Group Title: Historic St. Augustine: De Mesa Sanchez House, Block 7 Lot 6
Title: Transactions of the American Philosophical Society
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 Material Information
Title: Transactions of the American Philosophical Society
Series Title: Historic St. Augustine: De Mesa Sanchez House, Block 7 Lot 6
Physical Description: Brochure/pamphlet
Language: English
Subject: Saint Augustine (Fla.)
43 Saint George Street (Saint Augustine, Fla.)
de Mesa-Sanchez House (Saint Augustine, Fla.)
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida -- Saint Johns -- Saint Augustine -- 43 Saint George Street
Coordinates: 29.896429 x -81.313225
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Bibliographic ID: UF00091263
Volume ID: VID00141
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution.
Resource Identifier: B7-L6

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then begins to wear A channel from 2 foot to 4[,] more
or less[,] from y'. common level[.l then we find ye
water tupelo & Cypress grows grows in & near ve
principal current[.] in which numerous Cypress
knees[,] or spurs as thair Called[,] riseth up near per-
pendicularly[,] general from two foot to 3[,] more or
less[,] according to thair age[;] generally] from half a
foot to one diameter at y' bottom[,] more or less[,j
tapering to y" top[,] which is generally from 2 inches to
4 diameter[,] more or less[,] & rounding on ye top[,]
with A smooth bark & no leaves or shoots[,] & standing
pretty close together[,] from two foot to 10[,] more or
less[,] distance[.] which make it dreadful wading for
A horse up to his belly & sometimes to his back in stiff
mud & cross roots[,] which often overthrows both
hors & rider[.] y* Cypress. spurs sometimes ariseth
from ye bolee to y3 distance of 6 yards[,] more or less[,]
all round it[.] but for many miles from Augustine
very few Cypres trees grows now[,] but much of ever-
green & water oaks[,] very large mirtle[,] & smilax so
thick that its impossible to ride throw without cutting
our way[,] & often so near to one another I as rarely to
be out of sight for scores of miles[,] which is y* sources
of all thair branches of thair r[i]vers[.]

it is generally reckoned to be about 20 mile long & one
mile broad more or less[.] it contains[,] as most other
islandss[] many pretty large tide creeks bordered with
large marshes[,] on yc verge of which y' sand hills be-
gin[,] sometimes 12 foot perpendicular more or less[,]
on which grows mirtle & A variety of dwarf evergreen
oaks so thick as that A catt can scarce creep throw[,]
& 10 or 12 foot high[.] ye sand is as fine as flower &
clear as cristal next y* surf[,] as in other sea beeches[.]
y* surf[,] where it strikes Against A bluff[,] it gains on
it until it gains A proper declivity to withstain y* power
of y* wash[,] by gradually falling back to 300 yards
more or less[.] it then soon begins by slow degrees to
Sheap up trass & sea weeds[.] these[,] rotting[,] pro-
duce grass[,] & so y' land takes its turn Again: first
A salt marsh containing good feed & sometimes good
corn land behind & between y" sand hills for several
Acres; but A very great peculiarety of this island is
that all ye center of this islandd[] at far as many miles
Sextant[,] seems to be an unconceavabl mass of shell
rock lyinL 2 foot[,] more or less[,] under y* common
surface, ] & to what depth is unknown[.] but ye com-
mon quaries is about 10 foot[,] more or less[,] deep[,]
formed of strata of oister. cockle[,] & some peri-
win[k]le[;] some parts[,] of rasor & sea muscle shels[.]
y* scalop seems scarcely to have been native to these
parts[,] tho some small clams enters into these com-
positions[.] but ye bay clam is now common to this
coast[.] there is great difference in ye several parts
of this extensive quary as to its hardness[,] durability[,]

I I.e., the-swamps.-W. D.

toughness[,] & fineness of its composition[,] of which
none of it ever arives to ye hardness & solidity of yv
northern shell limestone[,] not even y' keen millstones
in some parts of North Carolina[,] yet prodigiously
harder then y* bermudos stone[;] & v' best mt
compact will stand ve chiscL~so wel- a tn c-nt in- nrt
pillars[,] steps[,] bases & caUitl.rghcg ,pyLr, thaair
Ir reg"wii wh ch have stood thair sea-
sons tor above 100 vearsft both y" wash of ye sea as '
well as thair sun & rain[,] as far as we can guess: but
notwithstanding much of thair wall next ye continual
wash & also some of thair house steps & walls seem
to decay: that which is ye most compact & durable
is that composed of ye finest broken & ground shells[,]
forced in all directions & cristalised: but if not
cristalised[,] tho broken small as is often ye case toward
y* upper strata[,] then[,] when being exposed to y*
weather[,] thay moulder away: v* method y' span-
iards took to cut these stones out was after this
manner[,] as I Judged by A diligent search on y" spot[.]
thay beared an area[,] in dimentions according to y*
quantity & goodness of ye stone wanted[;] then clearing
it[,] they began to hew y" rock down in depth & length
as thay thought fii[;] then thay cut Another at ye dis-
tance 2. 3. 4 or fi-e foot diameter in A parralel line &
to ye depth of stone required[:] then thay cut them
cross way to what depth thay pleased[,] or ye solidity
of stone would permit[,] before ye strata of coarse shells
would disunite in some degree this more compact[,]
solider mass[-]which it general does more or less
from 2 inches to two foot[,] more or less[;] & some
places these dividing strata is from half an inch to
two[.] where many whole shels is confusedly drove
in & not cristalised[,] makes ye mass tender[,] but where
ye strata is A quarter or half an inch thick & well
cristalised[,] y* stone is pretty sound[.] but all these
strata afford an opportunity of splitting ye rock hori-
sontaly almost where thay please[.] it cuts easyly
with A common steel edg[e;] & what quantitys thay
please may be had with moderate labour[.] the fer-
til[it]y of this island is not known[,] but by y" mixture
of ye exceeding fine sand & ground shels[,] I am apt to
beli[e]ve[,] by industryy[] with ye help of marsh mud[,]
it may be made fruitefull for corn[.] ye sand flies or
gnats is very troublesome here evening & morning[.]
almost ready to blind one[.]
where we found them ye most intolerable of any place
hitherto in all our travails; for here thay torment us all
all night; in most other places thay are not very trou-
blesom after bed time; at ye Savanah town thay bite
sharp & stings like nettles in y' beginning of y" night
but after bed time thay was not very troublesome[.]
but for 100 mile up ye savanah river ye great gray sort
was very troublesome in thair swamps & low lands[,]
espetialy in ye morning[,] but but thair bite was not so
stinging as ye little brown sorts: att Augustine thay



now pester us both night & day[,] A very small brown
sort & so shy that its very hard to kill one. but thay
are now tolerable enough to be indured[.] thair bite
doth not itch very much after thay-withdraw; I sup-
pose thay have been worse in hot weather but I have
suffered more by them in Jersey & our lower coun-
tyes then in all this Journey[,] for ye time of traveling;
as for y* spotted winged & green flies[,] so troublesome
to y* horses in Jersey[,] we saw very few of them: as
for y* indigo flies[,] which people make there such A
spunk about[,] thay was no disturbance to us: I be-
lieve thay are bad enough in or near ye indigo fields,
but many people loves to tell wonders[.]
from north carolina southward y* sun reflects for 2
months[,] more or less[,] as intence A heat upon thair
ground as with us in what we call very hot dry weather
(all tho in ye shade there seems near ye coast an agree-
able breese)[.1 this heat being so continual makes
most of thair garden truck languish[,] notwithstanding
most have (& more may) A well in thair gardens with
only diging from 6 to 10 foot deep in great part of ye
countryy[] except near ye great rivers banks)[,] so that
thair best time for gardening is from September to
March or even to June[,] between which months all
salletting & pullse kinds is as green as with us in may.
indeed ye tender kinds of vines suffers sometimes about
crismas & ye beginning of[,] or middle of[,l January: but
A little shelter in these extremities of cold[,] as thay
think it[,] would preserve them: ye squashes[,]
melons[,] & pompions[,J thay may plant them in
february[,] so as to have them in May or June.
Cabages thay have in perfection all winter & spring.
thair spring figs[,] or winter figs[,] is now as big as my
thumb end & many peach trees is in blossom but I
believe thay will not come to full maturity: pome-
granates is holy gone but there is but few in town:
oranges grows all about ye town[,] begins to be ripe[,] &
continueth till summer[,] both sweet & sour[,] with
lemmons & limes & citrons:
which was 9 paces long & 4 wide[,] covered over y' top
with pine branches. ye back & half of each side is
walled with ye like materials: two poles is placed on
each side as far as open[,] wrapped round with blankets
for ye indian chiefs to sit upon[.] ye Governour sate on
ye back of y* pavilian & yv Superintendent on his left
hand[,] facing ye open end[,] with A table before them[.]
y" indian Chiefs assembled about 150 yards distance in

Here the following remark is interlined: "but y, biggestt] ones
drops unripe." The four letters following "big" look actually like
SAt this point the following words are interlined: "first 4 fort
guns was fired & A soldier stood on eachside near y entrance of
.* pavilion[,] but y main [body?] was drawn up at A distance[.]"-

vc same plain in which y" pavilion stood[.] right in
fronf[,] to about 50 in number[,] marching in A colomin
6 in front[;] on one side too that carried on thair arms
A number[-]perhaps 20 each[-] of buckskins dressed, ]
& on y' other side 2 other chiefs[,] each carrying A pipe
dressed with eagle feathers[,] by which ye interpreter
marched[,] & A rattle box: thay marched with an
easy pace[,] sometimes danceing[,]'singing[,] & shout-
ing[,] & every now & then halting. but when thay
came within 20 paces of y pavilian[,] thay halted 4 or
5 minits[.] then y. 2 chiefs advanced pretty fast[,]
with A kind of dance[,] to ye Governour & superin-
tendant[,] which thay streaked alternately all over
thair faces & heads with thair eagle feathers soround-
ing thair pipes, then- gently retired backward[,]
dancingg[] to v" entrance of ye pavilian[.] then re-
turned to y* colum[,l which still halted[,] saying A few
words to themi] then advancing with An easy pace
to y* Governour & superintendent[,] with home thay
shaked hands very friendly[,] both standing up[.] ye
2 indians sate down & y' other succeeding chiefs camee,
2 or 4 at A time[,] all shaking hands[.] then taking
thair place[,] sitting down on each side[,] & so on till
all had paid thair respects that was minding[.] then
y" 2 indians with dressed] skins on thair arms spread
most of them on yo Governours & superintendents seat
& ye rest before ye table[,] at each end or side of which
sate one of ye grand chiefs[;] & at A 2 or 3 yards dis-
tance stood 3 interpreters: one of ye cheef indians
held y" pipe of peace by y bole while ye governor &
superintendent & chief indians smoaked[.] then y'
superintendent opened ye affair to them[:] that he
had held A congress last spring with ye western in-
dians[,] as many of them knew[,] & that now by his
appointment thay had met here[,] hoping it might be
to ye general satisfaction[.] then ye Governour opened
his talk to them in A long & very ingenious talk which
no doubt will be published[,] so is needless to be in-
certed here[.] after which one of ye cuning chiefs
talked in ye name of ye rest[,] shewing thair uneasiness
concerning some articles y" superintendent had for-
merly proposed to them[.]
[November] 16[.] ye indians & governor met as
yesterday[,] but without much complements[.] ye
indians strongly insisted on %y former treaties in grant-
ing y' lands up y, rivers as far as y" tide ran{,] but that
gave y" english no satisfaction[,] & to day thay meet
again to propose, what bounds y" english desires[,]
which was A fine concession of above 25 mile deep[,]
from above fort barrington cross St[.] marys to A point
of St[.] Jonhns 60 miles above picolata[,] several hun-
dreds miles in length[:] as much or more] then ye
governor expected[.]
Sit is scituate on A sandy dry plat of ground near an
islandnd[] A- fine tide salt creek[,] St[.] [S]ebastins[,]
whose.mouth emptieth 2 or 3 mile below ye town into


y3 sound or matansest,] & runs west of vy town half A
mile[.] & heads 4 mile above it: another midling tide
salt creek['. called" St[.] marks[.l A branch of which
comes near ? head of St[.] Sebastines[.] yV Island[,]
st[.] anastatia[.] y' uper end of which is near opposite to
v* fort[,] round which y' vrsails sail to anchor before
y6 town[.] this island is reconed to be A mile wide[,l
more or less[,] perhaps near two in some placess[] it
contains variety of soils[,] if white sand & shels may
be reconed A soil. there is[,] great part of its length[,]
great sand hills next y surf[.] between which is spatious
pretty dry marsh plains of several hundreds of acres[,]
& A ridge[.] great part of its length[,] of shell rock[,] in
some places 20 rod wide[,] more or less[,] & to what
depth is unknown[.] then toward vx matanses is A
sandy ridge of ground oaks[,] which gradually falls away
to y0 salt marsh[,] A n ri~ mir...NC A widi[ ---dUCe-
q ing very high gras[.I own is pleasantly scituated
but without regularitv[.] y' streets very narrow ,j
S about 1. oott- pncp a street t2p many 12[.

81.] t ouls rsfstan &ouiltat atrJ for
,is sy In t cons c prison,
Negove Moii v i somre
c 3 rciHats these built themselves good houses after
nish fashion allr most with pleasant covered
a lconies orted with don l e eams faster iIn
y' \wa at convenient is ance Pveupcr can pro-e
S jects over under one foot or more 1ich is A
in support: 1o-a sio

onses eLe at tavrns JJad street doors[,] & those-
ledI miostlly thro A common passage to y coart "
S kitchens[;] e._'- 2. -rt -ar had its draw well [, there
0, is general A te rracjd -, h ,l .m e 18
inches high next y" house wall[.] to sit down upon wen
weary of walking[.] y" walks about 9 foot wide[,] with
A ,AtaiaL ch LIo cha: r s ste s casy[,
all ter raced[.] A row ilars r ar ch suy-
Sports A roof continuing from y" common roof of y"V
body of ye house[,] if it be A shingled roof[.] these best
houses is general built of hewn shel stone[,J as is most
of those that is flat roofed & terraced on ? top[,] with
stone almn whh ath pipes,] mostly of
-l[,] let thro Nye wall & projecting A foot or
more[,] to carry of yv water[.] it must be very pleas-
ant walking here[,] in A hot summers evening[,J for \y
S Ladvs: as thav had no chimniest,] so thay had no glass
S i wd .TbU. y best houses had large windoes next t
s ]all banistered & pecting A foot or more from
S' ho se ll l some ha sme a ros one
aove another[,] each I about two foot long & one inch
& half or 2 square[,J set in y' cross pieces of y* frame[,]
at 2[,] 3[,] or 4 inches distance[,] which was fastened by

SAt this point "18 inches" is interlined.-Eo.
'Of banisters.-ED.

cross end pieces into frame of y" window & supported
by A step of stone at y' bottom: all these windows had
strong shutters within side[,] many of which had A
little one in each[,] & many windows had A lattice
with holes one inch square[,] reaching half way or more
up yv window[.] but now yv english officers is nakeing
great alterationn[] yv sun & light now begins to shine
thro glass & many chimneys is peeping above y" roofs
of ye houses[.]
but most of y"- ... -pn:nish houses was bilt of W
ouster shells & nlorr[,l as well as garden & yard
wallst.J' ayolralsed them by setting two boards on
edge as wide as thay intended yV wall[,J then poured in
limeshel morter mixt with sand[,] in which thay
pounded y" oister shels as close as possible; ] & when
that part was set[,] thay raised ye planks & so on till
thay had raised y wall as high as wanted[.] this was
strong enough to support A terraced chamber floor &
palnato thatched roof[,] which was very tight[.] but
as most of these was built by ye common soldiers &
poor people at different times[,] as thay could get
money to enlarge them[,] ye yv new & would walls is apt
to wind & crack so that %y soldiers can easily pull them
to pieces for thair wood to burn[,] which is scarce here[.]
these last mentioned houses had also th i -
tered & lati, n-; [idoMal &] &s Wri
roo to t out vC
dctia s' s.0 tehich se'd ry'
I can'f y soil in v. town.,] alltho pure sand[.] seems
to produce all sort of kitchen garden truck exceeding
well[;] & thay appear now[,] y? last of november[,] as
with us in y' latter end of may in A good season[,] &
thay expect will continue to next June[.] y figs is
setting as thick as thay can hold[,] for ye early figs [&] .\
oranges covers y ground[.] & citrons[.] thay have.,
both limes& lcmps[,] both swet & sour [oranges,] but
vy sweet oranges is not very plenty. people gets them
as soon as ripe: continued [??]
many banisters of ye back windows next] y" yard
or garden don't project out from ye wall as y' front
windows[,] which often do A foot beyond ye wall[,] so
that its very convenient sitting within ye window[,]
observing unseen what paseth in ye street[.] but thay
observed no general model[,] but every one built
according to his ability or fancy[.] ut all took
to keep -y females after 12 ars ftge as much in-
"o- =xcC- f ] only when -thav
went to mass & then thav was veied[. A little below
o. end o town is s or batteries of 6
guns[,] of hewn stone[:] one near ye sound[;] y other 3
or 4 hundreds yards distance[,] close by A tide creek[,]
about 20 foot high[,] with A neat round Centery box
projecting near half way over ye corner each way[,]
very curiously cut[,] with A cover over it[,] with mould-
ings made of ye best of ye cement shell stone[.] there
is Another little battery on ye same creek[,] half way
y" length of yV town & near y' farther end of y' gover-
nours gardenl great main fort is at y' no. end of


A 7
z A.

'y* town close tn n .v-[ ] ; 4 h ... h 'inrn.r fticl
r< n'dcenterv b&oLh y ; ...... rf -tdt 4 !t ci qpola
projecting half wix over[.] these are all made of shell
stones swe i cemented as to appear one solid stone
excavated so as for A man -to stand in it Vith ase &
looke round thro two or 3 peep holes{,] let it rain never
so hard[.] here is much carved work about vy fort[,]
& all y* extensive out wals is built with massy hewn
stone[.] Sertainly this frontier garrison must have
cost y' king of spain many millions[,] & it appears by
y* many curious hewn stones lying on one side-that it.
was not finished according to thair intention: two
solid stones[,] 4 foot square & one thick[,] lieth on ye
ground[,] of as fine or finer composition then ye english
free stone[,] & is ye same kind with one set upright near
y" gate in y" wall[.] it is curiously cut with y' sh
arms & curiously a d ne al y"as
fi r rom hence these stones was brought[.]
I cant learn[,] but certainly one of them hath lain in
salt water[,] by 3y shels sticking fast to one side: thay
always fires A gun from y* fort at break of day & sun
set: there is two would churches in yl town. vy one
y* engTis s fitting up for thair worship[, & ye other
S-g owrac. "y sph t%'\- ass building A fine
Convent adjoining by A wall to ye church[,] forming an
area 30 paces by ye side[-]or call it ye church yard[,]
which you will[.] but ye spaniard left it unfinished &
its talked to be converted into barracks. ] there is A
dutch church A little way out of town[,] but y' soldiers
has pulld it almost to pieces for y% wood to burn[.]
broke y) pillars & arches[.] y* steeple yet stands[.]
its not 20 foot square[;] hath A great Cupola of stone
about four story high[;] but all %y wood is taken away
& y" stairs broke down for firewood[.] but \' indian
or milk chrh lf A mile out f town is y- com-
ates[ ipece of arc itecter about v .town[. at-7 '
gb [, Mi tast[,. y Icollums is
uted[, hath y" capital & base & frize nar dorick
oder, to ye square[,j above io siht
oef- l atedSTLUrrI according o o thair fancy[.] t['s]
strange v spaniards should bestow ten times more
.. P Ccar n: .aen any- of
th ,ge t at. mecer cluster
of snr-fs[l, whose vTcances is not filled up with either
sand or lime stone[,] but' that A cluster of broken
shells[,] confusedly tacked together by A cristaline
spar[,] should be so fixed as to stand y': chisel without
flying to pieces or breaking farther then was de-
sighned[.] out side of y' convent wall is 45 paces long
each & 9 broad each side[,] within having 10 arches[,]
between which & ye wall is A walk of 3 paces[.] each
room within is 12 foot square[.] yE church is 25 paces
long & 8 broad[.] y" breadth] of y" belfrey is & foot[,]
& ye length ye breadth of ye church[,] & 40 foot high[.]
y" front curiously carved according to ve spanish tast[.]
thay did not ring thair bells as we do but shaked them
backward & forwardd[] all these buildings was of
hewn shell stone[.] y' great fort at augustine is 60


paces al'ove in y" outward square on y' one side & 56
broad[.] A ten foot walk on which ye guns rolled on
\' terracee] between y' outward strong wall[,] 5 foot
thick[,] & ye inward[,] each 4 foot high. ye area below
is 32 paces: 6 port holes in each side & 8 in each
bastion[.] yC passage out of ye area below is in one cor-
ner[,] 6 foot wide[,] up an easy terraced ascent without
stairs[.] all y% arched rooms round y\ area below is
bomb proof[,] & are y" chapel, prison[,] tavern[,] &
3y 2 nights frost[,] with some Ice[,] of ye 4 & 5th of
december[,] y* Governour tould me was harder at
augustine then any thay had before crismas last year[.]
it killed ye pumpkin vines & many of ye leaves of V'
carolina peas but did not hurt y' tomatis[.] ye top
leaves of ye cotton was hurt[.] ye convent was Joyned
& formed two sides of ye area or church yard[.] on y'"
other side was thair burying ground[,] walled round[.]
" belfrey ha[d] 5 arches[,] in 4 of which perhaps hanged
A bell by A cros bar that was fixed under ye crown of y"
arch[.] ye church where thay now meet is 100 foot
60 bushels of rough rice makes two Casks of clean[,]
or 16 bushels weighing eleven hundred weight[.] one
negro can tend 4 acres[,] & two acres of corn[,] peas[.]
potatoes beside: from ve founding of y" orphan
house[.] 1739[;] there has been but 3 or 4 persons buried
there[,] except last year y' small pox took off som[c;]
tho there has been from its institution from 70 to A
hundred scollars at one time:-chincapins[,] dwarf &
low mirtle[,] ground papaw[,] both long & round
leaved[,] ye two Calmias[,] new short podlded Catalpa
at warsaw & carries [possibly meant for "Carney's"?]
cowpen[.1 the 11th we rowed up y' river or sound
Mattensa from y" town[,] from which about A quarter
of A mile runs A small tide creek which heads against
y~. town[,] from y' mouth of which is A very extensive
salt marsh all covered with salt water at high tides[.]
it seemed A mile broad to v- fast land & near two mile
long to y" mouth of St[.] sebastians[,] which runs A
course of 9 mile or more back & above ye town: from
vy mouth of this creek to wood cutters creek is about
3 mile[,] & y" banks of ye continued wide marsh[,]
which gradually appears narrower as we conic nearer
to ye creek[,] is higher[;] insomuch that ye heaps of
oister shells that was formerly throwed there in many
places is above ye tidel,] & stiff marsh round them[.]
there is vast quantity of this marsh on each side "y
sound[,] producing tall grass 4 or 5 foot high[,] with
stiff stalks & A spike or glum[e] at top[,] 5 inches long[.]
producing grain near an inch long & as thick as A
common knitten leedle [=necdle?][,] of A brackish
tast[,] not so sweet as our Zizania[.] when it [is] cut[.]

I Two following words, "& nunery," have been crossed out.-


hath not destroyed them: ye spaniardsl,] as I am
informed, when thay lived here[.] eat very little flesh
meat but lived chiefly upon fish & oistirs[,] which thay
boiled & made much soup[,] putting great quantity of
herbs[,] onions[,] & garlic amongst it[.] if thay could
get A little salt [biufe?] or pork[-]or[,] ye better sort[,]
A little fresh[-]they would cut it in small bitts & stew
it with pumkins & herbs or roots[,] with much red
pepper, ] which growth winter & summer here about y'
streets[,] to make what soup they could[.] thay kept
very few or no cows[,] so had no milk[,l & what butter[.]
cheese[,] bisket[,] or flower thay had from ye Havana[,]
or some from york[.] thay lay chiefly or [=onl
Matresses[.] its very astonishing that ye quantity or
number of fish is wonderful diminished since ye
english settled here[,] which cant be ye 6th part[,] if yv'
tenth[;] of y* number of ye spaniards[;] & y* english
lives chiefly on meat & fowl[.] yet yet ye very same
spanish fishermen that used to supply ye whole town
with fish in plenty[,] complain thay now cant catch
enough to supply ye present few inhabitants for
change of diet[.] this I know[,] that as soon fish
comes ashore[,] that thay are all fetched away in A few
minits & many cant be served[,] & some mornings thay
cant get any[:] & ye oistcrs shels is now not near so big
as those shels that was thrown on heaps by ye span-.
iards or indians[.] & I have made these reflections
often on our northern rivers[,] how thay abounded for-
merly[,] when ye indians lived much on them & was
very numerous[;] & now there is not y* 100[th] or per-
haps ye 1000[th part of the] fish to be found[.]
I now observed ye manner of the kitchs of "y better
srt. firlace is aioot hig & 3
SbroadL ength oyf breadth of yv room i & above
y floor is open to y* slanting roof: there is 1 or 2
openings[,J A hands breadth wide & 2 foot long[,] in
yv-back to let ouNtso r smoak[. there ye back wall is

raised 3 foot above y" terrace roof of y" kitchen[,] from
which is carried A slanting roof of terrace[,] which
carrieth of[f] e rain from coming upon v* hearth[,]
upon which thay had several pots fixed[,] with holes
under each to boil thair different soupss[] I dislike
this methodl above any belonging to thair houses[,]
as thay are all as smoaky as an indian cabin[,] tho
thair methods are variot.] y- spaniards tiat went
of[f] to y* havana-was about 5000[.1 thay had A con-
vent of fryers but no public nunery[.] thair pro-
visions thay had from new york[,] philadelphia[,] &
ye havana[.] y* prices as follows. ] A rube is ye weight
of 25 pound[.] A dollor is 8 Bits: for A rube of salt
[beuf?][,] 9 bits[.] 15 bits for pork[.] 7 bits for rice[.]
.22 for corr[.] 22 for salt[.] one bit A pound for
larde[,] chees[c,l & gammon[.] 1 1i for butter[.] A
,common soldier had 11 dollars A month: ye shelly
rock on ye island houlds 10 or 12 foot deep[.] then
comes to loos uncemented shels[.] I have been told
that salt is A great binder of y" terrace & other cement
& that[,] being mixed with whitewash[,] it will not rub
off y* wall[;] & also that bullocks blood binds gravel &
sand very tight. instead of our stoks ye spaniards had
A sq ua re ar2 a nQQacgter r 9 foo h[,
w-i r2classs o each 3 sides, to put ye criminals neck
intoT here h sto .o.nQnbasel, alf Toot above
y* ground[,] to be seen by ye spectators[,] with his back
to ye pillar[.]
[Following this final entry in John Bartram's jour-
nal, there are written, on the next page and in another
script, 14 lines of notes on the egg-laying of the
"Crocodile & Sea Tortoise" and of the "Crocodile or
Allegator of America." The script is possibly that of
William Bartram-ED.]
SAt this point the following words are interlined: "but thay
have no certain model about thair kitchens or chimneys but most
is covered."-ED.

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