Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Executive summary

Group Title: Quarterly report (Farming Systems Support Project)
Title: Quarterly report
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00091285/00016
 Material Information
Title: Quarterly report
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Farming Systems Support Project
Publisher: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Office of International Programs, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, FL
Publication Date: July-September 1986
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00091285
Volume ID: VID00016
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Executive summary
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
Full Text


July 1 to September 30, 1986


Submitted By:



Executive Summary . . . . . . . . ... ...... .1

Main Report

I. Setting . . . . . . . . ... ..... .2

II. General Accomplishments . . .. ... . . . . .2

III. Conclusions . . . . . . . . ... ..... .4

IV. Activity Reports
Starkey/Sierra Leone/07/11 to 07/18/86 . . .... .5

Gaudreau, Lichte/Bamako, Mali/08/09 to 08/16/86 . .. .7

Poats, Lichte, Andrew/Wash D.C.-SECID/08/20 to 08/22/86 .9

Poats and Starkey/Sierra Leone/09/14 to 09/26/86 . .. 11

Oxley/Sierra Leone/09/19 to 09/25/86 . . . . . 18
(Faye, Ndiame, Diallo, Aloriba, Ravindran, Philidor,
Phillip, Zerbo, Berthe, Sarr)


Specific emphasis during this quarter was placed on the use of the
training volumes in a major three week short course in Gainesville, and
distribution to a worldwide review audience. The basic training volumes as
well as the case studies continued to be tested and utilized in the
training program.

Networking was also in the forefront with the attendance of several
FSSP staff and consultants at the second annual networkshop meeting of the
West African Integrated Livestock System (WAILS) Network in Sierra Leone.
With FSSP concentrating its efforts in Africa, an FSSP Africa strategy plan
was developed for 1986 and 1987.

Greatest emphasis has been given to FSSP's role in West Africa, but due
to uncertainty in funding, discussions and developments of alternative
strategies has consumed considerable core staff time. The enthusiasm for
FSSP programs that has begun to take hold in West Africa has encouraged
efforts to institutionalize FSSP programs in the Cameroon.

1986, Third Quarter


Activity within this quarter indicates the approaching maturity of the
FSSP training program. It included a major three week short course in
Gainesville with applications of the training units developed by the FSSP.
Furthermore it was a time when the training Volumes I and II were being
distributed to a select worldwide review audience for further strengthening
purposes. The units and volumes, although in usable form, will be revised
in 1987. They will be used heavily in the interim. Response to the
initial mailings was very positive and sale of additional volumes began
almost immediately after mailing.

The planning process for 1987 and specifically for the remainder of the
project was well underway during this quarter. A meeting was held of the
core staff for planning purposes with participation by S&T management.
This was the first time S&T management has been able to attend a planning
session and it was appreciated.


Accomplishments during the third quarter of 1986 are a result of the
continuous building process underway in the FSSP particularly related to
training. Emphasis was given to better understanding the results of
previous training exercises and final preparation of the initial two
training volumes (Volume I- Diagnostics, and Volume II- Design and Analysis
of On-Farm Research). Plans were underway for revision of these volumes as
well as additions through new units, and for new volume work in the
management area. Also a short course offering was made with a three week
duration in collaboration with the University of Florida Program

Specific emphasis on the overall development of training materials
within the FSSP has focused on the training volumes as workable instruments
to assist trainers in the development of short courses. Case studies
developed by the FSSP/Population Council for intra-household dynamics and
gender considerations complement the training volumes. The overall set of
materials has been put to use in several training contexts including, not
only short courses, but in degree-oriented courses at the University of
Florida and elsewhere. The combination provides a basis for experiential
learning and realistic problem solving based on current real world
situations. The case study on Zambia, for example, has been used in the
management for extension and research leaders course given in the degree
program at the University of Florida. This course is a testing ground for
materials that are being developed for the short course offering in this
area through the FSSP. Also the materials are being used for development
of Volume III for the FSSP. Similarly, the Zambia case study was used in
the three week short course with participants from Africa and Latin
America. Other case studies have also been used, such as the one developed

1986, Third Quarter

in Paraguay. These are all developed to complement the overall
methodological base provided within the training volumes through specific
cases and examples with problems sets. The process and use of these
materials strengthens the training program. It is also utilized in the
development of the materials, strengthening them both in terms of their
experiential learning potential and the qualitative aspect of the problems
presented as complete situations for addressing real world issues.

Plans were intensively underway for the fielding of the second annual
West African Integrated Livestock Systems Network entitled, "The
Introduction, Intensification and Diversification -of the Use of Animal
Power in West Africa Farming Systems: Implications at the Farm Level". A
report of the networkshop is appended as an activity report and an
indication of success. It is important to recognize that this builds upon
various workshops in East and West Africa and the United States.
Publications have evolved from those workshops as well as specific planning
through the FSSP Livestock Task Force. That Task Force included
representatives from various countries and institutions in the support
entity network and USAID. The overall effort will be more fully reported
in terms of its potential as a guide to successful network development.

The FSSP planning effort came to fruition through the development of
the Africa strategy for 1986 and 1987. Special emphasis was given to
further refining the 1986 strategy and placing it into a deliverable
context from 1987 to completion of the project. A summary bulletin was
prepared (in the form of the information flyer attached) for distribution
and use, along with other similar information, at the annual meeting and

Specific planning activities throughout the quarter began with meetings
by the Advisory Council. Consultations with Support Entity leadership at
the annual ASUDIAP meetings were followed by core discussions that will be
further refined at the annual meeting. Recommendations will then be
discussed with international programs leadership at the NASULGIC meeting.
Emphasis has been given to consideration for maintainance of the delivery
capability of the FSSP in West Africa where concern is greatest both by
USAID in Washington and the national programs/missions in West Africa.
Without central funding for the core, considerable concern is expressed
relative to continuing program possibilities. Alternative strategies are
being developed and discussed and have absorbed considerable core staff

A change in management of the project within USAID/S&T has been
accomplished with the necessity for familiarizing the new project manager
with the overall program. This important activity has required additional
effort so that early decision making can assist progress of the FSSP toward
some type of second phase activity. Numerous accounting and reporting
exercises have been required with the contract office and rebudgeting
procedures to facilitate the overall process. Rapid turnover of staff in
both the Washington project management and contract offices has disrupted
continuity. Often access to file information in Washington for new people
causes delays and disruptions in Washington and Gainesville because file
management in the Washington office is too well covered.

1986, Third Quarter

Lastly the FSSP devoted time during the quarter to the final
presentation of an overall FSR/E synopsis for the Office of Technology
Assessment. We believe that this document will be important for research
planning in general, and to strengthening the adaptive research capability.


Wrestling with future directions of the FSSP has encompassed
considerable core staff time. While very essential, this also competes
with time for delivery of 1986 and 1987 programs. Of course this is
constrained further by the reductions in staff necessitated by the 1986
budget. All indications would suggest that further reductions are
necessary but that the work load itself does not seem to be on the decline.
To the contrary, enthusiasm for FSSP programs is beginning to take hold in
West Africa based upon maturing results of the FSSP as well as the
initiation of new farming systems research and extension projects in that
region within 1986. The conclusion that something should be done in the
future to maintain part of the support structure was expressed by IDRC
directly to FSSP and the Cameroon government for continuation of support
activities through some type of process that would institutionalize FSSP
programs in that country. The IDRC has indicated an interest in support of
this effort. Plans are underway for those meetings. The support entities
also conclude that the network should be maintained, further strengthening
US capability to respond to USAID need and expectations in the research and
training area. The assumption is not that FSR/E is something to be
exchanged or substituted for other activities but one to complement the
overall training and research program desired for agriculture in the
technical assistance effort. It contributes to biotechnology research as
,well as to extension. It is not to be viewed as a project but more as an
approach to improving our overall capability.

1986, Third Quarter

Starkey/Sierra Leone/07/11 to 07/18/86

Region: West Africa
Country: Sierra Leone
Assignment: Attend Planning Meeting for the 2nd West African Integrated
Livestock Systems Networkshop in Sierra Leone.
Name: Paul Starkey
Date of Activity: July 11-18, 1986
Team: none
Home Institution:
Address: 2 Wychwood Crescent
Earley Reading RGG 2RA


1. To attend a meeting between USAID Freetown, the Work Oxen Project
and the Networkshop Adviser to revue progress and reassess the
possibilities for the Networkshop.
2. The visit is designed to allow the discussions on holding the
Networkshop in Sierra Leone and subject to agreement by all parties
to further advance arrangements for the Networkshop.

1. Invitations were sent to many organizations and a summary of all
organizations invited and their responses is included in a separate
2. Reassessment of the logistical constraints, including
a. accomodations/transportation
b. financial considerations
c. electricity/water/fuel
d. conference facilities
e. translations/public address system
f. airport exchange requirement
3. Selection of field sites in seven villages to view the use of oxen
by both experienced and inexperienced farmers.
4. Arrangements for on-station demonstrations.
5. Discussions of workshop hospitality.
6. Workshop secretariat all participants requested to supply hard
copies of their papers for distribution, as well as diskette for
networkshop proceedings.

A list of items that require further action by the Work Oxen Project is
included in the trip report.



1986, Third Quarter

Potential Trainers:
Publication Potential:
It is anticipated that the participants presenting papers will supply
the Networkshop with a disk to prepare an overall proceedings of
the Networkshop.


Demands on FSSP:
1. Send this report to WOP and USAID, with copies or comparable
information letter to BHC, French Embassy and Committee Members.
Advise Committee Members that they-should arrive and depart with
other participants.
2. Send revised programme and updated participation list to WOP, with
copies for MANR, USAID, BHC and French Embassy.
3. Send new information sheet to all expected participants.
4. Pay for 264 gallons of petrol to Shell International Petroleum
5. Investigate whether photocopy machine and portable public address
system could be supplied.
6. Confirm translators, and find out cost of obtaining independent
translation system.
7. Book flights for West African participants as soon as possible, and
send details to WOP.
8. Arrange for FSSP sponsored participants to receive hard currency
9. For workshop bring: Flipchats, files, pencils, pads, name cards,

FSSP commitment-promised responses:

Materials collected:

1986, Third Quarter

Trip Report Abstract

Gaudreau/Lichte/Bamako, Mali/August 9-16, 1986

Region: West Africa
Country: Mali
Assignment: Plan a regional FSR/E workshop
Name: Martha Gaudreau
Date of Activity: August 9-16, 1986
Team: Gaudreau and John Lichte
Home Institution: Individual contractor
Address: 1890 Tatum Street
St. Paul, MN 55113

Program Abstract:

1. Plan Sahelian regional FSR/E workshop that will take place
November 3-21, 1986
1. Identified training site and made preliminary arrangements to rent
2. Identified villages for field trips
3. Discussed cooperation between FSSP, INSA, and IER
4. Located training supplies available locally
5. Established preliminary budget
1. Need to clarify with INSA financial arrangements for their
services during the workshop and their level of support
2. Need to determine additional vehicular support by USAID or IER


2. IER
5. Travel Agencies--Dogon Voyage, Manding Voyage
1. S.K. Reddy
2. Emmy Simmons
3. Gene Chiavarolli
4. Tie-ouradie Diarra
5. Bob Chase
6. About Berthe
7. Mam'idou Tangara
8. Jacques Denny
9. Boubacar Coulibally
10. Curtis Jolly
11. Milly ---
12. Alpha Maiga

1986, Third Quarter

13. Moussa Ba
14. Calipha Sanogo
15. M. Maiga
16. Fatogoma Traore
17. Arlene Jacquette
18. M. Fassoko Doumbia
19. M. Doumbia
20. Director, Director Adjoint, and Maitre d'hotel of The Motel
Potential Trainers:
1. Gaudreau
2. Lichte
3. Poats
4. Mutsaers
5. Sawadogo
Publication Potential:
1. Report of Workshop

FSSP Information
Demands on FSSP:
i. Support for resource persons and trainers
2. Reconfirmation of arrangements
3. Visit by Poats for confirmation and finalization of arrangements
FSSP commitment-promised responses:
1. same as above
Materials collected:

1986, Third Quarter

Poats, Lichte, Andrew/Washington, D.C.-SECID/08/20 to 08/22/86

Country: USA
Assignment: Meet with SECID and TSMM/USAID on MALI Project Collaboration
Name: Susan Poats and Chris Andrew
Date of Activity: August 20-22, 1986
Team: Susan Poats, John Lichte, Chris Andrew
Home Institution: FSSP/University of Florida and Individual Contractor
3028 McCarty Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611


1. Discuss with representative of SECID Mali FST/E project and
TSMM/USAID the possibilities for collaboration in Mali.
2. Continue discussing the plans for the FSSP regions FSR/E Training
Course, to be held in Mali, with John Lichte while enroute to
Washington, D.C.
3. Brief SECID and TSMM on the FSSP Regional FSR/E Course.
4. Consider application of the ETF document as a basis for developing
an evaluaiton strategy.

1. Agreed that there are considerable areas of overlap and mutual
interest between the three projects regarding Mali, especially
concerning SECID's desire to design an evaluation plan, TSMM's need
to develop a case study and FSSP's desire to continue to develop
and test the ETF Evaluation Strategy.
2. SECID agreed that FSSP can distribute their draft evaluation plan
to the FSSP ETF for their comments.
3. FSSP and SECID will pursue possibilities for other training
collaboration in addition to the regional course (ie.
training-for-trainers, in-service training, country-level
workshops), the potential development of a case study (conducted in
concert with project development), and opportunities for bilateral
contractor networking.
4. SECID wishes to have more than 9 slots in training course for
Malien and SECID team participation. FSSP will consider this in
light of the number of participants from other countries.
5. There seems to be additional grounds for collaboration between TSMM
and FSSP, especially in the area of defining existing technological
alternatives appropriate to dryland agriculture which and be
considered by practitioners in hypothesizing solutions to
identified problems. However, a clearer presentation of the TSMM
objectives seems necessary before further discussion of
6. John Lichte and Susan Poats finished reviewing the Mali Course
Planning Trip Report and revised the draft Information Sheet for

1986, Third Quarter

1. FSSP needs to circulate the Mali Application of Evaluation Strategy
Document to members of the ETF in order to demonstrate how a
project might plan for evaluation from the project initiation and
set up a monitoring system to collect the data needed for
evaluation. This may inject "new blood" into the ETF initiative
and provide a means for completion of a useable evaluation guide.
2. Use of the ETF document by SECID in preparing the Mali FSR/E
project evaluation strategy document reveals that more emphasis
should be given to the continuous process of monitoring/evaluation
and that some parts of the paper require further editing to reduce


Potential Trainers:
Publication Potential:


Demands on FSSP:
FSSP commitment-promised responses:
Materials collected:

1986, Third Quarter

Poats and Starkey/Sierra Leone/09/14 to 09/26/86

Region: West Africa
Country: Sierra Leone
Assignment: To organize, manage and facilitate the Second West African Integrated L:
stock Systems Networkshop on the "Introduction, Intensifi-
cation and Diversification of the Use of Animal Power in West African
Farming Systems: Implications at Farm Level."
Name: Susan V. Poats
Date of Activity: September 14-26, 1986
Team: Susan Poats, FSSP Associate Director and Paul Starkey, FSSP
Consultant. James Oxley, Colorado State University and head of FSSP
Livestock Task Force also attended the Networkshop.
Home Institution:
3028 McCarty Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

NOTE: Please refer also to the trip report filed by James Oxley for this
same activity.



1. To manage the second regional networkshop of the West African
Integrated Livestock Systems Network.

2. To stimulate consideration of a farming systems perspective and on-farm
research methods in dealing with the introduction and development of
draft animal power in the West African region.

3. To create an environment for networkshop participants to identify
common problems in dealing with animal power and generate
recommendations for solving these problems to be considered in future
research, extension and development programs at the farm level.

4. To generate support for the continuation of the network in terms of
organization through support for the steering committee composed of
national program representatives and in terms of financial support
through creation of a donor network to support networking activities.


1. The networkshop brought together over 70 representatives (on the fi 't
day there were over 100 participants) from 21 countries and 42
different projects and programs (see attached participant list).
Analysis of the evaluations (see attached) indicates that nearly 100%
of the participants want to attend the next networkshop, tentatively
scheduled for early 1988. The FSSP collaborated with the Sierra Leone
Work Oxen Project, who hosted the networkshop, in managing the
logistics and activities. (Background information on the development
of the networkshop and the letters of invitation can be found attached
to this report.)

1986, Third Quarter

2. All of the small group thematic reports recommended the use of the
farming systems perspective and on-farm research in the research,
extension and development of draft animal power in the West African
region. This is significant because the disciplines and interests
often involved in animal traction technology have not to date been very
involved in the use of the FSR/E methodology. The networkshop
recommendations demonstrate that these disciplines are now recognizing
the benefits of incorporating this approach as a necessary part of good
research and extension of draft animal power technology in the region.

Several participants will be involved in the FSSP FSR/E training course
to be held in Mali, November 3-21. Many others expressed interest in
attending future training courses offered by the project.

3. Participants were provided several opportunities to exchange
information and consider pertinent issues and problems. Specific
activities (see attached program) included: a field trip conducted in
small groups to review the work of the Sierra Leone Work Oxen Project
activities; country presentations focused on current work, successes,
problems and networking needs; and the discussion of key themes within
the area of draft animal power in both small groups as well as in
plenary sessions.

Themes identified for discussion were: a) Animal management and health,
b) Landclearing, soil conservation tillage, and cropping systems
aspects for permanent cultivation, c) Socio-economic aspects of draft
animal power, d) Research and evaluation methodologies, e) Selection
and development of animal drawn equipment, and f) Farmer needs for
extension and training. See rapporteur reports attached to the end of
this report for further details.

4. All participants recommended the continued growth and development of
the network. A new steering committee was selected. Three former
members were retained on the committee and four more were added. Their
names are listed below:

Dawda Sarr Gambia Agricultural engineer
Arthur Gedeo Liberia Agricultural economist
Adama Faye Senegal Animal scientist
Kossivi Apetofia Togo Veterinarian
Bai Kanu Sierra Leone Farm management
Stephen Adeoye ILCA/Nigeria Animal nutrition
Abou Berthe Mali Agronomist

The new steering committe2will meet in early 1987 to begin: planning
subsequent networking activities, and to begin drafting a proposal for
further continued funding of the network. They will also begin
considering how to operationalize the recognized linkage between the
Integrated Livestock Network and WAFSRN, and the question of a possible
network headquarters within the proposed WAFSRN location at SAFGRAD,

All donor and international center representatives at the networkshop
recommended the continuation of the network, and committed to work to

1986, Third Quarter

secure additional funding for future activities and a third regional
networkshop in early 1988. None were able to commit specific funds,
but all agreed that FSSP should continue to act as the "umbrella" or
coordinating organization for the network during the interval until the
next networkshop, and that it should also coordinate funding and
management of said networkshop. In the meantime, they will work to
support the steering committee and search for possible sources of
funding. It is likely that ILCA-Ethiopia will soon have a staff person
to concentrate on networking activities who will provide further
support to the network and its steering committee.

There was a strong recommendation by the donor community present,
including representatives of USAID missions and field projects, that
USAID should consider mechanisms to allow the FSSP to continue its
networking leadership role in the West African region.


1. The trip chronology details many of the problems encountered in the
local logistical arrangements. These problems point to the necessity
of having a good, capable support base for conducting networking
activities. This should be a consideration for WAFSRN in its selection
of location for its networking headquarters. It is difficult to
organize a workshop while living and working in Gainesville, however,
most participants recognized that given the inter-country communication
problems in West Africa, having the organizers located in the USA and
the UK provided the best possible system for communication regarding
the networkshop organization with the hosting project in Sierra Leone.

2. The problem of funding and cash flow for this type of FSSP event
continues to be serious and places undue burden both financially and
legally upon the FSSP representative at the event. I strongly
recommend that FSSP/USAID explore alternative mechanisms for operating
networking activities, which by virtue of their objectives and mandate,
cannot always meet in the same place.

3. There is a need for the West African Integrated Livestock Network to
have a stronger, more explicit relationship with WAFSRN. It has been
suggested to the WAFSRN steering committee that the Network be
considered as a sub-network of practitioners with a farming systems
perspective who are working with animal power technology. The problem
at this point is that the secretariat for WAFSRN is just getting
organized, and it is too soon for the Network to operate out of a
WAFSRN headquarters, as one doesn't exist yet. ThVs nature of this
articulation for the future should be one of the issues for continued
consideration by the steering committee.

4. There is an urgent need for FSSP to determine whether it can actually
serve as the "umbrella" organization for the network during the next 18
months, and assist in the management of the next networkshop, given
that the end of the FSSP is scheduled for October 1987. This issue
must be considered by FSSP management and USAID project management.

1986, Third Quarter

5. There is a need to integrate more socio-economic research within the
research on draft animal power. Few of the papers presented dealt in
any detail with these issues, yet all of the discussions highlighted
the crucial importance of the socio-economic context in the utilization
of draft animal power at farmer level.

6. All of the participants selected by their respective agencies,
governments or ministries were men. There were no women participants
in the networkshop. Yet, one of the field visits was made to a women's
cooperative effort to introduce draft animal use to women farmers in
the area. There is a need to explore the gender dimensions and impacts
of draft animal power within the region. There is a need for both
greater participation of women practitioners and researchers within the
network and to consider women farmers in the design and development of
technological introductions and improvements dealing with animal power.

Final session recommendations:

A final set of recommendations will be included in the proceedings for
the networkshop. The following list represents points to be considered
as recommendations which were suggested by participants during the
final plenary session of the networkshop.

1. At the beginning of each networkshop in the future, the recommendations
made at the last networkshop should be read and progress on these

2. The role of the steering committee needs to be strengthened and
broadened. They should play a larger role in the planning and
management of the next networkshop.

3. The chairpersonship for each networkshop session should rotate among
participants and steering committee members.

4. A proposal for continued funding for networking activities and a
coordinating office should be developed by the steering committee.

5. A brochure explaining the network should be developed to give a "public
face" to the network.

6. Sub-groups from the network should meet prior to the next networkshop
in order to discuss specific issues and needs (such as the
socio-economics group, the veterinarians, and the equipment factory

7. The networkshop should serve as the forum for specific proposals for
other networking activities to be discussed and put forward for
consideration by donors.

8. Policymakers should be included in the networkshops in the future.

9. Universities and academic institutions should also be included so that
the knowledge and recommendations are channeled into the educational
process as well as linking them to other areas of research.

1986, Third Quarter

10. There is a need for more translation of documents in order to better
facilitate the exchange of experience and results between francophone
and anglophone researchers and developers.

11. Farmers should also be represented at the next networkshop.

12. Establish the validity of the network through formal organizational
structure and seek governmental support from countries in the region.

13. Nominate an overall rapporteur for the next networkshop to take notes
on recommendations made throughout the networkshop for presentation at
the end. These should be discussed and approved during the final
session of the networkshop.

Other recommendations were made on the evaluation sheets and are
included in the evaluation analysis. These will be reviewed and
re-organized for presentation in the proceedings.

Institutions and Individuals Contacted: See participant list.

Potential Trainers: (Of FSR/E)
Paul Starkey
S. Jutzi
D. Spencer
S. Adeoye
F. Ndiame
A. Agard
A. Berthe
A. Schumacher
R. Dray (audio-visual materials development)

Publications Potential:

The proceedings will be published in two volumes in French and English.
Volume I will contain an overview of the networkshop, the group reports,
field trip reports, program, participant list, recommendations, evaluation
summary, and the list of documents distributed. Volume II will contain the
complete set of edited papers presented. Volume I is scheduled for
publication at the end of January, 1987. Volume II is scheduled for
publication in June, 1987.

Demands on FSSP:

1. FSSP needs to review the reports and recommendations made at the
networkshop for their applicability to the need the inclusion of
livestock issues in the Training Units.

2. FSSP needs to produce a brief,, well-written, PR document on the results
to date of FSR/E. The audience for this should be US legislators,
policymakers and the donor community.

3. FSSP needs to work closely over the next months with other donor and
international organizations to secure further funding for the network

1986, Third Quarter

and commitments for longer term support to allow its development to
its full potential.

Materials Collected:

1. A. N'DOUNGA. Project productivity Niamey.
2. S. NAPRI. Livestock systems: progress and success to date.
3. T.M. TURAY. WAILS Networkshop presentation: animal utilization and
management at farm levels with special reference to the Mapaki
defendants farming.
4. B.H. KANU. Les strategies du developpement de la traction animal en
Sierra Leone.
5. R.K. BANSAL, M.C. KLAIJ and P.G. SERAFINI. Animal traction in improved
farming systems for the semi-arid tropics: the ICRISAT experience from
India and West Africa.
6. S. JUTZI, F.M. ANDERSON and A. ASTATKE. Low-cost modifications of the
traditional Ethiopian tyne-plough for land-shaping and surface drainage
of heavy clay soils: preliminary results from on-farm verification.
7. L. REYNOLDS. The relevance of animal traction to the humid zone.
8. R.D. BELL and D.C. KEMP. An assessment of some aspects of work ox use
in Sierra Leone.
9. R.C. GIFFORD. The selection and use of animal draught technology.
10. D.S.C. SPENCER. Farming systems in West Africa from an animal traction
11. National Institute of Agricultural Engineering. Draught animal
12. M.P. LEKEZIME. Sarclage mecanique avec la traction animal.
13. K. APETOFIA. Introduction de la traction animal dans les systems
d'exploitation agricole au Togo: le proleme de l'approvisionnement en
animaux de trait.
14. D. SPENCER. Comparison between Francophone and Anglophone approaches
to FSR.
15. S.K. REDDY. Use of animal power in West African farming systems: farm
level problems and implications for research perspectives from Mali.
16. B.H. KANU. Animal traction development strategies in Sierra Leone.
17. A.B. BANGURA. A study mission on the animal traction program in Togo.
18. A.B. BANGURA. The utilization and management of draft animals at farm
19. H. CORBEL. Economic implication of animal power introduction at the
farmer level: a case study.
20. H. CORBEL. A few considerations about the work oxen loan scheme in the
district of Koinadugu.
21. S. LEAMAN. The role of work oxen in swamp development in Sierra Leone.
22. F. NDIAME. La culture attelee dans les systems de production de la
basse camimance: aspects techniques et implications socio-economiques.
23. M.I. SANGARE, C. LADRETTE, R.R. MUNGROOP and A. BERTHE. Contraintes et
ameliorations de la traction animal en zone Mali-sud: l'experience de
24. Division Machinisme Agricole. .Le traction animal au Mali.
25. A.K. DIALLO. L'equipement de la traction animal au niveau de 1'ISAF.
26. D.O.A. PHILLIP, G.O.I. ABALU and S.A. INBAWA. Economic implication of
animal power at the small-scale level in the savannah zone of northern
Nigeria: a linear programming simulation of farmer circumstances.
27. E.O. OTCHERE, H.U. AHMED, S.A.S. OLORUNJU nad M.S. KALLAH. Utilization

1986, Third ( arter

and management of work oxen in a northern guinea savannah environment
in Nigeria: initial results.
28. UPROMA. Catalogue et tarif.
29. P. LEKEZIME. Mechanical seeding with animal traction: some
30. A.S. WESTNEAT, A.A. KLUTSE and K.N. AMEGBETO. Caracteristiques
d'adoption de la traction animal au Togo (also in English).
31. Dr. LEROY. Suivi sanitaire des animaux de trait au Togo situation et
32. UPROMA. Presentation de l'uproma.
33. S. RAVINDRAN. Preliminary observations on the effect of draught work
on growth and trypanotolerance of N'dama oxen.
34. CARMA. Developpement et adaptation de l'equipement de traction animal
aux conditions locales du department de Niamey.
35. G. LE THIEC. Evaluation retrospective de la vulgarisation de la
culture attelee.
36. P. STARKEY. Some organizations concerned with animal traction research
and development in sub-saharan Africa.
37. P. PINGALI, Y. BIGOT and H. BINSWANGER. Agricultural mechanization and
the evolution of farming systmes in sub-saharan Africa.
38. Country Summary for the 2nd WAILS Networkshop The Gambia.
39. WAILS Networkshop. The Gambia: animal power equipment at the farm

198:, Third Quarter

Oxley/Sierra Leone/09/19 to 09/25/86

Region: West Africa
Country: Sierra Leone
Assignment: To attend the Second West African Integrated Livestock Systems
Networkshop: The Introduction, Intensification and Diversification of the
Use of Animal Power in West African Farming Systems Implications at the
Farm Level.
Name: James W. Oxley
Date of Activity: September 19-25, 1986
Team: Susan Poats and Paul Starkey (Faye, Ndiame, Diallo, Aloriba,
Ravindran, Philidor, Phillip, Zerbo, Berthe, Sarr)
Home Institution: Colorado State University
Address: Office of International Training
Fort Collins, Colorado 80523


1. Represent the technical committee of the FSSP in Farming Systems
(livestock area).
2. Interact with donors represented at the meeting to ascertain future
support for networking in West Africa.
3. Participate in discussions with individual researchers and in the
group sessions on research techniques and methodologies involving
livestock in mixed farming systems.
4. Discuss with interested individuals the two FSSP training manuals
and identify materials that should be incorporated into the

1. With my attendance at the first networkshop in Togo in March 1985
as past chairman of the livestock Task Force and with my role on
the FSSP Technical Committee, I was able to provide some continuity
in the crop-livestock area and assist with the synthesis of
knowledge and experience for the purpose of developing training
materials for use in the design and testing stage of mixed crop and
livestock farming systems.
2. Four major sub-themes were identified as topics for paper
presentations and small group discussions:
a. aminal utilization and management at farm level
b. animal power equipment at the farm level
c. economic implications of animal power at the farm level and
village level finance
d. social implications of animal power at the farm level
3. Both the Togo and Sierra Leone networkshops are significant
accomplishments in terms of networking activities. The
accomplishments at the latter meeting included the exchange of
experiences between West African countries in the areas of
equipment powered by animals, lessons learned, promotional and
development techniques used in animal traction, and research
methodologies used in on-farm testing.

1986, Third Quarter


Department of Agriculture

A. kesso Diallo

R. Dray

Dr. S. Ravindran
A.S. Gedeo
S.T. Hooke

K.B. Pascal

Dr. K. Apetofia
P. Ledezime
A. Westneat
L.A. Afantonou

H.U. Ahmed
D.O.A. Phillip

A. Achumacher

D. Zerbo
A. Berthe
Dr. S.K. Reddy
M.I. Sangare
C. Ladrette

S. Ouedraogo

S.A.S. Harouna

Institute des Sciences Agro-Zootechniques de


Centre Ivoirien du Machinism Agricole

Project Culture Attelee Kara-Savanes
Unite de Production de Materiel Agricole

Ahmadu Bello University

Kwango-Kwilu Integrated Rural Development

Ministre de l'Agriculture



R. Imboden

B. Kanu
A.B. Bangura
J. Koroma
A. Samura
S.M. Sheriff
H. Corbelle
Y. Schwartz
W. MacKinlay

1986, Third Quarter


Productivite du Departement de

Productivite du Departement de



S.M. Jarju

A.U.S. Barrie

S. Leaman
M. Gboku
M. Jambawai
T.M. Turay
B.S. Mansaray
I.B. Kabia
A. Agard
J.R. Jindia
K. Holm
A.B. Mansaray
S.B. Kugbei
A.B. Kamara
A.B. Conteh
E.Y. Koroma
M.B. Sesay
P. Francis
J.D. Rogers

Koinadugu Integrated Agricultural Development
Peace Corps Volunteer
Njala University College
Njala University College
Catholic Mission
Magbosi IAD Project
ACRE Project
ACRE Project
Seed Multiplicaiton Project
Seed Multiplication Project
Seed Multiplication Project
Seed Multiplication Project
Rokupr Rice Research Station
Rokupr Rice Research Station
FAO/Swamp Rice Development Project
FAO/Swamp Rice Development Project

Dr. S. Jutzi
Dr. S.O. Adeoyt
Dr. D. Spencer
R. Gifford
R.K. Bansal
P.G. Serafini
Dr. M.C. Klaij
D. Le Thiec
B. Kehr
E.R. Busquets
W. Boie
P. Allagnat
D. Kemp
H. Freeman
N. Jezzard
Dr. S. Poats
P. Starkey
Dr. J.W. Oxley
R. Roosenberg
T. Hluchyj

Potential Trainers:

198:, Third Quarter

Publication Potential:
The proceedings of the conference will be published in English and
French by FSSP in the next few months.


Demands on FSSP:
1. Farming systems that include animal traction provide a unique
opportunity to study this applicaiton of animal to small farm
production in areas where there has been both a prolonged tradition
as well as where there is a lack of acceptance of animal traction
in agricultural development.
2. Dr. Reddy reflected on a discussion that he had recently in Mali
with the Assistant Director for the Africa Bureau, USAID/W. The
Director stated the need for concrete examples of accomplishments
of the FSSP. There is a need for identifying six to eight good
examples of improved or adopted technology that has resulted from
FSR projects. These need to be documented in a good P.R.
publication that can be used by AID administrators. This is a
matter that should be discussed at the nest FSSP Technical Committe
meeting and the general sessions at Kansas State University. Each
member of the Technical Committee can probably identify two or
three projects that have published reports, papers or summaries
that show uses of FSR methodologies that have yielded results.
With the help of Steve Kearl and the Technical Committee, a number
of examples of FSR/E successes could be incorporated into some type
of publication. This matter can be discussed with Dr. Reddy during
his attendance at KSU.
3. There were some items that resulted from the networkshop meeting
that might be incorporated into training manuals. Those items,
together with the paper presented by Kujawa and Oxley at the KSU
meeting and the study being done by Winrock International on
Economic Analysis of Crop/Livestock On-Farm Trials, should be
reviewed and used where appropriate in the training manuals. The
Technical Committee will be dealing with this issue at Kansas
State. Eventually, someone will need to take the responsibility of
this assignment.

FSSP commitment-promised responses:

Materials collected:


1986, Third Quarter

22 o.

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