Title: Map of Turtle Mound, magazine articles, speeches, etc.
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00091222/00001
Finding Guide: A Guide to the May Mann Jennings Papers
 Material Information
Title: Map of Turtle Mound, magazine articles, speeches, etc.
Physical Description: Archival
Physical Location:
Box: 22
 Subjects
Subject: Jennings, May Mann, 1872-1963.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00091222
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text








&O-A17~~ ,l7 Sr,l

I A
0
MAPU






SHOWIGH
LCTO OFFN
AROUNDH^^HHI^^^^^BI^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^B^
i^B^^JBi^B^H^^^iM-^^B^^IV iRnLE MOUlNDffB^^B
0^B^^^^^ImI^^^^BBBB^HB^s^^^^^^^^^^BBM{B^i tit VOLUSIA CO











Mr. 'Fster.




avel Magazine



VOL. VI., No. 1-WHOLE No. 33. NEW YORK, JANUARY, 1919. PRICE, 20 CENTS.


Royal Palm State Park.


S Florida has an unique possession in Royal
alm Park, a bit of primitive wonderland in
lthe Everglades forty-eight miles southwest of
Miami. The principal fea-
S--e of the park is the Royal
74n Hammock clothing the
island called Paradise
Here are found scores
,al palms, many of great
overtopping the other
/ and lifting their star
s against the sky. It is
.. rgest island in the region,
n.1 a conspicuous object in
-he Everglades landscape, be-
;ngs seen from many miles
.cross the prairie. It early
lracted the attention of ex-
,!orers and botanists, who
*laade toilsome journeys to
study the rare flora long be-
fore the extension of the East
Coast Railroad to Home-
stead and the building of the
Miami-Cape Sable Ingraham
Highway made it easily ac-
cessible. One now visits it
from Miami by automobile.
The early botanical visitors
who found in the hammock a
surprising wealth of tropical
plant life, and others who
fell under the spell of the
beauty of tree and shrub and
vine and orchid and fern,
realized the desirability of
preserving the place in its
original wild state. After
many narrow escapes from
devastation at the hands of
those who sought to exploit it
for cultivation, the hammock
was made a public reserva-
tion, and a tract of 960 acres


of land including it was ceded by the Legis- Mrs. Henry M. Flagler thereupon d6iiated-W9O-0
lature of 1915 to the Florida Federation of acres as an endowment, which was exchanged
Women's Clubs, to be used for park purposes. for State land, the two tracts blocking up 1920
acres and constituting the
present Royal Palm State
Park. It is under the im-
mediate control of the Fed-
eration's Conservation De-
partment, of which Mrs. W.
S. Jennings is Chairman. To
her devoted zeal and intelli-
gent administration is due in
large measure credit for
the happy adaptation of the
hammock to its intended park
purposes, and its preservation
and maintenance as a public
pleasure ground. In the de-
velopment the Federation has
had the advice and co-opera-
tion of such specialists as Dr.
David G. Fairfield, of the
Plant Bureau, and Dr. E. W.
Nelson, of the Biological Sur-
vey. Many scientists hae
studied the plant and animal
life; an illustrated description
by Dr. W. E. Safford is in
course of publication by the
SInithsonian Institution under
the title: "Natural History of
Paradise Key and the Near-
by Everglades of Florida."
Dr. Charles T. Simpson


WHERE NATURE DOUBLES HER CHARMS.


found sixty-one trees in an
hour's survey. Among the
wealth of tropical growth are
giant moss-festooned live oaks,
royal palms towering over
100 feet in height, and rare
ferns and orchids, making
three hundred acres of beauti-
ful vegetation unlike any other
growth in the United States.























































A WINDING TRAIL IN ROYAL'PALM HAMMOCK.


Our present knowledge of the plant life we
owe chiefly to Dr. John K. Small, Head
Curator of the Museums of the New York
Botanical Gardens, who has visited the ham-
mock repeatedly and made extended studies of
the vegetation. His first description of Royal
Palm Hammock was printed in the Journal of
the New York Botanical Gardens, October,
1916; and in 1918 he published a monograph
on the ferns.* "The accumulated mass of de-
caying vegetable matter and the humus from
both the palms and the broad-leafed shrubs,"
Dr. Small tells us, form the foundation for a
remarkably luxuriant growth of ferns, shrubs
and trees. Botanical exploration up to 1918
has revealed about 250 kinds of plants grow-
ing naturally on the key. Sixty-odd of these
"Ferns of Royal Palm Hammock." Other works
descriptive of Florida flora published by Dr. Small are:
"Ferns of Tropical Florida," "Flora of Miami," "Flor-
ida Trees," "Flora of the Florida Keys," "Shrubs of
l'orida."


are flowerless plants-mushrooms, lichens, liver-
worts, mosses and ferns. The remaining 180
kinds are flowering plants. Of these more than
165 are native species, while the others have
been introduced." Of the eighteen ferns all
are typically if not strictly tropical kinds, ex-
cept two. One of the exceptions is the sword
fern, sometimes locally called Boston fern,
which here reaches extraordinary development.
"Leaves approximately eighteen feet long are
not uncommon, while the maximum length is
twenty-seven feet three inches. The long
leaves are often vine-like. They clamber over
shrubs and up tree trunks and hang over the
limbs of trees."
The occurrence of the royal palm and these
forms of tropical and West Indian plant life
here in il-:3 inland location, -remote from the
sea, lends a mystery to Royal Palm Hammock
which piques our curiosity and excites specula-
tion. How did they core here? Dr. Small


JANUARY, 1919.


finds the answer in the theory that they have
been here always. The scores of plants which
are typical West Indian and Central American
species indicate that "the Everglade Keys are,
so far as their vegetation is concerned, a por-
tion of the West Indies isolated on the Florida
peninsula. Although over one hundred miles
north of the Tropic of Cancer, their flora is
tropical." The tropical vegetation does not
represent an importation of modern times, but
rather is to be regarded as a remnant of a for-
mer period, since which the land has been re-
adjusted as well as the vegetatIon.
1 he changes here involved are not so great
as others which are held to have occurred.
The scientists tell us that with n the lifetime of
the species of mangroves and other plants of
the coast swamps that are found on both the
Pacific and the Atlantic coasts of tropical
America, the two continents have been united
by the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama.
As to the immediate surroundings which
have been favorable to the preservation of the
tropical flora of Paradise Key, Dr. Small points
out that "it has been always surrounded by
water or damp sloughs and thus protected from
fires from without, and heretofore there has
been little chance of fires starting within. Thus
its vegetation has had nearly uninterrupted
growth for ages. This condition perhaps ac-
counts for the occurrence of the royal palms
there. The decaying fallen leaves, the large
spathes, the spadices, also the myriads of sepals
and petals of the flowers, and the fruits, each
and all, on account of the unbranched habit of
growth, falling at the very base of the trunk,
form mounds of humus larger and higher than
do any of the hardwood trees. Upon such a
gradually increasing mound a palm is, from
year to year, raised higher and higher on humus
formed from its own tissues. Now these
mounds of humus would furnish ideal fuel, and
the palm, although able to resist fire above
the roots, could not exist or even stand up if
the humus was burned away between the base
of the trunk and the rock. As it is, it seems
nothing short of a miracle that the slender
trunks over one hundred feet tall, with the heavy
crown of leaves and spadices, can withstand the
winds of severe storms, not to mention frequent
hurricanes. This protection from fire would
also account for the occurrence of a few royal
palms in neighboring hammocks. Although the
royal palm has been protected by fire, it has
evidently an enemy in the rodents which in-
habit the island. Fruits are produced by the
millions every year, but new palms are appar-
ently springing up in numbers only about suffi-
cient to replace those that die. It would be
interesting to see what would happen if the
animals that eat the seeds were eliminated."
Paradise Key and its tropical vegetation have


MR. FOSTER'S TRAVEL MAGAZINE







MR. FOSTER'S TRAVEL MAGAZINE


-an added interest when thus seen as a survival
from a former period; and so all the more fitting
does it seem that the wonderful and beautiful
forms of tree and plant life, which have been
guarded by nature in this isolated w-lderness
sanctuary, and have survived the vicissitudes of
unmeasured time, should now be cherished and
protected by the hand of man. As guardian of
such a rare and choice legacy of the past, the
Federation has assumed a worthy trusteeship.
It should have the hearty co-operation of the
public, and the gratitude of those of us who
are privileged to visit the wonder spot.
The common fate which is overtaking the
primitive flora of the Everglade keys and which
but for public-spirited intervention would have
been the course followed with Royal Palm
Hammock, is illustrated in the Cox hammock,
of which Dr. Small wrote in 1915: "The Cox
hammock, with its numerous enchanting fern-
lined lime sinks, and where a decade ago we
discovered trees of the West Indian holly grow-
ing in the United States and first found the wild
coffee growing to a tree, is doomed. The
owner, not satisfied with the progress of destruc-
tion wrought by fire and hurricane, this year
fenced it about and put in a half dozen goats in
order to hasten the destruction of what vegeta-
tion remained alive." It is not mere sentiment-
alism that deprecates the heedless destruction of
these beauty spots. The tropical features here
in southern Florida, which have survived the
chance of time, add to our knowledge and con-
tribute to our pleasure. The rescue of Royal
Palm Hammock might well prompt similar
action to preserve other wild places.
The Federation has made suitable provision
for the convenience and comfort of visitors to the
park. There is a park lodge with porch chairs and
tables for visitors, and a picnic ground for out-
door luncheons. There were estimated to have
been over 6,000 visitors last season. The
numbers increase as the fame of the park is
spread abroad.
The route from Miami is by the Ingraham
Highway, which passes through the Park.
Much may be seen from the road, but one should
follow the paths to appreciate the many de-
lights. Thus explored, it reveals pictures of
loveliness which have excited the enthusiasm of
world travelers. Dr. Simpson writes of it: "I
have been over all the warmer part of Florida,
including the lower keys, throughout the length
and breadth of Cuba, the Republic of Haiti,
the entire island of Jamaica, and quite a little
of Spanish Honduras. I have sailed through
the lovely Bahaman archipelago and landed on
several of its islands, I have visited the Ber-
mudas and cruised again and again through the
entire Mediterranean and down the West Coast
of Africa, but my eyes have never rested on
any spot on earth as beautiful as Paradise Key."


WHERE ROYAL PALMS LIFT THEIR FRONDS.


Bass in the St. Johns.
The St. Johns is a well-stocked black bass
water, which has for many years attracted fish-
ermen from the North and West. The town
of Astor is in the midst of the best of the river
fishing, being midway between Lake George
and Lake Dexter. The bass run from 8 to 1 2
pounds, and there is always the chance of a
bigger one. The game supply comprises quail,
duck and deer.

The Roosevelt National Park.
Congress has approved the suggestion of the
Boone and Crockett Club to give the name of
Roosevelt National Park to the enlarged
Sequoia National Park in California.
The territory which would be embraced in
the proposed Roosevelt National Park lies at
the southern end of the Sierras, approximately
one hundred miles north of Los Angeles. In a
straight Ine, about seventy miles from Death


4A/, ccy a


Valley, is Mount Whitney, and this mount
would be on the southeastern part of the pro-
posed memorial to Colonel Roosevelt. Mount
Whitney is 14,501 feet high-the highest
point in the country. Death Valley is the
lowest point in the United States. There are
more than a hundred peaks in the United
States that are above 14,000 feet.

Washington Not So Crowded.
Since the signing of the armistice the conges-
tion prevailing among Washington hotels has
been overcome and normal conditions are re-
stored. All the Government buildings and
other points of interest are now open to the
public.

No, sir; there is nothing which has yet been
contrived by man, by which so much happiness
is produced as by a good tavern or inn.-Dr.
Johnscn.


JANUARY, 1919.






j/4;


/6'


MR. FOSTER'S TRAVEL MAGAZINE JANUARY, 1919.



Some Florida Sea Beans.


On the Florida beaches various seeds are
cast ashore which are called Florida sea beans.
Some are susceptible of a high polish and are
mounted and sold in the souvenir shops as watch
charms and other trinkets. The beans are not
Florida products; they come from the West
Indies and the coasts of Central America and
South America. Among the more common on
the Florida beaches are the Entada scandens,
Mucuna urens, and Guilandina bonducella,
which are shown in the illustration. They are
interesting as belonging to the seeds which, being
carried by ocean currents from land to land,
-da'-- known to botanists as drift seeds. The
three named had their original home in the in-
terior regions of tropical America, whence they
were carried by the rivers to the sea on both
sides of the continent and thence borne by
ocean currents around the globe.
Drift seeds have long engaged the attention
of naturalists, and in recent years the English
scientist H. B. Guppy has made extended seed
drift observations in the Atlantic and Pacific,
and has published two works embodying the
fruits of his studies-"Observations of a Nat-


uralist in the Pacific," and "Plants, Seeds and
Currents in the West Indies and Azores." To
these sources we owe most of our knowledge of
the origin and world wandering of the drift
seeds, known to us as Florida sea beans.

Entada is one of the most conspicuous ex-
amples of the transport of seeds across oceans
through the agency of the currents. In the
pages of many botanical works from the close
of the seventeenth century onward, reference is
made to the transport of its beans (often in as-
sociation with those of Mucuna urens and Gu'l-
andina bonducella) by the Gulf Stream or
other currents across the Atlantic to St. Helena,
the Azores, the west coast of Ireland, the
Hebrides, the Orkney Islands, the coasts of
Scandinavia, and even as far north as Nova
Zembla.
'It is a far jump from the North Cape to the
coral islands of the Pacific and Indian oceans,"
writes Guppy; "yet it is wvth:n the area covered
by the drifting Entada bean. The stranded
seeds occur commonly on the Fijian beaches
and on other islands of the South Pacific-they


were gathered by me on the shores of Keeling
Aioll in the Indian Ocean and on the south
coast of Java. They came under my notice in
numbers on the beaches of Equador and on
the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of the Panama
Isthmus, and as I learned they are equally com-
mon on the other parts of the coasts of Central
America. Not uncommonly these stranded
seeds in various parts of the world are to be
found encrusted with polyzoa and tubicular
annelids, which afford proof of prolonged flota-
t:on in the sea. These seeds are also frequently
to be noticed floating in the drift of tropical
estuaries. Thus they came under my observa-
tion afloat in numbers in the Fijian estuaries, in
the Guyaquil River, in the estuary of the
Chagres at Colon and in the mouth of a river
on the Pacific side of the Panama Isthmus."
Entada is a climbing vine, which grows by
river banks and climbs the highest trees. In
Jamaica it is found on the slopes of Mount
Diablo 2,000 feet above the sea. I he seeds
are contained in a pod three to four feet in
length, shaped like a sword, whence the West
Indian common name "sword bean." In India


ILLUSTRATING THE COURSES OF DRIFT SEEDS.
I:rcm IT I. IGuppy's "Plants, Seeds and Currents in the West Indies and Azores."













lye F orilian'S (Gret ae t amtenant

WILLIAM FREMONT BLACKMAN. PH. D., LL. D.


3 Ietrlptr in 3Tnrla, land of the open and fathomless sky, of lambent stars, of
mountainous opalescent clouds, of soft benignant airs, of incessant summer, of
unstinted and vivifying sunshine, of responsive and fecund soil.
31 lBlitra in lortla, laved on every hand-cooled and warmed and cleansed
and fed and decorated-by the azure and teeming waters of tropic seas, and by
countless and sparkling lakes and streams.
31 itltetr in ti alrta, land of wide-stretching and open woods, of limitless
green prairies and glades, of dense and vine-hung hammocks, of mysterious bays
and swamps, all in their various forms lovely and fruitful; the land of fragrant
pine and mourning cypress. of moss-draped oak, of waxen magnolia, of comely
palm, of regal poinciana, of flaming vine, and of shy and brilliant orchid.
31 IAtlirue in rlltla, land of the orange and pomelo and spicy kumquat, of
peach and pear and persimmon and loquat, of pineapple and guava and mango
and avocado; of corn and cotton and cattle, and of whatever else is anywhere
borne of trees or grown by the soil of the earth.
3 BWtltrvt n floritla, the home of creatures strange, curious and beautiful-
the saurian monster, the gliding reptile, the darting dainty lizard, the aquatic man-
atee, the egret in snowy nuptial array, the roseate spoonbill, the exuberant mock-
ing bird, the flame-like, flute-like cardinal, the woodpecker with ivory bill and the
humming bird with ruby throat, the painted butterfly sipping nectar in winter days.
3 IelitOtr in lirtiba, land of romantic legend and adventurous history, of
towns the most ancient and the newest, of swiftly growing cities, of farms and
orchards, and of wide and inviting solitudes still awaiting man's coming.
31 ilrliirt in 3?lorita, magnet and meeting place for men and women of the
North and the South, the East and the West, and countries over-sea, Americans
all, one blended and indissoluble and free people. 1 believe in her eager boys and
winsome girls, in her schools and colleges, in her churches of divers faiths, in her
institutions of philanthropy and mercy, and in her press, the voice and the instruct-
or of her common mind and will.
31tn int, 31 l1irtr in f3lnriba, the commonwealth old yet young, unformed
as yet, but palpitant with energy and faring forth into the future with high hope
and swift step; and believing thus,
3 (oTrnantlt with all her people of like faith to give myself to her service, mind
and heart and hand and purse, to explore and develop her hidden resources, to
celebrate her praises truthfully, to win worthy citizens for her void spaces, to till
her fields, to keep pure her politics, to make more efficient her schools, to
strengthen and unify her churches, to cleanse and sweeten her social life, and thus
to make her in full fact what she is by'human right and Divine dower,
le QPuein of niommonaututl
,,,,,^ | n n ! i .iini..i. ~ ... a " *K " 1 *ii"ii'i -ii"i* i i J " - " "
















r.: - rcI: ..t' 4i

V. r

3m Art,*4'>7 ),U
f i,, i;-.t,, ", -'. -,;' ; '' 'r- ,.'' ++ : .,.

'i .1, "
... rrehdo, 4b-"7.i tb. n-:'-

.... .."..f
l i '.,' ... . : : ,,.': ., .' ; .
4 li ... ,, :f a'.. ,+.:-i.ni.,


ndt1i reot ad aT












b ". 4t- ~
M.. . A. .."



2t41. "tatj, on."*+' P'. :"h






,* laotiot.~~n'1t0i
."'1 wo bar....

r~~ ~ r.':`- -e~T I
and' of "V









C .. < . o




*ietin&t~ ';ife. .::
t ] ' of m aaroat n .;...... .










-' it.' "eb ,,
.;4 ,.''.,.."4," f '



1 4 .'. . .4.4.4


" " .,.4" ..' -,...4;i
,'+. .,++ ,+., ," :.,. ., ,:, ,,
,,-':.: i .. i, + ..co ., ,+ .
+',, ,.. ; ';, ,, .- ., , . -. .," ., ;..,,





























-t 4b 6 AR-'Y .





Q.
V h?.c ^^ .** ^^^p^'V^Jill[


JktMP IT








AI I
A- .tc::*;W" .; . .i..^











A na~
^^^:.^y^^: ;^.^^











~Y:(i-?a ~ I~a







a g. 3 . . . .
3. a





t 4,
sa ISil 61 05:
- I -;--A
17 E~,,-~,~,,, f Li_
lwk77








,:ve -I


'


F.R *
+:.; ''





" " -." .- :" '- ", ,' ,:.. I4. ," ... : ." " 1"!: : I '." .. " : ' ; , ", ,.'4'..;. .. '
... -... 4 ," "" ': '.- ..:, "" -,r-'ki :.. ,..,. ,- '" u'',,:-. 0 &;."'," a ."- '"- ,- e ,'- '7- ".'.'" -- '. "-. -4,9; ;" I',,,'_'. "!,'- `,.
I I - f . ,_ _ _ _z_-, ;,;.,. '... 41a
A '.. , -. 1 - ", . r' ,, .. . . .. ". - N
-'. : ,:'' '. , .. . , ,.. ,. -," I-" .: :' .1 ' -- ,, "" ,' .. I ., .:,- : %7. t I : .- .. ': '' .t ; -' : ..: ". '-' .' :
. . .. ,7 . I.., . ... .-I, . .. -I ;- ... . , .. : ,, .... 4 -e I . .. . . -. : ... . ... : .:. -.-. -
..* t.-4 l -!? .. .. ~a
N7 1", I.-"~. ,- ... .-. ... .. .. : I .... .-,. . -!' -:.,.1 ..z: .. , .. '. ,
:" " I." ." .'' -"' " " ,.. ". " ' . . .' ..-.;'; '.., l -,:" I, ., ... .. . .' " " i I" .. ." ": ?F I ,11- ;
-' .. o.. -.f .. ,-, '. ., . 'a ". : ,_ . '; .- ": ," ": "; :' ., ;' .i' !" ..' ; .; ,'' . ,' -i-.
.... -.. *. .- .. .... .. '. . '.. .'

, . .. . .;; ? I : 1, -' --... ,, .j . . _. ,. : .. '., . ,- .: : . .; ,.: ,, - . ... , -, I . 1 ,-v-!. -.1. . .
.... . .. . , , ; . j . . -1 . ..: 1 . .
. ... : ..... ,. . , .. ,. .. .. ?. .... :., ..1 ...a....- -. . . I,. .. .i...
. .- ... :... ... ... . .. . ... . ... ... L .. .... ,, I Y ., ff? ,I-; .: M..o. I ,, ., .- _- ,, .
S. : -.-'. :'" : o '. ". : . :" ". r '. .. .. ... -_ ,, .1. it' "f "-- '. "o" 1 .... '% .'" Z "!l -. . -: .:''.:" . . .: .: ,I.,- .'- .- ". '-: ,, ... .. l

I: ,-.-. .. . ,: '; -I..".. . .. . ' . .5 .. " . -- .
l , : - : . : A .. . I I '.
r.... , . ,: .. . .. . .. % -.- ... .. .. -. , , . .. ... I ,- ., L . . .. .m.., ... -,. , l.
'I' 1 -, a,-! 4 a s.; 4- ., .
..I- .. -, ., .. ., . ., ; . '. . %, .. : . ., ;:. .. . -, .: .; -/ .-, .. :,, ..- T ,, . - 7 - .: .. .' .. r . ." .- .. % .. . '..
..'..
.. . it. .. .. 1 -. ,
. I' :' -, 1 ".' .- I 3 -. Al' ... ... [ ". "":, , .' . ,. -, '. '.' ... t,,,"'.,

:'. " .. : P .-'. - '. . A: , '-
. - I ,. r .. -. : .1 .- I I . 1 .1 ..I. ; . e t ,. l ,.' . .:

. -. . . .. , . -... .. .
" o- ':" . '" "- ' ,- ... j "- .. ." "r ' ,, ' t A." r, .-- , -; ; -. -.' ,. -, ,, .. ... . :... . l1.- .. J-. ::....,. .l '. ". .; ":. ;':





S .. "'I n' t ' I o1 I a t .r e ... 'r " ". "" ;
'., . . .. .., .. A.. . -. -,': . . I; . . .. i ,' .. .. . ". I . ." .- - 1
.. -- .. ... : ." ..;.. .- ? .. . .. ..i . -,, .. s I n ..:.- -, i. t : r.n. . e t ::--. ,-,, ..- IX, ,..,..- ; . .






I, - a.-_, ". . . -.:,.'.-.. ;. w . -. - ,
a I - :, g '. l .." .. " 1" '. ,' - 1 l -. ... . . : '

"..aL... 7te . -,I ... L a Ii." .__ . . .- : 1,-S :,.
.., ., I. I: ,' '.. j` .-.".. a'a g...' . -. . .
:'." L .".. '..- , .;h .. .:. :r .. . : o. :,:,1. ;t ;. ). ".1. :, '-, .. . .: : .'1.e ," '. '." -",. . ... "", r.'- : :. : .. : i
L, -: W.. .. . e. ' ... ,-"" I 'I 'I v ". "., .. '. I ." ":,I" ,- '-.. .- .. " .'- ... !- " :" '. : I ',




.- ,. ,.- i O -.:. .4. -. ,...,. I.'.L4



o, n-t q .p : ,h U O*S I..i- t, f.t d-. r -l tb... ... -.. -it ".,-, '",.
'..N-1:4,- r,.. .. t
; t ,' : . . .1v ": ,' r . l ),' t ,, :. ; .lm I " ; ,- , r y l '.- "-, "'. ; ,: : ' : ,- ' .." "r '1 .-. ',- ... ; . ' ' '
. ; .- .:.;.-' ", ; .l e m ..-..o i L e . ---1.-7 ',..o-, --, h "...,"'. ~ e '.. :t ; .. ...; ,.. L' -, .."-.
-,,- ". I .'-,. .' : ," .'-, ... I "" : ' " ''" '. ; 1.";- ', ,"t .' -"!" ) ..' "". -', .. ". ", " i- : -'F - -T ."i" "
" .. : :, ;. I. -: '.- -.,,, ,. :.; -. :' "L ... '- .t 'i.. @ '.'.,:' I "" ;: / .. I ... ..: I, ,.. : "" ." ,





. . ,-. .I .-, . ; . .. ,, . .- - -. . .n .. I -
'... ji "-"' ., .1 ."-V : : ; .':'r ' T' .. '' ." .: 1 ... ',.. ..: ... :-, ,: .; ."-'. ', : .. '- .. .. '," ; 2.- ,.,
. ... -. ., .... ....o :._. .1 .. ,r e .. ....11- ;. .I. .- ._ !, '.. 1 . .,-, ,,. . . .. . . .L .. ,
..' -. I I ..- ,- ... '. L ." '.... '. '" .. -T '1 .1 L % . : 1: ,;- I, '. .. .- : Y -. ; -. .






bait to 'a.- '-
: 'a .. ,- -; -, . ~~L,'






PItheir homes. We -want; Ie~s.toq, ]~pbb t to uts
; . -- 1 -1 N a I o. 4 .


a1,.' ., N ,a: ; .": .-:Ii. .. .. L - . .. F" V ...



*.. . .. .. . ... .. ,%... -. .. ,,- -.. -.. --- .
-p.I, 4. . a ,.a
.. I," . , '.. ... . :,. , ". 1 .. . .:. r .
r ,' 4- rI-NI. -.,,, -h .r'A .
1 j; - 6 .. I .-;: , I L . ,- I ,, . m % - :, . .. . .- ,, , .










S. h oa I N q ,-. .. ,




"a% - w ." . l ." : o. R f".: .
d ... ... . ... .l .I-.. . a.- I .. -I
" '': : -, office1,," I ,, -I' t o :-:; ., 'o.S L l, .'., ,',.".. on .-: .". .: -
4.. .. .. .. . ... . . . .. .. . .. .... a .. .. . . .
i'; : :, ~ ~ : . A~~:~ i'i



















1 .: r f. O a .. ... . . .
. . v, -' . . ..4! . . . . . ..N, " .
S-L.' P- - , . I V,. '. I : 1 . .N. .- .
^,,, ~ ~~ ~ ~ ', ":-.., ;:,, ',, L.,. "..' -. '- .'" '. : ..." L .' .-i.. .i .: .',:; .-

















,w .
... ..g' ..' 'rhilflons I t&- L 'n... it4Ithou tire .ai;of tIe t o fl- ,fln,



.:. ,: -4 ,, :, ,. -.. . a .: : a..11


.. V ... ., La .. 4 ,, 'e.. I A w- . . , ,' I ... . . .. K 1 .4,_ -
-. . .. ... . .. .. ... .. . a
-' 5 a -. a :.'i 4 ,
.--. : I. r : r :T,,-,-.- L. .- .-.e -.. t.,.r:th..i...,l". .
, .' .. n .. ,%. .,". . : .: . . . . . .








5 .-44a 'I ..ae . I *p
.... 4 ,.1 .1L ` f-







"" '" '. ';' a -a " a ' I "t ....
' . .. . .9 .... .w ,s


: ..- J L : , ..r -,, .... Z.. .-.
!." o--:, , -1 .. .1 j ...,- .. .. , .o .. , .. ,, ,, ,- . . K. ... -
.1..! -. ) .,.. ".. : r' ` .. . , I .. ",. .i i- .. .... . ;. 7.. ' . .. I.. .. .. ." 'l .. .. .




















-, a.ah .
-. -L . - .. .. -. -. - I I :L ... .. 1 ", .,. .. I,.,































al~a~aa,~a..JN'>a~,.
'a3~f~ a~j~i3i~~3 8~'o s ~ ae.~
,,1- L :. I . I, c .I !. --, .. :. ..
--a ,,' -" -.. -. . .., . : ; . . .L 5' i a a
a a . .. :.' .. .I ; '.
-.1 "-'J. 4I.. : -. - L 4 .1 . :
1 I' .A ...' --I a- 1 J .
. ' . : l I t ,; ,; . : 4 .: !. 1 . . r : j A





















-.. 0 -," "', % ,.a "' 1 '.: I : .... !.-. "L a.-. I .
.le a ... .. .- .. .. 1 1 ,-,",I:.. i, A -,-'. -., T .. v :.. ... .. .
-. '.eo - O L' . .. % i Y "- b ,r .. . . . ` .: A ....'" .. I ,.;...I .:





















.. ,, L` . .. -'- ,I r '", _ .. .. : L' -,%'. ., ,
St .;, - ... .. f,,,, .. ., .a- ,-. -. ...
a.:K 47 a "~~a. --:,: ,. 4. .. ..% ; S j - - N~a .










a% '. L I 4. .& 1 L a- "' 1 m. , .. a ,-' ., . ) -. 1. ". -

:" ,, -J ,,- 4
a- -. I: l ' P 1 .. . .' -a I i ' L'i
-.1 ,.. . -. . .. .. 1

:-:" :' : .. ... A .,
,.,N- . -, ; ... a. .. ? . . -- ." _' . '. .
%- .. ... ." ;: .. . ... I.- 7 7 j : '. o _- .. : -, '. .0 . I I .I ,'...




?a ". . . 'a --..- ; % _.
., .. -" : ,: ,''.I. . -L ... . .. "'. ..:..-,.., '. . . -. h . ,." I."i ., .. . :. -, -. . .. .." " "' '':, :: ...























a'1-..gV Ia- - - .. I ., ..- ,-. I a. -' a 4kl.a.a.,4... .. .....








''I..----------- jdOa ;.;a.N ..
.. ..' ,,'..., ,, ..,,; .. . ".. .-.- .... I s -_.;. ." [, ; :," -, t o. L' ..'/.- a' .. t: p. .: ...k .,. "' ."-. 1 '. . I.Ii '.. "'"'. L ':"' 1 :; .
. .. .L ; . i .: '. _-; I p . . "1: ',- ,.".... : ,. .- % . . .. .. ;. . ,, ." .... .1r '. , '. ., -
... . "; . L ; % ".. " ": "I :", l'- '- L .": : ', I." !.' .' '. ., o ;: ." j", .. .. ":- ,- .. C. ." " Z. `-' '..I:- ."
-, ..' ... ,'...' .. '.' " -A -- "," ;" "4" : 1, , ..-.. r .-. ... -: ,- .,. 6l '. .. F ,.: -, , -', ,'" '""




























.. .. . a I -f. a,- a a.. I.. _. ,raa.
.- -,, .;_' ... ,- ., ,L. .-01,1 ,e : --- c,1 '.-





-a.4. .." K 'a- s. I .,. '
S... .4 .a .- . . .'"..' a / L d, a . . : lI
S. . .- ,aaarflaa I : -, ?-. -. ', : .,, ,r/ .- %&. -.-. 1...
I n1 .. .. i r-- '- 1.r.a i a aSI '--A"I L i a1 '6 : i i ' ' I "III ii, a a , j I I e L : r %.:j I :- % 1 .s l .i I :f 1! - c i 15 I I .
j,, r.' .- I -" .. : e I ,-:'. ;
;1 1- '-6 4 .'." .,O ..,' I I- .- '' -." ". ,a .. .. . k ;b ,, A" -' .A ,., : .' .- '- '! ;.. .,
,.., ..., ..,.,,v ...,.. ... .. ..- ... ... .. ,. .. .. . . .. .. .. ._ . . .... ,., ,, .;- ..,.
"1: 1 -'. '1. "'i .r;, -. ;..,. J "." : . ', ";. _. L, ..- ,t : .". -7 4 I" T, _, .'P- v 4 1
..........,.,. "..' .... "; _, ,. % T'l ..:, . . ,. 4.- . .. :. , g . .I -.
.. ,,, .. .. .. .,. 1 ,,-'.. I.: ". .:..L:. .... .. .. . .. .'.:, : -. _,r l -1 .-.. ... ..- ,1 .
; -" .,i ..' .. .... ..- .*; _' ,. J .,
,. .._ :..::, -" -- ",- !;. . 1,# .- , , ,L .. .. ....... . ., .. ;.. .. ... .- ... : i M...... -..... ... -. .. -,.-' ."' . -..j: r ".' : ,," -, : ., .1'
.. ..,,'.:.. .' ,, .,. I. .. .. .. .. . .... ,,j, ., ,, : .. .. 40 .1 i -, : ; .. ., '. I .., -I, .:, --l, IT I_-. ...
-- ..- -
,-" ; "t. .` ., , ", -. :' .;?; I A -, .
I:-. ::.::.. A rI n ; .:,:, 1:1 .-6: ;t ',.:" .: :. I... ..... I.:.,.I .j.:
.- ..." ,,: .... .,.,.., ,.. ... .'.. :-: o' ;,ft ie,..',- --' I- i! .
.. ,. -t -4...,, n u -i,,". - -,1.3 u. I.. .,.,
,.. .. ", .1 ,, *tt W .q.L:. .. -',' ;.I1',V.1 .... -: .p..,L ". L.
.... .... -"...".I I....... ,..... '. .. ".:. .. ..:..,. :.,. t ..--.
,, ' .. . ,' .. ... . ?. . ., ., ,. ., .. : .. .., .. .".. 1, .:- .; ..., : . ., .. -... ... .--. "1..1
. I I : I .; t : ... . . . i- .: i ... ij iI .. I I. I I i. .l I* ' i ; II : t i '. I . -l, I : -I '. l: I ...", .' '. .-. ,. .. . . .... , .I ;,; .- .. ., , r ",.- '..' '. .' L .- " '; m-' "
., ..j ,, ,.. .. ,. I j .. ....... ,: . . :.:,`- ,j .. ,,i
;,.....', ".." ". ..--.t ... -, ,_. .. .. -. o,, ... .' o . ... ... . !,- . 4. . ,"; .. .. .: -
--: ...;'... If 'i.i -.; -.: . 4 'L :. ,-. .r ,:' .,,..,...,.."I,.. .,1o ...-.... ....
























ave;.
per ha

P P4




r 3. na

rc p ,q





t6d '0 b







ItIt1 4






























*~~~~ 41; ~FF
4Rv
Amp g Kr

F, gm I





g4 RIMF *
& F51




Saye k.. 44











.Al Em

ZIN






kxi~ V -_.







ti F,




WO CO .1 e -I'
RM~i

All'
4.7

F Wi4*~F F1







a-sF.


*~ nz F
4F.'
KzF
F 1 1 F *F F ,
F) -41M
A4 -
ANF~
F M av




IN ZF









PROHIBITION'S RESULTS

By STUYVESANT FISH
Treasurer of New York Division of the Association Against the Prohibition Amendment; former resident
of the Illinois Central Railroad
Analysis of official figures showing an increase of 44 per cent. in the
arrests for drunkenness in 1921 over 1920-Prohibition as viewed
by advocates of light wines and beer-Present Conditions
From the June number of Current History Magazine, a monthly Periodical
published by the New York Times Company.


Editorial Note-The May issue of Current History
contained an article by Dr. Wayne B. Wheeler,
General Counsel of the Anti-Saloon League of
America, in which he defended the Volstead act
and marshaled an array of statistics to support his
contention that the effect of the law had been to
reduce arrests for drunkenness by about 50 per cent.,
and to improve the general health and welfare of
the nation. In the present article Mr. Fish takes a
different view of the situation.
IN any attempt to estimate the results
of prohibition it is necessary to re-
call the promises made for that sys-
tem before it was fastened upon the
country. The people were told that its
operations would cause improvement in
public health, promote prosperity, make
the wage earner more contented and ef-
ficient, raise the standards of morals and
greatly reduce vice and crime. Partic-
ular emphasis was laid upon the last
prediction, for alcohol in beverage form
was held by prohibition protagonists to
be at the root of almost every human ill
and the chief direct cause of all offenses
against law and order.
The system has now been in operation
throughout the United States for up-
ward of two years. I have seen some
figures that lead me to believe that the
general health of the people has some-
what improved during these two years,
though from causes not connected with
prohibition, and it is significant that the
largest industrial life insurance com-
pany reports an increase of 50 per cent.
in deaths due to alcoholism in 1921, the
second "dry" year.
In connection with the prohibition-
ists' claim that the nation's health has
been bettered through their action, the
9 following from the Statistical Bulletin
of the Metropolitan Life Insurance
Company, April, 1922, is of interest:
There have been marked increases in the
death rates for heart disease, Bright's dis-
ease and apoplexy in recent months among


the industrial policyholders of the Metro-
politan Life Insurance Company. Small
increases in the mortality from these dis-
eases had been noticed early in November
of last year; but the change attracted little
attention and caused little comment. The
possibility that it marked a definite check
in the favorable tendency shown for sev-
eral years for each of these diseases was
not seriously considered. By December,
however, the death rate had taken a more
decided upward turn for each disease. Or-
ganic heart disease registered a rate of
124.9 as compared with 118.4 in November;
the apoplexy rate rose from 62.9 to 70.6
and that for Bright's disease from 69.1 to
71.9. By January it had become apparent
that for two of these diseases, at least, a
definite upward tendency was in progress.
The heart disease rate increased sharply
from the December figure of 124.9 to 137.2,
and that for chronic nephritis went up near-
ly three points over the December figure.
The apoplexy rate for this one month fell
somewhat. In February the heart disease
figure rose even more sharply than for Jan-
uary (to 153.4), the nephritis rate again
increased slightly (to 75.8), and that for
apoplexy returned to approximately the
December level. By March the rate for
organic heart disease had reached 168.2
per 100,000, one of the highest figures ever
recorded in any one month among Metro-
politan industrial policyholders. The
March rates for chronic nephritis (87.5)
and for apoplexy (75.8) are both the high-
est registered for those diseases since
March, 1920.
Assuming for the sake of argument-
without admitting the truth of the as-
sertion-that prohibition is to be cred-
ited with a decreased death rate, it
must, on the other hand, be charged
with the business depression; and in
every other respect it has failed abso-
lutely to justify the promises held out
in its behalf. Prosperity, which was at
flood tide when the system became ef-
fective, has disappeared; the wage
earner desperately and often vainly
hunts for work to keep himself and his





I


~c~'
3








family alive; moral standards have sunk
to the lowest ebb, and, finally, a wave of
criminality sweeping over the whole
country shows no sign of diminishing.
The proportions of this crime wave
cannot be accurately stated, but they
can be guessed from the accompanying
table based upon the police returns of
thirty cities having an aggregate popu-
lation of almost ten and a half millions.
These cities were not selected designedly,
being simply those whose returns hap-
pened to have been completed and veri-
fied at the time of writing; they are a
first exhibit in an attempt to get the
criminal statistics of all municipalities
having a population of 100,000 or more
according to the 1920 census. The table
covers for the most part the calendar
years 1920 and 1921, corresponding
practically to the first two years of pro-
hibition, though it should be noted that
Boston's returns present a comparison
between the municipal fiscal years ended
March 31, 1921, and March 31, 1922,
and that as the figures for the full calen-
dar year 1920 were not obtainable in
Oakland, Cal., the records of the last
six months of 1920 and the same period
in 1921 have been selected as the exhibit
for that city. The marked falling off in
crime in 1921, in Arkon, Ohio, as com-
pared to 1920, is explained by the great
loss in population which that city suf-
fered, due to collapse in the automobile
tire industry.
The cities represented in the table
are located in all parts of the United
States, and hence a graphic cross-section
view of the whole country is presented.
No returns from such mammoth urban,
centres as New York and Chicago,
which might be expected to make the
exhibit of criminality more striking
and, so to speak, overload the tabula-
tion, are given. One city having more
than 1,000,000 inhabitants, six ranging
from 500,000 to 1,000,000, and nine,
between 200,000 and 500,000, and four-<
teen with less than 200,000 population
each, are included. In these cities,
which may fairly be said to represent
the United States as a whole, we find in
a 'single year that crime of all kinds
(as shown by police arrests) has grown
almost 24 per cent; that drunkenness


and drunkenness coupled with .disor-
derly conduct have grown more than 40
per cent; that theft, homicide, burglary,
fraud and embezzlement, with other
serious crimes, all show notable in-
creases. The futility of prohibition as
a means of preventing men from drink-
ing is shown in the increased arrests of
intoxicated autoists, amounting to more
than 80 per cent., and in the increase
in the arrests for violation of the pro-
hibition laws, amounting to more than
100 per cent. Perhaps, however, the
most sinister item in the tabulation is
that showing the growth of the deadly
drug habit, the arrests indicating a
jump of almost 45 per cent.
The police returns, in this respect,
are not as striking as those coming from
other sources. The Commissioner of
Public Welfare of New York City, for
instance, reports that the cases of drug
addiction treated at the Kings County
Hospital in 1919 were 116, and in 1921
were 961. The alcoholism cases in 1918
were 1,145, and in 1921 were 1,168, in-
dicating that prohibition, which at first
had seemed to reduce this phase of the
drink evil, had become ineffective. The
Federal Prison at Leavenworth, Kan.,
has become overcrowded with liquor
and drug prisoners, the major being of
the latter variety. The net increase in
prisoners since Dec. 21, 1921, is given
as 476 by The Milwaukee Daily Leader.
In the City Hospital at St. Louis, ac-
cording to The St. Louis Post Dispatch,
there were 3,198 alcoholic cases treated
in 1921, an increase of almost 100 per
cent.
Returns are made on police depart-
ment expenditures by twenty-three of
the thirty cities, and of these all but
three report increases. O'f 'the three
cities which reduced police expendi-
tures two reported that such economies
were made necessary, despite crime in-
creases, because they no longer enjoyed
the revenues accruing from license
fees. The net increase in police costs in
1921 over 1920 for the twenty-three
cities reporting was $3,539,065.27.
The increase in police costs represents
but one part, and, perhaps, the smallest
part, of the additional burden upon the
public. As is well known, the prohibition


_ I








CRIME UNDER PROHIBITION IN THIRTY

AMERICAN CITIES


Population Arrests, All Causes
1920 1920 1921
Philadelphia ........... 1,823,779 73,015 83,136
Detroit ............... 995,678 43,309 50,676
Boston ................ 748,060 58,817 72,161
Baltimore ............. 733,826 41,988 54,602
Pittsburg ............. 588,343 36,572 41,820
Buffalo ................ 506,775 24,436 32,377
San Francisco ......... 506,676 26,672 30,106
Milwaukee ............ 457,147 10,545 15,520
Cincinnati ............ 401,247 14,175 21,973
Minneapolis .......... 380,582 10,608 17,874
Portland, Ore. ........ 258,288 18,445 30,856
Denver ............... 256,491 12,947 19,649
Louisville ........... 234,891 7,857 9,601
St. Paul ............... 234,698 5,638 10,077
Oakland, Cal. ......... 216,281 3,706 4,497
Akron, Ohio .......... 208,435 12,558 10,104
Birmingham ........... 178,806 16,786 21,488
Richmond ............. 171,667 12,706 15,532
New Haven ........... 162,537 7,934 8,465
Dallas ................ 158,976 26,058 35,848
Hartford ............. 138,036 8,072 7,395
Patterson ............. 135,875 4,058 3,809
Springfield, Mass. ..... 129,614 3,757 4,574
Des Moines ........... 126,468 4,465 4,982
Trenton .............. 119,289 5,693 5,577
Salt Lake City........ 118,110 7,728 7,505
Albany ............... 113,344 3,216 4,168
Cambridge, Mass ..... 109,694 3,822 4,664
Spokane .............. 104,437 6,478 7,237
Kansas City, Kan. ...... 101,177 4,774 4,129
Total. ........ 10,417,227 516,835 640,402
Total in 30 Cities 1920
Violation of Prohibition Laws ................... 9,375
Drunken Autoists .............................. 1,513
Thefts and Burglary ........................... 24,770
H om icide ...................................... 1,086
Assaults and Battery........................... 21,147
Drug Addictions, etc ........................... 1,897
Police Department Costs ...................... $31,193,639


Drunkenness and
Disorderly Conduct
1920 1921
20,443 27,115
5,989 6,349
22,341 31,794
13,443 20,496
14,373 16,990
8,491 9,650
2,794 6,005
2,400 3,481
2,062 3,106
2,982 6,051
3,654 4,379
1,847 3,163
1,092 2,361
1,902 4,319
1,261 2,191
5,228 3,939
2,886 4,612
1,563 1,953
3,186 3,184
1,219 1,338
4,057 3,207
1,637 1,509
625 920
1,530 1,598
1,550 1,426
883 909
578 900
871 1,423
933 1,311
45 133
131,855 185,808
1921 Increase.
18,976 102.0%
2,743 81.0%
26,888 9.0%
2,124 12.7%
23,977 13.4%
2,745 44.6%
$34,762,196 11.4%


cases are congesting the Federal courts
and the courts of those States which
have seen fit to enact enforcement laws
to a degree heretofore unknown. The
costs involved in the arraignment of
prohibition prisoners, their mainten-
ance when in detention, the costs of
jurors, of trials and of witnesses must
mount up into many millions, though
they cannot be even approximately
stated, as they are seldom segregated
in court accounting. One serious result
of the congestion in the courts has been
the delay in the disposition of other
than prohibition cases. "Justice de-
layed is justice denied," is an old pro-


verb having its striking exemplification
today. Nobody can measure the injury
done to the business world by the situ-
ation prevailing.
The exact number of 'prohibition
cases handled and pending in the courts
of the States is also beyond computa-
tion. The following record for 1921 in
New York City gives an idea of their
great volume:
Arrested. ............................ .5,922
Held for Grand Jury................3,258
Indicted ........................... 454
Pleaded guilty ...................... 94
Convicted ........................... 18
As for Federal court conditions, the
Commissioner of Internal Revenue in








his report for the fiscal year ended June
30, 1921, stated: "At the beginning of
the fiscal year 21,372 prohibition cases
were pending. During the year 98,349
prohibition cases were received, 51,388
cases were closed as to both civil and
criminal liability, leaving 68,333 open
cases in the files June 30, 1921." Thus
the, pending cases at the end of the year
exceeded those pending at the end of
the previous year by 46,961. It was this
condition which caused the demand, led
by the Attorney General, for legislation
authorizing the appointment of a score
of new Federal Judges, so that a heroic
effort might be made to clear the court
calendars.
There is a disposition in some quar-
ters to blame the World War for the
enormous increase in criminality in the
United States, and there in no question
at all that the great conflict had its
aftermath of disorder in every country
engaged. But those countries which
suffered far more than the United
States-countries which lost far more
men, had much more property destroyed
and endured the strain much longer-
have now measurably recovered their
poise, whereas in our own country
crime, instead of subsiding, continues
to increase. Those other countries have
not prohibition; we have.
Let us illustrate with a few figures
from England and Wales. In 1920 the
convictions for drunkenness in the two
countries totaled 95,000 in round num-
bers. The Liquor Control Board cre-
ated on account of the war was still in
charge, and it was predicted that when
the war regulations were relaxed a flood
of drunkenness would result. However,
the regulations were relaxed by statu-
tory enactment in 1921, and the drunk-
enness convictions dropped to 77,789.
In 1920 the proportion of convictions
to inhabitants was 258 per 100,000. In
1921 it was 205 per 100,000. Some de-
tailed figures may prove: interesting:
Convictions for
Drunkenness.
19201 1921.
Birmingham 2,125 1,743
Liverpool ............... 8,506 6,386
Yorkshire ............... 10,269 7,698
London .................29,956 27,420


Before dismissing the general subject
of crime, I invite attention to the fol-
lowing from the report of the Secretary
of State of New York:
Crime convictions in Courts of Special
Sessions and Courts of Record totaled 55,-
516 in 1921, as compared with 40,691 in
1920.
Convictions for intoxication in Courts of
Special Sessions in 1921 totaled 10,291, as
compared with 5,287 in 1920.
Unfortunately, I have been unable to
get statistics of this character from
other States. I have no doubt, how-
ever, judging from the police returns in
hand, that New York's experience is
not unique among the States composing
the Federal Union.
Loss OF REVENUE
The loss in public revenues due to
prohibition mounts up into the hun-
dreds of millions. Before the advent
of prohibition many States and cities,
the latter, especially, collected license
fees from sellers of drink. These were
ordinarily estimated at $100,000,000
annually, but perhaps $75,000,000 would
be nearer the mark in recent years, due
to adoption of prohibition by a number
of States. The Federal revenue de-
rived from liquors in the fiscal year
ended June 30, 1919, was $483,000,000.
In this year, moreover, there were still
numerous restrictions on the sale of
drink growing out of the war. So it
may be safely concluded that each year
of prohibition has caused a loss in pub-
lic revenue of approximately $560,000,-
000 or a total of $1,120,000,000 for the
two-year period.
This loss must, of course, be made up
by the taxpayer in some other way, and
it assumes an especially vexatious as-
pect when he reads the prediction of
the Secretary of the Treasury of a de-
ficit of perhaps $450,000,000 in the next
fiscal year, without calculating such
contingencies as, for instance, the pro-
posed bonus.. It is this situation that
has recently added such strength to the
movement to restore non-intoxicating
beer and wines to a legal status, as may
be done with perfect propriety under
the Eighteenth Amendment.
In the fiscal year ended June 30,
1914, the production of beer in the
United States reached over 66,000,000








barrels-its highest mark. It is esti-
mated that, what with the growth in
population and the removal of the com-
petition of spirits, beer sales would
shortly reach 100,000,000 barrels year-
ly. This amount at the former rate of
tax would yield $600,000,000 to the
Federal Treasury. The output of wine,
it is generally believed, would soon
reach 100,000,000 gallons, which at 40
cents a gallon tax, as proposed, would
yield a revenue of $50,000,000. To this
might be added $40,000,000 which
States and cities would collect in the
form of license fees from dealers, and
a total public revenue of $690,000,000
annually is indicated. This estimate
does not take into account such factors
as increased income taxes, customs
duties, increased property taxes and the
like, which might add $25,000,000 more
to the public revenues.
CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOL,
The question naturally arises: To
what extent, if at all, has the consump-
tion of alcohol in beverage form been re-
duced by prohibition in the United
States? Here the statistician must pro-
ceed cautiously. It is known that great
quantities of potent spirits have been
smuggled into the country from Can-
ada, Mexico, the West Indies, and
through all seaports, and that the flood
continues in apparently undiminished
volume; but any attempt at measure-
ment would be futile. It is known, also,
that "moonshine," that is the making
of illicit spirits, has grown to huge pro-
portions and that it has spread from its
original domicile in the Southern high-
lands to the farm in the broad prairie
and the tenement house in the great
city, and, indeed, to every part of the
country. Here again the quantities
produced and consumed are beyond the
wildest conjecture. We have the report
*of the Commissioner of Internal Reve-
nue to show that 95,933 distilling ap-
pliances were seized in the last fiscal
year ended June 30, 1921, but as to how
much liquor was made and disposed of
before these seizures and how many
hundreds of thousands of stills escaped
seizure and what their output was and
is, there is and can be no hint. We get


a little light on 'the subject of private
beer-making when we learn that some
50,000 bales of hops are cut up into
small packages in a year, indicating a
production by the home-brewer of
10,000,000 barrels which figure is veri-
fied to some degree by the sale of malt
and malt compounds in small amounts.
And there are official documents. avail-
able which shed a good deal of light
upon the production and consumption
of 'wine under the present conditions.
A report -by the California State
Board of Agriculture, published in
August, 1921; is devoted to the viticul-
ture industry. It shows that in 1920
the growers sold 375,000 tons of their
grapes at prices which at times reached
over $200 a ton and averaged $95 a ton,
the latter figure being about. 400 per
cent above the normal. These grapes
would make ordinarily over 50,000,000
gallons of wine. The rail shipments of
grapes from California were 26,738 cars,
and from other States 11,938 ears, the
latter indicating 20,000,000. to. 25,000,-
000 gallons of wine. In addition there
were imported into the United States,
in 1920, 230,202 tons of raisins, or ten
times as many as were imported in all
the four previous years, and 27,916 tons
of currants, as many tons as were im-
ported in all the four previous years.
Raisins and currants, nobody needs tell-
ing, are largely used by wine-makers.
Taking also into account the fact that
millions of persons who had fruits and
berries of their own, or could readily
get them, have been making wine or
cider at home on an unexampled scale,
an estimate of 100,000,000 gallons con-
sumed in a year seems to be conserva-
tive. The boom in wine grapes has been
one of the remarkable developments un-
der prohibition, and is responsible for
the planting of new vineyards in Cali-
fornia alone to the extent of 85,000
Acres (estimated) in the single year of
1920.
It is important to note that the home-
brewed beer and the home-made wine
are much stronger as a rule than the
commercial article. In the case of beer
the home-brewer has no way of check-
ing a full fermentation, which results
-in an alcoholic, content of 6 to 8 per









cent., as against 3 to 4 for the commer-
cial article. In the case of wine the
home-made article is almost invariably
treated with sugar or some other ele-
ment which develops much more alco-
hol in the fermentative process.

PROPERTY DESTROYED
Prohibition destroyed almost wholly
industries representing a capitalization
of more than $1,250,000,000. The mag-
nitude of these industries may be rea-
lized by inspecting the subjoined tables,
compiled from the United States census
of manufacturers in 1914:


Distilling .
Brewing.
Vinous liquors..
Malting .


No. of
Plants. Capitalization.
434 $91,285,000
1,250 792,914,000
318 31,516,000
97 46,767,000
2,099 $962,482,000


Persons
Engaged.
8,322
75,434
3,188
2.J48
89,492


Annual Paid for Value
Wages. Materials. of Products.
Distilling .... $3,994,000 $40,997,000 $206,779,000
Brewing 53,244,000 129,724,000 442,149,000
Vinous liquors.. 1,194,000 9,489,000 16,618,000
Malting .......1,828,000 39,199,000 48,133,000
$60,260,000 $219,409,000 $713,679,000
Besides these there were the whole-
sale and retail handlers of the products.
Almost all of this has gone. There are
breweries making cereal beverages and
other soft drinks, but the extent of this
business can be guessed when it is stated
that the number of employes does not
equal 10 per cent. of the personnel in
pre-prohibition days. The wineries are
likewise running with largely reduced
forces, though they are still permitted
to sell for medicinal and sacramental
purposes. Legal distilling is also at a
minimum.
The revival of brewing and wine-
making might be expected to result in
the direct employment of some 75,000
wage earners, with pay of $75,000,000 a
year, for wages are still at a higher fig-
ure than in 1914; in expenditures for
materials, fuel, machinery and supplies
of perhaps $250,000,000, and in the in-
direct employment of many thousands
of workers in transportation and the
supplying industries and the distribut-
ing trades. The effect on agriculture
would be marked, for brewing barley
would be restored to its place as a pre-


mium grain and from 80,000,000 to
100,000,000 bushels purchased annually
at high prices for malting purposes. As
it is, the barley crop has served to de-
press the whole grain market. Similar-
ly, American hops, which have been shut
out of European markets by tariffs and
other discriminating regulations, would
be in demand at good prices.
The experience of Sweden and Nor-
way, with laws discriminating in favor
of the lighter and against the heavier
alcoholic beverages, and, more latterly,
the experience of Quebec and British
Columbia, indicate what may be ex-
pected in the United States if beer and
light wines are admitted again to legal
status. Quebec's experiment possesses
particular interest to us. Public intox-
ication and crime in general have been
largely reduced; the provincial rev-
enues have been augmented by some
$4,000,000 for the first year, and this
sum is being used to build good roads,
to support schools and to extinguish the
public debt, which feat, it is estimated,
will be accomplished in twenty years.
The saloon is absolutely abolished, and
the bootleggers, who before were abund-
ant, have disappeared.
Commercial and industrial depression
reached the lowest levels in the history
of the country in the second year of na-
tional prohibition. The United States
Secretary of Labor submitted figures to
a Congressional committee during the
year showing that 6,000,000 workers
were out of employment. The reform
in our banking system is generally cred-
ited with having prevented a total col-
lapse of the commercial structure dur-
ing 1921, yet at the same time the busi-
ness failures of the year were the larg-
est ever known in point of liabilities,
which aggregated $627,401,883, or 75
per cent, greater than in 1914, the next
largest year. The improvement in con-
ditions in recent months, while grati-
fying, has not been powerful enough to
affect all kinds of business or all sec-
tions of the country.

UNDERMINING LAW AND ORDER
It will be admitted, I believe, that the
greatest injuries inflicted by national









prohibition are not capable of statistical
demonstration. The Eighteenth Amend-
ment opened a great breach in the con-
stitutional structure, shocking to those
who admired its logical symmetry, and
highly dangerous in its invitation to
further innovation. Giving full force
to the plea that the amendment was
adopted in strict accordance with cus-
tom and precedent, the fact remains
that the people had no opportunity of
directly expressing their sentiments re-
garding it, as would have been the case
had it been submitted to conventions in-
stead of Legislatures; hence the faith
of the people in representative institu-
tions is greatly weakened. The Vol-
stead act and the supplements thereto
are so contrary to American traditions
and practices as to arouse widespread
opposition. The workers rightfully re-
gard such enactments as being practi-
cally class legislation, and their feeling
of deep resentment is pardonable; all
classes of citizens are united in their de-
testation of legislation based on false-
hood and violative of the most cherished
rights and privileges, and disrespect for
all law is thereby fostered. In such
conditions the professional law violator
is likely to be tolerated and encouraged
and the smuggler, the bootlegger, the
moonshiner and the grafting official
achieve wealth quickly and easily.
These and the professional prohibition-
ist are the only persons in the commun-
ity who prosper in the present situation.
Again we have the spectacle of sworn
officers of the law deliberately violating
the most sacred parts of the Constitu-
tion in an effort to enforce prohibition.
Every time a vehicle is halted on the
road and a person's suitcase or clothing
is searched: every time private premises
are invaded without a search warrant,
the Bill of Rights, without the promise
of which the Constitution could not have
been adopted, is violated flagrantly. It
is confessed by the prohibitionists in
Congress that the Volstead act cannot
be enforced if the provisions against
search and seizure in the Fourth
Amendment are observed, and they have
voted down propositions to punish of-
ficers who violate the Bill of Rights.
The press teems with such instances of


official tyranny and law-breaking, but,
unfortunately, this species of crime can-
not be presented statistically.
The youth of the land, the only hope
of the future, is subjected to the most
potently demoralizing influences. Never
before in the history of our country has
it been found necessary to forego the
school dance, the community social, even
the church entertainment, because of
the fear-based on experience-that
boys Thd girls would disgrace the gath-
ering by getting drunk.


fnitf b tatet mines


S. S. "PENINSULA STATE"

'Wline Eist


CLARETS & BURGUNDIES. per bottle
Barsac ................................ $2.00
Haute Sauternes ..........................3.00
Moulin au Vent ........................... 2.50
Pommard .......... ................... .. 2.75
St. Emilion ............................. 2.00
Pontet Canet ............................ 1.50
CHAMPAGNES.
Gordon Rouge, 1911. Ots., ............... .$7.00
Pts., .............. .. 3.75
Moet & Chandon, Imp. Qts.,. ............... 7.00
SPts., ..............3.75
Mercier, Qts.,............................ 5.00
Heidsick, Qts .................... ........ 6.00
P ts., ............................ 3.25
VERMOUTH, PORT & SHERRY. per glass
Vermouth. Italian ......................... .20
Vermouth, French .................. ..... 25
Port W ine, Old ........................... .25
Sherry .................................... .25
SPIRITS
Whisky, Black & White, Johnny Walker,...
SHaig & Haig, Jameson ................ .25
Whisky, American Rye .................. .30
London Dry Gin ..................... .. .25
Bonehamp ................................. .25
Steinhager ................. .... ... ... .25
Jamaica Rum ............................. .25
Cognac, (Martell Three Star).....per pony .30
LIQUEURS per pony
Chartreuse, Green ......................... .30
Chartreuse, Yellow ........ .............30
Creme de Menthe, White ................... .30
Creme de Menthe, Green ................... 30
Benedictine ............................... .30
BEERS, MINERAL WATERS, Etc., per bottle
D. Resslers Extra Light ..... .......... 40
D. Resslers Extra Light (Small) ............ .25
Bass Ale, Pts., ........................... .25
Stout, Guinness ........................... 25
French Vichy ............................. .60
Sarsparilla, Lemon, Ginger Ale. ........... ..25
Appolinaris, Pts .. ......................... .35
Club Soda, Splits ...................... 15
Red Raven, Pluto Water .................. .25
Facsimile of Wine List Now in Use on Passenger
Vessels Sailing Under the American Flag.


x-- 1--- ---








Finally, thevreal reason for t he coun-r
try-wide infractions of the Volstead act
is that it has not the respect of the
American pe'opl, because it is a lie made
into a law, and if there is one nation
in the world that resents such an insult
to intelligence, it is this nation of ours.
If every State, instead of some of
them, had statutes to the effect that one-
half of 1 per cent. of alcohol was intox-
icating, it would not make it an:- more
true than if the same number of States
were to say in their legislation that
sweet milk is intoxicating. One-half of
1 per cent, of alcohol is legally intoxi-
cating, but it is a lie just the same. The
law should be observed, but I maintain
it is entitled to no respect.
As a final and conclusive proof o' the
definition of "intoxicating," I quote
from the decision of the United States
Supreme Court, Jan. 5, 1920, in the
case of Ruppert vs. Caffey (No. 603,
October Term, 1919): "The Govern-
ment freely admits, since the present
case stands upon motion to dismiss a
bill which plainly alleges that the beer


in question is non-intoxicating, we must
accept that allegation as true and be-
yond controversy." This referred to
litigation in which the 2.75 standard
played a part, the Government admit-
ting that a beverage containing no more
than that percentage of alcohol could
not be intoxicating.
The United States Government, on
the ships of the United States Lines,
openly sells wines, spirits, liqueurs,
beer and ales to those who are fortunate
enough to have the time and money to
travel to Europe, whereas the millions
who are obliged to stay at home are at
the mercy of spies and informers, and
are subject to searches, when on the
public highways, without a search war-
rant, and all sorts of penalties are im-
posed should they be unfortunate
enough to have in their possession
liquids containing over one-half of I
per cent. of alcohol. [See fac-similes on
preceding page.] The people at large
are gradually becoming acquainted with
this state of affairs, and when the facts
ing that may react seriously on the Gov-
ernment itself.

/


I~- bl I I ill


I -- .- ----- -










QUESTIONNAIRE ON ALCOHOL

AS A THERAPEUTIC AGENT


Various statements have been made as to the views of the
medical profession on the therapeutic value of alcohol, whether
whiskey, beer or wine. The profession is quoted both as being in
favor of and opposed to its use. So far as we know, no attempt
has been made to ascertain the opinions of any considerable num-
ber of physicians on this question. In order to secure the views
of a representative cross-section of the medical profession, a ref-
erendum is being taken this week. The questionnaire has been
carefully prepared, so that each physician can express his opinion
on the important points in connection with the whole proposi-
tion. It is sent to forty thousand physicians-every other name
on our mailing list. This list includes Fellows of the Associa-
tion, members of the organization, and non-members. In addi-
tion it is sent to ten thousand physicians who are neither mem-
bers of the organization nor subscribers to The Journal, selected
in a similar manner from the A. M. A. Directory. These lists
cover the whole country. A study of the questions will show
that they are not leading and cannot influence in any way the
opinion of the physician who replies. This referendum is of the
utmost importance, and it is sincerely hoped that every physician
who receives the questionnaire will immediately give it his care-
ful consideration. It is the duty of every physician who receives
this questionnaire to express his opinion.



QUESTIONNAIRE ON ALCOHOL AS A THERAPEUTIC AGENT

(Write answers only on this page. If you desire to comment, use re-
verse side.)
1. In what line of practice are you engaged? General practice?........
Specialty? .................................. (State Specialty.)
2. (a) Do you regard whisky as a necessary therapeutic agent in the
practice of medicine? Yes ( ) No ( )
(By "whisky" is meant distilled liquors, whether whisky, brandy,
gin, or rum.)
(b) If "yes", in what diseases or conditions do you regard whisky as
necessary?


I









3. (a) Do you regard beer as a necessary therapeutic agent in the prac-
tice of medicine? Yes ( ) No ( )
(By "beer" is meant beer with the same alcoholic content as pre-
vailed before prohibition went into effect, also ale, stout, porter,
etc.)
(b) If "yes", in what diseases or conditions do you regard beer as
necessary?
4. (a) Do you regard wine as a necessary therapeutic agent in the prac-
tice of medicine? Yes ( ) No ( )
(b) If "yes", in what diseases or conditions do you regard wine as
necessary?
5. (a) Have instances occurred in your own practice in which unneces-
sary suffering or death has resulted from the enforcement of pro-
hibition laws? Yes ( ) No ( )
(b) If "yes", how many such cases have you known in the last year?


6. How many times have you found it advisable to prescribe these
liquors in a month?
W hisky............... Beer................ W ine...............
7. Is the prescribing of alcoholic liquors forbidden by your state law?
Yes ( ) No ( )
If "No", do you hold a federal permit? Yes ( ) No ( )
8. (a) The present regulations limit the number of prescriptions to 100
in three months. In your opinion, should there be any limit to
the number of prescriptions for alcoholic liquors a physician may
write? Yes ( ) No ( )
(b) If "yes", what should the limit be? ............................
9. (a) In your opinion, should physicians be restricted in prescribing
whisky, beer and wine? Yes ( ) No ( )
(b) If "yes", what restrictions should be made?...................

........................................ .. M D .


(Postoffice Address) (State)
Please sign your reply, not for publication, but in order that we may
know that it was filled out by a qualified physician. If you do not care
to answer the questions, kindly return this questionnaire, with or without
your signature. Return to American Medical Association, 535 N. Dear-
born St., Chicago, Ill.
Stamped return envelope enclosed.


December 8th, 1921.
Journal of the American Medical Association,
To the Editor:
Dear Doctor: Within two weeks I sent to you a copy of an
article which I had published in the New York World. I really
wanted you to print the same in your Journal which I have taken
many years. It was requested for the purpose of drawing out








the profession which your questionnaire of December supplies.
I do not know if this was a reply or acquiescence to it. At any
rate, I am greatly pleased over your method of getting the senti-
ments of the profession.
I am of the belief that the law is most objectionable. I have
not sent out my article to Congress as yet, but 75 of the others
were sent to Senators and Congressmen some time ago.
1. I was a surgeon from 1872 to 1905 (most of the time con-
nected with two hospitals.) (See "Who's Who in Amer-
ica.") Surgeon-General, State of New York, 1895-6-7-8.
2. Whiskey in the crisis of diseases; old age, as a stimulant,
preferable to medicine, most of which are really poison-
ous to be used in a temporary manner. It is a good
antiseptic curative in many germ disorders. It is the
only stimulant in extreme exhaustion incident to many
conditions, having greater sustaining qualities, and last-
ing longer. Pneumonia, typhoid fever, septicemia,
hemorrhages, and the like for example.
3. Beer is an excellent stomatic, nourishing, as its source
indicates. The position of Congress has been ridiculous,
and the prohibition lobbyists unreasonable as they are
fighting to dispense with beer for the use of mankind
thinking it is what the physicians need when it is not.
The surgeon needs whiskey to save humanity, and every
lobbyist should stop counting noses and get some sense
in his head for this fight may cost the lives of some of
them if it goes wrong.
Beer is good in many cases in convalescence. It is a
quieting tonic for home life as foreign nations will aver.
Its withdrawal has caused the tired brains of the hard-
worked laborer to go into a frenzy and to become a
criminal, and others to become brigands. The human
race wants an innocent, quieting product such as comes
from the grain, malt, hops and other products of the
farm.
It does not want morphine, or opium in any form, cocaine
and the like which have been landed into this country as
a result of the prohibition enforcement in an hundred
fold increase in quantity. The continued withdrawal of
these stimulants which includes all will make the states
increase their capacity. for the insane and the criminal
insane.
4. What has been said of beer can be said of wine. Some can
take the latter and not the former for the same ends in
view. Wine is one of the most delightful products of
our vineyards. It is a most innocent, quieting and


III


- I








nourishing drink, handed down from time immemorial.
None but the insane would demand its exclusion from
our resources of vineyard farm land. Therefore wine is
a tonic, and has its place in convalescence from all forms
of disease.
5. I am out of practice now but since I came to Washing-
ton I have been told of incidents by distinguished men
in high life even within our c'.n.2 ':--i:nal door where
life has been saved. I certainly would violate any law
as ridiculous as the prohibition law if human life were
at stake.
If my experience is of any value, and if I understand medi-
cine and surgery, then beyond question the lack of stim-
ulants in critical cases will, as I have said in my writ-
ings, cost thousands of lives in this country each year.
The times a physician would need to prescribe stimulants
per month would depend upon the character of his prac-
tice and the size of it. Among the poor and destitute,
where stimulants can scarcely be procured, owing to our
lobbyists' lack of humane comprehension of the neces-
sity for it, the fatalities will be greater than among the
rich with their hidden chests of wisdom.
7. New York appears to be for prohibition. I have found
that most physicians have not permits owing to the
annoyance in procuring them. I tried five physicians in
Sacramento, California, and failed refusing a bootlegger.
I was greatly exhausted from months of laryngitis. I
only wished it were a prohibitionist who needed it as
badly as Dives in hell for a drop of cold water.
I have no permit for obtaining alcohol.
8. There should be no limit to the number of prescriptions
neither should there be an requirements for the phy-
sician to prescribe in his humane work. The only re-
strictions for a physician should be his respectability
and medical qualifications.
GEN. M. O. TERRY,
Cor. Avenue A and 7th Street,
Coronado, California.












....













?,,. ..

.iT~ "1'
:" .



a:
ii
;;'t;i~ :.
i IF
S :~





si-
~' .I
~: :;:
..r-
k:,


*11


lo one likes to receive an unsigned communication, and I

dislike to send one-"- but this one is the TRUTH; an& can be

.acted dn accordingly,

Until recently the writer was a member ( but under a different.

name } of the Guardians of Liberty; joined It an anti Catholic

order be.eaauae I was anti Catholio. Bit re eants.y ..a 1 :4%

O ipelled I.Toim the orQor bedausea I1 woud..j0ot be p .8,b; r

'-zts Grunthal fbor Uonoltnan at .arge. nthae rIe. 1 0not OIY

.4 s. ahcito.t- it t polLtical grt, ..t am NQ ti- atholi .

WW ine:. I aee their 'game; and CATCle OtC-W S E TO IN THE WAR


Oaatt sign my name to thi4 as I know mens whom the .UABRDIAiS have.

ruined in this town; but here is the Up-tod)te DOPE: r

Head Guardian: E.B.Casler. -Looal Seareta r; E.W.Wayibright


. dominating 0nmmitteg( To dominate Candidates-); DM.SGorrto;

O.H.Nolan; A.D.Moieill; JM..peeier; W.W.Anderson.

Candidates Nominated ":

For US.Senate, Sidney J. Catta; Congreap, Jno. WMartin;

Governor, Van C. Swearengen; Attorney General, Amos Lewis;

State- Attorney, A.DMNeillNw. ( If Moe will not run, then

Edgar WN Waybright.

Liitoof Candidates is to be Gompleted Monday night, June O0th, but

I cannot get the list ae I have been expelled for DISLOTALTY"-

for not voting for a Whikey 'DealIr, and lam a ME~HODIS' and a

PROHIBITIONIST.awi some disloyalty for NOT' voting for Rudy.


'


i5


S..... ......... "
.%, -. 2.. .o





..' ., . ._ .. 2 & I. "-_; ,:. :,-.





'.Vf i-
-qr :.4 4.Z.-:
I"'' I I : : : H : H i I




; ....1 5 .'
l l, ,46 4
l:, .,l:. ... .' ,' : :.. .1::~ : :...-..'i,. i~ i .

'--
S-- 'N~~~~h~. 4I 'a, .


7 .
NV

(


rZs-


,
b:r
-u
'




2


JU N 29 .
6 Q
U"J++ 2. .


Mr. W. S. Jennings,

Dyal-Upchurch Bldg.,

City.






EXCERPT.


PROM MCCALLS MAGAZINE FOR OCTOWER, 19222 -a

WE CATN SAVE OUR D UiJTRY AMI HONOR OUR FALLEN TIRTCF S BY CAUSING OUR GOVERNMENT

TO SAVE ALERICA'S VANISHING FORESTS V WITHOUT \'.MIQ~ TLE NATION DOES, DECLARES

FAMOUS !"RITER. BY ROBERT W. CHAMBERS.


A treeless nation is a decadent nation,

'hen the forects of a country arc ri-elected the mnt.tl and moral

health of the .nhabitants begins to decline.

Nations made treeless by the hand of -an. are dying nations. Nations

which once were great and which no longer count are itose the forests of

which have been ruthlessly exterminated,
No matter what political cataclysm has overtaken aid submerged peoples

whose governments fosteriand care for forests, their potency remains, their
vigor still endures, their racial resurrection is certain.
Take a map of the world and look upon the poples who gradually are

perishing. Those doom-.1 lands a-re treeless. They *pe nations vhich, once

mighty, have become negligible.

Neither i inrldustry, nor 'L science, nor in art do they now contri-

bute anything vitally constructive or creative. In the councils of vorld

races a- save for a feeble, peevish and purely selfish cry they do not

utter any sound. Theirs is tlhe drowsy dream of glories past. Theirs is the

sunset golden still that edges night, and the false, reflected light

of night, auz- the unstirred silence of racial annihilation.

Once there were trees in Spain. Once China grew vast forests.

So scepters pass. * * *

Three hundred years ago the forests and the fertility-of America

was supposed'"to be ina7haustible.

Today vast tracts of once fertile soil are exhausted and can be

bought for almost npthing. And three-fifths of the original timber of the

UnitedStates has disappeared.

Today ve are using lumber four times as rapidly as we are grow3Sg

it. Once the uncut forests of our country covered 822,000,000 acres. One-

sixth remains. All woodlands, even including cot-over and burned areas,

amount to abbut half the original virgin area.










Of idle, fallow, unused and stupidly neglected land
suitable only for forest growth and omce bearing trees,
81,000,000 acres have beei so ruthlessly cut or burned
that it has become a wretched, useless, unproductive waste.

Three-quarters of the forests of New England are exterminated.

In a few years New England will import what lumber it requires.

New York, today, produces less than one-tenth of the lumber it

requires.

Pennsylvania is now obliged to import eighty per cent.of the lumber

it uses.

The white pine of Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, is nearly gone; t he

yellow pine is three-fourths gone from the south; in the middle states the

timber is practically exhausted; twenty years will end both the hard-wood

forests of the Appalachian region, and those of the Mississippi.

In twenty years the cypress too, is doomed to vanish.

What remains? The Pacific Coast timber. And in thirty years that,

too, will disappear.

When the forests gothe waters go, the fish and game go, herds and

flocks go, fertility departs. Then the age-old phamtoms appear, stealthily

one after another Flood, Drouth, Fire, Famine, Pestilence, * * **

Now, then, here is the problem and the necessity:

We pught to grow sufficient timber in this vast land of ours for our

own needs.

We ought to grow enough for profitable export.

We pught to grown enough permanently to protect our springs, water-

courses, rivers, our water power, our navigable streams, the fertility

our fields, the welfare of our herds and crops.

We pught to grow enough to protect the health of our pIWpl

. VWi oMgMt to grow enough to protect our birds; for, without them, our

crops ultimately would be destroyed.

We ufht to grow enough to give shelter and expansion to our game

birds and animals, too ur fur-bearing animals, to our fish.
* *





-, ._ 1 .




Mr, Poeesdent, St p ~ia es oef the tbtett States, Ladies ad
heatleNss
QO"SMlISaa t

As a prefa. to my matn reSan I viah to pay
tribtse to the eastre member ip of the DBral Soeaty Federatiot
of Woeses fOlubs fr bringnl aboet this eoacste, it hsnew of
a gret stm er teoamr Goveomr o sble Wlliam sheroman
IJesamig. I wish also to eopliamet th offioeern perameul,
atim han at woatmea of this ilwpard Ia their intitspeasable
wnit is balldlag this, and ther aIpe.
GovernTor Jars~ei ax s a ative sea o thf A State of
11 ilse,. 8e oeam to nlaria tft 1d a ig aa y ma, 22 year of
s*C sad beenm a mitlts of Zernanda & Yurr a, ue he eMaaed
la ei praoetie of saw. *B great tarenis abd ablity aso
gaiSted bi m] a tsed si gait ia. Whs oaly 25 year of age he
bae em QOaty Jadge at his Osamnty. e served Is that offit
wtlh ate distiaotilo that his people promoted his to tho State
Legifaature nM be as svOly 29 yeas et age. n thWs offlee hia
aeriees were s outsta ndIs that he waR eva.n arneagtly releste,
aLA te~ 32 years of aeg wass aw ardd the keer aOt bein made
Speaker of tJe leaHse es Bapsesrntative, wb be was 33 years of
ae b* lea the preOamsrastd e tlortal ticket of the State of
Pnlos4, M~os four vote feor P 4AB~at wore east for Boa. WilltaM
Junisag Bryan, aa snata of GeIBeaBr Jmalags. Aad, fianUly, La
13W1, a% the age of 37 yprs, he people oft nlfei a elote hi
to tIhe highest offtle at their aipnlX that at Owreeme aSt
by fte htIsbet vote ve easot ia tis State. Xe has the
titnietioa of belag the 1yoweet ms wow owasett von"ue of
noewt".


___ I L


'I m







.a.


BDurag his adatiBtsration. ad atadew his eOcoada-
S mtes% dMtrnties Va snrsiae the tel letag are mely a
ftw of the resakua'Le tiage ahoOgMishehA
State taxes wore esdas to the loXwet .poat ever
attained tate lastit atie wee laproeveaA a evenemaoam
epqeae system~ tise4l; e meea imIal sy stem ofa parteds aS
paval Ws 1xas itafet.
te was the Strst GoanTme to atdoase Statl f~esTatr
pnro etei sn easoMvatlaa florfs Xa lataun war olsa was
elleetate amo thai a Uifte amre of laat $a the Sweglades
ltavlvad ft exta boeas aope lat gneat to te nsUaisaa ws
3mettd "at xtamad to the Sftat**
ear natuies FtArida posaaesse treasa"es, nssurvei
eat psstMtltie. Sa t"ohe Nrvguade, ih were ainesM n sa
ireewgiset smat ha ba e. smirnty a& mashaSe.t wilA sax ofu
a ost. Sove mo a l Page was the first S vierr to esogaie
this teasauro and resal. its peesibilfties. ta his masse to
the Ieitlatre. IH 1O 90h e xrsmwented atd borAte< the afatlnaag
aad reslamatia at thia vast area. *ktu hiM wNme"taift
mse sUt ae ppM by. the &aglslatwure yet its w8is4l n as
eoSgatset. New ta he ar has bets largsoy e0elaNa a4 LAo
bastifg tnlem te atugar JBo t et the beralA mt the
Vesta anre~~ s qr toe fatie. e an a Uoses ats is thae
peoupe &a rneida en af the &t delhaX of tAi srgin$ es
PenSs t l eis l natural sat I s tigl tsat I as saa t
rengataA las thi father theaof Bea4aB AnahEtear at
eme9 am1afLteMR


I L






-3-

a nug tahe late years ef his ltf*w eveamer ansuagl
ttat wea teas u&th hti oxteaive las poWtIo ae at with the
ana g 6elt f his vast popa~rtebra Tet be fowa ULs to solre
aertvely as a Tru et of Iater ga Uaveatty at betds hea heo
ma a efmna iattmase for Crflatia 3teatiea.
its vsalutd getatvrImtas to he pgReas a ma fare
of tbh. tate of Isrnes ae reeOale by the WaTatlte Stataes
Sulg Qotpeaotifa by Ito gtvri a $1,000.00 abe~larnhip e
year at the taivet fty tt flnoda t. the Same an ia ber of
Boven:er Jeanmus.
'The ltL of ~ievot o Jlunags' services u attaestSO
to by the ft t tat su proseBt ovemarsr, smoOaeOO aposaast S .
~lUxa sa3t Ren. bollat. that IbnltsRna l.a oa W~ Mania, our
Ceverort from 1925 to 1929# lat al2a X*aftls that Bearable
Seti X, att -, sx ett emoy aor fto 1929 to I93 and Mrsa
CBate at e state iadid Umo1tss Sbx wa:e ta e 1935 to
21937 that aoftnable Pxrt PV. 00o, tar ovweanr tam 1937 to X9L ,
ea tIr. Aea, Xrs bUseat het aat this easia wit t ahei
p,.a.aO tsayr
Xt i t^herefxoe ant fitting sad appepriate that
the tamesat w seanow talnuth baa ben Csome as the ame this
a&Ip winl oar, It evioa .es tU trks that the goad deaS at
wa live e. tfenven, a4d*& this werited noisttel to a
tflb oe sal bhm~ to Mi0 a sam w that by far the greater hato
it bestowed 1~i thIs v0 na for th e atitantUm Otf aanTyg Sthat
gnat ma iMa. Its bow,
It has bem atA that the JpirS f at a grat mrn
to Ipaedt esea to ma iasmate et eJreat # by hiss a wmear
mhs aMe. I aeloietLy t iast that thiS "Dp fl o t s as Bmptl e


I I -M


I


.-





e -' .- .
r4..


to this mwale for It w1l really bhve to be a tady Inpw
jaip te be setit1d to brea ls am*e. AtA =m% geod ahp
W. 8. Jammage, upf pea belag ltwMhed B aq ylr course, t$
st thye t wat raMa s(pio e WdLt Mat prayer eof 42 of %a that yes
as a sakp fllU water surine a.t the same steada rt es U.elme
It yea egnbw as wn readed b Bo e ewm Jmta&mg ua a mna.
~a~jY~r~ mim3M gl~~lj1);FBL~Q~ES-rnE jRl~r~ibSPII~~SE F~SiIBO


C
W


/ C.
(^ ..L-' ^ i<- ^ ,
L" -"" '







/ ... -*



Mr. President, Shipbuilders of the United States, Ladies and Oentlemase

It is with a deep sense of veneration that I approach the part

allotted to me on this eoasion, which is a memorial and a tribute to a

great man our former Governor Hon. William Sherman Jenninge. As a

young lawyer I had the rase privilege of practicing in his office for

a number of years and, as a result, the benefit of sitting at the feet

of and asseeiating with a real master. As a student at Stetson University

I had the pleasure of attending college and graduating from the saas law

class with his only son, Bryan Jennings. During all of these year it

was my good fortune to know and be associated with his wife, companioa,

an able and outstanding helpmate, rae May an Jenings, who, attended

by her granddaughters, will sponsor and christen this ship today. Anyone

in my position which enabled m to realize and appreciate the greatnsse

and nobility of Governor Jennigs could not fill ay role here without a

aust and deep sense of veneration.

As a preface to my main rearks, I wish to pay tribute to the

entire membership of the Duval County Federation of Women's Clubs for

bringing about this occasion, It was they who conceived the plan of
honoring the name of Governor Jennings in this manner, and they success-

fully accomplished their purpose in their usual and efficient manner*

I wish also to compliment the officers, personnel, artisans and workmen

of this shipyard in their indispensable work in building. this, and other

ships. They have all made and earned an enviable record, of which they

may be justly proud, in doing their full part to help win the war.

The ma we honer, or rather who honors us, today, was a native se

of the State of Illinois. He cane to Florida in 1886 a young man 22 years

of age and became a citisen of Hernando County, where he engaged in the

practice of law. His great talents and ability seen gained hi nerited


M MI








*A[>


recognition. He beease an honor te his adopted State and in turn his

adapted State honored him in recognition of hie ability, services and high

purposes. When only 25 years of age he beeame County Judge of his CouBty,

Re served in that. office with sueh distinction that his people promoted hiM

to the State Legislature when he was only 29 years of age. In this afioe

hi services were so outtanding that he rwa overwhelmangly reflected, and

hen 32 years of age was awarded the honer of being made Speaker of the

oKuse of Repreenztatives. When he was f years of age he led the presidential

electoral ticket of the State of Florja, who e feur votes for President were

east for Hon. Wlliam Jenoings Bryan, a cousin of Governor Jennings. And,

finally, at the age of 37 year, the people of Florida elected hia to the

highest office at their dripoeal that of Govraer and by the highest

vote ever cast in this State. He has the distinction of being the youngest

man ever elected Governor of Florida. He served hi fallN tern of office

beginning in January 1901.

As Governor, his opportunity for service was greatly enlarged and it

was daring his tenure in this offices that hia NAl stature as a nan, him

extraordinary ability, his power to accomplish things, his high purposes,

and his love and devotion to public service and good were exhibited to

the fullest extent.


Daring his ada'aistration and under his reoommndatiens, directions

and supervision, the following are only a few of the remarkable things

aseemplishedA

1. State taxes were redneed to the lowest point ever attained.

2. State institUtiens were improved and geramental expenses

3syteatinsed.
3. Two extensions anad a deae were added to the Capitol building.

















4, The Justices of the Supreme Court were inereaed from three

to six members so that the greatly increased business of the Court eeuld

be disposed of promptly.

5. The conditional syestn of pardons and parole was instituted and

the expenses of maintaining State prisoners was greatly reduced.

6. He secured the publication of the volume entitled "Soldiers of

Florida" covering the Civil and other ware.

7. He sansed the minutes of the Internal Improvement Trcstees to

be published in book form so that they would be available to the people

of Florida.

86 He was the first Governor to advocate State forestry protection

and conservation and anticipated the State's welfare.

9. Florida's Indian war claim was collected and a part was used

for paying all outstanding State bonds issued in 1871 and 1873, and the

balance was used for public schools and other purposes.

10. More than a million acres of land in the Everglades involved

in extra bonus open land grants to the railroads was redeemed and returned

to the State, and these lands are still being used for drainage and

reclamation purposes.

11. Progress in Florida became recognized and the plans and successes

of Governor Jennings have been continued, giving to Florida due prominenee

among the great and growing States of the Union.

12. For centuries Florida possessed treasures, resources and poasi-

bilities in the Everglades, which were unknown and unrecognized and had

been merely an uncharted wilderness of waste. Governor Jenings was the

first Gyvernor to recognie this treasure and realize its possibilities.

In his message to the Legislature in 1903 he recoauended and advocated

the drainage and reclamation of this vast area. Though his resoraendati M


I ,


0*








V a .


was abt aeted upon by the Legislature, yet its wisdea was recognized.

Governor Bnrward, who sueeeeded him in office, adopted his Everglades

drainage program as the main plank in his platform, and wasa elected thereon.

His, and every mneaseding administration, have carried on this reclamation

work until now thi area has been largely reolaimd and is becoming know

as the "Sugar bowl of the World" and the "Tlegtable Garden" of the Nation.

Upon the expiratie of hia tern of fice, Governor Jenning served as

Attorney for the Internal Improvesat Trustees for a long member of years

and thus sa his vision and plans of 1903 largely effeetuated. He was a

Moses who led the people of Florida out of the wilderness of the Everglades

problem. It is only natural and fitting that he is known and recognized as

the father of the Everglades drainage and reclamation, That great work is

a living and growing monument to hin.

During the later years of his life Governor Jenniags' tim was

taxed with hia extensive law practise and with the managemat of his

vast properties. lot he found tim to serve actively as a Trustee of

Stetson University at DeLand, where he was a strong influence for

christian edauation.

Such is a very brief sketch of the outstanding service to Florida

and to humanity of Governor Jennings.


His vaued contributions to the progress and welfare of the State

of Florida are recognized by the United States Sugar Corporation by its

giving a $1,000.00 scholarship each year at the University of Florida

in the naan and in honor of Governor Jennings. Mr. Clarence R, Bitting,

President of that great Company, in a letter to Mrs. Jennings expressing

his regrets that prior oemoitants prevent him from being present today,

said


L C I

















"Having seen the results of the forward looking policies
of year ksband, we consider it a real privilege to be
able to hoenr o 9rselves, in naming a scholarship in mary
of a fine i a and an able citixen a true statesman."

The merit of Goveror Jenaingl' services is attested to ay the fact

that our present Goveror, Honorable Spessard L. Solland, and Irs. Iollandi

that honorable John W. martin, our Governor freo 1925 to 1929, and Mras.
Martin; that Honorable Doyle Carltols our Governor froa 1929 to 1933,

and rs, Carltoaj that Bonorable David Slholts our Governor from 1933 to

19371 that Honorable Fred P. Cone, oar vernor from 1937 to 1 91, and
Mrs. Cons, have honored hin and this oesasion with their presence today.

Honorable Ca ar rdee, the only other .i a2~lyAg who has served

as Governor of this State, and who is unable to be present, in a letter to

Mrs. Jennings, wrote:
"I think it quite appropriate for the ship to bear the nam
of Governor Jennings. I have often stated and quite sincerely
that he was a great Govermor. Having followed along in the
gubernatorial aoeoession I an in a position to know."

eHnorable Millard Caldwell, Qoveraor-elect, is absent today only by
reason of pressing engagements previously made.

Honorable Glen Terrell, a respected and veteran member of the Suprme

Court f this State, expressed his great disappointmAet at being unable to
attend this ceremoy, and in his letter stated
"I think that Governor Jennings was one of the really
great an that this country haa prodaeed.,

Pressing official duties also prevent the e presence f Honorable
F. C. Ell1ott, who for a long period of years served as Chief engineer
of the Averglades drainage and reclamation project. In his letter he
expressed some thoughts wAih happen to coincide with my ma and I will
express thea before ecncluding.


I I I I I
















Honorable Jaams B. hitfield, the honored and beloved Justice

earitas of ear Supreae Court, was one of Governor Jennings' eloaest friAes

and greatest admirers. We all regret that illaaes eansea his absence today.

Juatiee Uhitfield, in his historical writings and articles about Florida,

often pays just and glowing tributes to Governor Jennings, the latest appear-

ing in the last June issue of the Florida Law Journal. And i grateful

acknowledge that I an indebted to Judge Whitfield largely for the 4ata used

in sm address today.

It is therefore most fitting and appropriate that the nam of Governor

Jenninag has been chosen as the name this ship will bear. It evidences the

trails that the good ideas of man live n forever, And while this arited

recognition is a tribute and honor to him. I an sure that by far the greater

honor is bestowed upon this vesael for the distinction of carrying that great

nam upon its bow.


It has been said that the spirit of a great man is imparted even to

an inanmiate object created by him or under his name. I sinererly trust

that this ship will be an exception to this rule, for it will really have

to be a truly superb ship to be entitled to bear its nane. And now, good

ship W. S. Jennings, upon year being launched upon your course, it is the

fervent and suptrme wish and prayer of all of us that you as a ship will

render services of the aam standard of excellence in your sphere as were

rendered by Governor Jeanings as a man.





,'v- -- -i1





----' -L










rI a

...- .,., .*, At,, 1.7 ; ::- ,,

; r,. .1 T
'l: P U r '. :. .' ,, [' .,. , ' ,, ,: 0, ', " '., ,* ,v . .; -
t4V .1



.2..k 1-'d
W -.A.' A
'., , . ia', ,. ,, 4, ; .A;
" ** * ' ' .. '. ''. ,r '., '' "" *' ': .. ." ,, ,, '; i ', '- "





-.4 ... ...A. .'. u --. f. .,t-, . , ,.S. ,.t ..
,;-.., ..;;. :*.*, a&, ,,,, a.ba.:iv,,, "i+.oo:,oo......
2*6 Q% ro ti BA 4*0i' .' it -1
.:. .- . . . .. .. '. ; < .. ,; ., ;.r



er-Pp.' 4: I A. '4


tb, S;?%mt, At wias.irt4t e1














. '" . . . .' -A . : . .-... . 'A A.' .t.'. .. . .. .* :... .. . . -,:- : + -



40-1 '.k O
., .4 &s
A . r

" 4f, ;: '- -- *. i- " r, ' + . ... +- . . .' .. . *,-: ., ;.. "* '', *. '^ ;" I
, .. .'. , ".' .. : .
-,n'*'.& ".M.'R'a i--t o O., ... ...










- .. .'I*-
.'. .. '. ...Ct l *4-


. t . .. . . ... .', + I i. ""F . .
,4 1.'4',4" Yt .,


,'. .. ., .t .. .. A*


L .. -.. .,A
'At. -. A ..' '


__A. .A ., ..' .. .t... ,. "



*. . 1 J J.. .. ,.-.. .4 At 'A '. A .'' ,,
. '. . .. . .. .. V .i t t '... P t' "3.r a" '


























"-'













It 016- i, Joe't*I44't
AP,
... ...,f: . . .' '- '" .. ." ,- ".' , ,'* ,% : .'*V "*** ** ,'* '" ** .."* ., ,' ", . -. " ">,'. . ':* .* ( **- .** ,"- o- ; *-*.* y^ ;.


GOAS'dts 16 our7
PU|Svr -yi 1. .1 *1.44
... ..i ^ .1:;: ._- ^ :-., .'',"' o.* * .. -, ... .. *- .' -: .^ *; ;'a :) a*w '- .... . . ... :. ,*, 1*.,,,o*v ~ ~
** : .. '; ',' *.' ': !. / : ... ^ .* "* ,' . g ,- ". :,'*...' .-" :* .-. .; .. : ..." ^ ,*'.':; ,:,.,, '::*,, .*','*
'; ".: ^-", .. . :- ,.. . ....." ..... .\ ^,*'" :' ."" ....:' .,r ^ ].*, ;'-.',* "".,. ',: '" :; .'. .^ s"i,; ^.,
.:".;," '" "',; '"4... Aar, v,.., -, ,

-a E 3's t'ot -0t : .le .% on 4 .1 CA,
tfl.bfnt4&114ltj1Atf1LtAnnI. ^44
.' .:.' ": ... .. ,> .. o" '^ .. .. 1'". ., ''"':' 1 .' ": ..1";,^ .. -:"' . ..?'" *. c. ;. .."-'. .. ,''" ^ '," . ,,-'
.' 4 "" **. ....n .i_ z ', .
",' ,' ., ": l 'A '-' B ~ i t ." ', '. '', "\ ,, '; ". : "" ' ,' ',' / ^."- % '. '., ,* : ... .' :"' .' : i-. : ..- ^
' :.' ,' :...' ,-, ." :.- ..^ ... "t,' ,:,'. o .. :,^i : ... : ., . '..^, .. ,
,'' !' ^ ^ 1 '; 1 " ; \ ."",, ", ^ .,". : .;. .. "- / ;, ^ ''.' '^ .. '. ,' " ,", t *.' ', ; ' .* ,* "": ,; .;", J '* -*1 ''.. ". -* '*- ,g,'; ,.

: -;;,- ', '.( ". ' . "' ' ' "" "'-' .: '' ' . ...* i '' '' ' ' "" : ''' ; : t'*':- :' ", ', '-, ", '. ".' : :"'- .* " '-'* .4' '
. .. .. : ^ -. .. .." .^ .^ ^ .. .^ J :.. .. *; *,-... .. .. ^ *- ..: ..^ .. ... ... ,... .... . ,. ..: !**1 .-. ..
,..4,,..-
. ..'' ," .. 447.-... ".' ... .* -" i ,*,' ,* - : : ," '- ,'" . .. "






- '. ... .^ : . .... ", ""' ; "*; '' "' '. *- ,* "* -*; '. .. : *" .. ..* . . . ,"" ;'" '; '. ..' _.r:t/ ' . ..* "': '^ '-' '*9 :'-
, ,^ W . ..* *?-. *' ". .',"- ,* ".", *' 0 *, ,' .". ,, .^ ,, '." ;.. -, ".^ '.' ",:.7 ^ ..'., .' ,; ':*,*^ .' .
I";imar nt :i^1 .a^ :. : .
"..',. 'e-'-" ... *. : ,, /.' -'. . '. *.%-' . .* .*^ .' .' '.' ...." , '- ..^.' ,-y "- ^ .: .' ;'
,.n . ^ .. . 4 .. ,%a., . . l at l,, ,*,: U f.l.v-t.i, ,, . ,









,' ,, ( -,,.- ,, * ...' : ',., ...*J :/* ..' .. *:'', .. . ', ,, ..V,H S-,.,,. '!' ** J"* ; r > 11 .." ', .* '-.- -*;. .. .. *, '* ,; 2*; .', ,, "f ,pf :,'*''.,
-" -. *-,. .': :,' ;,' :. .*; ? ,",. ..* ^ ; ; *.. : .*- ..-** .. ,/.* ,, *,*, *^ '.. ,_" -{ : .' .- "', *, ' -" ". "' '3 ',, -*';,.* t.-: ,'.
^aj~tio^iti4
^^^ ^ ty t <-?^r awwrasa sit .iS 14'5~ fl*w~ 4'VS&A: )t '..wE ^/2 as WI.


f ' i ' *" * ". 1* "t r 1 ''"* ^ "* ,' T! ': *y : 1 ", ** *" 'i i*' ' -* .' i '. T ' i "" - -.. . . ." " M ^ ', ^'1 ,"i-^ a
w-P..;. 1 nt .:I. aruursarlt n A x.. t .:1..e .n 44lg., te .. s...-. ,.: :. :.. .,.,,> ,.-.v.,.,-+


f ', .. .. 4 ..
is' 9*44*4 01s h4:zqzi no, h. 10.111
...u".. .... t... ........ . r' o f.. ;" :... : "
"'.,4 M, ,- Y U . ie'.. ,'. .nM,,.,.,v '" ', .,-" .,za '.,"'P ,-; ... ., "t 9 -,.,

'I' .4 .. 'I., 7''' '' ." sn rm ft W I E f S 4 ',r jb' nS m a. n." '.' : "F'".b ?1'd 4'



.4 ... : W !, -' .4,
7bad



fl~;i ft)te i
SU- ,, 't "S -r .... - 0' "- ' -
4 4 4. ..4 - 4'' . . 4 , 4# 4 . 4 ~ - -
4d. 4 ,- .,,,- t4' :S



44~4* 4tL 4 ~ 4
-,~~ ~ I'a "' "' 'sS 1 *0 B'' .v .. -- "' ,-' '. '' ', .". '
A .-', ., '. ,ne ts. w e et ,., its^ t. 4- ..




lt iut.'Ito
..... ,,~ *., ~. 4'.4
,,~ , .*. 4. , . .. 4.444, ,. 34,,. ,4 .*Y .,4 ,,4 .. .
% e~ 4: *e,w 4.e o A*t .. 4.;2J .r'.%g
C:, ., ...; 44 4',-':, 4, .. ..4 "; ,!t . .... ~'4 .. .. -, .. .
.. , . .. .7.. ',., i-.". .. . .. ,,4, 44 ., .. :.. i...." ~ t..! ., .,... -. .. ... ..% .' .. .... .: .,.
4f44 4j 44 444% ~ .,,.; .% :' '4" ~': "; 4....." t4'.44 ...~.444..4
,,I' -, . ~ A '4, A4 4 2 .s '1 -b L A t 14444 f & '


















LADIiES & GilTLd.11 OF TEi FLORIDA aUDUBO0i SOCIETY:


I have been a.ked to speak to you on the subject of

needed legislLtion, and have decided to talk to y:o'u on the

subject of forestry legislation, as it is so closely akin to

the work thnt you are interested in. iiithout forests you

col'ld have but few birds, in fact forestry ha~ a great bearing

on even a 11 human life. The garden of Eden was a horticultural

paradise, not an agricultural one. It is only by irrigation

and growing of trees that Great Britian is able to preserve iq_

life and keep back the inrands of th!e great Sahara Desert,which

is larger in area than Continental Europe. It is onjy by the

growth of date palm trees thtt enough shade is created to grow

rice, wlh eat and cotton in certain of the areas of Africa.

Every year the 6ahara Desert grows larger, and is only ci-ecked

by forest growth, for v.hen the forests are destroyed moisture

andi ruiin fall are destroyed, and so the forest trees nre the

things tj.-.t give us climate, and Li.;:e hmman life possible in a

great many areas.

We have evidence of the value of tree planting in

Plorida. Some years a.ro L.r. Collins planted 37,000 cocoanuts

along LMia.mi Beach, which w'as then a swerap, to raise cocoanuts

for cor.mercial purposes. In 1912 the possibility of filling in

the marsh laj.ds around the beach became apparent, and t Aday

many millions of dollars are being spent for lovely hores

along the beach made beautiful by the cocoanut pulms.

There are broad avenues of oak trees at Orargo Prrk

a.nd Panama adjoining this city*

The probleii in Florida, Lovever, is not the planting

of trees, as is the case in Connecticut, and a number of the


,. .' '. .





a-


other states, it has not rencned that stage as yet. The problem

in Florida is to preserve the young growing trees, as the la ds

seer-i to be -nirly well seeded, and Will produce if protected from

forest fires. There are a great many wastm in the use of our

timber; these can be corrected in time by a Board t-at will make

a study of the conditions. People generally do not recognize

the value of forestry but when you consider the value to

Jacksonville '.nd the weekly pay rolls of such mills as the

Carpenter-Obi'ien Mill, Putnum Lumber Company, the Cummer Iills,

and the Gress Mills, and n t only Wti.s but the freight t.a.t it

gives to the railroads, which ma-kes for the use of more labor,

and makr-es cheaper construction for homes and low rents; also

the great turpentine industry is de endent on forests. If you

could pict ire Jacksonville without t her gret-t wholesale houses,

wvita her docks and terminals reduced to one half you would have

a picture of Jacksanville without the turpentine i.ian,

For several years I have prepared forestry legislation

and believe that a satisfactory act will be along this line.

FORZ3TRY BILL.

An Act should be passed providing for a St ate Forestry

Board, composed of the Governor, Commis.sioner of Agricult:u.re .nd

the Attorney General, iand t-ieir succesio-rs in office, who should

receive their Ectual expenses while acting as members of said

Board, the .Governor being ex-officio President of the Board

;.nd the Commissioner of Agriculta2 e the Jecretary of the Board

This Board should emplpy ea a fore-ter, whose duty it should be

to see t-hat the forestry laws of the state are enforced, and

have such duties as may be fanMAer prescribed by law for the

regulation of forestry, together with such other employees and


thel


I 1 .&MA ,' T 4Z',





e -Pis


assistant. as the bo&rd should deem necessary.

The Bo1 rd saoald nave the right to tccppt donations

of land in the name of the State Board of Forestry, on such

terms asa the Board should agree upon.

The BcG rd should requite the States attorneys, State

Solicitors, "nrd other prosecuting officers in any circuit or

county in the state to institute suits, civil or criminal for

the purpose of enforcing the provisions of the act or other for-

estry legislation.

The Board should co-operate with the Federal or State

departments of institutes, county, town or corporations or

individuals and should gather and disseminate infonri: tion in

reriird to -forests;, their cgre and i nageuent. and to have g:enera]

care, custody, control and regula-ition of tll iands set apart

or nequited for forest purposes lender the provisions of this

act. To devise ;ways and ieans by which these forests shall be

made so far as possible self-supporting, and to that end the

Board should be autoirized to make such rules and regulations

as it shall prescribe to dispose of by sale, license, permit

or other appropriate means, any timber or other p-rodicts, 'nd

to leise or otherwise grant under limited permit, subject to

its supervision and a reasonable charge, the use of forest

lands for purposes ot:ier than forests.

The 8th section of the bill I ,Aould uaggest would

provide that the Board could enter into contracts vwih owners

of acrenges in excess of one thousand arres which contracts

shl.ll provide thnt ti-h own-er will agree to xe-forest the land

under the directions of the Be rd, rid will agree not to turpen-

tine or remove from the lc-ids so covered by the contract only

such trees as the Board shall permit for the term of years


-- I -I




,rr 9


provided in the contract, 'nd agree to cut or remove only such

trees as uil. measure more than ten inches in diameter six feet

from the ground, and )nly turpentine, cut or remove such

timber after gi--ing the Board six months written notice, and

shall pay to the State Treasurer 2-1/2% for each turpentine

box cut, or turpentine cup hung on said timber, or such othor

price as the 'oard may agree on, not less than tka said figure,

and in addition thereto $1.00 per thousand feet of logs removed

from said lands during the term of years provided fbr in said

contract; and nrlgo provide thi.t '.hen the la2ids are put Lunder

a contract of this kind they shall be considered to be used for

state purposes, ;nd not subject to taxation, the taxes being

placed on cuttinii the timber and boxing thi trees. In oth ?r

words the substitution of a severance tax for the present tax.

Section 9 would p-ro'vide th t the Borrd could Use any

surplus money in the forestry fund for the purchase of laids in

the nmme of the State oar ..

Section 10 would provide a ,41,000.00 penalty or one

year imprisonment for violation of the ::rovisions of the act and

regulations of the Be rd.

section 11 v Iuld provide a license tax on the nanufFic-

tare of forest products. A license tax on ech turpentine till

of lass than 20 barrels of .10.uO, more than 20 barrels 420.00;

on e.ch and every 'box, crate or saw mill of the capacity of

5,000 feet per day or leas of $10.0'0 per *.hr, from 5000 to

10,000 teet per day, 420.00 per ybar, fnd 120,00 additional for

each additional 10,000 feet capacity,

Section 12 woul provide for the prymGnt of the money

o. derived into the forestry fund, rard would also provide that

the County Commissioners could lety not exceeding 2 mills for the





P,/ .-A


'w *


purpose of cmrryinp on forestry work.

Section 13 would provide for un appropriation of

$10,000, to -:orxmrence the work.

An ,..ct of this kind '.,oul-i give a central board to

study forestry rnd to administer lands under contrict tD the

Bo-rd; its revenue vrould oe derived froi the ixrtumi license

tEx oH saw mills and turpentine stills. By substituting a

severance tnx for the present method of taxation wu\uld p-ve an

inlducep;Ti-t to l.ind owners to turn over lands tu the Porstry
not
Bo-ird. This w oull_/mean tatt th.: Forestry Board W.rouldI hive to

accept lvnds so proposed, but would' accept Dnly sucl lands as

they found desirable. In this way they could eoi tri ct and

execute a method of using and c-iting for the timber; the sever-

ance tax would g.ve an inducement for land oiniers to raise

forest trees.

If France, 7ith her thickly settled population can

set aj:ide lands for forestry purposes certainly Florida with

hr sparsely settled population can do te sa-ime.

The forestry Board could specify forr.s of contrnats

and regulations to be used in private contracts to be used

between land owners and turpentine or mill operators, 'nd coulld

also accept donations of individual trees, say one tree on each

40 acres, the tree to be narrkeld and preserved as a seed bearing

tree to re-seed the lands, and c would take steps to preserve tihe

trees growing along the banks of navigable stre-ams, which 'oould

do more to protect the bird life, rndkeep the river banks from

eroding and chanrnels filling up than any other single piece of

legisl:- tion.


-W.


Ii


I




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs