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Title: Emerging Pathogens Institute
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Acknowledgement
        Acknowledgement
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Main
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text











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Cover photo by Howard Suzuki.
Baby alligator emerging from its shell.

The American alligator, official state reptile of
Florida, may also serve as a "reservoir" for
emerging diseases such as West Nile and Western
equine encephalitis viruses. Since 2002, several
outbreaks of West Nile virus have been reported in
alligators in a number of states, including Florida.
Like birds, alligators can serve as hosts for
amplification of the virus and there is evidence for
human infections with West Nile virus derived
from alligators. Florida also serves as a major
import state of exotic reptiles which frequently
carry ticks capable of carrying and transmitting a
variety of pathogens including heartwater.








EMERGING PATHOGENS


INSTITUTE


Emerging Pathogens Institute
http://epi.ufl.edu
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32610



Director
J. Glenn Morris, MD, MPH & TM
Emerging Pathogens Institute
Phone: 352-273-7526
Email:j gmorris@ufl.edu


University of Florida










Section I Fact Sheet


Mission:









Background:






Challenges:






Solutions:












Uniqueness:


This institute will focus on relevant social, agricultural, scientific,
clinical and educational issues related to diseases potentially devastating
to the health of Floridians and the State economy, as well as the health
and economy of rest of the country. This institute will develop and
deliver appropriate informatics, diagnostics, treatments and surveillance
for the prediction, prevention, detection and management of microbial
pathogen-associated diseases of humans, animals and plants.


Florida's vulnerability to newly emerging or imported pathogens place
it in an ideal position as a "sentinel state". As such, Florida can develop
methods for advance planning for control and eradication prior to spread
to the rest of the United States. The sub-tropical climate is a perfect
breeding ground for various diseases (including West Nile, Malaria, and
Asian Citrus Greening) and vectors for spreading them.

* Lack of communication and techniques between disciplines
* Diagnostic, surveillance, & detection technologies are not adequate.
* Current vaccines/antimicrobial agents are not adequate.
* Current data are unmanageable given current data systems.
* Current pathogen management is not efficient.

* Train scientists with integrated knowledge and insight into the
dynamics between human, animal and plant pathogens.
* Integrate bioengineering and nanoscience technologies into
detection and diagnostic devices
* Expand research capabilities for development of appropriate
vaccines and antimicrobial reagents necessary to interrupt and
control emerging infections.
* Research and compile data on worldwide pathogens and provide
tools to analyze these data.
* Develop response and prevention plans and coordinate
implementation with proper authorities to prevent spread of disease
and, if possible, prevent outbreaks outright.
The Institute will fuse resources and capabilities from diverse fields
(Agriculture, Engineering, Medicine) in the sentinel state of Florida to:
* permit novel scientific interaction.
* prevent and contain outbreaks of new diseases that threaten not only
Florida but the entire country by development of:
1) new/improved vaccines and antimicrobial reagents
2) new detection and improved diagnostics systems
3) new/improved vaccines and antimicrobial reagents
4) new detection and improved diagnostics systems
5) improved outreach mechanisms for community/industry
education


Page 2













Contacts:


Director

J. Glenn Morris, MD, MPH & TM
Emerging Pathogens Institute
Phone: 352-273-7526
Email: jgmorris@ufl.edu


Advisory Board Members


Chris Batich, Ph.D.
College of Engineering
Email: cbati@ufl.edu
352-392-6630

Mary Brown, Ph.D.
College of Veterinary Medicine
Email: mbbrown@ufl.edu
352-392-4700 ext. 3970

John B. Dame, Ph.D.
Veterinary Medicine
Email: DameJ@mail.vetmed.ufl.edu
352-392-4700 ext. 5818

Donn Dennis, M.D.
College of Medicine
Email: DDennis@ufl.edu
352-846-1355

Louis J. Guillette, Ph.D.
College of Liberal Arts and Sciences
Email: lig@zoo.ufl.edu
352- 392-1098

Richard W. Moyer, Ph.D.
College of Medicine
Email: rmoyer(iufl.edu
352-273-5230

Toshi Nishida, Ph.D.
College of Engineering
Email: nishida@ufl.edu
352-392-6774
Page 3


Jane Polston, Ph.D.
Institute for Food & Agric. Sci.
Email: jep@ufl.edu
352-392-3631 ext. 341

Ann Progulske-Fox, Ph.D.
College of Dentistry
Email: apfox@dental.ufl.edu
352-846-0770

David E. Richardson, Ph.D.
Coll. of Liberal Arts & Sciences
Email: chair@chem.ufl.edu
352-392-5266

Betsy Shenkman, Ph.D.
College of Medicine
Email: eas@ichp.ufl.edu
352-265-7220 ext. 86333

Fred Southwick
College of Medicine
Email:
southfs@medicine.ufl.edu
352-392-4058

Eric Triplett, Ph.D.
Institute for Food and Agric.
Science
Email: ewt@ufl.edu
352-392-5430









Section II Executive Summary


PROPOSAL

The Emerging Pathogens Institute brings together researchers from diverse fields to
develop control, diagnostic and treatment plans including vaccines and other anti-
microbials for new and emerging diseases.

This Institute's focus is on relevant social, agricultural, scientific, clinical and educational
issues related to diseases potentially devastating to the health of Floridians and the State
economy as well as the rest of the country.

The Institute will develop and deliver appropriate solutions to problems in the
management of microbial pathogen-associated diseases of humans, animals and plants. It
will do so using informatics, diagnostics, treatments and surveillance for the prediction,
prevention, and detection of such diseases.



BACKGROUND

An Emerging Pathogen is any new, re-emerging, or drug-resistant infection whose
incidence has increased within the past two decades or whose incidence threatens to
increase in the future1. The pathogen can be a novel virus, bacteria, parasite or fungus
that has the potential to become endemic, epidemic and even pandemic in nature.
Emerging pathogens can be transmitted via water, air, food, or blood. According to the
World Health Organization2, given the above criteria, there are 175 infectious species that
are considered as emerging pathogens and 75% of these are zoonotic (transmissible from
animal to human).









Florida's residents and its two major industries, agriculture and tourism, are currently
threatened by new diseases (i.e. West Nile) that enter Florida. Other diseases, such as
avian flu in humans and hoof and mouth disease in cattle, which are currently not present
in Florida, are an even greater threat.


Page 4











Why is Florida particularly vulnerable to


Emerging Pathogens?


Florida is a "sentinel state" and a "reservoir state" for diseases of plants,
animals, and humans. Its extensive coastline, major ports of entry, and
tropical/subtropical climate make it vulnerable to the establishment of new
diseases.


Page 5









Florida's moderate climate contributes to outdoor, active lifestyles and attracts
visitors from all over the world increasing its vulnerability to pathogens
introduced by visitors and providing suitable conditions for pathogen growth
and spread.

As a consequence of our outdoor lifestyle, we Floridians are more likely to be bitten by
ticks and mosquitoes, insects capable of transmitting pathogens (like West Nile Virus and
Ehrlichia) from animals to humans. The mosquito can also transmit pathogens from one
human to another. Fortunately, for now, these types of pathogens are rarely found in
Florida.

The temperate climate also contributes to a very active, athletically-oriented state.
According to Dr. Frederick Southwick, Chief of Infectious Disease at the UF College of
Medicine, the crowded environments of locker rooms and use of common soap has led to
the recent spread of resistant bacteria (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus,
MRSA) among many of our young athletes.


With increased tourism, Florida is at
potential risk of Malaria and Yellow Fever
from the nearby Caribbean Islands.
Tourism not only increases human exposure
to pathogens but also increases agricultural
exposure.


80 milliontourstsvisit

-Uorida in 2005.


Florida is also home to many cruise ships and these vessels also provide a unique
environment for the spread of specific pathogens. Norwalk virus has become very
common in recent years among cruise ship passengers

Our warm weather not only increases our exposure to certain pathogens, but the moist,
humid environment provides ideal conditions for the growth of fungi including one of
particular health concern, black mold.

Florida's humid environment is also ideal for the spread of infections such as
Cryptococcus. This fungus is not ordinarily a health threat but poses a significant threat
to immuno-compromised individuals such as those with human immunodeficiency virus
(HIV). As HIV destroys the immune system, these patients are at increased risk for other
infections like tuberculosis (TB).





addition to HI, i


Page 6








Florida has a wide array of temperate, sub-tropical, and tropical ecosystems
supporting a diverse agriculture and contributing to its vulnerability to new
pathogens.

Florida's production of both food and fiber is under serious threat from emerging
pathogens new to this state. Many of Florida's most important agricultural and natural
resource industries, including citrus, tomato, strawberry, timber and tourism are facing
the potential of enormous economic losses. Florida's natural and managed landscapes are
under threat from pathogens such as sudden oak death which have caused massive losses
of forest, nursery and landscape plants in peer states such as California. The proposed
Emerging Pathogens Institute would facilitate a rapid and focused response and provide
novel solutions to emerging pathogens such as
such as citrus diseases (canker, blight, greening),
sudden oak death, soybean rust, geminiviruses,
Pierce's disease of grapes, and human pathogens
that are present in vegetables, fruits, and seafood.
Florida needs a research capability prepared to
prevent and control outbreaks caused by these and
other pathogens. We need the teaching capability
to train the next generation of scientists who will
keep these pathogens at bay in the future. And we
need the capability to educate the Florida Dead palms due to Lethal
agricultural producers on steps they can take to Yellowing Disease, an emerging
avoid economic losses and educate Florida plant pathogen in the US.
citizens on steps they can take to avoid diseases Photo by Nigel Harrison.
from food-borne pathogens.

Commercial plant imports from around the world have the potential to unwittingly
carry pathogens into our state from other .CON _
countries. I e P


The majority of plant imports into Florida consist of
ornamental plants. Florida also exports a large
number of ornamental and agricultural products to the
rest of the US. In 2004 Florida's top four exports
were fruits, vegetables and preparations, feeds and
fodders, and seeds3.

According to an online Sacramento newspaper,
"Agricultural inspections at ports of entry
subsequently fell markedly between 2002 and 2004,
federal investigators now note. The 8 percent
decrease occurred even as imports kept rising, and
coincided with the Homeland Security Department
replacing the Agriculture Department at the
inspection stations4"


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Page 7









Florida has 25 ports of entry of which 7 are considered major ports of entry. These ports
not only open the doors to the state making Florida more vulnerable, they also serve as a
portal for spread from Florida to other states. Adequate detection and management
systems must be in place to mitigate the effect of new and re-emerging plant pathogens.
A halting of agricultural exports would have a significant effect on Florida's economy.

Florida is vulnerable to the introduction of foreign animal diseases and other
emerging pathogens. One means of introduction is via migratory birds.

A foreign animal disease, or FAD, is one which is believed to be absent from the United
States and its territories, is transmissible to livestock or poultry, and has the potential to
cause a significant health or economic impact. One example is the highly pathogenic
avian influenza virus, currently being spread across the earth by migratory birds, which
has demonstrated its capacity to infect and kill both domestic poultry and humans.

Emerging pathogens and foreign animal diseases do much more than temporarily affect
livestock production. Just the threat of a FAD can shut down a country's ability to export
animals and animal-related products. Disease outbreaks can devastate livestock or poultry
populations through high morbidity or mortality and may cause millions, possibly
billions, of dollars to be spent to control or eradicate the disease. Current efforts to
control the highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak have resulted in the wholesale
destruction of tens of millions of domestic poultry in numerous countries to both prevent
the infection of additional domestic fowl and to reduce the potential threat to human
health.


Once infection has been introduced, spread can be very rapid
from farm to farm. Although the means and speed of
transmission depends on the specific disease, even a single
infected animal can quickly cause a widespread outbreak.
Foreign animal diseases and emerging pathogens may also
spread into susceptible wildlife populations further
complicating, or possibly preventing, disease eradication.

Taken together, these consequences could easily cripple the
entire Florida agriculture industry. Secondary economic
effects such as limiting travel, culling infected animals, and
fear of disease could devastate the tourist industry including
ecotourism. Obviously, prevention of diseases would be
preferable to any sort of response plan.


from animal to animal and










.... poultry ad plt
products m i 0llin


The practical goal of the University of Florida Emerging Pathogens Institute, relative to
animal diseases, is to provide the tools needed to prevent foreign animal diseases and
other emerging pathogens from impacting the health of Floridians, their animals and the
State's economy.


Page 8









Florida's coastline and climate present both an attractive destination for a
dynamic tourist population and for the ever-growing retirement community.
The demographics of these groups contribute to unique issues concerning
emerging food-borne diseases.

Vacationers are far more likely to be exposed to contaminated food in restaurants than at
home, simply due to the volume of food processed. New and exotic foods may mean
exposure to new and exotic infections. Tracking sources of infection among tourists
presents difficulties when the affected persons do not become ill until after they return
home.

Aging populations in our state are generally declining in their ability to combat infectious
disease; consequently, they become much more susceptible to most food-borne illness.
The elderly and persons with other immune deficiencies, such as HIV, can harbor
emerging diseases that are not evident in healthy populations.

The port cities of Florida often provide the first point of US contact for infected persons
or contaminated food sources. Ballast water from ships may carry pathogens around the
world, contributing to the spread of pandemic disease. Many of these diseases are not
typically found in the US and are a source of emerging infections.


The port cities of Florida often provide the first point of US contact for infected
persons or contaminated food sources.


Page 9









In summary, Florida is particularly vulnerable to Emerging
Pathogens because:

* Florida's moderate climate contributes to outdoor, active lifestyles and
attracts visitors from all over the world increasing its vulnerability to
pathogens introduced by its visitors and providing suitable conditions for
pathogen growth and spread.

* Florida has a wide array of temperate, sub-tropical, and tropical ecosystems
lending to its diverse agriculture and its vulnerability to new pathogens.

* Commercial plant imports from around the world have the potential to
unwittingly carry pathogens into our state from other countries.

* Florida is vulnerable to the introduction of foreign animal diseases and
other emerging pathogens. One means of introduction is via migratory
birds.

* Florida's coastline and climate present both an attractive destination for a
dynamic tourist population and for the ever-growing retirement
community. The demographics of these groups contribute to unique issues
concerning emerging food-borne diseases.


All of the above factors make Florida more susceptible to these diseases than perhaps any
other state in the Nation and
require more intensive
research, education, and
outreach efforts than can now
be provided with current
resources.

Increased vulnerability and
the potential to act as a portal
for emerging pathogen spread
to the rest of the United
States, make Florida an ideal
state to develop advanced
planning for control and
eradication of emerging
pathogens. In Florida, this species of mosquito (Culex nigripalpus)
plays a major role in the transmission of disease-causing
viruses. (UF/IFAS/File Photo)


Page 10










CHALLENGES/SOLUTIONS


The Emerging Pathogens Institute (EPI) faces many challenges
several of which we have already begun to address. With your
support, we can continue to address these challenges to accomplish
our mission to bring together researchers from various fields to
develop prevention, control, diagnostic and treatment plans
including vaccines and other anti-microbials for new and emerging
diseases.


- / A...
Sandy Allen, assistant scientist with the University of Florida's Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, examines a large African tortoise tick found on an imported reptile. The
tick, about a half-inch in diameter, could carry and spread heartwater, an exotic disease that
kills livestock and wildlife. To prevent a heartwater epidemic that would devastate the
nations cattle, sheep and goat industries, UF/IFAS researchers are working with state and
federal veterinary officials to keep the foreign ticks out of the country.
Photo by Thomas Wright.


Page 11









Challenge: Lack of communication and techniques between
disciplines.

It's not surprising that scientific fields such as Engineering, Chemistry, Agricultural, and
Medical Sciences each have languages of their own. But what might be surprising is
even within related sciences, such as Veterinary Medicine and Human Medicine,
vocabularies and even techniques often differ. In an academic setting, disciplines are
traditionally packaged into tidy homogenous units each with its own "culture".

A common deviation from research confined to disciplines is "Multidisciplinary research
(which) approaches an issue from the perspectives of a range of disciplines but each
discipline works in a self-contained manner with little cross-fertilization among
disciplines, or synergy in the outcomes'."


An example of the sharing of technologies/protocols across disciplines that has positively
affected the food safety industry is as follows:

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) was developed as a by-
product of another FL industry, the NASA Space Program, to ensure that the
astronauts would not become stricken during space travel. NASA recognized that
it was virtually impossible to test every item of food for every potential pathogen.
Therefore, a strict code of standards at appropriate checkpoints was established to
ensure food safety. This process is now in place throughout the entire food
industry and recent indications suggest that it may be responsible for substantial
declines in food-borne diseases.


To address the complexities of Emerging Pathogens we must go beyond simply sharing
ideas and technologies, we must fully integrate them.


Page 12


"Multidiscii2linary research approaches an issue from the
perspectives of a range of disciplines, but each discipline works in a
self-contained manner with little cross-fertilization among
disciplines, or synergy in the outcomes.""









Solution. Train scientists with integrated knowledge and insight
into the dynamics between human, animal and plant pathogens.

As opposed to multi-disciplinary research, interdisciplinary research can be defined as
research approaching a problem from a variety of perspectives in an integrated way to
achieve a systemic response5.










Interdisciplinary research as defined above is the goal of this institute. The traditional
roadblocks to this type of collaborative research that we will overcome include
communication, academic structure, funding, and education/career development.


To overcome the "interdisciplinary" challenge, EPI will:

* Establish truly interdisciplinary program areas that cross traditional academic and
scientific barriers. The areas involved should include not only the "standard" fields
of bacteriology, virology, mycology and immunology but also encompass practicing
infectious-diseases clinicians; experts in veterinary medicine, epidemiology, and
mathematical modeling, public health, plant sciences, wildlife biology, entomology,
and ecology; computer scientists and bioengineers; informatics specialists;
sociologists and psychologists; and outreach specialists. See diagram, Figure 2, on
page 21.

* Strategically recruit faculty to further integrate research across these program areas.

* Create a rigorous interdisciplinary training program supported by well integrated
components from each program area.

* Construct a new facility to bring faculty from disparate areas together for dedicated
research on emerging and re-emerging diseases and their monitoring, prevention,
detection, and treatment.


Page 13










Challenge: Diagnostic and surveillance/detection methods and
technologies are not adequate.

Not only are current detection and diagnosis methods not sensitive enough or quick
enough, they lack real-time surveillance capabilities. All are needed for immediate
detection and prevention of spread of unwanted pathogens. Prevention of spread not only
can save lives but can avoid tremendous economic losses.


Solution. Integrate bioengineering and nanoscience technologies
into detection/surveillance and diagnostic devices

Active interdisciplinary research efforts in nanotechnology and nanoscience at the
University of Florida and its affiliated organizations such as IFAS have the potential to
revolutionize the approaches whereby the State of Florida can effectively deal with the
threat of emerging pathogens. The application of these new and powerful disciplines to
the study of infectious agents offers unprecedented opportunities to effectively diagnose,
prevent, and treat emerging pathogen-related problems that can devastate Florida's
population and economy. Specific deliverables include: 1) point-of-care (POC)
nanosensors to accurately and rapidly diagnose potentially lethal infections of people,
buildings, ships, water, and food in a cost effective manner (nanodiagnostics), and 2)
multifunctional nanostructure-based systems to not only identify and report infections
within people or other environments, but also to simultaneously treat and eradicate them
in a highly selective manner (nanotherapeutics).

Nanotechnology is particularly adept at meeting two benchmarks, which must be met to
achieve a favorable outcome following infection with dangerous pathogens: 1) reliable
detection of low numbers of pathogens, and 2) rapid diagnosis of pathogen presence.


In ongoing intercollegiate research
programs UF researchers leveraging
funds from different federal funding
agencies and private companies have
begun to pioneer the development of
new nanotechnologies that been used
to create new nanosensors to detect
bioterrorism agents such as dangerous
palIthIgen' (i.e., bacillus) or deadly
biological toxins (e.g., ricin).

Funding from the Federal and State
governments would markedly
accelerate this process and optimally
integrate the different disciplines into a
cohesive unit to effectively create and
develop nano-based tools to address
emerging pathogens.


Page 14


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What is nanotechnology?
Nanotechnology can be defined as the controlled manipulation of matter at length scales
approaching the molecular level (scale = 1-100 nanometers) to create next generation
functional materials, devices and systems.
I m t[ Nanotechnology is now creating an
economic revolution that is driven by
I oiid ointh of i m = m y emerging insights into the behavior of
c d a to ofsmatter at the nano-scale coupled with an
unprecedented ability to control the
formation and integration of relevant
nanostructures into functional structural
Se eer a devices. This discipline is rapidly
advancing the frontiers of science and
humanredloodcll=0 mb technology, and is predicted to have
unprecedented economic impact
throughout this century on nearly every
commercial sector. Deliverables, including those in food production, energy, medicine,
emanating from this nascent but rapidly growing science will fundamentally change the
global commercial landscape.

Nanotechnology now offers new opportunities to treat, diagnose and monitor a variety of
human, animal and plant diseases that result from emerging pathogens because 1) the
nanoscale coincides with the size of many biological molecules and most diseases are
caused by interactions at the molecular-nanoscale level, and 2) it offers outstanding
potential to measure very low concentrations of pathogens (e.g., bacteria, viruses, prions)
and other biomarkers of infection in a remarkably sensitive and specific manner. The goal
of the EPI nanomedicine team is to provide an environment that integrates the expertise of
biologists, medical researchers, clinicians, businessmen, lawyers and entrepreneurs with the
talents of scientists and engineers in a manner that not only protects the citizens of the State
of Florida but also enhances economic development. These collaborative efforts promise to
yield endless possibilities to develop, test and manufacture novel nanostructure-based
sensing and drug delivery platforms for diagnostic and therapeutic applications to emerging
pathogens, which require the convergence of engineering practice and biological system
materials and applications.


To make this goal a reality, an interdisciplinary team assembled from UF, IFAS and other
affiliated organizations along with private industry will harness and facilitate select, world-
class interdisciplinary resources in the fields of nanoscience, nanotechnology, medicine, and
plant sciences to produce high value, life saving, life enhancing real-time point-of-care (POC)
medical diagnostics and therapeutics.


Page 15









Challenge: Current vaccines and antimicrobial agents are not
meeting the needs of the population.

Challenges include the need for timely and well-informed vaccine development. The
Influenza vaccine is a perfect example of a vaccine that is not meeting the needs of our
population.

Influenza is a serious disease. According to the CDC6, every year an average of more
than 200,000 people are hospitalized from complications of the flu and about 36,000
people die.

One of the limitations of developing flu vaccines, for example, is the lengthy
development process which could take 6-10 months. Each year experts gather to review
data on influenza strains worldwide and from this data make their "best guess" at the
three most likely strains to make it to the U.S. and vaccines are manufactured against
these strains. Sometimes their guesses are good and sometimes they are not so good.
You don't have to imagine, not only the costs, but the threats to human health, when
these guesses are wrong.

Another limitation of current technology is the specific method of flu vaccine
preparation, a concern expressed by former U.S. Secretary of Health and Human
Services, Tommy Thompson, during a news conference to announce his resignation. A
major rate-limiting step in the manufacturing process is the availability chicken eggs, the
incubator, for vaccine production. Thompson said, "...using the egg-based way of doing
it is just too slow and laborious7." Of even greater immediate concern, should a
pandemic (whether H5N1 or another strain) necessitate production of mass quantities of
vaccine, is the ability to produce enough eggs which may be hindered significantly due to
the current avian influenza (H5N1) outbreak in birds.

These current outbreaks of the highly pathogenic avian influenza, which began in
Southeast Asia in mid-2003, are the largest and most severe on record. Never before in
the history of this disease have so many countries been simultaneously affected, resulting
in the loss of so many birds. Recent events make it likely that some migratory birds are
now directly spreading the H5N1 virus in its highly pathogenic form. Further spread to
new areas is expected.

Avian influenza viruses are highly species-specific, but have, on rare occasions including
this current outbreak, crossed the species barrier to infect humans. Despite the death or
destruction of more than 150 million birds8, the virus, now considered endemic in many
parts of Southeast Asia, Korea, Indonesia and China, has spread most recently to Turkey
and Romania. Control of the disease in poultry is expected to take several years.

The risk of pandemic influenza is serious. With the H5N1 virus now firmly entrenched in
large parts of Asia, the risk that more human cases will occur will persist. Each additional
human case gives the virus an opportunity to improve its transmissibility in humans, and
thus develop into a pandemic strain.


Page 16









Solution. Expand research capabilities for development of
appropriate vaccines and antimicrobial reagents necessary to
interrupt and control emerging infections.

As described above for influenza, current vaccine development using decades-old
technology has limitations. Instead of leaving vaccine development up to probabilities
and best guesses and potentially manufacturing a bunch of relatively ineffective vaccine,
EPI proposes developing NEW technologies which will permit making vaccines much
more quickly.

The development of new technologies, perhaps not dependent upon eggs (i.e. cell
culture), will be crucial to prepare for Emerging Pathogen outbreaks like an influenza
pandemic. Examples of other diseases posing global health and economic threats that
could benefit from new vaccine development technologies are human immunodeficiency
virus (HIV), tuberculosis (TB), and malaria.

















The development of better vaccines will hinge on detection and diagnosis. This will
require, not only basic science research into the biology of these pathogens and the
immune system's response to them, but also the following:
1. development of novel methods to stimulate specific protective components of the
immune system
2. new methods for vaccine delivery (perhaps using technologies such as
nanomedicine)
3. identification of therapeutic targets will be critical

Since approximately 80% of emerging infections that affect humans arise from animal
reservoirs, EPI's integration of veterinary medicine with human medicine will be vital.
Further, our institute's integration of mathematical and computer modeling coupled with
epidemiological data and basic science research to predict outcomes of various
interventional strategies will facilitate optimal targeting of a rapid response.


Page 17









Challenge: Current data are unmanageable given existing data
systems.

Current problems with data are that our ability to access and subsequently analyze data is
not capable of keeping up with our current abilities to collect or capture data. As we are
decoding the human genome, as well as the genomes of viruses and bacteria, our ability
to process this extent of data and process it in a contextual way is lacking. In addition,
data are available from Health Maintenance Organizations (HMO), but we do not yet
have the capabilities to optimally manage these rich datasets.

Much of the relevant information is scattered and is found in different formats (i.e. that
found in hospitals, pharmacies, USGS, census). As a result, current data are not
effectively integrated. Speed of reaction time is key in managing the impact of emerging
diseases, requiring automation of most data collection and integration of processes.


Solution. Research and compile data on worldwide pathogens and
provide tools for analyzing this data.

Another important component of the Emerging Pathogens Institute is data collection.
Data are important for pattern recognition, like identifying unusual patterns of endemic
problems, predicting possible outcomes, and analyzing new appearances of pathogens. It
is crucial that we have the ability to analyze the data on pathogens but also see this data
in the context of other crucial data sets.

Two aspects of emerging pathogen data analysis that are crucial and that EPI researchers
are poised to pursue are data mining and simulation. Data mining is used to find critical
patterns without having a precise idea of what you are looking for. It uses a combination
of artificial intelligence, machine learning, and databases. This technology has the
potential to be used to develop automatic detection of emerging pathogen outbreaks by
analyzing data. Realistic simulations provide a method for exploring scenarios for how a
disease might spread through the population.


Page 18









Challenge: Current pathogen management is reactive in nature,
inhibiting an efficient response.


Solution. Develop response and prevention plans and coordinate
implementation with proper authorities to prevent spread of
disease and if possible, prevent outbreaks outright.

An example of an existing response program is the Florida citrus canker eradication
program (http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/pi/canker/summary-removal-just.html). This
program applied epidemiology to management of a disease that might have crippled the
Florida citrus industry. Although hurricanes in 2004 and 2005 have spread the disease to
the point where eradication is no longer possible, this is an example of the need for
collaboration among disciplines (in this case plant pathology and epidemiology). The
end of the eradication program, however, demonstrates the need for more integrated,
interdisciplinary work. The eradication plan was developed without significant thought
to hurricanes; future response plans must take meteorological predictions into account, as
well as other possible disasters.

The need for crop protection is warranted as there is a long history of natural
introductions of invasive species via imported products. The United States imported 38
million metric tons of agricultural products in 2002. Only 2% of all containers in US
ports are screened9. Natural introductions will continue and are likely to increase.


Figure 1. Interactions of EPI with other agencies/groups


SPDN/NPDN

USDA


WHO o NIH I RCE EPI


CDC/ N

OTHERS
FARAD


FIRST
r RESPONDERS



FLORIDA STATE
UNIVERSITY SYSTEM


STATE/COUNTY
HEALTH DEPTS


Figure 1. Integration of EPI into the National emerging pathogens network and within the
state or local level. World Health Organization (WHO), National Institutes of Health
(NIH), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), Unites States Department of Agriculture
(USDA), Regional Centers of Excellence (RCE), Southern and National Plant
Diagnostic Network (SPDN/NPDN), Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank
(FARAD).


Page 19


I


I








IMPLEMENTATION


To implement the aforementioned solutions, we propose the following:


Page 20


areas vi recuteto e









I. Establishment of program areas and integration of groups
with diverse interests

Figure 2. Organization and integration of program areas.
SURVEILLANCE/ PATHOGENESIS/ SOCIAL OUTREACH NETWORKS/
MODELING/ INFORMATION DIAGNOSTICS VACCINES/ BEHAVIOR EDUCATION & TRAINING
EPIDEMIOLOGY MANAGEMENT NANOTECHNOLOGY THERAPEUTICS



D O (

4 *0@




INTEGRATED INSTITUTE
Figure 2. Evolution of EPI beginning with the 6 program areas which develop and evolve to
become an integrated institute.

II. Further integration of program areas via recruitment of key
executive-level faculty, researchers, administrators
Budgetary expenditures in the first year will focus on the process of recruiting new
faculty. Funding for administrative staff will also be required to support this process.
Faculty recruitment is expected to continue through the second year.

III. Construction of a building to house these recruits and key
existing faculty
The College of Medicine has committed to provide initial "existing" space (20,000 SF)
for the Institute in the College's Academic Research Building. We propose construction
of a new 300,000 gross square foot emerging pathogens facility on the UF-Gainesville
campus to house the new institute and its researchers and administrators under one roof.


Page 21










Section III Economic Impact


Economic Impact of Emerging Infectious Diseases

Emerging infectious diseases not only attack the health of our population but also can
have a profound impact on the economic health of Florida. Florida thrives on agriculture
and tourism for economic stability. These two resources provide our state with the
income it needs to support all the institutions that make our great state what it is today.
The tremendous economic impact of emerging infectious diseases is seen when
considering the impact of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) on Canada and
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (Mad Cow Disease) on England.

Canadian tourism officials report the 2003 outbreak of SARS resulted in significant
damage to travel and tourism in Toronto and all of Canadalo. The national tourism and
travel industry in Canada expected to lose $1.1 billion in economic activity in 2003 and a
loss in national economic activity of $1.5 billion, which represents 0.15% of Canada's
Gross Domestic Product10.

Also in 2003, the Canadian beef industry was severely impacted when a Canadian steer
tested positive for Mad Cow Disease. The outbreak of this infectious disease led to a
drop in worth of the export market of Canadian beef from $4.1 billion in 2002 to zero11
The closing of borders to most countries, including the United States which received
around 90% of all of Canada's beef exports in 200211, deepened the economic impact of
Mad Cow Disease on the nation. Canada's ranking as third in the world for the highest
beef exporter, holding about 15% of the world beef market, fell in light of the outbreak1.

While SARS and Mad Cow Disease provide examples of the large impact of emerging
infectious diseases on the economy, Foot-and-Mouth disease, Influenza, and Citrus
Greening are the emerging infectious diseases that currently pose the largest economic
threat to Florida.


Foot-and-Mouth disease was
responsible for a substantial
economic loss in England in 2001.
The outbreak of the disease not
only affected rural and
international tourism expenditures,
but also caused huge loss to
agricultural producers12. These
losses are estimated to be 355
million (almost $523 million in
2001), which represents about
20% of the estimated total income
from farming in 200112

After the outbreak of Foot-and-
Mouth disease in England, models


Poeta Ecnoi lose to the stateof
Flrd due to a Foo and Mouth
Outbreak S-. *
S$.8 bilo ne nt*rcmesto
Pag 22blinclau ndsneto









were used to estimate the economic impact an outbreak would have on the United States.
This model found the most significant impacts on farm income of a Foot-and-Mouth
disease outbreak would be from the loss of export markets and decreases in domestic
demand from consumer fears resulting in a $14 billion decrease in US farm income13

This illustrates an important difference in perspective between public health and animal
health which lies in the economic factors associated with lost markets and trade in the
event of finding diseases such as FMD or Avian Influenza (H5/H7 strains) in our
commercial livestock or poultry. The reporting of a single case of such a disease,
required by international treaty, would immediately shut off our ability to send live
animals and products to other countries and states until we could prove that we no longer
were affected. Such embargos would last a minimum of months and could last for years,
assuming eradication was effected. Estimates of the last UK FMD outbreak some years
ago were that there was an associated $12 billion cost. Unfortunately there was
considerable spread throughout the UK before the disease was recognized which added
greatly to its eventual cost. While I have no sources for reference, I am in possession of
data presented a few years ago that provided some estimates on cost of a foot and mouth
disease outbreak here in Florida.

Pandemic Influenza is another emerging disease that threatens our state. If a pandemic
Influenza outbreak hit the United States, economic costs include loss of productivity due
to death as well as the potential for a breakdown of infrastructure with consequent
devastation to our economy. Industries such as automobiles, travel and tourism,
electronics and many others would likely be devastated. One could reasonably expect
that an influenza pandemic would also have a devastating impact on the housing market
and the stock market. Models predict the total economic impact of an Influenza
pandemic could range from $71.3 billion to $166.5 billion14

Another recently emerging infectious disease affecting all aspects of the Florida citrus
industry is Citrus Greening. This disease ruins the flavor of fruits and ultimately kills
citrus trees. Florida is currently trying to eradicate trees infected with Citrus Greening,
but there is the likelihood that the disease has become endemic to the state and may result
in huge economic losses and may destroy the Florida citrus industry5.

In order to protect the tourism and agricultural industries of Florida from Emerging
Infectious Diseases and mitigate the economic losses these diseases can cause, more
research and appropriate and science-based preventative measures must be incorporated
into our state disease prevention plans.


Page 23









Section IV About The University of Florida

The University of Florida is one of only 34 leading public research universities (one of 60
total) distinguished by membership in the American Association of Universities (AAU).
The University of Florida is one of only three university systems in the nation with all of
its professional schools on one campus (Gainesville, FL) including Medicine, Nursing,
Dentistry, Veterinary Medicine, Pharmacy, Agriculture, Engineering, Business
Administration, Education, Law, and Liberal Arts and Sciences.


PROGRAM AREAS &

MEMBER RESEARCHERS

Membership in the Emerging Pathogens Institute exceeds 100 scientists and
professionals. Representative members within each EPI program area described below
and include the individual's research interests and expertise. These researchers and
administrators are but a small subset of the extraordinary talent found at the University of
Florida.



Pro ra A ea2:So ia B ha io ......................................... 3


[* Internal Advisory Board Members]


Page 24









Program Area 1: Modeling/Epidemiology


This group includes members from the Departments of Health Policy and Epidemiology,
Medicine, Statistics, Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, Infectious Diseases and
Pathology (Veterinary Medicine), and Physiological Sciences (Veterinary Medicine). The
expertise of this group includes both predictive and prospective epidemiology including
the planning, design, execution, and analysis of data from large scale peer reviewed
epidemiological studies, studies of the dynamics and regulation of populations, theory
and application of matrix population models, statistical methodology and applications in
health research, analysis of longitudinal survival data, the dynamics of biological
populations, transmission dynamics of diseases in wildlife populations, evolutionary
ecology, and wildlife conservation, as well as cutting-edge methods of statistical analysis
and modeling. Funding for many of these studies comes from the NIH, HRSA, the ACS,
the DOD and the CDC, including several grants funded by the NIOSH.

Lennox Archibald, MBBS, MD, FRCP (Lond), FRCP (Glasg.), DTM&H
Hospital Epidemiologist
Division of Infectious Diseases
College of Medicine

Epidemiology of allograft-associated infections; (fellowship at CDC) epidemiology and
microbiology of bloodstream infections in Africa and Southeast Asia and investigation
and supervision of numerous nosocomial infection outbreak investigations. Former
Medical Director of Regeneration Technologies Inc.; former Acting Medical Director of
the Epidemic Information Exchange at CDC and Medical Epidemiologist in the National
Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC. Fellow of both the Royal Colleges of Physicians of
London and Glasgow in the United Kingdom.

Nabih Asal, PhD
Professor and Director, Division of Epidemiology
Associate Director, Advanced Post Graduate Program in Clinical Investigation (APPCI)
Dept. of Health Policy & Epidemiology

Epidemiology Methodology; planning, design, execution, and analysis of data from
large-scale peer reviewed epidemiological studies.

Terrell Carter, MHS
Dept. of Health Policy & Epidemiology
Research Program Coordinator

Ying Chen, PhD
Associate Professor of Biostatistics and Sweesy-Womack Endowed Chair
Dept. of Statistics

Biostatistics with specialty in statistical methodology development and applications in
health research; statistical research areas include analysis of longitudinal and survival
data; programming and computing.


Page 25









Paul Gibbs, BVSc, PhD, FRCVS
Professor, Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathology,
College of Veterinary Medicine

Epidemiology, control and prevention of emerging viral diseases with experience at the
Institute of Animal Health in the UK working on diseases such as foot-and-mouth
disease, bluetongue, sheep pox, and rinderpest, and more recently working on emerging
problems and foreign animal diseases that threaten the USA including foot-and-mouth
diseases, West Nile virus encephalitis, canine influenza, bovine spongiform
encephalopathy, and avian influenza. Works closely with Florida's Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Affairs and the Department of Health in developing disease
control policies and educational programs; member of the steering committee for the
State Agricultural Response Team.

Jorge Hernandez, DVM, MPVM, PhD
Associate Professor of Epidemiology
UF CVM Large Animal Clinical Sciences
Email: Hernandezj @mail.vetmed.ufl. edu

Veterinary epidemiologist with professional experience in Mexico, United States, Ireland,
Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile, Cuba, Saudi Arabia, and Switzerland. Interest in formulation,
implementation, and evaluation of risk-based surveillance systems of diseases of
economic importance to animal agriculture and public health.

Robert D. Holt, PhD
Professor & Arthur R. Marshall Jr. Chair in Ecology
Zoology Department
College of Liberal Arts and Sciences

Theoretical and conceptual issues at the population and community levels of ecological
organization, and on the task of linking ecology with evolutionary biology; in addition to
basic research, bringing modern ecological theory to bear on significant applied
problems, particularly in conservation biology; large-scale experiments on habitat
fragmentation. Has historically collaborated with many faculty at a wide range of
institutions, both inside and outside the USA.

Madan Oli, PhD
Assistant Professor, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
Dept. of Wildlife Ecology & Conservation

Dynamics, regulation and conservation of biological populations, evolutionary ecology,
and transmission dynamics of diseases in wildlife populations; integrates mathematical
models and field data to discern factors and processes influencing dynamics of animal
populations.


Page 26









Stephen Roberts, PhD
Professor
Dept. of Physiological Sciences and Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Program Director for the Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology
Scientific Advisor, National Toxicology Program (U.S. DHHS and the U.S. EPA)

Toxicology and human health risk assessment; (toxicology) mechanisms of toxicity of
drugs and chemicals, particularly involving the liver and immune system; toxicokinetics
and cell defense mechanisms against chemical insult; (risk assessment) development of
new techniques and approaches for estimating risks from chemical exposure.

Dan Salmon. PhD, MPH
Associate Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Health Policy Research
Adjunct Associate Professor in the Division of Disease Control, Department of
International Health, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health and continues to serve as
Associate Director for Policy and Behavioral Research for the Institute for Vaccine
Safety at the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health Infectious disease

Vaccine epidemiology, health services and policy research; in particular, optimization of
the post-licensure use of pediatric vaccines to control infectious diseases; epidemiological
studies, including retrospective cohort, case-control, cross-sections, ecological and
intervention studies; measurement of vaccine uptake, the epidemiological risks of
unvaccinated children, the roles of health care providers in working with parents on
vaccination decisions, and the impact of federal, state and local laws and policies on
vaccine uptake. Widely considered the national expert on mandatory immunizations and
the impact of non-medical exemptions and has contributed to the development and
evaluation of federal policies and programs to ensure the safety of vaccines, post-
licensure.

* Betsy Shenkman, PhD, MSN
Professor and Chairperson
Dept. of Epidemiology and Health Policy Research and Dept. of Pediatrics
Director, Institute for Child Health Policy
College of Public Health and Health Professions, UF-HSC

Health services research; specializations includes examining the quality and outcomes of
care for children and adolescents in the context of the health care delivery system, their
families, and their communities; expert in program evaluation, particularly for public
insurance programs such as Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance Program
and special waiver projects. Principal Investigator on four large scale state projects
including the evaluation of the Texas Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance
Program, the Florida KidCare Program, the Florida Title V Program, and a special waiver
project designed to provide hospice services for children with life threatening conditions.


Page 27









Program Area 2: Social Behavior


The Social Behavior program area includes individuals from IFAS and the Colleges of
Liberal Arts and Sciences and Public Health and Health Professions. Expertise within this
team includes but is not limited to, rural health, child and pediatric psychology,
occupational psychology, behavioral medicine, mental health and public policy, training
issues for psychology, methods of educating and preparing communities to deal with the
psychological aspects of natural or manmade disasters as well as methods of educating
primary care physicians on these events to prepare them to deal with patients, the
demography of health and aging with particular attention to minority populations, Latino
Sociology, family and household demography, and the sociology of sex and gender. One
example of a presently funded grant is entitled "The Impact of Bioterrorism on Rural
Mental Health Needs". The aim of this project is to assess and improve the preparedness
of rural primary care professionals to provide care for mental health conditions
resulting from bioterrorism and infectious disease outbreaks.

James Shepperd, PhD
Director of Graduate Training and Associate Professor, Social Psychology
Dept. of Psychology, CLAS

Experimental social psychologist; self-esteem and identity regulation in the face of
inconsistent and threatening information. Recipient of the 2004 ICARE Development
Grant.

Brenda Wiens, PhD
Research Assistant Professor
National Rural Behavioral Health Center (NRBHC)
Dept. of Clinical & Health Psychology
College of Public Health and Health Professions

Methods of educating and preparing communities to deal with the psychological aspects
of disasters (as well as terrorism) and methods of educating primary care physicians to
deal with affected patients/victims.

Barbara Zsembik, PhD,LPN
Associate Chair and Associate Professor
Sociology Department, CLAS

Demography of health and aging with particular attention to minority populations, Latino
Sociology, family and household demography, and sociology of sex and gender.


Page 28









Program Area 3: Surveillance/Diagnostics/Nanotechnology


The members of this program area include faculty from the Colleges of Medicine,
Veterinary Medicine, Pharmacy, Engineering and departments of IFAS. Examples of
research expertise on this team include: solid-state device physics and its applications to
micro- and nano-scale sensors, actuators and very large scale integrated circuits, the
scaling of solid-state devices to smaller dimensions, device reliability, novel sensor
transduction mechanisms, noise-limited minimum detectable signals and biomedical
current probes, drug detoxification using nanostructured materials, interactions of
nanoparticles with human tissues, nanotechnology-based detection of molecules in
exhaled breath, medical applications of nanotechnology including diagnostics and
therapeutics, degradable polymers for drug delivery and scaffolds for tissue regeneration,
as well as surface modified polymers for sensors, the design and synthesis of micro and
nano-spheres with defined properties, ways of generating self-assembly scaffolds of
polyelectrolyte complexes with oriented typography, and the development of monolithic
and gelling delivery methods. One member of the team is the Principal Investigator for
the Antimicrobial Resistance Management (ARM) Program which tracks microbial
resistance through a web-based analysis tool. As of January 2004, the database currently
housed over 22 million isolates of data. Another member is a member of the oversight
committee of the UF Nanofabrication Facility unit, and coordinator of the Smart
Integrated Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications project of the Space
Biotechnology and Commercial Applications program at UF funded by NASA.

* Chris Batich, PhD
Founding Director of the UF Biomedical Engineering Program
Professor, Materials Science and Engineering
Biomedical Engineering Dept.
College of Engineering

Use of plastics and polymeric materials for diagnoses development, infection control, and
other biomedical applications such as controlled drug delivery. Collaborations with
faculty in Ob/Gyn, Nephrology, Surgery, Veterinary Medicine, Dental School, and other
Health Center groups have led to joint publications and patents. Some of the UF
technologies have been licensed to a local start-up company which has established a
laboratory in Gainesville, and they are developing various means of preventing infection
transmission. Also works with micro and nano particles with specific surface and bulk
modifications to accomplish these goals.

Cynda Crawford, DVM, PhD
Assistant Scientist, Small Animal Clinical Sciences
College of Veterinary Medicine

Diagnosis, epidemiology, control and prevention of emerging viral diseases in dogs and
cats. Specific projects focus on the newly emerging canine influenza H3N8 virus and the
use of dogs and cats as sentinels for West Nile virus and avian influenza H5N1 virus.


Page 29









*Donn Dennis, MD
Professor, Dept. of Anesthesiology
College of Medicine

Medical applications of nanotechnology (drug detoxification, ultraselective drug
delivery); Cardiac electrophysiological effects of adenosine, anesthetics, and
antiarrhythmic agents; design and development of novel antiarrhythmics, anesthetic
agents and adenosine receptor ligands; pharmacology of adenosine receptor coupling
mechanisms. Member, NSF Engineering Research Center at the University of Florida,
Nanoparticulate Systems for Drug Detoxification section. Vice President, ARYx
Therapeutics.

*Lou Guillette, PhD
Distinguished Professor, Zoology Dept.
Associate Dean for Research, CLAS

Mechanisms by which environmental factors influence the evolution, development and
functioning of the reproduction system in vertebrates, specifically the influence of
contaminants on the developmental and reproductive biology of wildlife and humans,
endangered species reproduction, and the evolution of maternal-fetal chemical
communication.

John Gums, PharmD
Professor of Pharmacy and Medicine; Director of Clinical Pharmacology Education
Director, Clinical Research in Family Medicine, Dept. Pharmacy Practice & Dept.
Community Health & Family Medicine

Surveillance and therapeutics; clinical research, clinical trials; Principal Investigator for
the Antimicrobial Resistance Management (ARM) Program which tracks microbial
resistance through a web-based analysis tool; database currently houses over 22 million
isolates of data..

Elliott Jacobson, DVM, PhD
Diplomate, American College of Zoological Medicine
Professor, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences

Identifying infectious diseases of wildlife and zoo animals, with an emphasis on reptiles,
using histology, electron microscopy, immunodiagnostics and molecular diagnostic
techniques. Developing new assays for the identification of reptile pathogens.

Huabei Jiang, PhD
Professor, J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering
College of Engineering

Optical imaging of breast cancer, diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis, optical
spectroscopy of skin cancer, microwave imaging, fluorescence/bioluminescence
tomography, photo-acoustic tomography, inverse scattering based ultrasound
tomography.


Page 30









Paul A. Klein, PhD
Professor Emeritus, Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine,
College of Medicine
Affiliate Professor, Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathology,
College of Veterinary Medicine

Immunology, virology, microbial pathogenesis and host defense mechanisms in lower
vertebrates. Serodiagnosis and seroepidemiology of infectious diseases of wildlife.

Julie K. Levy, DVM, PhD, DACVIM
Associate Professor, Small Animal Clinical Sciences
College of Veterinary Medicine

Diagnosis, epidemiology, control and prevention of emerging viral diseases in cats.
Specific projects focus on the use of cats as sentinels for West Nile virus and avian
influenza H5N1 virus.

Maureen T. Long, DVM, MS, PhD, DACVIM
Assistant Professor, Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences
College of Veterinary Medicine

Emerging pathogens of large animals including the immunoprophylaxis, diagnosis, and
prevention of new and old pathogens of the horse. Investigation of the immune response
to West Nile virus (WNV) in the outbred host using a model which produces neurological
disease. Genetic regulation of anti-viral interferons and specific T-cell mediated effector
molecules. Safety and efficacy testing of a new modified live recombinant vaccine for
prevention of clinical signs of West Nile virus (WNV) induced disease in horses, a
vaccine also under investigation as a human vaccine. Surveillance, both retrospectively
and prospectively, for arboviral pathogens that may cause disease in the horse;
determination of what mosquitoes feed on horses and examination of commonly used
therapies to ameliorate clinical signs of encephalitis. Emerging Diseases and Arboviruses
Research and Test Program (EDART).

Charles R. Martin, PhD
Colonel Allan R. and Margaret G. Crow Professor of Chemistry, CLAS
Director, Center for Research at the Bio/Nano Interface
Professor, Department of Anesthesiology, COM

Interface between analytical chemistry and materials science; new approaches to do
chemical analyses and separations and developing new materials that will make these
separations and analyses possible; particularly the application of nanomaterials to
bioanalytical chemistry; has pioneered a powerful new method to prepare nanomaterials.


Page 31









Jim Maruniak, PhD
Associate Professor, Entomology; Graduate Faculty, Microbiology and Cell Science.
Dept. of Entomology & Nematology

Insect viruses and field application as biological pesticides; molecular techniques to
determine and elucidate function of genes involved in pathogenesis, virulence and host
specificity. Insect baculoviruses and insect cell cultures used as molecular expression
systems for the production of important proteins for medical, veterinary and agricultural
purposes.

Tim Morey, MD
Board certified Anestesiologist; Associate Professor, Dept. of Anesthesiology

Medical applications of nanotechnology including diagnostics and therapeutics; specific
focus areas include drug detoxification using nanostructured materials, interactions of
nanoparticles with human tissues, and nanotechnology-based detection of molecules in
exhaled breath. Two patents for systems to solubilize drugs.

* Toshi Nishida, PhD
Associate Professor, Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering, COE

Solid-state device physics and applications to micro- and nano-scale sensors, actuators,
and very large scale integrated circuits; scaling of solid-state devices to smaller
dimensions,
device reliability, novel sensor transduction mechanisms, and noise-limited minimum
detectable signals. Several patents for MEMS technology.

Hendrik Nollens, DVM, MSc, PhD
Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences
College of Veterinary Medicine

Detection and characterization of emerging and newly recognized viruses of marine
mammals. Surveying captive and free-ranging marine mammals populations for novel
viral pathogens and evaluating the clinical significance of these viruses.

* David E. Richardson, PhD
Professor and Chair
Chemistry Department
Coll. of Liberal Arts & Sci.

Study of kinetics of chemical processes to deduce mechanistic schemes of how chemical
transformations occur and allow for understanding the factors that influence the
progression of reactions. Current research interests fall into a couple of broad categories
including chemical warfare agent decontamination and transition metal catalysis.


Page 32









Carlos Romero, DVM, PhD
Scientist, Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathology,
College of Veterinary Medicine

Exotic viral infections of livestock, poultry and wildlife with emphasis on diagnostics and
control. Use of non-infectious molecular approaches for the detection and identification
of animal viruses in tissues/secretions/lesions. Detection and identification of novel
viruses from aquatic mammals. Development of recombinant vaccines for livestock
based on poxviruses, herpesviruses and nucleic acids.

Marilyn G. Spalding, DVM
Associate Scientist
Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathology
College of Veterinary Medicine

Diseases of wild birds, avian die-off events, influence of disease on the re-introduction of
the endangered whooping crane in Florida.

Sean Sullivan, PhD
Associate Professor, Pharmaceutics Dept.
College of Pharmacy

Drug delivery with emphasis on increasing the effectiveness of drugs and decreasing side
effects. Areas of therapeutic applications include infectious disease (HIV, HSV and
Hepatitis), arthritis and cancer. Application of this technology toward the development of
non-viral gene delivery systems, specifically for the treatment of cancer with emphasis on
brain cancer.

Weihong Tan, PhD
Professor, Chemistry Department
Associate Director, UF Center of Research at Bio/nano Interface Faculty, McKnight
Brain Institute, Shands Cancer Center and Genetics Institute

Bioanalytical chemistry; molecular engineering; biomedical engineering; bionano-
technology.

Glen Walter, PhD
Assistant Professor, Dept. of Physiology and Functional Genomics
College of Medicine

Bioengineering of Muscle Structure and Metabolism.


Page 33









Program Area 4: Pathogenesis/Vaccines/Therapeutics


This group represents the most traditional component of our Institute. Members of this
team include faculty from the Department of Plant Pathology of IFAS, and faculty from
the Colleges of Veterinary Medicine, Medicine, and Dentistry.

The University of Florida is also a full member of the region IV National Center of
Excellence for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases (SERCEB) which provides
a major strength not only to this group but to the whole effort. All of the faculty are
principal investigators of laboratories that are extremely productive and are well funded
in the areas of viral and bacterial diseases of plants, animals (both domesticated and
wildlife) and various human diseases.

Funded projects of this team include: defining the pathogenic mechanisms by which
mycoplasmas cause both respiratory and urogenital infections, the elucidation of the
etiologic agent, characterization of clinical disease, and diagnosis of respiratory
mycoplasmosis in two environmentally threatened species of tortoise and in American
alligators, the development of serological diagnostic tests (ELISA) as well as a PCR
based diagnostic tests to allow epidemiological surveys of large natural populations with
ongoing investigations into mechanisms of transmission and pathogenesis of these
infections, determination of the role ofUreoplasma urealyticum both as an etiologic agent
of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in women and as a potential risk factor for
establishment of susceptibility to recurrent and chronic urinary tract infection,
investigations of intracellular pathogen actin-based motility the effects of Anthrax
toxins on actin-based motility, the immune function of CapG null mice, the application of
IVIAT (In vivo Induced Antigen Technology) to a number of human pathogens to
identify genes turned on during human infections, identification of Porphyromonas
gingivalis genes involved in the invasion of cardiovascular endothelial cells, the study of
the mechanism of paracellular invasion of human tissues by P. gingivalis. There are also
substantial efforts directed towards identification of new poxvirus antivirals and
identification of the poxvirus receptor(s) funded by the Region IV RCE as well as
independently funded longstanding studies on of the mechanism by which poxvirus genes
deflect host responses to infection. We also have well recognized groups working on the
study and dynamics of plant virus diseases. One member of the team is the Director of
the Southern Plant Diagnostic Network, another is co-Director of the SERCEB and
another is Chair of the task force on Bioterrorism Research.

David R. Allred, PhD
Associate Professor, Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathology
College of Veterinary Medicine
Affiliate, Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine
College of Medicine

Molecular, biochemical, and immunological bases for host-parasite interactions that lead
to the establishment of persistent hemoparasitic infections in immune mammalian hosts;
structural aspects of membrane organization and modification in parasite-infected cells;
particular expertise with parasites responsible for bovine babesiosis and human malaria;
combinatorial genetics as a strategy for identification of interacting components. Our
Page 34









projects are aimed toward the development of strategies to induce variation-transcending
immunity.

Anthony F. Barbet, PhD
Professor, Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathology
College of Veterinary Medicine
Affiliate, Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine
College of Medicine

Molecular biochemical and immunological basis for persistent infections, with current
emphasis on diseases caused by Anaplasma and Ehrlichia in humans and animals. The
development of improved vaccines and diagnostic tests for tropical diseases using
molecular methods.


David Bloom, PhD
Associate Professor, Dept. of Molecular Genetics & Microbiology
College of Medicine

Developmental Neuro-Biology, Neuro-Virology. Molecular basis of pathogenesis of the
herpesviruses, and application of these pathogenic concepts to the development of herpes
simplex virus (HSV) as a gene therapy vector.

Daniel R. Brown, PhD
Assistant Professor, Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathology
College of Veterinary Medicine
UF Genetics Institute Graduate Faculty Member
UF Shands Cancer Center Signaling, Apoptosis, and Cancer Program Member

Discovery and characterization of bacterial pathogens; genome sequencing and
annotation; molecular analysis of virulence mechanisms; comparative immunology and
host cell signaling in response to infection; genome-based predictive modeling of
pathogen evolution.

*Mary B. Brown, PhD
Professor, Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathology
College of Veterinary Medicine
Affiliate, Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine

Defining the pathogenic mechanisms by which mycoplasmas cause both respiratory and
urogenital infections in a variety of hosts including humans, rodents, food and fiber
animals, and wildlife; development of models to study virulence factors of Mycoplasma
mycoides SC type (class B agent of special concern by USDA and APHIS) with special
emphasis on the pathogen and host factors that exacerbate pulmonary disease and
facilitate spread to extrapulmonary sites, particularly the central nervous system.


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William Castleman, DVM, PhD
Professor, Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathology
College of Veterinary Medicine

Research is focused on pathology and pathogenesis of viral respiratory disease including
studies on the newly emerged canine influenza virus infection.

Neil Clancy, MD
Associate Professor
Div. of Infectious Diseases
Department of Medicine
College of Medicine

Medical mycology; particularly, opportunistic fungal pathogens.

* John B. Dame, PhD
Professor and Chair, Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathology
College of Veterinary Medicine

Molecular biology of parasites with research goals targeted toward prevention, diagnosis,
and chemotherapy of infection. Current emphasis is on identifying targets for the rational
design of novel antimalarial drugs to control or prevent infection with the human malaria
parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. These studies include developing genetic tools for
conditional knockout mutagenesis in this species. Specific projects focus on the family
of aspartic proteinases expressed by the parasite and the DNA gyrase of the apicoplast, a
unique organelle derived from an ancestral algal chloroplast.

Jack M. Gaskin, DVM, PhD
Diplomate, American College of Veterinary Microbiology
Associate Professor, Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathology
College of Veterinary Medicine
Chief, Clinical Microbiology, Parasitology, and Serology Service
Veterinary Medical Center

Diagnostic microbiology and serology. Investigation of microbial disease problems of
domestic and exotic animals with emphasis on culture and differentiation of pathogenic
species of bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Infectious diseases of small ruminants, dogs, cats,
birds, horses, reptiles, and fish are of particular interest.

Steeve Giguere, DVM, PhD
Associate Professor, Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences
College of Veterinary Medicine

Neonatal immune responses to facultative intracellular bacterial pathogens with emphasis
on Rhodococcus equi; Pathogenesis of Rhodococcus equi infections in foals; Role of
cytokines in the pathogenesis of bacterial diseases of horses; Pharmacokinetics and
pharmacodynamics of antibacterial agents in horses.


Page 36









Maureen T. Long, DVM, MS, PhD, DACVIM
Assistant Professor, Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences
College of Veterinary Medicine

Emerging pathogens of large animals including the immunoprophylaxis, diagnosis, and
prevention of new and old pathogens of the horse. Investigation of the immune response
to West Nile virus (WNV) in the outbred host using a model which produces neurological
disease. Genetic regulation of anti-viral interferons and specific T-cell mediated effector
molecules. Safety and efficacy testing of a new modified live recombinant vaccine for
prevention of clinical signs of West Nile virus (WNV) induced disease in horses, a
vaccine also under investigation as a human vaccine. Surveillance, both retrospectively
and prospectively, for arboviral pathogens that may cause disease in the horse;
determination of what mosquitoes feed on horses and examination of commonly used
therapies to ameliorate clinical signs of encephalitis. Emerging Diseases and Arboviruses
Research and Test Program (EDART).

Suman Mahan, BVM, MSc, PhD
Associate Scientist, Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathology
College of Veterinary Medicine

Development of improved vaccines and diagnostic/detection capabilities (serology and
DNA based assays) for Ehrlichia ruminantium (a select / agro-terrorism agent, causes
Heartwater in domestic and wild ruminants). Field tested an inactivated vaccine for
heartwater in southern Africa (from 1991-2005) where heartwater is endemic. This
vaccine is now being commercialized by a South African vaccine production company.
Have started a project on Coxiella burnetii, a potential bioweapon agent that naturally
causes a zoonotic infection called Q fever; in which characterization of immune
responses and identification of candidate vaccine antigens for development of
recombinant vaccines for animals as well as humans will be the primary focus.

* Richard Moyer, PhD
Professor, Dept. of Molecular Genetics & Microbiology
Senior Associate Dean for Research Development
College of Medicine

Virologist, identification and characterization of genes which contribute to poxvirus
pathogenesis and disease in their respective hosts.

Minh-Hong Nguyen, MD
Associate Professor, Div. of Infectious Diseases
Department of Medicine
College of Medicine

Fungal infections and treatment.


Page 37









* Jane E. Polston, Ph.D.
Professor
Department of Plant Pathology
IFAS/College of Agricultural and Life Sciences

Plant virology; biological and molecular chacterization of new or emerging whitefly-
transmitted geminiviruses, study of transmission of geminiviruses by whiteflies,
development of pathogen-derived resistance in plants to geminiviruses, development of
pollen-mediated transformation methods for crop plants.

*Ann Progulske-Fox, PhD
Professor, Dept. of Oral Biology, Director, UF Center for Molecular Microbiology
College of Dentistry

Development of technology for identification of in vivo induced genes of human
pathogens; pathogenic mechanisms of oral gram negative bacteria; biological basis of the
relationship between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. Chair, UF
Bioterrorism Task Force; Member, Public and Scientific Affairs Board, American
Society for Microbiology.

Jeffrey Rollins, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
Department of Plant Pathology, Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology Program
IFAS/College of Agricultural and Life Sciences

Research focused on the mechanisms of broad host range pathogenesis in fungi that
infect plants. Use forward and reverse genetic approaches using single genes and whole
genomes to identifying and characterizing physiological and molecular components of
pathogenesis and the signal transduction pathways that regulate them.

*Fred Southwick, MD
Professor and Chief, Div. of Infectious Diseases
Department of Medicine
College of Medicine

Infectious Diseases expert; clinical interests in central nervous system infections and air
sinus infections. Research interests in cell motility in macrophages and neutrophils and
pathogenesis of Listeria and Shigella; effects of anthrax toxins on neutrophil and
macrophage motility. Chief, Infectious Diseases; Member, Bioterrorist Agent Task Force
(UF).

Sankar Swaminathan, MD
Associate Professor
Dept. of Molecular Genetics & Microbiology
College of Medicine

Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and its role in carcinogenesis.


Page 38









*Eric Triplett, PhD
Professor and Chair
Department of Microbiology and Cell Science
IFAS/College of Agricultural and Life Sciences

Study of endophytic bacteria colonization of plants as related to plant growth and
nutrition as well as the study of some human pathogenic bacteria that can colonize the
interior of plants and the basis of strain specificity and ability to enter plant hosts.
Development of new tools for microbial diversity research including Automated
Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) and a web-based tool for T-RFLP
analysis.

Janet K. Yamamoto, PhD
Professor, Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathology,
College of Veterinary Medicine.

Retroviral immunology; cellular and transplantation immunology with major emphasis
on feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) vaccine development and immunotherapy for
veterinary practice as well as to provide new insights to approach the development of an
effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine.


Page 39









Program Area 5: Information Management


This group is composed of faculty from the Colleges of Engineering, Veterinary
Medicine, Medicine and the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. The collective
expertise of this team includes, but is not limited to, development and applications of
large-scale software systems, high performance networking, interactive marketing, data
mining and optimization, biomedical computing, database management, artificial
intelligence, decision support systems, applications of eLeaming, medical systems design
and development, medical decision support technology for diagnostic evaluations,
medical database design and development, and the development of real-time optimization
software. A member of this group is director of information technologies for the Southern
Plant Diagnostic Network and is currently developing learning content management
systems for training first detectors of pathogens in the National Plant Diagnostic
Network.

Howard Beck, PhD
Professor, Agricultural & Biological Engineering
College of Engineering
Director of Information Technologies for Regional Homeland Security Project, the SPDN

Information technologies, with emphasis on database management, artificial intelligence,
and decision support systems. Has constructed several operational information systems
including the Extension Digital Information System (EDIS) containing over 6000
publications for the Florida Cooperative Extension Service, the Decision Information
System for Citrus (DISC) project, and the Distance Diagnostics and Identification System
(DDIS).

Ralph Grams, MD
Professor
Dept. of Pathology
College of Medicine

Medical systems design and development, medical decision support technology for
diagnostic evaluations, medical education using distance learning and internet-based
technologies, medical database design and development, and electronic medical records
and medical internet communications. Web-based training development.

Chris Jermaine, PhD
Assistant Professor, Computer & Information Sciences & Engineering
College of Engineering

Design and theoretical/empirical evaluation of algorithms/software to support large
databases; development of techniques for indexing/layout of massive databases across
multiple hard disks, in order to support high throughput of new data insertion, as well as
heavy, concurrent query workloads. Developing new statistical models for massive
databases for subsequent processing of statistical queries; development of algorithms for
knowledge discovery from data and data mining, particularly data that is part of very
large or very complex databases.
Page 40










*Sanjay Ranka, PhD
Professor, Computer and Information Sciences & Engineering
College of Engineering

World-renowned technologist in the areas of large-scale software systems,
high performance networking, interactive marketing, CRM, data mining and
optimization, and biomedical computing.




Program Area 6: Outreach Networks/Education & Training

This area includes individuals from the Colleges of Nursing, Medicine, and Veterinary
Medicine and multiple departments (Food Science, Entomology, and Plant Pathology) in
the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. The charge to this team is to 1) develop
collaborations and cooperative agreements with institutions and groups outside the
University of Florida and 2) to develop and organize the educational component of the
Institute. Some individuals within this group are presently working for the Southern Plant
Diagnostic Network (SPDN) to develop a region-wide education program for the SPDN
and to initiate programs for rapid detection of exotic pests entering the region, especially
those that pose a threat to agriculture, as well as assisting with the identification of client
groups and their needs in detecting exotic arthropods. Additional expertise within this
team includes medical informatics, laboratory automation, and electronic medical record
management. Members are currently developing training materials in all media for other
purposes. One member serves on the Food and Drug Administration's Food Advisory
Committee. An important link from this group is the county extension agents of IFAS
that are located in every county in Florida.

Doug Archer, PhD
Professor and former Chairperson
Food Science & Human Nutrition Department
IFAS

Government regulations related to food safety and food microbiology; genetic
consequences of stress on bacteria, particularly gastrointestinal immunity and chronic
sequelae to acute illness. Project Director (UF), "Improving the Safety of Fruits and
Vegetables: A Tri-state Consortium" funded by USDA IFAFS. Member, FDA Food
Advisory Committee Representative (US), WHO Expert Panel on Food Safety.


Page 41









Paul Gibbs, BVSc, PhD, FRCVS
Professor, Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathology,
College of Veterinary Medicine

Epidemiology, control and prevention of emerging viral diseases with experience at the
Institute of Animal Health in the UK working on diseases such as foot-and-mouth
disease, bluetongue, sheep pox, and rinderpest, and more recently working on emerging
problems and foreign animal diseases that threaten the USA including foot-and-mouth
diseases, West Nile virus encephalitis, canine influenza, bovine spongiform
encephalopathy, and avian influenza. Works closely with Florida's Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Affairs and the Department of Health in developing disease
control policies and educational programs; member of the steering committee for the
State Agricultural Response Team.

Carrie L. Harmon, MS
Assistant Director, Southern Plant Diagnostic Network

Plant pathologist with specialized training in mycology and plant pathogen diagnostics;
coordinates the university plant diagnostic laboratories for the southern region of the US -
12 states, plus Puerto Rico; activities include coordinating funding for each member
state, training diagnosticians and first detectors, developing educational materials on
pathogens of high natural or economic impact, and maintaining communication with the
network members, growers, regulatory officials, and the public through a monthly
newsletter and website (http://spdn.ifas.ufl.edu).

Amanda Hodges, PhD
Dept. of Entomology & Nematology, IFAS

Development of region-wide education program for the Southern Plant Diagnostic
Network (SPDN); initiation of programs for rapid detection of exotic pests entering the
region, especially those that pose a threat to agriculture; identification of client groups
and their needs in detecting exotic arthropods.

Nancy Menzel, PhD, RN
Dept. of Health Care Environments & Systems

Effects of pain and stress management classes on back pain, disability, stress, job
satisfaction, burnout, depression, and unscheduled absences in hospital nursing staff.
Assistant Professor, College of Nursing; Vice President, Florida State Association of
Occupational Health Nurses. Assistant Professor, Nursing.

Robert J. McGovern, Ph.D.
Professor and Director
UF-IFAS/CALS Plant Medicine Program
Florida Extension Plant Disease Clinic

Directs the multidisciplinary Plant Medicine Program that encompasses over 20 faculty
members in six participating departments. The objective of this professional doctoral


Page 42









program is to train practitioners in all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and integrated
management of plant health problems. Coordinates the Certificate in Plant Pest Risk
Assessment and Management which assists graduate students at the University of Florida
in developing the personal and professional skills required to effectively lead and conduct
plant pest risk assessment and management on the local, national and international level.
Is a co-primary investigator on the USDA-CSREES-funded grant, "Regional Plant
Diagnostic Center Laboratory", that established and maintains the Southern Plant
Diagnostic Network (SPDN).

Anita Wright, PhD
Food Science & Human Nutrition Dept.

Pathogenesis of foodborne infections, particularly seafood-associated diseases; genetics
of virulence factors with emphasis on bacterial polysaccharides; molecular probes for
applications in food product safety and microbial ecology of infectious disease. Funded by
USDA and Sea Grants. Assistant Professor, Food Science.




Other: Ex officio, internal advisory board

Elaine Young, PhD
Assistant Program Director, Research Development
College of Medicine

Assist faculty with grant applications, especially large complicated projects requiring
interdisciplinary expertise. Represent the university to external sponsors, and advise the
Senior Associate Dean for Research Development on issues relating to external funding.
Teach grantsmanship to faculty and postdoctoral fellows. Extensive experience with the
NIH. Past research in transplantation immunology, pathogenic bacteriology, marine
biology.


Page 43










OTHER RELEVANT PROGRAMS


Southeast Regional Center of Excellence in Biodefense
(SERCEB)

SERCEB is a 0
consortium of academic O
institutions in the KY
southeast comprised of
member schools and 0 0 0
affiliate members (see TN
map), as well as -
government partners. O O
UF is a full member of 0 O
SERCEB and co-directs M OAL GA
the consortium.

The mission of
SERCEB is to perform -
basic and translational
research that will lead to
the development of the
drugs, vaccines and
diagnostics that are
needed to protect society Michigan
from emerging infections 0 Universiy of Michigan
and biologic threats. Louisiana
hs://www.serceb.or. Tulane National Primate Research Center
https://www.serceb.org.


and Emerging Infections


* Member Institutions
0 Affiliates


NC

0
SC O
SC _!


Region IV


FL
O


University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS)
IFAS is a federal-state-county partnership dedicated to developing knowledge in
agriculture, human and natural resources, and the life sciences, and enhancing and
sustaining the quality of human life by making that information accessible. While
extending into every community of the state, UF/IFAS has developed an international
reputation for its accomplishments in teaching, research and extension. Because of this
mission and the diversity of Florida's climate and agricultural commodities, IFAS has
facilities located throughout Florida. Each of Florida's 67 counties has its own
Cooperative Extension Service office.
For a map visit: http://www.ifas.ufl.edu/extension/cesmap.htm.

Center for Research at the Bio/Nano Interface
This center serves as an interface between nanoscience and the biomedical sciences.
Researchers are exploring new high-tech methods for drug and other biomolecule
delivery to the human body, new ways to remediate environmental pollution, and new
highly sensitive and selective biodetection devices. (http://www.uf-bio-nano-center.org/)


Page 44









Southern Plant Diagnostic Network (SPDN)
One of five partners in the National Plant Diagnostic Network (NPDN) the SPDN seeks
to 1) establish a secure, regional network for the detection and diagnosis of plant health
problems, 2) extend and support sound public policies, implement rapid and accurate
diagnoses, and response strategies, and 2) provide leadership and training.
(http://spdn.ifas.ufl.edu)

Southern VA
Plant Diagnostic K
Network TN NC
AR SC
MS AL GA
LA
TX

PR


University of Florida Center for Telehealth

This center "facilitates collaborative multidisciplinary research on distance approaches to
healthcare research, service, and education. The Center for Telehealth supports scientific
investigation and clinical training in telehealth by providing specialized technology
research, educational, and clinical support services." http://www.phhp.ufl.edu/telehealth/

National Rural Behavioral Health Center (NRBHC)
The National Rural Behavioral Health Center is sponsored by the College of Public
Health and Health Professions and the Institute for Food and Agricultural Sciences
(IFAS). The NRBHC houses a team of behavioral health scientists, educators, scholars,
and practitioners dedicated to improving the health care status of rural Americans. The
Center focuses on four components of rural behavioral health: 1) rural disaster and
trauma, 2) violence prevention, 3) occupational health, and 4) innovative models of
health service delivery. http://www.nrbhc.org/

Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory (FMEL)
One of the world's largest research institutions devoted to the understanding and control
of medically important and biting insects. Mandated by the Florida State Legislature to
1) study the biology and control of mosquitoes and the 2) effects of insect-carried
diseases on the citizens of Florida and on its tourism industry. FMEL conducts research,
trains students and personnel, and extends research and training to international
programs. http://fmel.ifas.ufl.edu/

Bureau of Economic and Business Research (BEBR)
An applied research center in the Warrington College of Business at the University of
Florida. Its primary mission is to: 1) Collect economic and demographic data for Florida
and its local areas; 2) Conduct economic, demographic, and public policy research on
topics of particular importance to the state of Florida; and 3) Distribute data and research
findings throughout the state and the nation. http://www.bebr.ufl.edu/


Page 45







A FEW CURRENT RESEARCH INITIATIVES



Bionanotechnology Research
Chemistry Department
College o f Liberal Arts and Sciences


Brucellosis Research
Department of Microbiology and Cell Science
College of Agricultural and Life Sciences


Poxvirus Research
Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology
College of Medicine


I
N)
7


Page 46










Bionanotechnology

Rapid and sensitive monitoring of infectious disease agents
Dr. Weihong Tan and colleagues are using novel applications of bionanotechnology to
develop biomarkers for the rapid and specific detection of single bacterial cells and in a
variety of biological, food and environmental samples. The need for more sensitive, yet
simple, fluorescence-based bioanalytical techniques can be addressed by coupling
nanotechnology with traditional bioassay methods for the detection not only of bacteria,
but viruses, DNA and proteins. Fluorescent nanoparticles have been developed for these
sensitive bioassays. When compared to traditional fluorescent dye molecules, the
fluorescent nanoparticles enhance detection sensitivity by 1,000-100,000 fold. Recently,
Dr. Tan's group's was able to detect a single E. coli bacterium in a sample of ground beef
in 20 minutes. Further development will be aimed at instant detection of each of a
number of multiple pathogenic microorganisms within a single sample.

Molecular signatures of infectious diseases
Emerging infections and bioterrorist events are generally manageable as long as medical
intervention occurs before the disease becomes prevalent and disseminated. By default,
this places an emphasis on sensitive and effective early warning and diagnostic tools that
not only detect the presence of certain pathogen biomarkers but also offer reliable
predictions regarding evolution of the pathogen during passage in humans. Specimens,
from blood or urine, could then be readily analyzed and the results would suggest which
pathogen(s) are present in a particular patient. Clearly, sensitive molecular probes are
required to detect these pathogens prior to onset of disease. Current bioassays lack
sufficient probes for the effective study of infectious diseases. Out of the many potential
molecular probes, a new class of designer nucleic acids (called aptamers) holds great
potential for providing a biosignature and thereby elucidating the underlying basis of an
infectious disease. Recently, Dr. Tan's lab has developed a novel cell-based aptamer
selection strategy called Cell-SELEX. The selection process is simple, fast and
reproducible. Development, selection and utilization of the selective aptamers will create
an additional strategy for novel diagnostics and therapeutics as well as allow design of
prevention and intervention strategies in many infectious diseases. Dr. Tan has not only
shown that cell-based aptamer selection is widely applicable to various cell types for
molecular medicine, but has also demonstrated a quantum leap in the ability to deal with
different diseases by using cell-based aptamers for medical difficulties that current
methodologies fail to adequately address.

Professor Weihong Tan

Center for Research at Bio/nano Interface
Department of Chemistry
Shands Cancer Ctr & UF Genetics Instit.
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611-7200
352-846-2410 (phone and fax) Scanning electron microscope
Email: tan@chem.ufl.edu images of nanoparticles.
Page 47










Brucellosis

In collaboration with Marty Roop at East Carolina University and Michael Kahn of
Washington State University, Triplett and coworkers are taking advantage of the close
phylogenetic relationship of two bacteria, a beneficial bacterium that associates with
plants and a human pathogen, to develop vaccines and a therapy for the chronic disease,
Brucellosis. Brucellosis is caused by brucellae bacteria that are close relatives of the
rhizobia, which are plant symbionts. Both bacteria invade and survive within cells (see
photo below). By comparing the genomes of both bacteria and other relatives that do not
invade cells, we will identify genes that are likely necessary for cell invasion and
survival. Brucellae with mutations in those genes will likely be avirulent and could
serve as candidate vaccine strains. In addition, a strong antibiotic made by rhizobia
inhibits the brucellae. Experiments will be done to determine whether this antibiotic can
eliminate a brucellae infection in an animal model system.

This project is important since there are no vaccines available for human use for
Brucellosis. The pathogens that cause Brucellosis are category B agents as defined by
NIH and have been in the bioweapons arsenals of a number of countries. Brucellosis is
rarely fatal but is very incapacitating leading to fatigue, recurring fevers, sore joints, and
other ailments. The Department of Defense is interested in this issue as Brucellosis is
very common in the Middle East.
















Similarity between Brucella invasion of animal cells (left) and
Sinorhizobium invasion of plants cells (right).


Professor Eric Triplett

Professor and Chair
Department of Microbiology and Cell Science
IFAS/College of Agricultural and Life Sciences
Phone: 352-392-5430
Email: ewt(@iufl.edu
Page 48










Poxviruses


Dr. Moyer is internationally known for his work on the identification and characterization
of poxvirus genes that contribute to pathogenesis and disease and the development of
appropriate animal models of disease. Specific viral genes currently under investigation
in his laboratory are poxvirus-encoded serpins, which control aspects of the host response
which include inflammation, chemotaxis and apoptosis. This work has led to the
detection of cellular proteinase targets and identification of viral proteins which interact
with the serpins to further modulate the structure and in vivo activity of the serpin. As
part of those studies, he has developed a novel genetic screening/mapping system for
poxviruses that facilitates recombinant poxvirus construction, mapping of mutations and
which can be adapted for use as a rapid poxvirus diagnostic procedure.

Recently, he has developed poxvirus infected rabbits as a surrogate model for human
smallpox infections. The advantages of his model include a small dose initiated,
disseminated, lethal infection accompanied by natural aerosol transmission of virus from
infected to non-infected animals. A final project in his laboratory involving vertebrate
poxviruses is to determine the cellular receptor and virus encoded ligands which mediate
entry of poxviruses into infected cells.

In separate studies, he has developed a unique, poxvirus system of insects which offers
important opportunities to study viral genes that interfere with innate immune responses
and apoptosis in the absence of an adaptive immune response.














An electron micrograph of a cowpox virus particle (left). Vaccinia virus particles
(fluorescent green specs) bound to susceptible cells and visualized with a green
fluorescent dye; the nuclei of the cells are stained blue (right).

Professor Richard W. Moyer

Molecular Genetics and Microbiology
Sr. Assoc. Dean for Research Development
College of Medicine
Phone: 352-273-5230
Email: rmoyer(@,ufl.edu


Page 49











Cited References


1. Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States (IOM). Washington, D.C.: Nat'l

Acad. Press; 1992. p. 34-112. Available from: Ihp \ \ \\ .iom.edu/CMS/3783/3924/4572.aspx

2. Emerging issues in water and infectious diseases (WHO). Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Publ. [review

on the Internet]; 2003 [cited 2006 Febr 10]. p.6. Available from:

huIp \ \ \.who.int/water sanitation health/emerging/en/emerging.pdf

3. Trade and Agriculture: What's at Stake for Florida? USDA Foreign Agricultural service [publication

in Intranet]. 2006 Jan [cited 2006 Febr 16]. Available from:

hip \\ \ .fas.usda.gov//info/factsheets/WTO/states/fl.asp.

4. Doyle M. Agriculture inspections fall off: Growers fear infestations after Homeland Security took

USDA's border duty. Bee Washington Bureau [article on the Intranet]. 2005 Mar 14 [cited 2006 Febr

16]. Available from: http://www.sacbee.com/content/business/agriculture/storv/12561255p-

13416312c.html.

5. Bruce A, Lydall C, Tait J and Williams R. Interdisciplinary integration in Europe: the case of the Fifth

Framework programme. Futures. 2004; 36:457-470. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com.

6. Fact Sheet: Key Facts about Influenza and the Influenza Vaccine. Department of Health and Human

Services. Last updated: 2005 Sept 28 [cited 2006 Febr 14]. Available online:

hup \ \ \.cdc.gov/flu/pdf/keyfacts.pdf

7. Tommy Thompson Holds News Conference on Influenza Virus. Political/Congressional Transcript

Wire. 2004 October 05 [cited 2006 Febr 15]. Accessed from http://www.accessmvlibrarv.com/ via

University of Florida.

8. Avian influenza frequently asked questions. World Health Organization [cited 2006 Febr 15].

Available from: hup \ \\ \\ .who.int/csr/disease/avian influenza/avian faqs/en/print.html

9. IT is key to terror defenses at U.S. seaports. CNN.com. 2002 Jan 17 [cited 20 Febr 2006]. Available

from: http://archives.cnn.com/2002/TECH/industrv/01/17/seaport.defense.idg/index.html


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10. Darby P. Conference Board of Canada Special Briefing [publication on the Internet]. 2003 May [cited

2006 Febr 14]; publication #: 434-03. Available from: lhp \ \\ \ .dfait-maeci.gc.ca/mexico-

citv/economic/mav/sarsbriefMa03 .pdf

11. Poulin D and Boame AK. Mad cow disease and beef trade. Statistics Canada [serial on the Internet].

2003 Nov [cited 2006 Febr 14]. Available from: http://www.statcan.ca/english/research/ 1-621-

MIE/1 1-621-MIE2003005.htm

12. Thompson D, Muriel P, Russell D, Osborne P, Bromley A, Rowland M, Creigh-Tyte S, Brown C.

Economic costs of the foot and mouth disease outbreak in the United Kingdom in 2001. Rev. sci. tech.

Off. Int. Epiz. [serial on the Internet]. 2002 [cited 2006 Febr 14]; 21(3): 675-687. Available from:

http://www.oie.int/eng/publicat/rt/2103/3.4.Thompson.pdf#search='%C2%A3355%20billiono20foot

%20and%/20mouth'

13. Paarlberg PL, Lee JG, Seitzinger AH. Food Animal Economics: Potential revenue impact of an

outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in the United States. JAVMA [serial on the Internet]. 2002 Apr

[cited 2006 Febr 14]; 7: 988-992. Available from:

http://avmaiourals.avma.org/doi/pdf/10.2460/iavma.2002.220.988

14. Meltzer MI, Cox NJ, and Fukuda K. The Economic Impact of Pandemic Influenza in the United States:

Priorities for Intervention. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 1999 Sept-Oct [cited 2006 Febr

14]; 5(5): 659-71. Available from: lhp \ \\ \ .cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol5no5/meltzer.htm .

15. Chung KR and Brlansky RH. Citrus Diseases Exotic to Florida: Huanglongbing (Citrus Greening).

IFAS/Florida EDIS Document [document online]. 2005 July [cited 2006 Febr 20]. Available from:

http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP133.



Acronymns and Abbreviations

CLAS College of Liberal Arts and Sciences
COE College of Engineering
COM College of Medicine
CVM College of Veterinary Medicine
EPI Emerging Pathogens Institute
IASEP Institute for the Advanced Study of Emerging, former "working" name for EPI
IFAS Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
UF-HSC University of Florida Health Sciences Center (consists of Dentistry, Medicine, Nursing,
Pharmacy, Public Health, & Veterinary Medicine)


Page 51










FINANCIAL REQUESTS




Proposed Federal Participation

Funds are being requested to organize and build a center on the main campus of the
University of Florida to house the research and training needs of the Emerging Pathogens
Institute. An important part of building our institute, aside from creating physical space,
is the recruitment of faculty and the necessity to offer competitive start-up packages and
once recruited, the promise of dedicated space and funds to support development of
infrastructure.

* FY 2006. Start-up costs ..................................... .............. $5,000,000
To cover start-up costs, excluding salaries, for newly recruited faculty. The funds will be
applied to funding both lines and startup packages and is expected to be partnered with
the relevant units within the University.

* FY 2007. Building costs................................ ... ............... $5,000,000
To help defray building costs which are expected to be the initial planning, design and
construction costs of this 300,000 gross square foot building.






Research5space....... ................ 12010 gross [ s.1 ft.




* FY 2008. Core Equipment......................................... .............. $5,000,000
To cover costs associated with development of infrastructure, including primarily core
equipment purchases, required by various members of the proposed Institute.

Total Federal Participation...........................................................$15,000,000


Page 52
















Proposed State/University of Florida Participation


It is expected that $24 million ($8 million from each of the 3 participating colleges) will
be required in the first year to initiate planning and construction of this 300,000 gross
square foot facility.

* FY 2006. Building cost (1st year).......................................$8,000,000
Money requested of the State in UF Educational and General Budget.

* FY 2006. Building cost (1st year)........................................$8,000,000
Money requested of the State money in Health Science Center Budget.

* FY 2006. Building cost (1st year)........................................ ..$8,000,000
Recurring money requested of the State in IFAS Budget.



* FY 2006. Faculty salary lines.....................................$2,300,000
Money requested of the State in UF Educational and General Budget.

* FY 2006. Faculty salary lines........................................... $2,300,000
Money requested of the State money in Health Science Center Budget.

* FY 2006. Faculty salary lines................................ .......... $2,088,000
Recurring money requested of the State in IFAS Budget.

* FY 2006. Budget for salary lines................................ ............. $2,500,000
Money committed by the College of Medicine.


Total State/University Participation........................ ............ $33,188,000


Page 53




















































* ,,.,.~ F.,


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l tt-.. [ilrl.1bl -


SMosquIto-bTor Dis
STick-borne Disease
> HIWTB


By fusing key displines, the Emerging Pathogens
Initiative (EPI) wll develop outreach,
education, and research capabilities to prevent
More or contain these diseases and to presere the
health and economy of the State.


outreach and Education
o community awareness, prevention, & control
Sproteot consumers & prevents economic loss
Prepare the next generation of scientists
SEscherchla col
Salmonella enteca Novel research
SVibrno species > predict & understand emerging diseases
Sdevices & tests for rapid detection & diagnosis
*More... vacnes for prevention & ne therapies for
treatment

More..


CHo e if MP t IHman I IFAs E e I a utef Den I
Collect au Met 5 t IF t I Engilneering i Otralrli Mtdlilne i College o0 Dentstrt I CL.s


FC FLIRP[A

I-f-I F r F rib -,-


Citrus Canker
O Citrus Greening
> Sudden Oak Death

More..


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eas


> Foot and mouth disease
> -van Influena
SHear.ater


SMore...


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