Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Executive summary

Group Title: Quarterly report (Farming Systems Support Project)
Title: Quarterly report
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00091285/00014
 Material Information
Title: Quarterly report
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Farming Systems Support Project
Publisher: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Office of International Programs, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, FL
Publication Date: January-March 1986
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00091285
Volume ID: VID00014
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Executive summary
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
Full Text


January 1 to March 31, 1986





Executive Summary . . . . . . . . ... ...... .1

Main Report

I. Setting . . . . . . . . ... ..... . .2

II. General Accomplishments . . . . . . . . ..2

III. Conclusions . . . . . . . . ... ..... .3

IV. Activity Reports

Hildebrand/Nigeria/02/07 to 02/16/86 . . . ... .4

Andrew/India/01/13 to 02/22/86 . . . . .... .6

Poats and Galt/Senegal/03/01 to 03/19/86 . . . .. 10
(Tony, Fotzo-Cameroon; Unamma, Olunuga-Nigeria;
Fakambia, Adjahossou-Benin; Kwami, Aithnard,
Apetofia-Togo; Swadogo, Firmin-Burkina Fasso)
Reboussin/Senegal/03/12 to 04/08/86 . . . ... .14


During the first quarter of 1986, heavy emphasis was placed on training
and publication activities. Training volumes were revised. Case studies
were tested quite successfully at the Gender Issues Conference, University
of Florida.

Networking activities focused on West Africa with the attendance of two
FSSP core staff members as well as eleven Africans supported by FSSP at a
meeting of the West African Farming Systems Research Network. The
interface was strenghtened between the FSSP and the Network.

Through contact with the IITA Farming Systems program and participation
at the ICRISAT International Agricultural Research Center Conference,
further collaboration was established with the IARCs on Farming Systems
methodology and technique. A consensus on methodology and technique
emerged, along with the recognition that Farming Systems methodology is
adaptable to each country or region, giving it the flexibility to be used
as an applied tool in developing agricultural technology.

1986, First Quarter


It was anticipated that a workplan might be prepared and accepted by
USAID/S&T as the quarter and year began. It became evident by the close of
the quarter that we were barely going to have an acceptable workplan. This
is a process that seems to repeat itself and requires considerable time
from overall administrative management of the project. Sometimes the plan
improves due to the extra effort but often this is questionable.

The quarter was devoted to several publication and training activities
that led into the overall program strategy for the final two years of the
FSSP. Heavy emphasis was given to final editing and revision of the
training units in anticipation of publishing Volumes I and II of the
training materials. Similarly considerable effort was undertaken with the
case studies. A highlight of the quarter was a workshop held at the
University of Florida, in which FSSP contributed information about gender
and intra-household issues in farming systems research and extension.
People from over fifty countries throughout the world attended the
conference representing a variety of disciplines related to women in
agricultural development.

Interface with the international agricultural research centers was
important within this quarter as well as contributions to the emerging West
African Farming Systems Research Network.


The revision of the training volumes for the FSSP and the early testing
of the case studies prepared by FSSP/Population Council on intra-household
and gender issues in Farming Systems Research and Extension represent
outstanding achievements. They embody most of the guidelines called for
in the Cooperative Agreement. These training tools will be quite useful to
trainers and will be ready for use later this year. Testing of one of the
cases at the Gender Issues Conference demonstrated the potential benefits
of utilizing real world data and experience from various countries. The
case studies include four from Africa, two from Asia, and two from Latin
America. They cover a wide range of issues and experiences and provide a
basis for not only training but consultation and assistance. Equally
important the training units serve as a guide to developing courses and a
basis for drawing forth experiential learning materials for use by trainers
in short course programs.

The network activities in West Africa were enhanced through the meeting
of the West African Farming Systems Research Network. The FSSP contributed
some funding as well as leadership and participation through Drs. Galt and
Poats. Eleven Africans were supported including individuals from Cameroon,
Nigeria, Benin, Togo, and Burkina Faso. Plans were made to further
strengthen the network and an interface with FSSP was considered to be
essential both from a technical point of view and relative to communication
and information management. This network has potential to encompass and
support the missions and goals resulting from the West African Livestock
Systems Network. The commodity networking issue as well as the

1986, First Quarter

methodological networking issue is being confronted through the two
organizations in a successful and complementary interface.

Through Peter Hildebrand's participation in evaluation and restructing
of the IITA farming systems program further collaboration was established
with the international agricultural research centers on specific
methodological issues. This was particularly the case with reference to
the on-farm research effort and through Andrew's attendance at the ICRISAT
International Ag. Research Center Conference (both trip reports are
attached.) The overall process suggests that consensus in methodology and
technique is emerging while nurturing the overall potential for developing
new ideas and approaches. Complete consensus is not desired because
varied adaptations of the methodology are quite necessary depending upon
the particular institutional structures, country needs, and overall
research program base to which the methodology is applied. Recognition of
this element of complementarity and flexibility on a worldwide
international basis through the International Agricultural Research Centers
is a very positive sign for farming systems as an applied tool in
developing agricultural technology. An expression of this collaboration
appears in the FSSP newsletter and further indicates the role that FSSP is
playing in helping communicate this process and to fortify and strengthen
practitioner programs at the national program level.


It is obvious, through various deliberations in the workplan
development process, that financial support for the FSSP is not likely to
be very good in fiscal year 1987. Furthermore, it is also obvious that
support for Farming Systems Research and Extension within AID, Washington
is softening on a general scale. Nevertheless it is evident through
networking interfaces with the International Ag. Research Centers, West
African nationals, and communications with AID missions in plans for
training workshops in 1987, that FSR/E is an important aspect of national
program activities. The potential role that farming systems can play in
strengthening the USAID Africa Bureau Strategy statement for agricultural
research and development is significant if this communication can be fully
expressed in the appropriate places.

1986, First Quarter

Hildebrand/Nigeria/02/07 to 02/16/86

Region: West Africa
Country: Nigeria
Assignment: Trip to IITA, Ibadan, Nig
Name: Peter E. Hildebrand
Date of Activity: February 7-16, 1986
Team: none
Home Institution: University of Flori
Address: 2126 McCarty Hall


Gainesville, FL 32611


To participate in the Farming Systems Program consultant group that,
along with various commodity group representatives, will help IITA
plan their programming for the next 10-15 years.

Accomplishments: Above objective was accomplished.

1. At IITA there is no method for orienting the commodity research to
the problems of farmers. Commodity programs do their own on-farm
2. Currently, there is little interaction between commodities and
3. Concern expressed about IITA's (and other IARCs) role in conduction
OFR for development as well as OFR of varieties.
4. Discussion of three purposes and implications of OFR for:
variety testing



Theo Wormer

Dunstan Spencer
John D'Dungu
Eric Tollens
David Nygaard
Willem Stoop
Norman Simmonds
George Wilson
Hank Mutsaers
Manny Palada

Potential Trainers:

1986, First Quarter

Representative of the Board of Trustees
Toyal Tropical Instutute, Netherlands
Makerere University, Uganda
University of Leuven, Belgium
Winrock International, USA
ISNAR, Netherlands
University of Edinburgh, Scotland
Head of banana/plantain program


Publication Potential:


Demands on FSSP:
H. Mutsaers and M. Palada will begin a series of workshops on OFR and
would like FSSP collaboration. They would like to receive:
1. A copy of training manual on OFR
2. A copy of outline for July on-farm workshop in Gainesville
They will be putting in a sizable order for H and P book and want to
know the best way to get it.

FSSP commitment-promised responses:

Materials collected:

1986, First Quarter

Andrew/India/02/13 to 02/22/86

Region: Asia
Country: India
Assignment: Attend the IARCs Workshop on Farming Systems Research held at
ICRISAT Center, India.
Name: Chris Andrew
Date of Activity: February 13 -22, 1986
Team: none
Home Institution: FSSP
Address: 3028 McCarty Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611


1. To develop an understanding of the relevance and approaches to
Farming Systems Research (FSR) in International Agricultural
Research Centers (IARCs).
2. To indicate the roles of international and national research
agencies in FSR.
3. To harmonize the recommendations of previous reviews on FSR into an
IARC framework.
4. To discuss the results of case studies to assist in assessing the
relevance and priority of such research for creating an impact on
national systems.
5. To outline the future of FSR in the CG System.

1. The ten IARCs agreed that the essential underlying concept of FSR/E
is that farming systems research is an approach to agricultural research.
A farming system approach has the following characteristics:
a. Problem solving research which explicitly recognizes the farmer
and other agents in the food system as the primary clients of agricultural
research systems.
b. Research which recognizes interactions between different
sub-systems in the farming system and which may often require a
multi-commodity approach.
c. Research with an inter-disciplinary approach that requires close
collaboration among technical scientists (physical and biological) and
social scientists.
2. The farming systems approach aims to improve the efficiency and
relevance of the agricultural research system, especially in terms of
increasing the productivity and income stability of small farming
households while preserving the resource base. A farming systems approach
is best incorporated through complementary on-farm and on-station research
with farmers perspectives playing an integral role in technology design and
3. In a farming systems approach, on-farm research is conducted with
farmer participation in order to
a. understand existing farming systems,

1986, First Quarter

b. identify problems and research opportunities,
c. test appropriate solutions,
d. and monitor acceptance of improved technologies.
4. On-farm research should largely be implemented through national
systems with effective feedback mechanisms to on-station research in
national and international research institutes. International Centers
often have a comparative advantage in developing methods and in training
for incorporating a farming systems approach in national programs.
International Centers should also continue to have direct involvement in
implementing some on-farm research programs in order to refine methods and
to ensure that scientists at International Centers themselves are exposed
to farmers' problems.
5. It was agreed the IARCs with a mandate for a broad agro-ecological
environment may experiment with farming systems which differ radically from
existing farmer practices, in order to explore the potential productivity
and stability of the resource base in that environment. Such research need
not always have a farming systems approach, but is often an important
supporting research activity with distinct objectives.
6. A farming systems approach is now being adopted and incorporated by
many research systems. This is reflected in increased contact between
scientists and farmers, a greater sensitivity of scientists to the
complexities of small farmer systems and changes in attitudes of scientists
toward addressing farmer problems. Results of on-farm research have been
particularly valuable in feeding back information to on-station research
and changing priorities accordingly. As the farming systems approach
matures in many programs, there is growing evidence of acceptance of
technologies being generated.

i. Because a lack of farming systems approach has often limited the
effectiveness of many research systems, it was felt that there is a need to
formalize the inclusion of a farming systems approach as defined in the
accomplishments above in programs of both national and international
research systems.
2. Specific needs that were identified include
a. A greater need to cement linkages between on-farm research and
on-station research with scientists involved in both types of research
b. The need to have clearly defined objectives and terms for the
various research activities which comprise a farming systems approach.
c. The need for commitment and continuity of personnel for effective
d. Realistic expectations that several years are needed before
research will have an impact on farmers.



Dr. J.R. Anderson University of New England, Australia
Dr. M.H. Arnold Plant Breeding Institute, UK
Dr. D. Byerlee CIMMYT
Dr. G.T. Castillo University of the Philippines at Los Banos

1986, First Quarter

P. R.N. Chigaru
J.K. Coulter
H.C. Ezumah
L. Fresco
A.A. Gomez
R. Hart
N. Hudson
D. Prinz

Dr. J.B. Raintree
Dr. N.S. Randhawa
Dr. D. Renard
Dr. R.E. Rhoades
Dr. J.G. Ryan
Dr. S. Sandford
Dr. N.W. Simmonds
Dr. K. Somel
Dr. W.A. Stoop
Dr. M.D. Upadhya
De. R.N. Wedderburn
Dr. D. Jha
Dr. A.S. Karama
Mrs. V. Kumble
Dr. E.A. Luna
Dr. J.S. Maini
Dr. J. McIntire
Dr. D. Merrill-Sands
Dr. J.H. Monyo
Dr. R.A. Morris
Dr. A.F. Munoz
Dr. D.L. Plunknett
Dr. M. Wessel
Dr. J. Woolley
Prof. E.T. York, Jr.
Dr. H.G. Zandstra

ICRISAT Participants

J.R. Burford
K.A. Dvorak
B.C.G. Gunasekera
N.S. Hodha
J.S. Kanwar
K.B. Laryea
R.A.E. Mueller
C.K. Ong
D.L. Oswalt
C. Renard
D. Sharma
L.D. Swindale
H.L. Thompson
S.M. Virmani
M. von Oppen
T.S. Walker

Ministry of Agriculture, Zimbabwe
The World Bank
Landbouw Hogeschool, The Netherlands
University of the Philippines at Los Banos
Winrock International
Silsoe Associates, UK
Institute Fuer Tropischen und Subtropischen
Federal Republic of Germany
Indian Council of Agricultural Research
Edinburgh School of Agriculture, UK
Editorial Consultant Services, India
Alimentos de Fuerte SA de CV, Mexico
Environment Canada
IFAS, Florida

1986, First Quarter

Potential Trainers:
Discussions concerning training were held with most center
representatives and extensively with IRRI and ILCA.

Publication Potential:
Several people were encouraged to write for the newsletter and the
general statement prepared by the IARCs on Farming Systems Research was
published in the FSSP newsletter at the request of the CCIAR/TAC.


Demands on FSSP:
Looking to the future, the group sees continued emphasis of the
International Centers on training and support for incorporating the farming
systems approach in national programs. Considerable work is needed to
further develop methods for on-farm research and especially to formalize
linkages of on-farm research with on-station research and with policy
analysis. The International Centers should seek to improve collaboration
among themselves, especially in sharing information on methods and in
coordinating work with national programs and in jointly conducting training
programs. It was noted that collaboration has been increasing and that
this has been beneficial to both International Centers and national

FSSP commitment-promised responses: Continued collaboration and exchange.

Materials collected: Conference papers are on file.

1986, First Quarter

Poats and Galt/Senegal/03/10 to 03/18/86

Region: West Africa
Country: Senegal
1. Attend the first annual meeting of the West African Farming Systems
Research Network in Dakar, Senegal, as representatives of the FSSP.
2. Attend any follow-up meetings with steering committee and/or chiefs
of parties of FSR/E projects.
Name: Susan Poats and Dan Galt
Date of Activity:
SP: March 10-18, 1986
DG: March 10-15, 1986
Team: Susan Poats and Dan Galt
Home Institution: UOF/FSSP

Address: IFAS/International Programs
3028 McCarty Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611


1. Interact with the WAFSRN steering committee, especially Drs. Abalu,
Faye and Mutsaers, to facilitate the first annual WAFSRN meeting with
FSSP support to (a) selected funded participants and (b) the meeting
2. Assist the WAFSRN meeting organizers in any way possible before and
during the meetings.
3. Participate in the first annual WAFSRN meetings.
4. Participate in
a. Follow-up meetings between the newly-elected WAFSRN steering
committee and the donor community, and/or
b. Follow-up chief-of-party meetings as a continuing part of the
"bilaterial contractors in FSR/E projects" thrust of the FSSP.

All of above with the exception of 4.b. The follow-up chief-of-parties
meeting was cancelled roughly a month before the WAFSRN meetings because of
poor timing. However, an ad hoc meeting between three chiefs-of-party (namely
David Norman, ATIP, Botswana; James Bingen, ISRA, Senegal; and Mark Lynham,
AGRES II, Mauritania) took place during the afternoon and early evening of
March 10th. The session was dedicated almost entirely to a briefing on the
Mauritania approach to FSR/E via the project and the contractor, the
University of Arizona, and the rest of us providing input (or "advice") to
AGRES II (Lynham and N'Guide). Besides DG and the above-mentioned COPs, those
in attendance were Hamath N'Guide, counterpart to Mark Lynham, Tim Franken-
berger, campus project backstop, UOAz, and John Lichte, private consultant.

In addition, an informal meeting on FSR/E project evaluation criteria
took place after the small group sessions Wednesday afternoon, March 12th. In

1986, First Quarter

response to popular demand during Tuesday afternoon's session, DG agreed to
act as rappoteur for the session, while Tim Frankenberger graciously agreed to
take notes. DG rearranged the notes from this session early the following
week upon his return to the U.S., and the session's notes were used at the
latest meeting of the FSSP's Evaluation Task Force in Washington, DC. (The
rewritten notes can be found in the trip report).

1. Funding. The first and most obvious is lack of committed funding.
IDRC, GTZ, CIRAD and FSSP all put funds into the first annual WAFSRN meeting.
However, due to (a) length of time it took to consulate first meeting and (b)
changing priorities and declining budgets of all donors, CIRAD was the only
donor who came to Dakar prepared to put funds into the continuation of WAFSRN.
2. Permanent Location. WAFSRN needs a permanent home. Meeting partici-
pants prefer SAFGRAD, even given its tenuous status. Alternatives are IITA
and ICRISAT, in that order. The steering committee has been charged with
resolving this issue.
3. Training in FSR/E. Most, if not all, national program representa-
tives list this as a high priority need. There is a strong sense of the need
for training at both the national and regional levels, similar perhaps to
CIMMYT supported training in East and Southern Africa.
4. Post-donor sustainability. As pointed out by David Norman, when
donors reduce or completely eliminate their contributions to FSR/E via the
project route, national research and extension programs are left having to
support the greater human resource and recurrent costs of the FSR/E approach.
There is much concern in this area. Do countries forget about short-run
self-sufficiency in funding their own research-extension efforts? If so, will
the international donor community continue to support their efforts at the
same, or at increasing, levels as in the past? If not, what are the options?
Will countries and donors discuss and agree upon logical phase-outs of assist-
ance, or will phase-outs be driven by perceived political realities of donor
nations only?
5. Leadership. Though the new steering committee is quite strong and
well-respected, WAFSRN will still need a coordinator/leader. Experience has
shown that a leader with a full-time national job is constrained from acting
in a totally regional fashion. Yet, for the network to draw a strong leader
100% away from a national program represents a severe loss for that program.
We suggest that perhaps as the secretariat is being planned, that
consideration be given to the management (mainly communication and logistical)
of the network, and that a strong staff be sought with these skills. Perhaps
a manager should be hired for the network and leadership sought with 18 month
sabbaticals of the major FSR/E practitioners of the region.



Those institutions outside of the FSSP and the 17 member nations which
send representatives to this meeting included the following:
1. IDRC (as meetings host)
2. GTZ
3. Ford Foundation

1986, First Quarter



The list of meeting's participants can be found in the trip report.

Additional individual contacts made were:

Josh Posner (ISRA/MSU, Senegal)
Eric Crawford (ISRA/MSU, Senegal)
ISRA BAME (Macroeconomic unit economists)
Jim Binger (ISRA/MSU, Senegal)
Ford Foundation Office, Dakar

Publication potential:
A proceedings from the WAFSRN meeting will be produced and are expected
to be distributed by the end of the year.

Potential trainers:
Paul Starkey (Animal Traction)
Tim Frankenberger
Jacques Faye
Geore Abalu
Mark Lynham
Henk Mutsaers
Bai Kanu (Animal Traction)
Mohamed Dahniya
Sibivi Sawadogo
Abou Berthe
Pascal Fotzo
Dunstan Spencer


Demands on FSSP:

1. To continue to give support to WAFARN in a manner appropriate to FSSP
2. Determine appropriate mechanisms to institutionalize FSSP training
courses within the region.

Promised responses:
1. Arrange space/ticketing/per diems for Raymond Unamma's candidate to
The Gambia FSR/E workshop upon return to GVN (DG/JM).
2. Write congratulatory letter to WAFSRN steering committee on outcome
of meetings (DG on behalf of SP).
3. Stimulate West and Central African missions/FSR/E projects to cable
support for WAFSRN to AID/W (SP).
4. Draft article for FSSP Newsletter based on first WAFSRN meetings

Materials collected:

1986, First Quarter

The following papers were presented at the meetings and copies brought
back to Gainesville:

1. Mali: "La recherche sur les systems de production rurale au Mali:
cas de la zone Mali-Sud." A. BERTE, T. DIARRA and M. TANGARA.
2. Senegal, Nigeria: "A framework for assessing farming systems
activities in national settings in West Africa: with special reference to
Senegal and Nigeria." D. C. BAKER and D. W. NORMAN.
3. Nigeria: "Implementation of a farming systems research strategy:
the case of Nigeria." G. O. I. ABALU.
4. Senegal: "Conception et mise en oeuvre des recherches sur les
systems de production au sein d'un programme national de recherche -
L'experience de l'Institut Senegalais de Recherches Agricoles." J. FAYE, J.
5. Cameroon: "Projet de enforcement de operation recherche/develop-
pment/formation dans la zone de Bafou a Dschang." Centre Universitaire de
6. Benin: "Apport dur l'experience de la Republique Populaire du Benin
en matiere de recherche sur les systems de production rurale." D. F.
7. Burkina Faso: "Communication de l'institut Burkinabe de Recherches
Agronomiques et Zootechniques du Burkina Faso." Programmes de la RSPR.
8. Sierra Leone: "The West African farming systems research network:
Sierra Leone country report." M. T. DAHNIYA.
9. Ivory Coast: "Pluridisciplinarite et interinstitutionnalisation des
equipes de recherche en milieu paysan en Cote-d'Ivoire." M. DIAMONDE.
10. Ivory Coast: "Quelques idees sur l'evolution et l'evaluation des
Programmes de Recherche en Systeme de production en Cote d'Ivoire :
Presentation de cas de 1'IDESSA." S. DOUMBIA.
11. WAFSRN Bulletin, Volume 1, Number 1, January 1986.
12. Niger: "Objectifs et resultats parties du programme de recherche
sur system de production rurale a l'institut national de recherches
agronomiques du Niger." M. KADI.

1986, First Quarter

Reboussin/Senegal/03/12 to 04/08/86

Region: West Africa
Country: Senegal
Assignment: Attend Conference on West African Farming Systems Research
Network (WAFSRN) in Dakar, Senegal. Research resource materials for FSSP
documentation, especially those in French.
Name: Daniel Reboussin
Date of Activity: March 12 to April 8, 1986
Team: none
Home Institution: University of Florida/FSSP
Address: 3028 McCarty Hall
Gainesville, FL 32611


1. To supplement the current documentation efforts at FSSP with the
addition of information and materials collected from sources in West
Africa, focusing on Francophone materials.
2. To assist in the logistical aspects of the West African Farming
Systems Research Network (WAFSRN) conference, held in Dakar, March 10-15,
3. To contact persons in Senegal who are performing research or
coordinating development activities in the Basse Casamance region. Primary
focus was on those activities that are related to farm management questions
and issues of migration. These contact efforts are considered as a
preliminary step towards the eventual conduct of dissertation fieldwork in
this area.

Accomplishments: Above objectives were accomplished.



George Abalu

Michel Benoit Cattin

James Bingen

Laurie Brush

Programme Leader
Farming Systmes Research Programme
Institute of Agricultural Research
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
BP 5035
Cedex 34032 Montpellier, France
MSU Field Project Director
BP 3201, Dakar, Senegal
c/o Dorothy Wills
Project Gestion Rurale
Ecole National de l'Economie Applique (ENEA)
BP 5084 Dakar, Senegal

1986, First Quarter

Richard Caldwell

Made Diouf

Pascal Fotzo

Etienne Landais

Robert MacAllister

Madicke Niang

Joshua Posner

Samba Sail

Paul Starkey

Potential Trainers:
Publication Potential:

Dakar (10)
Department of State
Washington, DC 20520
BP 34 Ziguinchor, Senegal
Economiste Agraire
Centre Universitaire de Dschang
BP 288 Dschang, Cameroon
ISRA Department Systemes
BP 3201 Dakar, Senegal
Dakar (10)
Department of State
Washington, DC 20520
ISRA Direction General
BP 3120 Dakar, Senegal
BP 3201 Dakar, Senegal
BP 34 Ziguinchor, Senegal
Consultant in Animal Traction
2 Wylhwood Crescent
Earley, Reading RG 6 2RA, UK


Demands on FSSP:

FSSP commitment-promised responses:

Materials collected:
1. Anonymous, 1986, "Objectifs et resultats parties du programme de
recherche sur system de production rurale a l'Institut National de
Recherches Agronomiques du Niger".
2. Bigot, Y. et S. Anne, 1974, "Reference d'utilisation des animaux et
du materiel agricole de traction attelee en milieu rural".
3. Dugue, Marie-Josephe, 1986, Fonctionnement des systems de
production et utilisation de l'espace dans un village du Yatenga: Boukere
4. Landais, E., 1984, "Les recherches sur les systems d'elevage
entreprises dans le delta du Fleuve Senegal: Presentation des objectifs,
methodologie, propositions (document de travail)".
5. Nyhus, Sheirla M. and Gerth Massey, 1986, "Female-Headed Households
in an Agro-Pastoral Society".
6. Second, Chantal et Michel Benoit-Cattin, 1986, Systemes agraires,
systems de production en Afrique de l'Ouest (et Madagascar).


1986, First Quarter

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