
significant degree in Japan is beyond dispute; but the
model is inadequate because it has virtually excluded
serious consideration of conflict. It has become ap-
parent, for example, that rapid economic change has
created both conflicts and dissension over the costs
and benefits of industrialization. Environmental and
minority rights issues have intensified, and rivalries
among government and opposition parties and within

the policy-making process have been major concerns
of observers of Japanese politics. Follow-up studies of
villages are likely today to discuss harmony and its
tensions and to probe deep antagonisms beneath
the surface of the apparent solidarity villagers main-
tain before outsiders. Student movements and mass
protests reflecting severe generational cleavages and
political alienation have been a consistent and popu-
lar theme in studies by Western scholars.
Yet, despite the frequent identification of conflict
in many studies, the older paradigm of a harmonious
Japan remains. Certainly little scholarship on Japan
has adopted an explicit conflict approach or at-
tempted to use Western social science conflict theory
to understand Japanese society. With this in mind, the
Joint Committee on Japanese Studies sponsored two
large conferences and a number of smaller planning
sessions and meetings between 1976 and 1979. Par-
ticipants in the project were encouraged to undertake
original research on conflict in a Japanese institution
or, alternatively, to rethink their prior research from
a conflict perspective.
The essays in this volume present the results of
these conferences. The contributors and their affilia-
tions are:

John C. Campbell
Michael W. Donnelly
Tadashi A. Hanami
Takeshi Ishida
Ellis S. Krauss

Takie S. Lebra
Agnes M. Niyekawa
Susan J. Pharr
Thomas P. Rohlen
Patricia G. Steinhoff
Teigo Yoshida

University of Michigan
University of Toronto
Sophia University
University of Tokyo
Western Washington
University of Hawaii
University of Hawaii
University of Wisconsin
San Anselmo, California
University of Hawaii
University of Tokyo

The Japanese Colonial Empire, 1895-1945, edited
by Ramon H. Myers and Mark R. Peattie. Papers
from a conference sponsored by the Joint Committee
on Japanese Studies. Princeton University Press,
1984. x + 541 pages. Cloth, $47.50.

The Japanese colonial empire was a central element
in Japan's drive toward great-power status in the late
19th and early 20th centuries; as the only non-
Western empire in modern times, it was also a unique
development in world history. In 1979, the Joint
Committee on Japanese Studies sponsored a confer-
ence held at the Hoover Institution on War, Revolu-
tion, and Peace (Stanford, California) to examine the
Japanese empire from its establishment in 1895 to its
liquidation in 1945.


The present volume focuses on the formal colonial
empire of Japan: Taiwan, Korea, Karafuto (southern
Sakhalin), the Kwantung Leased Territory, and the
South Seas Mandated Islands. It examines the origin
and evolution of the empire, the institutions and
policies by which it was governed, and the economic
dynamics that impelled it. It considers how Japanese
colonialism resembled and was influenced by Euro-
pean colonial patterns, and places the Japanese em-
pire in the context of colonialism as a global phenom-
The contributors and their affiliations are:

Ching-chih Chen

Edward I-te Chen

Bruce Cumings
Peter Duus
Lewis H. Gann
Samuel Pao-San Ho
Marius B. Jansen
Toshiyuki Mizoguchi
Ramon H. Myers
Mark R. Peattie

Michael E. Robinson

E. Patricia Tsurumi
Saburo Yamada
Yiz5 Yamamoto

Southern Illinois University,
Bowling Green State
University of Washington
Stanford University
The Hoover Institution
University of British Columbia
Princeton University
Hitotsubashi University
The Hoover Institution
University of Massachusetts,
University of Southern
University of Victoria
University of Tokyo
Kyoto University

A second conference on Japan's informal em-
pire in China-where Japan had influence with-
out holding sovereignty-is being organized by
Banno Junji, University of Tokyo; Peter Duus, Stan-
ford University; Ramon H. Myers, The Hoover In-
stitution; and Mark R. Peattie, University of Massa-
chusetts, Boston. This conference, which is to be
cosponsored by the Joint Committee on Japanese
Studies and the Japan Society for the Promotion of.
Science, will be held at the Hoover Institution during
the summer of 1985.

Agrarian Power and Agricultural Productivity in
South Asia, edited by Meghnad Desai, Susanne
Hoeber Rudolph, and Ashok Rudra. Papers from two
conferences sponsored by the Subcommittee on
South Asian Political Economy of the Joint Commit-
tee on South Asia. Delhi: Oxford University Press,
1984. 384 pages. Cloth, Rs. 160. (An American edition
will be published by the University of California Press
in 1985.)

This volume focuses on the relationships between
local-level power structures and the advance or retar-
dation of agricultural productivity. Drawing from
historical materials, contemporary field research, and
practical experience in policy planning and im-
plementation, the papers indicate that the relation-
ship between power and productivity varies with his-
torical time and region, and is determined in part by
legal arrangements, market opportunities, and how
surpluses are allocated.
The contributors and their affiliations are:

Donald W. Attwood
Sukhamoy Chakravarty
B.B. Chaudhuri
Meghnad Desai

Ronald J. Herring
David Ludden
Lloyd I. Rudolph
Susanne Hoeber Rudolph
Ashok Rudra

McGill University
Delhi School of Economics
University of Calcutta
London School of Economics
and Political Science
Northwestern University
University of Pennsylvania
University of Chicago
University of Chicago
Visva-Bharati (Santiniketan,
West Bengal)

Moral Conduct and Authority: The Place of Adab in
South Asian Islam, edited by Barbara Daly Metcalf.
Papers from a conference sponsored by the Joint
Committee on South Asia. Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1984. xii + 387 pages. Cloth, $36.50.

This papers in this volume explore adab, the Mus-
lim ideal of the harmonious life of a person who
knows the proper relationship to God, to others, and
to oneself, and who, as a result, plays a special role
among his or her fellows. Explicating the theory em-
bodied in the term adab as it is conveyed in classical
texts, in popular literature, and in individual lives, the
contributors also describe historical periods and spe-
cific contexts in which the pattern is particularly sa-
The volume is part of a program of the Joint
Committee on South Asia designed to specify and
develop the analytical utility of concepts, models,
and systems of meaning and organization embedded
within South Asian social and cultural traditions.
The contributors and their affiliations are:

Muhammad Ajmal (Jungian
Gerhard B6wering (Islamic
Peter Brown (history)

Simon Everard Digby (Islamic
Richard M. Eaton (history)

University of Heidelberg

University of Pennsylvania
University of California,

Wolfson College (Oxford)
University of Arizona


Katherine Ewing (cultural
anthropology) Institute for Psychoanalysis
David Gilmartin (history) University of North Carolina
Richard Kurin (anthropology) Southern Illinois University
Ira M. Lapidus (history) University of California,
Muhammad Khalid Masud
(Islamic law) Ahmadu Bello University
(Zaria, Nigeria)
Barbara D. Metcalf (history) University of California,
C.M. Naim (Urdu studies) University of Chicago
J.F. Richards (history) Duke University
Francis Robinson (history) Royal Holloway College
Brian Silver (Urdu studies) Duke University

Centers, Symbols, and Hierarchies: Essays on the
Classical States of Southeast Asia, edited by Lorraine
Gesick, Papers from two workshops sponsored by
the Joint Committee on Southeast Asia. Monograph
Series No. 26. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale Univer-
sity Southeast Asia Studies. x + 243 pages. Paper,

At workshops held in November 1977 and Decem-
ber 1978, students of Southeast Asia sought to de-
velop a comparative understanding of the nature of
the classical Southeast Asian "state." The revised es-
says which comprise this volume focus on styles of
leadership, politics, statecraft, and the legitimization of
hierarchy in the classical states of Burma, Cambodia,
Java, Sulawesi, and Thailand. Clifford Geertz, Insti-
tute for Advanced Study (Princeton, New Jersey),
wrote the "Foreword" to the volume, while Ms. Gesick
wrote the "Introduction."

The contributors and their affiliations are:

Michael Aung-Thwin, Elmira College
"Divinity, Spirit, and Human: Conceptions of Classical Bur-
mese Kingship"
David P. Chandler, Monash University
"Going Through the Motions: Ritual Aspects of the Reign of
King Duang of Cambodia (1848-1860)"
Jan Wisseman Christie, University of Hull
"Raja and Rama: The Classical State in Early Java"
Anthony Day, University of Sydney
"The Drama of Bangun Tapa's Exile in Ambon: The Poetry of
Kingship in Surakarta, 1830-58"
Shelly Errington, University of California, Santa Cruz
"The Place of Regalia in Luwu"
Lorraine Gesick, Tufts University
"The Rise and Fall of King Taksin: A Drama of Buddhist King-

Regional Development: Problems and Policies in
Eastern and Western Europe, edited by George
Demko. Papers from a conference held in June 1982
sponsored by the Joint Committee on Eastern
Europe. London and Sydney: Croom Ltd; New York:
St. Martin's Press, 1984. xiv + 283 pages. Cloth,
This volume is the result of a conference held in
1982 at the Rockefeller Center in Bellagio, Italy. The
conference was cofunded by the committee, the In-
ternational Research and Exchanges Board, and the
Rockefeller Foundation. The idea for a meeting of
specialists on the theme of European regional devel-
opment issues originated in the Joint Committee on
Eastern Europe.
The conference was focused on problems of re-
gional development in Eastern and Western Europe,
including regional economic and social inequal-
ities, lagging and backward regions, and biased
and constricted flows of labor and capital, to name a
few. The issue of regional policies and their effective-
ness in addressing the problems was included within
the purview of the conference. Among the basic as-
sumptions of the conference organizers was that these
issues were and are of some significance in both
Europes, that the area contains a wide array of exam-
ples of regional development problems, and that such
problems are, in large measure, independent of
ideology and sociopolitical system.
The overarching goal of the conference was to
bring together leading specialists in the regional de-
velopment field from both West and East with spe-
cially prepared papers on themes common to both
Europes which would provoke comparisons, analyses,
discussion, and identification of important research
questions of mutual interest and benefit. The basic
design of the conference included five sections:
theoretical aspects of regional development; iden-
tifying and measuring variations in levels of regional
development; specific policy instruments and mea-
sures adopted to intervene in regional development
processes; current trends and directions in regional
development in Europe; and, finally, a set of Euro-
pean case studies reflecting the range of issues in
regional development.
The participants at the conference, most of whom
contributed papers to the volume, were:

Brian Ashcroft
Ellen Brennan
Attilio Celant

University of Strathclyde
United Nations (New York)
University of Rome


John W. Cole University of Massachusetts
George J. Demko U.S. Department of State
Gy6rgy Enyedi Hungarian Academy of
H. Folmer State University (Groningen,
The Netherlands)
Ayse Gedik Ohio State University
Niles Hansen University of Texas
Michael Hechter University of Washington
George W. Hoffman University of Texas
L. Lacko Ministry of Building and
Urban Development
Jos6 R. Lasuen Autonomous University of
Sam Natoli Association of American
Geographers (Washington,
A. Pepeonik Geografiske Zavod (Zagreb)
Harry Richardson State University of New York,
Albany, and University of
Southern California
Allan Rodgers Pennsylvania State University
Michel Savy Ministre du Plan et de
l'Amenagement du
Territoire (Paris)
Walter Stohr University of Economics
Andrzej Wr6bel Polish Academy of Sciences
Henry Zimon United States Military Academy

Russia and the Formation of the Romanian National
State, 1921-1978, by Barbara Jelavich. No. 13 of the
Joint Committee on Eastern Europe Publication
Series. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984.
xii + 356 pages. Cloth, $44.50.

This book has a double emphasis: It examines the
role played by tsarist Russia in the formation of an
independent Romanian national state, and it discus-
ses the reaction of a Balkan nationality to the influ-
ence of a neighboring great power that was both a
protector and a menace. In the early 19th century,
the centers of Romanian political life were the Danu-
bian principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, which
were both under Ottoman rule but which had sepa-
rate, autonomous administrations. Although wel-
coming Russian aid against the Ottoman Empire, the
Romanian leadership at the same time feared that the
Russian government would use its military power to
establish a firm control over the principalities or
would annex Romanian lands, as indeed occurred in
1812. Here this difficult relationship is examined in
detail as it developed during the century in connec-
tion with the major events leading to the international
acceptance of Romanian independence in 1878. The

conflicts that arose in this period, in particular the
issues of political domination and the possession of
Bessarabia, have remained disturbing elements in the
relations of the two states.
The author, Barbara Jelavich, is a professor of his-
tory at Indiana University.

Order and Conflict in Contemporary Capitalism,
edited by John H. Goldthorpe. Papers prepared by a
study group of the Joint Committee on Western
Europe. Oxford and New York: Oxford University
Press, 1984. xii + 373 pages. Cloth, 22.50/$34.95;
paper 9.95/$15.95.

The papers in this volume examine the various
ways in which selected Western European countries
have sought to manage and defuse political conflict
over the distribution of economic and social resources
in the postwar era-a period of prosperity extending
into the present period of protracted recession. The
central concern shared by the authors is how modern
capitalist economies function and how both order and
conflict are created within their social contexts. Early
versions of the papers were discussed at two seminars:
at Nuffield College (Oxford) in January 1982 and at
the Studienhaus Wiesneck, Buchenbach bei Freiburg,
in May 1983.
The contributors and their affiliations are:

Rune Aberg
David R. Cameron
Gosta Esping-Andersen
John H. Goldthorpe
Robert O. Keohane
Walter Korpi

Peter Lange
Gerhard Lehmbruch
Charles S. Maier
Marino Regini
Fritz W. Scharpf

Kerry Schott
Don S. Schwerin
Wolfgang Streeck

University of UmeA
Yale University
Harvard University
Nuffield College (Oxford)
Brandeis University
Swedish Institute for Social
Research (Stockholm) and
University of Stockholm
Duke University
University of Constance
Harvard University
University of Milan
International Institute of
Management (Berlin)
University College (London)
Walla Walla, Washington
International Institute of
Management (Berlin)

L'organizzazione degli interessi nell'Europa oc-
cidentale: Pluralismo, corporativismo e la
trasformazione della political, edited by Suzanne
Berger. Papers from a series of conferences spon-
sored by the Joint Committee on Western Europe.
Bologna: II Mulino, 1983. iv + 550 pages. Paper, Lire


This is the Italian edition of Berger's Organizing
Interests in Western Europe: Pluralism, Corporatism, and
the Transformation of Politics, published by the Cam-
bridge University Press in 1981 and reviewed in Items
in the September 1981 issue.

Soviet Economy, Volume 1, Number 1, January-
March 1985. A new journal published by V. H. Win-
ston and Sons, in association with the Joint Commit-
tee on Soviet Studies. Address: Soviet Economy, 7961
Eastern Avenue, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910.
Four issues: Individuals (U.S. only) $40.00. Libraries
and institutions, $80.00 (U.S.) and $90.00 (else-

The coeditors of this new journal sponsored by the
Joint Committee on Soviet Studies are Ed A. Hewett,
The Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C.); Hans
Heymann, Jr., Defense Intelligence College; Robert
G. Jensen, Syracuse University; and Theodore
Shabad, Columbia University. Mr. Hewitt serves as
managing coeditor. The following description of the
goals of the journal is adapted from a statement by
the coeditors published in the first issue.
There has never been an English-language journal
devoted solely to the Soviet economy, despite long
standing interest in, and research on, the Soviet eco-
nomic system. Although other journals devoted more
generally to Soviet affairs, as well as the triannual
Joint Economic Committee volumes, have tradi-
tionally served as outlets for articles written by
economists and geographers interested in the Soviet
Union, Soviet Economy seeks to provide a dedicated
Currently, the Soviet economy is in the early stages
of an important transitional period in which the lead-
ership will (and must) introduce significant changes
in economic policies and possibly in the fundamentals
of the system. This journal will provide a vehicle for
research results and analytic observations concerning
those changes, as well as for essays that place them in
historical context.
Geographical factors have always been important
determinants of Soviet economic policy and perfor-
mance: the size and varied character of the Soviet
territory; the uneven distribution of resources and
their concentration in areas that are often difficult to
exploit; and the contrasting levels of development
among regions of the country as well as the complex
dynamics of regional growth and change. Such fac-
tors are likely to grow in importance in the future.
Soviet Economy will both recognize the close connec-

tion between the study of the Soviet economy and the
study of Soviet geography and nourish that connec-
The journal will publish articles on the contempo-
rary Soviet economy. Some of the articles will relate to
regional economic problems, problems in transport,
or other issues which may fit under the headings of
"economic geography" or "regional economics."
Others will be devoted solely to macroeconomic is-
sues. Also welcome will be contributions on Eastern
Europe which have some bearing on the Soviet econ-
omy: articles on such issues as Soviet-East European
economic relations and East European influences on
the Soviet economy; and articles about those aspects
of the East European economic experience which are
relevant to Soviet debates on policy and system
The first issue also contains brief welcoming re-
marks by Gail Warshofsky Lapidus, University of
California, Berkeley, chair of the Joint Committee on
Soviet Studies, and by the two honorary editors,
Abram Bergson, Harvard University, and Chauncy
D. Harris, University of Chicago. Other contributors
include David Halloway, Stanford University;
Richard F. Kaufman, Joint Economic Committee,
U.S. Congress; Gertrude E. Schroeder, University of
Virginia; Mason H. Soule, Indiana University; John
Steinbruner, The Brookings Institution (Washington,
D.C.); and Robert N. Taaffe, Indiana University.

The Political Economy of the Latin American Motor
Vehicle Industry, edited by Rich Kronish and Ken-
neth S. Mericle. Papers from conferences held in De-

cember 1978 and May 1979, sponsored by the Joint
Committee on Latin American Studies. Cambridge,
Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1984. xvi + 314
pages. Cloth, $30.00.

Latin America is the area of the Third World where
the motor vehicle industry is most advanced. This
book examines the industry's emergence and growth,
particularly in Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico. These
were the first countries in Latin America and among
the first in the Third World to undertake motor vehi-
cle production. Colombia, a smaller and less devel-
oped economy with a late-arriving motor vehicle in-
dustry, is the fourth case studied. In contrast to the
other three, Colombia exhibits market and industrial
conditions typical of many Third World countries just
now considering motor vehicle production.


The volume thus offers a comparative analysis of a
single industry in a number of different national set-
tings. Unlike most industry-based comparative
studies of Third World industrialization, however,
which are narrowly focused on the economic
structure of given industries, this volume utilizes a
political economy approach. Two principal themes are
addressed: (1) the relationship between the large
American, French, German, and Italian transnational
corporations (TNCs) which dominate the motor
vehicle industry in Latin America and the region's
host-country governments; and (2) the role and im-
pact of labor in the development of the Latin Ameri-
can motor vehicle industries. These two themes raise
a broad range of related issues, which stem from the
centrality of the TNC-host country relationship to the
development of motor vehicle production and con-
sumption as well as from the relative inefficiency and
high cost of vehicle production, which puts pressure
on labor costs in the Latin American industries and
has had considerable political consequences.
The exploration of these issues, moreover, also
sheds light on the relative importance of the motor
vehicle industry in a country's overall industrializa-
tion strategy and economic growth, the global and
domestic role of the TNCs, and the social and political
consequences of industry development as well as the
reciprocal effect of those factors on the industry's
growth or contraction. While these questions arise
here in the Latin American context, the authors also
make the explicit point that they are relevant to all
underdeveloped countries considering or engaged in
motor vehicle production. In addition, the authors
show that the relative strength of the auto workers in
Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico has been the key factor
in explaining the uneven success of government ef-
forts in all three countries to expand effective de-
mand and/or promote vehicle exports. In all cases,
these government policies have presented significant
challenges to the working class, particularly auto
The book is comprised of nine chapters. Chapters
1-3 examine the political economy of the motor vehi-
cle industry in Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico, stres-
sing the significance of the structural problems en-
countered by these industries. Chapters 4-6 discuss
the role and importance of labor in these three coun-
tries. Chapter 7 analyzes the bargaining power of the
Mexican state in dealing with the transnational auto-
mobile corporations. Chapter 8 looks at these bar-
gaining relations in the Colombian motor vehicle in-
dustry, while Chapter 9 is a comparative essay on
Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico. It serves as a conclu-

sion to the volume by formulating and elaborating the
principal themes and major national industries dis-
cussed. The authors conclude that whereas the Ar-
gentine, Brazilian, and Mexican automobile industries
have all been prone to stagnation, government sup-
port and intervention have varied considerably
among the three countries.
In addition to Rich Kronish, University of Massa-
chusetts, and Kenneth S. Mericle, University of Wis-
consin, who edited the volume, the contributors and
their affiliations are:

Douglas Bennett
Judith Evans
Paul Heath Hoeffel
John Humphrey
Daniel James
Rhys Jenkins
Ian Roxborough

Kenneth Sharpe

Temple University
New York City
United Nations
University of Liverpool
Yale University
University of East Anglia
London School of Economics
and Political Science
Swarthmore College

Latin America in the 1930s: The Role of the Periph-
ery in the World Crisis, edited by Rosemary Thorp.
Papers from conferences sponsored by the Joint
Committee on Latin American Studies. London:
Macmillan, in association with St. Antony's College
(Oxford), 1984. xii + 344 pages. Cloth, $32.50.

With Latin America facing its most severe economic
crisis since the 1930s, scholars have a strong incentive
to examine the recovery mechanisms, major changes
in world economic structure, and the consequences of
the expansion of private international lending as they
occurred in the earlier period. Given the solid research
now available on the economic histories of individual
Latin American countries, there is a substantial basis
for comparative work, as well as a fresh examination
of the "Latin American stereotype" generally applied
to the 1930s in view of how individual countries actu-
ally fit that picture. This research, in turn, can shed
light on current problems.
It is in this context that the essays in this volume
reassess the importance of the 1930s Depression for
Latin American development. The authors largely
concur with the ECLA (Economic Commission on
Latin America) view that the 1930s Depression was of
enormous significance, although it also built on and
promoted trends in industrialization, state interven-
tion, and the growth of financial and other institu-
tions which had in fact preceded the 1930s. On the
other hand,, while the ECLA interpretation stresses
the dichotomy between large and small countries in


regard to their capacity to react to the crisis, the case
studies included in the volume, particularly those of
Central America, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and
Peru, give a new importance to financial mechanisms
like external trading which influenced internal op-
tions even after the supposed "rupture" of 1929.
Another discussion central to the volume concerns
the rapid recovery from the Depression and the ac-
companying debate about the recovery mechanisms.
The papers emphasize, for example, that the upturn
often preceded export recovery, and that govern-
ment spending and relative prices also played a role
in domestic upswings. In addition, the contributors
take a fresh look at the related debate about the
nature and role of the foreign-exchange constraint,
particularly in regard to the relative importance of
trade and capital flows and in regard to the point and
degree to which foreign-exchange shortages per se
generated policy measures.
While the authors concur that more research is
needed to draw explicit parallels with the 1980s, the
findings to date underline the differences between
the two crises as well as the dangers of superficial
parallels. The authors generally conclude that many
of the safety valves and recovery routes of the 1930s
are not available today, despite the heavier burden of
debt in the 1930s as prices fell rather than rose and
today's more sophisticated national and international
financial institutions.
The present volume, however, focuses in depth on
the 1930s crisis. The introduction, for example, ex-
plains the context and main conclusions of the vol-
ume, surveys the international events leading up to
the great Depression, and summarizes the prevailing
views on economic recovery in the core countries. It
also suggests that more research might be conducted
on the role of the state in policy making, on recovery
mechanisms per se, on the question of who bore the
burden of the economic crisis, and on the role of the
periphery in the recovery of the core countries.
Besides the introduction, the volume contains two
overview essays, one on Latin America in the 1930s
and another which expounds a non-Latin American
view of the Depression, as well as nine case studies,
some explicitly comparative. The major countries
studied are Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia,
Mexico, Peru, and the Central American nations.
The contributors and their affiliations are:

Marcelo Paiva Abreu

Victor Bulmer-Thomas

Institute for Economic and
Social Planning (IPEA), Rio
de Janeiro
Queen Mary College

Enrique Cardenas

Carlos F. Diaz Alejandro
E.V.K. FitzGerald

Charles P. Kindleberger

Carlos Londofio

Jos6 Antonio Ocampo

Arturo O'Connell

Gabriel Palma

Flavio Rabelo Versiana
Rosemary Thorp

University of the Americas
(Santa Catarina Martir,
Puebla, Mexico)
Columbia University
Institute of Social Sciences
(The Hague)
Massachusetts Institute of
Institute of Economics and
Statistics (Oxford)
Foundation for Higher
Education and
(Fedesarrollo), BogatA
Torcuato di Tella Institute
(Buenos Aires)
Fitzwilliam College
University of Brasilia
St. Antony's College (Oxford)

Kinship Ideology and Practice in Latin America,
edited by Raymond T. Smith. Papers from confer-
ences held in New York in September 1980 and in
Ixtapan de la Sal, Mexico, in September 1981, spon-
sored by the Joint Committee on Latin American
Studies. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina
Press, 1984. vii + 341 pages. Cloth, $29.95.

Kinship studies in Latin America have been
traditionally dominated by anthropologists concerned
with "primitive" or "tribal" or "folk" Indian groups.
The few studies of kinship and family life among
urban or more developed rural groups have largely
followed European historical models which presume
that economic development and industrialization re-
sult in the erosion of kinship ties. Recently, however,
some historians of Europe have begun to identify a
variety of responses to industrialization and have
demonstrated that strong and extensive kinship rela-
tions persist even in large industrial cities.
Although this pattern is also found in Latin
America, the essays in this volume do not set out to
replicate European studies. On the contrary, they
recognize that changes in kinship in Latin America
demonstrate their own structure, history, and pat-
terns of transformation. In exploring these changes
and how they have been affected by the specific cul-
tural features of various Latin American and non-
Hispanic Caribbean societies, the authors recognize
that Latin Ameria is an area of cultural and historical
diversity on which only fragmentary research has
been done. They therefore set out to rethink both
theories and methods of research that will allow for
the reconstruction of the particular features of his-


torically generated cultural forms in Latin America,
as well as the social practices through which those
forms operate. The authors include anthropologists,
historians, and sociologists, but all, in contrast to gen-
eral practice in kinship analysis, accord greater than
usual weight to cultural or ideological factors. This
emphasis, along with the special attention paid to the
particularity of Latin American experience and a de-
liberate combination of historical research and social
science theory, characterizes the volume as a whole.
The volume is divided into four sections. The first,
"Kinship Ideologies in Slave Societies," includes
analyses of kinship and godparenthood among slaves
in the East Indies and Brazil. The second, "Estab-
lishing Colonial Hierarchies," presents research on
Andean kinship from Incan times to the present and
examines images of love, race, slavery, and sexuality
among contemporary middle-class Jamaicans. The
third section, "Hierarchies and Enterprise: The Use
of Kinship in Adversity and Prosperity," includes
essays on the dynastic growth and survival strategies
among Mexican grand families, the fostering of chil-
dren among slum families in Brazil, and ideology and
practice among peasants, ranchers, and urban en-
trepreneurs in Jalisco, Mexico. The final section, "Sex
Roles and Economic Changes," includes studies of
sexuality in colonial New Mexico, labor systems and
family structure on Sao Paulo coffee plantations, and
marriage, prosperity, and the position of women in
the Peruvian central Andes.
In addition to Raymond T. Smith, University of
Chicago, who edited the volume, the contributors and
their affiliations are:

Jack Alexander

Ruth C. L. Cardoso
Stephen Gudeman
Ramon A. Gutierrez

B.W. Higman

Larissa A. Lomnitz

Enrique Mayer
Juan M. Ossio
Guillermo de la Peiia
Mariso Perez-Lizaur

Stuart B. Schwartz
Verena Stolcke

Fiona Wilson

New York State Department of
Correctional Services
University of Sio Paulo
University of Minnesota
University of California, San
University of West Indies,
Mona Campus
National Autonomous
University of Mexico
University of Illinois
Catholic University of Peru
College of Jalisco
Iberian-American University
(Mexico City)
University of Minnesota
Autonomous University of
Centre for Development
Research and International
Work Group for Indigenous
Affairs (Copenhagen)

Blacks and Whites: Narrowing the Gap? by Reynolds
Farley. A volume in a series, Social Trends in the
United States, edited by James A. Davis and John
Modell and sponsored by the Committee on Social
Indicators. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Uni-
versity Press, 1984. xii + 235 pages. Cloth, $19.50.

This volume is the second in a series designed to
communicate findings from current social science re-
search to readers without technical training in the
social sciences. In their foreword, the editors, James
A. Davis, Harvard University, and John Modell,
Carnegie-Mellon University, contend that "social sci-
ence has a collective responsibility to report findings
about the society to the public, in order to contribute
to the informed choices that are necessary in a de-
mocracy." Because information derived from modern
statistical methods and large data bases can make such
contributions, if presented in "compact and com-
prehensible form," the Committee on Social Indica-
tors sponsors this series. Scholars are invited to write
books on particular topics; the submitted manuscripts
are then reviewed by other scholars with attention to
both the scientific and the broadly educational pur-
poses of the series. The series emphasizes both
graphic presentations of statistical data and nontech-
nical writing.
Reynolds Farley, a sociologist-demographer at the
University of Michigan, begins the book by posing
three perspectives on change in the status of blacks in
the United States during the last two decades. The
"optimistic" view, associated with Ben Wattenberg
and Richard Scammon, is of a remarkable change in
American society, with blacks making substantial
gains in the labor market. This view is challenged by
other observers, including Vernon Jordan of the Na-
tional Urban League, who take the far more "pes-
simistic" view that the hopes of blacks for true
equality have withered away, and the income and
employment gap between blacks and whites is wid-
ening. A third view stresses the "polarization" thesis:
blacks "trapped" in central cities are forming an
"underclass," highly dependent on welfare programs,
while other blacks have indeed been able to take ad-
vantage of opportunities for advancement and eco-
nomic security.
Farley employs demographic methods and mea-
sures to determine how well each of these three views
describes recent changes. Relying on data from the
Current Population Survey and the decennial cen-
suses, he studies time trends that permit him to com-
pare blacks and whites throughout the last 20 years


and to shed light on some of the causes of observed
changes. He provides an example of demographic
analysis while solving a puzzle:

... the ratio of black to white income for all families declined
during the 1970s, suggesting that the economic status of blacks
relative to that of whites deteriorated. However, for the two
most common types of families, namely husband-wife families
and those headed by women, the ratio of black to white family
income rose for much of the decade, suggesting that the status
of blacks improved. During the 1970s the number of families
headed by black women increased much more than the number
of black husband-wife families. Husband-wife families have
average incomes considerably higher than those of families
headed by women. Thus when the proportion of husband-wife
families fell, the overall ratio of black to white family income
decreased. In this manner, a demographic analysis moves be-
yond a simple plotting of trends to detect reasons behind the
changes in the status of blacks.

The last chapter is a "Scorecard on Black Progress."
His analyses do not permit Farley to conclude that
one of the three contrasting perspectives is clearly
correct and the other two are wrong; the evidence is
mixed. The "optimistic" view is the most accurate but
must be tempered. The author says that "many more
decades of change similar to the 1960s and 1970s will
be necessary if racial differences are to disappear."
But because of fundamental changes in the political
power and legal status of blacks, changes in the atti-
tudes of whites, and the unwillingness of blacks to
tolerate discrimination today, he is optimistic that ra-
cial differences will continue to shrink.

Capital Flows and Exchange Rate Determination,
edited by Lawrence R. Klein and Wilhelm E. Krelle.
Zeitschriftfiir Nationalikonomie, Supplementum 3. Pa-
pers from the September 1982 LINK meeting held in
Frankfurt and sponsored by the Committee on
Economic Stability and Growth. Vienna and New
York: Springer-Verlag, 1983. ix + 220 pages. No
price indicated.

Project LINK, the construction and operation of an
econometic model of the world economy, is a major
activity of the Committee on Economic Stability and
Growth. In 1982, its annual meeting was held in
Frankfort, with the support of the Deutsche Bund-
esbank. This selection of papers was edited by
Lawrence R. Klein, University of Pennsylvania, and
Wilhelm E. Krelle, University of Bonn.
Three of the papers in the volume are econometric
analyses of multicountry models of exchange rate de-
termination; three are of two-country models. A final
paper examines the roles of entropy, monetary pol-

icy, and expected inflation rates in the determination
of exchange rates.
The contributors and their affiliations are:

Akihiro Amano
Jean-Pierre Beguelin
Hans-Jiirg Biittler
Mitsuhiro Fukao

Richard D. Haas

Graham Hacche

Peter Hooper

Lawrence R. Klein
Wilhelm E. Krelle
Kanta Marwah
Hermann T. Sarrazin
Kurt Schiltknecht
Lois Stekler

Steven A. Symansky

John C. Townend

Kobe University
Swiss National Bank (Zurich)
Swiss National Bank (Zurich)
Economic Planning Agency
Board of Governors of the
Federal Reserve System
(Washington, D.C.)
Bank of England (London) and
International Monetary
Fund (Washington, D.C.)
Board of Governors of the
Federal Reserve System
(Washington, D.C.)
University of Pennsylvania
University of Bonn
Carleton University
University of Bonn
Swiss National Bank (Zurich)
Board of Governors of the
Federal Reserve System
(Washington, D.C.)
Board of Governors of the
Federal Reserve System
(Washington, D.C.)
Bank of England (London)

Culture Theory: Essays on Mind, Self, and Emotion,
edited by Richard A. Schweder and Robert A.
LeVine. Papers from a conference sponsored by the
Committee on Social and Affective Development
During Childhood. New York: Cambridge University
Press, 1984. viii + 359 pages. Cloth, $42.50, paper,

The relationship between everyday experience and
culture-seen as a set of ideas, values, or symbolic
codes-has challenged social scientists, especially an-
thropologists, for more than a century. In this vol-
ume, leading social scientists present and discuss re-
cent conceptions of culture and explore their impli-
cations for understanding different aspects of subjec-
tive experience, social practice, and individual be-
havior. The essays are based upon papers presented
at a conference on "Conceptions of Culture and Its
Acquisition," sponsored by the Committee on Social
and Affective Development During Childhood in
May 1981.
The focus of the volume is on the role of symbols
and meaning in the development of mind, self, and
emotion. The contributors examine such questions as
what is the content of culture and how does it interact
with cognitive, social, and emotional growth; how are
ideas related to attitudes, feelings, and behavior; and


how are concepts and meanings historically trans-
mitted. They also explore methodological and con-
ceptual problems involved in the definition and study
of meaning and revisit the perennial problem of "rel-
ativism" in light of recent advances in semantic
analysis and in culture theory.
As a comprehensive and critical account of current
knowledge and research in the field of culture theory,
this book will be useful to anthropologists, psycholo-
gists, philosophers, historians, and linguists, as well as
those interested in hermeneutics and a science of
The volume is dedicated to the memory of Michelle
Zimbalist Rosaldo, whose chapter was completed
only weeks before she tragically fell to her death while
conducting field work in the Philippines.
The contributors and their affiliations are:

Edmund J. Bourne

Roy G. D'Andrade

Howard Gardner
Clifford Geertz

Robert A. LeVine
Robert I. Levy

Elinor Ochs

Michelle Zimbalist Rosaldo
Bambi B. Schieffelin
Richard A. Schweder
Robert C. Solomon
Melford E. Spiro

Zeno Vendler

Catholic Community Services
(San Diego)
University of California, San
Harvard University
Institute for Advanced Study
(Princeton, New Jersey)
Harvard University
University of California, San
University of Southern
Stanford University
University of Pennsylvania
University of Chicago
University of Texas
University of California, San
University of California, San

Emotions, Cognition, and Behavior, edited by Carroll
E. Izard, Jerome Kagan, and Robert B. Zajonc. A
publication of the Committee on Social and Affective
Development During Childhood. New York: Cam-
bridge University Press, 1984. x + 620 pages. Cloth,

In 1979 and 1980, the Committee on Social and
Affective Development During Childhood devoted a
number of meetings to an examination of the re-
lationships between emotion and cognition. Child-
hood seemed a particularly rich period in which to
investigate the nature and origins of affect-cognition
interactions. Cognitive scientists were beginning to
take a hard look at how emotions are or are not incor-
porated in existing models of cognition and behavior.
Scholars studying emotions realized the inadequacy

of many of their postulates regarding links to cogni-
tive processing. The ferment present in those early
committee discussions is reflected today in the grow-
ing empirical research on the relations between af-
fect, cognition, and behavior.
This volume includes recent reports on some of the
research originally discussed in the committee's work-
shops. Carroll E. Izard, a member of the committee
from 1976 to 1984, perceived the need to push
further on this topic and approached a number of
other scholars, many of whom had not begun to ex-
plore systematically the implications of their work for
understanding the relationships between emotion
and cognition. His vision of a volume that would
document innovative empirical and theoretical work
is realized here.
The 17 chapters in the volume demonstrate the
enormous progress that has been achieved in our
understanding of emotions. Current cognitive for-
mulations and information-processing models are
challenged by new theory and by a solid body of
empirical research. Addressing the problem of the
relationship between emotions and cognition from a
variety of viewpoints in cognitive, developmental, so-
cial, and clinical psychology, as well as in psycho-
physiology, the contributors concur that emotion
concepts can be operationally defined and inves-
tigated as both independent and dependent variables.
Cognitive and affective processes can no longer be
studied in isolation; taken together, the chapters pro-
vide a useful map of an increasingly important and
active boundary for research on human behavior.
The contributors and their affiliations are:

Karen Caplovitz Barrett
Gordon H. Bower
Joseph J. Campos
Charles R. Carlson
Dante Cicchetti
Richard J. Davidson

Douglas Derryberry
Richard A. Dienstbier

Stephen G. Gilligan
Sandra Graham

Jeannette M. Haviland

Martin L. Hoffman
Carroll E. Izard
Jerome Kagan
Peter LaFreniere
Peter J. Lang
Nancy Lawroski
Michael Lewis
Hazel Markus

University of Denver
Stanford University
University of Denver
Vanderbilt University
Harvard University
State University of New York
at Purchase
University of Oregon
University of
Stanford University
University of California, Los
Livingston College, Rutgers
University of Michigan
University of Delaware
Harvard University
University of Minnesota
University of Florida
University of Minnesota
Rutgers Medical School
University of Michigan


John C. Masters
Linda Michalson
Bert Moore
Frosso Motti
David L. Rosenhan
Mary Klevjord Rothbart
Karen Schneider-Rosen
Edward Schork

Vanderbilt University
Rutgers Medical School
University of Texas at Dallas
University of Minnesota
Stanford University
University of Oregon
Harvard University
University of Minnesota

Reid M. Schwartz
L. Alan Sroufe
Margaret Wolan Sullivan
Tom Trabasso
Bill Underwood
Bernard Weiner

Robert B. Zajonc

University of Chicago
University of Minnesota
Rutgers Medical School
University of Chicago
University of Texas
University of California, Los
University of Michigan

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Directors, 1984-85: STEPHEN E. FIENBERG, Carnegie-Mellon University; HOWARD GARDNER, Veterans Administration Medical Center (Boston);
CHARLES O. JONES, University of Virginia; ROBERT W. KATES, Clark University; GARDNER LINDZEY, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral
Sciences; ELEANOR E. MACCOBY, Stanford University; HUGH T. PATRICK, Columbia University; JOSEPH A. PECHMAN, The Brookings Institution
(Washington, D.C.); KENNETH PREWITT, Social Science Research Council; SYDEL F. SILVERMAN, The Graduate Center, City University of New York;
RODOLFO STAVENHAGEN, El Colegio de M6xico; STEPHEN M. STIGLER, University of Chicago; LOUISE A. TILLY, New School for Social Research;
SIDNEY VERBA, Harvard University; IMMANUEL WALLERSTEIN, State University of New York, Binghamton; WILLIAM JULIUS WILSON, University of
Chicago; HERBERT F. YORK, University of California, San Diego.
Officers and Staff: KENNETH PREWITT, President; DAVID L. SILLS, Executive Associate; RONALD J. PELECK, Controller; THEODORE C. BESTOR, JOAN DASSIN,

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