• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 Introduction and general infor...
 Southern Florida's native...
 Northern Florida's early native...
 Florida's Seminole people
 References














Group Title: Florida Museum of Natural History educators' guides
Title: Inquiry boxes: museum on the move - Florida's native people
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Title: Inquiry boxes: museum on the move - Florida's native people
Series Title: Florida Museum of Natural History educators' guides
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida
Publisher: Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
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Volume ID: VID00009
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Acknowledgement
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Introduction and general information
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Southern Florida's native people
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Northern Florida's early native people
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Florida's Seminole people
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    References
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
Full Text





TEACH ER'S$U IDE TO

FLORIDA'S NATIVE PEOPLE


INQUIRY BOXES:

MUSEUM ON THE MOVE


FLORIDA
MUSEUM
OF NATURAL HISTORY
i DIVERSITY OF
. FLORIDA


FLORIDA MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY
SW 34th Street & Hull Road on the University of Florida campus, Gainesville, FL
Monday Saturday 10 a.m. 5 p.m. Sunday & Holidays 1 p.m. 5 p.m.
(352) 846-2000 ext. 214 www.flmnh.ufl.edu


www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida












This Teacher's Guide is made possible by a grant from the Department of State,
Division of Historical Resources, Historical Museums Grants-in-Aid Program

Acknowledgments

This guide was produced by the Florida Museum of Natural History
under the direction of Marilyn M. Roberts, Education Programs Coordinator


Graphic Designer
Writer and Copy Editor
Writer and Copy Editor
Copy Editor
Museum Artist
Museum Photographers
Seminole Photographers
Seminole Graphic Designer
Canoe Race Illustration
Cover Illustration


........... .Pat Klaus
......... .. Jeanne Chamberlin
........... .Darcie MacMahon
........... .Dr. Betty Dunckel Camp
........... .M erald Clark
........... .Jeff Gage, Tammy Johnson
............ Ernie Tiger, Elrod Bowers
........... .Melissa Sherman
........... .Andrew Works
........... .Allen Cheuvront


Florida Heritage Education Program, Department of State, Division of Historical Resources

In addition, I would like to thank the following people at FLMHH for their contributions to the
Museum on the Move: Inquiry Boxes program:

Dr. Douglas S. Jones, FLMNH Director

Division of Exhibits and Public Programs
Kurt Auffenberg Jeannette Carlisle Brian Chamberlain
Ron Chesser Lorraine Duerden Susan Jarzen
Dale Johnson Tom Kyne Robert Leavy
Dr. Bruce J. MacFadden John Patterson Erika Simons Charlene Smith
FLMNH Volunteers and Docents

Division of Collections and Research
Sarah Brix Richard Franz Dr. David M. Jarzen
Dr. William Marquardt Russ McCarty Scott Mitchell
Roger Portell Donna Ruhl Dr. S. David Webb
















2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu








TABLE OF CONTENTS


Part One Introduction and General Information ................................................ 1
Using This Guide ................... ... ... .................. ........ ...... .......... 3
Scheduling a Guided or a Self-Guided Visit ............................................4-5
Scheduling an Inquiry Box Presentation or Loan ................................. ............ 6
Frequently Asked Questions about the Museum .............................................6
Outreach Objectives and Sunshine State Standards ........................................ 7
Archaeology ................ .................................... ...........8-10
Archaeology Activities .. . ......... ..... .................................. ......... 11
Meet the Archaeologist ................... ........................................ 12
Meet the Artist ................ .............................................. 13
Frequently Asked Questions about Florida's Early Native People ......... ..................... 14
Map of Florida Showing Changing Coastline .................................................15
Word Activities ............ ............................................ ..........16-17
Map of Florida's Native Groups at the Time of European Contact .............................. 18

Part Two- Southern Florida's Early Native People ............................................... 19
Frequently Asked Questions about Southern Florida's Early Native People ........................ 21-22
Inquiry Box Checklist ........... ... ................. .................. .......... 23
Inquiry Box Content Descriptions .......... ..................... ................... .24-26
Inquiry Box Classroom Activities ................ ................. ............... ..27-31
Calusa Leader's House Diorama ................................... .................. 32-33
Word and Math Activities ............ ................... ....................... 34-40

Part Three Northern Florida's Early Native People .............................................. 44
Frequently Asked Questions about Northern Florida's Early Native People ...................... 43-44
Inquiry Box Checklist .................................. .......................... 45
Inquiry Box Content Descriptions .................................. ............... 46-48
Inquiry Box Classroom Activities ................ ................. ............... ..49-50
River Trade Scene Diorama ..................................... .......... ...... ..50-51
Map of Northern Florida's Early Native People .............................................. 52
Word and Math Activities ............ ................... ....................... 53-59

Part Four- Florida's Seminole People ....................................................... 61
Frequently Asked Questions about Florida's Seminole People ............... .................. 63-64
Inquiry Box Checklist .................................. ..........................65
Inquiry Box Content Descriptions .................................... ................. 66-68
Map of Southeastern United States ................................... .................. 69
Photos of Traditional Seminole Clothing ..................................... ............... 70
Inquiry Box Classroom Activities ................ ............. ............ .. . 71-73
Photos of Modern Chickee Construction .............................. ..............74-75
Word and Math Activities .................................. ................... ... 76-83

Part Five References ................................................................. 85
Answers to Word and Math Activities ................. ................................. 86-89
Vocabulary ........................................................ .......... 91-93
Bibliography .................................................................94-95







www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida




































































































2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu










PART ONE



INTRODUCTION AND

GENERAL INFORMATION


--i ---- -
~~ I



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www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History Gainesville, Florida




































































































2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu







USING THIS GUIDE


Abbreviations


This teacher's guide may be used for Inquiry Box
presentations, Inquiry Box loans, and museum visits.
The guide contains information on Florida's Indian
people, information on associated subjects and
related fields of study, vocabulary, and suggested
learning activities. All activities are designed to
integrate social studies, language arts, math, and
science in a unified learning experience. Permission is
granted to reproduce the information and activities
for student and teacher use.


FLMNH refers to the Florida Museum
of Natural History
SFENP refers to Southern Florida's Early Native People
NFENP refers to Northern Florida's Early Native People
SEMINOLE refers collectively to
The Seminole Tribe of Florida and
Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida


American Indian or Native Americans?

The name Indian was given to the native people of America by the explorer, Christopher Columbus.

Each tribe probably had a name for itself, but did not have a name for themselves as a race of people.

Today several names are used to refer to the native peoples of America, including Indians, American Indians,
Native Americans, native people, First People, Amerinds, and Amerindians. The first names are used generally,
and the last two are used academically.

Most tribes tend to refer to themselves by tribal affiliation: Seminole, Miccosukee, etc., and not as a whole
race of people.

In this workbook, the early people of Florida will be referred to as "native people" or "Indian people." Many
tribes died out before America became America, so the term "American Indian" is not always appropriate.





OVERALL OBJECTIVES


TO FAMILIARIZE STUDENTS WITH
THE WAYS OF LIFE OF
FLORIDA'S INDIAN PEOPLE


TO ENRICH THE STUDENTS' EXPERIENCE
WITH A PRESENTATION
AND/OR VISIT TO THE MUSEUM





@ 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida


USING THIS GUIDE






Pages
Missing
or
Unavailable






Pages
Missing
or
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Pages
Missing
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OBJECTIVES SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS


OUTREACH OBJECTIVES

When presented by museum docents, the program has
the following objectives:


To introduce students to the lifeways of the early native
people and the Seminole people of Florida, including
their food sources and trade

To introduce students to the effects that European
contact had on the native populations


To familiarize students with the archaeological process

To give students an experience in working together in
small groups (NFENP)


SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

Use of the materials in each Inquiry Box and this guide
advance the following Sunshine State Standards:


Social Studies


Effective use of writing processes (LA.B.1.2)
Effective use of writing to communicate ideas and
information (LA.B.2.2)
Effective use of listening, viewing, and speaking
strategies (LA.C.1.2, LA.C.2.2, LA.C.3.2)
Understanding the power of language (LA.D.2.2)

Science

Understanding the need to protect natural systems on
Earth (SC.D.2.2)
Understanding the competitive, interdependent, cyclic
nature of living things in the environment (SC.G.1.2)
Understanding the consequences of using limited
natural resources (SC.G.2.2)
Understanding that most natural events occur in
comprehensible, consistent patterns (SC.H.2.2)
Understanding that science, technology, and society are
interwoven and interdependent (SC.H.3.2)


Understanding historical chronology and the historical
perspective (SS.A.1.2)
Understanding the world from its beginning to the time
of the Renaissance (SS.A.2.2)(SFENP, NFENP)
Understanding the history of Florida and its early
people (SS.A.6.2)
Understanding the world in spatial terms (SS.B.1.2)
Understanding the interactions of people and the
physical environment (SS.B.2.2.)


www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida


Language Arts







ARCHAEOLOGY



Scientific Words

Scientific words are usually formed by combining twco 4
or more root words together. The words are usually
from Greek or Latin. Sometimes a prefix or suffix is
added. Archaeology is such a scientific word formed
from Greek root words.

archaeo refers to ancient times
ology the study of, or knowledge of, 1
a field of science
ologist a person who studies a field of knowledge
al (suffix) pertaining to

The modern meaning of archaeology is the study of
ancient cultures. An archaeologist is a person who
studies the field of ancient cultures. An
archaeological site is a place where an ancient
culture is being studied. Other words used in the .
field of archaeology are:

anthropology the study of humankind
stratigraphy the science describing the layers
of earth at an archaeological site
typology a descriptive science classifying
objects by their size and shape
morphology the study of the shape of objects ', '
archaeometry measuring the age of
ancient objects
paleontology the study of fossil evidence of
plant and animal life

Abbreviations -

GPS Global Positioning System;
a satellite technology used to locate
one's position on Earth
BCE Before the Common Era.
This is a modern dating method used in place of
BC (Before Christ) and AD (Anno Domino .
In the year of our Lord) that does not intrude "-
upon religious beliefs.
CE Common Era.
This is the modern era. Human figure vessel from Franklin County, Florida









2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu








ARCHAEOLOGY


What is archaeology?
It is the scientific study of the remains of past human
cultures. It is the primary method of learning about
cultures and civilizations that existed before written
records. Even after writing was invented (5,500 BCE),
and in places where writing was never used,
archaeology helps to further understand past
cultures. Archaeologists study the remains of buildings,
artwork, tools, pottery, and even garbage.
They try to understand how objects and other aspects
of archaeological sites relate to each other to
determine how people lived. Archaeology is a branch
of anthropology.

Archaeology is often confused with paleontology.
Paleontology is the study of ancient animal and
plant life (fossils). Archaeology is the study of early
human cultures.

What do archaeologists study?
They study three basic types of archaeological
evidence: 1) artifacts, 2) features, and 3) ecofacts.
Artifacts are man-made objects: stone tools, pots,
pyramids, etc. Features are evidence of past human
activities: postholes, fireplaces, irrigation ditches,
tombs, etc. Ecofacts are naturally occurring objects that
are not changed in character by humans. Examples are
plant seeds and animal bones. Seeds and bones from
ancient garbage help identify what people ate. Seeds
and pollen help to determine the type of vegetation
that existed during a time period and also any
subsequent climate changes.

Also important is the study of the layers that objects
are found in. If sandals are left on a beach, the wind
over time covers them with sand. The same happens
with water, mud, and ice. Each layer of sand, mud, ice,
or earth contains evidence of past environments. These
layers are called natural deposits. The most common
activity that covers evidence of past human culture is
other human activity. Later people who live in the same
place cause soils to build up as they throw things away,
or build fires, or add dirt to the floor of their homes,
etc. These are called cultural deposits. Wind-blown
sediments also mix in. These layers of deposits are
called strata, and their study is called stratigraphy.


How do archaeologists obtain information?
It is a multi-step process. The first step is to decide
what to excavate and why. Archaeologists always have
a reason to dig a site. Two common reasons are 1) that
a site is in danger of being destroyed by construction
or from other causes and 2) that a site has potential to
answer some important questions about human history.
Once a site is selected, archaeologists survey and map
the site. The next step is to excavate the site. And
lastly, they have to record and preserve the evidence
that they discovered.

Locating a site This is the first field action of an
archaeologist. Sites may be above ground like
pyramids. Some sites may be underground like caves.
And some sites may be underwater like sunken ships.
Archaeologists use many modern technologies to help
them locate archaeological sites. Remote sensing is one
type of technology that is used. One example is aerial
photography, or satellite imaging. Another type of
technology is infrared sensing that shows changes in
heat patterns that may indicate a possible site. Radar is
also used as well as sonar. Radar is the use of radio
waves to detect objects, and sonar is the use of sound
waves to detect objects. Less technological methods
are also used, such as studying old maps when
available, and actually walking and testing a
suspected location.

Surveying a site After a possible site is located, it has
to be surveyed or examined for landmarks. The site is
then mapped to place natural objects and cultural
objects in relation to each other, which may be of
important scientific significance. The traditional
method, called a foot survey, involves archaeological
team members walking along a grid of lines that are
laid out across a site. Each scientist looks for objects
that will help the team determine where the site begins
and where it ends. This is like trying to find a lost
object in a playground. All the students walk in a
certain pattern looking for the lost item. Sometimes the
pattern is determined by what the person who lost the
object says, and sometimes it is determined by the area
to be searched. Archaeologists do something very
similar when they survey an area.


www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida








ARCHAEOLOGY


When objects are found, they are pinpointed on a map
using tape measures and a surveyor's transit.
Sometimes newer technologies like GPS are used.
Changes in elevation of the ground surface are also
recorded to create a topographic map.
These maps can sometimes show where buildings or
other archaeological features are buried. Everything
is pinpointed in relation to existing landmarks so
an approximate idea of what the site was like can
be determined.

Working underwater Many of the methods used on
land are also used underwater in locating and
surveying archaeological sites. Earth-penetrating radar
is used primarily on land, and sonar is used primarily
underwater. Some possible sites are shallow and can be
explored by divers using scuba gear. Some sites are
deep and need special equipment like submersible
diving bells. Occasionally, an underwater site can be
totally drained during excavation by building large
dams around the site and using powerful pumps to
pump out the water so that the site can be studied.

Recording and preserving evidence The main job
of archaeologists is to keep a record of their findings.
They must describe, photograph, and count all objects
that are found and pinpoint where they were found
on a map. They also record any changes in soil colors
or textures. Without this type of information, the
evidence cannot be properly interpreted. People
who dig up artifacts without properly documenting
their work destroy a site and the history of its
inhabitants forever.

Unless you are working on an approved, scientific
project, it is illegal to excavate artifacts from
archaeological sites on state or federal land. It is
always illegal to excavate burials, even on private
land. Further, it is never a good idea to dig up artifacts
without being part of an official archaeological project
because as you dig, you destroy history forever.


How do archaeologists interpret findings?
It is a three-step process. Archaeologists must classify,
date, and evaluate the discovered evidence.
Classification is the process of sorting objects according
to size, types, and placement. This is called typology.
The process of classification helps the archaeologist to
establish patterns. Patterns may indicate that the
objects were used during a certain period of time or
used in certain functions. The second step is the dating
of evidence. This is called archaeometry. There is
relative dating and absolute dating. Relative dating
dates an object in relation to other objects found at the
site. Absolute dating dates an object in years. The most
common way of absolute dating objects is by
radiocarbon dating. Organic material is dated by how
much radiocarbon (a radioactive carbon that occurs in
every living thing) has decayed or been depleted over
the years. Other advanced technological methods are
also available. Evaluation of artifacts and features helps
determine how objects were made, where they were
made, and how they were used in ancient cultures.
Evaluation of ecofacts helps explain the environment
that people lived in. These kinds of information help
scientists reconstruct the life of ancient people. Other
fields of science are also used in evaluating discovered
evidence. For example, archaeobotanists study plant
remains from archaeological sites.

Modern archaeology The FLMNH has archaeologists
on its staff. It is part of the Museum's mission to
preserve and interpret artifacts and archaeological sites.
Collections of artifacts held at the Museum are used for
many research projects about past human history and
also for public exhibits and programs. Other important
issues that museum archaeologists consider include
who has the rights to the artifacts and the sites, how
artifacts should be properly cared for, and whether the
remains of humans found at these sites should be used
for research. Many native people object to the
disturbance of their ancestral homes and burial
grounds. This is a sensitive issue and should be kept in
mind when discussing the field of archaeology. Today,
museums work with native people to determine the
proper disposition of human remains and how best to
interpret native cultures to the public.


2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu








ARCHAEOLOGY ACTIVITY ES


Activity 1 To illustrate the layers (strata) where
artifacts are found at an archaeological dig, the
following activity may be useful.

1. Divide the class into groups of two or three, or
whatever number suits the size of your class.

2. Give each group a different colored piece of paper.
Have the students paste small flat objects (plants,
flowers, string, cord, pieces of wood, etc.) to each
piece of paper in any order. Number each piece of
paper to correspond to a layer (strata). After all the
groups have finished and the paste has dried, stack
the sheets of paper together according to their
numbers. For instance, layer 10 may go on the
bottom and layer 1 go on top, depending upon
how many layers are numbered. Then put the
layers of paper into a similar-sized box. Cover it
with a blank piece of paper to represent the
surface layer.

3. Gather the class together and go through each
layer. Explain to the class that archaeologists
uncover layers in their search for artifacts and each
layer has its own meaning. (Please note that some
objects may appear on more than one layer.) As
each layer is revealed, the different objects that
were glued to the paper are discovered. Each layer
may be unique or may contain common objects,
just like it is at an archaeological site. What
conclusions could one draw about the
people/animals/plants that lived in each layer?
What questions remain?


Activity 2 To illustrate the detailed documentation
that archaeologists adhere to, the following activity
may be useful.

On the playground, have the class form a square grid
from string that is from 6 ft. x 6 ft. to 10 ft. x 10 ft.,
depending upon the size of your class. From one corner
measure one-foot intervals and mark each interval with
a small peg or stick stuck into the ground. Do this for
all four sides. Next tie a string from each peg to the
corresponding peg across the square. You should have
formed a grid. Place randomly within the grid small
objects that represent archaeological artifacts. In small
groups have the students walk the grid and find the
objects. Then have them draw an illustration of the grid
and place the objects accurately on the grid map like
an archaeologist would do.

Activity 3 To illustrate various dating methods,
the following take-home or library assignment may
be useful.

Assign the students to research one method of
archaeological dating. Then, they should a) discuss
their findings with the class, b) write a short paragraph
about what they found, and/or c) illustrate the
method. An example is dating the growth rings of a
tree trunk. This is called dendrochronology: dendro -
means tree, chron means time, and ology means
the study of. It is the study of dating time by trees. A
student might make a simple drawing showing a cross-
section of rings of a tree trunk and explain how the
rings are used to determine dating.


www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida








MEET THE ARCHAEOLOGIST


MEET THE ARCHAEOLOGIST
Darcie A. MacMahon


Darcie MacMahon is an archaeologist and
anthropologist by training. She now coordinates many
exhibit efforts at the Florida Museum of Natural
History. After years of doing archaeological field
research, Darcie decided she wanted to work in
museums to help preserve archaeological collections
and to share information about archaeology and
anthropology with the public.

Darcie has double master's degrees in Anthropology
and Museum Studies from George Washington
University, and has worked for over 25 years as an
archaeologist and museum professional. Some of the
most interesting exhibits she has worked on at the
Museum include those featured in this booklet about
early people in South Florida and North Florida, as well
as today's Seminole and Miccosukee people. Another
favorite project was a highly successful traveling exhibit
about Fort Mose, an archaeological site near St.
Augustine that was the first free-black community in
North America.


2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu








MEET THE ARTIST


MEET THE ARTIST
Merald Clark
Merald has undergraduate degrees in Zoology and
Biological Illustration, and a graduate degree in
Anthropology from the University of Florida. He was
one of the lead designers in the re-creation and
construction of the Calusa Leader's House and the
River Trade Scene dioramas.

Merald has formulated a personal mission statement
to guide him as a graphic designer in a natural
history museum: Communicate effectively with the
public important concepts of natural history,
supported by meticulous research, and enlivened
by bold artistic interpretation.

This philosophy is manifested in the way both dioramas
were completed. The artist began in consultation with
archaeologists and curators to determine what were
the most important concepts to be presented and what
scenes would most effectively communicate those
concepts. Archaeologists did most of the research to
make each scene as accurate as possible, but Merald
participated in developing the background information.
For each diorama, the artist produced an early number
of conceptual drawings that would help the team
decide the future directions of the
dioramas. For instance, would there V
be five or six characters shown in the
Calusa Leader's House?

Eventually the exhibit team decided .0'
on a final, detailed design, and this
final sketch was used as the basis to
begin construction of the dioramas.
For the Calusa Leader's House, the
plans were sent out to architects, a
costume and ornaments maker, and a
mannequin maker. The mannequin
maker was hired to construct the life-
sized characters that would make up
the Calusa Leader's scene. To assist
the mannequin maker in sculpting the
figures, Merald developed detailed
drawings and notes on the
appearances of each of the characters.
Historians know, for example, that


Carlos, the leader of the Calusa Indians of South
Florida, was a large man, and he therefore needed to
look taller than any of the other five people in the
scene. However, not every part of the scene could be
re-created with as much certainty. A Spanish priest
noted in a historical document that the leader's royal
headdress included a golden forehead ornament, but
what did the rest of the supporting headgear look like?
Reconstructing a possible and believable headdress
required a degree of latitude and discretion on the part
of the artist and this is what Merald means when he
says that the research should be "enlivened by bold
artistic interpretation."

In addition to Merald's work, other museum artists also
worked on the projects. Many artifacts needed to be
replicated before the dioramas were finished. Each
replica being produced goes through the same process:
a delicate balance between history, archaeology, and
artistic imagination. The Museum has many talented
artists on its staff including sculptors, exhibit designers,
muralists, silk screeners, graphic designers, illustrators,
and diorama designers. They work together with
scientists and historians to produce high quality
dioramas such as the River Trade Scene and the Calusa
Leader's House.


www.fmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida








FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE


Frequently Asked Questions about Florida's Early Native People


Who are they and where did they come from?

Florida's earliest people came from northern Asia.
They came across a land bridge during the last Ice Age.
A land bridge is dry land that connects two land
masses. During the last Ice Age, cold weather froze the
seawater and dried the sea bottoms, creating a land
bridge between Asia and North America.

People probably followed animal herds from Siberia
(northeastern Asia) into Alaska, then southward into
North and South America. Others probably came into
North and South America by boat and moved along
the west coast. We now call these earliest people
paleoindians and their later descendants archaic people.
Evidence suggests that the first people arrived in
Florida more than 12,000 years ago. We know little
about those people.

When the Spaniards arrived in the early 1500s, they
found several groups of people living in
various parts of Florida. The Spanish and
later explorers recorded names for the various '
groups we know about: Calusa, Jeaga, Tequesta.
Apalachee, Potano, Saturiwa, Ocale, etc.

When did they live here?

Archaeological evidence suggests people 'Vere
here on the Florida peninsula at least 12.000
years ago. Current evidence indicates that
most people lived from the Tampa area
north during the earliest period of
human habitation. When the
Spanish explorers arrived here in the
early 1500s, there may have been
100,000 people in Florida, with
perhaps 30,000 of those in southern
Florida. By 1800, these native cultures
were essentially gone.






Point Washington-incised bowl from Franklin County, Flori


Where did they live?

The earliest people (paleoindians) lived mostly in the
northern part of the Florida peninsula. The Florida
peninsula was cooler, drier, and about twice the size
of the present Florida peninsula. Because of the
importance of water, people lived near a limited
number of watering holes within the limestone
formations. They probably also lived along the
coasts, but those sites are now underwater and
difficult to locate.

About 4,000 years ago, after ice melted and more
water was available in oceans and rivers, the peninsula
had become about the size of present Florida.

Evidence from the Archaic period indicates that later
people lived along the coasts and in the interior. In the
interior, they lived along waterways that served both as
their highways and as sources for food.


2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.fmnh.ufl.edu







MAP OF FLORIDA SHOWING CHANCING COASTLINE














The Florida
coastline today


The Florida coastline
during the last
SIce Age



















The Florida coastline today and the Florida coastline during the last Ice Age (labeled above).
What has happened to objects left in the last Ice Age area?







www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida






FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE
ACTIVITY ONE WORD PUZZLE


D O S P P

I X H Y O

C C A G A

E A R O R

A L K L O

G U F O W

E S A E S

E A R A C

T E M H F

A O E C R

N N R R L

A A P A L

M C P N E


T L E C P A L M


A U C U M I


T O


T H E R E R C N

E T N U H Q A E


F R E H S


A T E R D S


I F T


I M


I D Q N Y D T A

A C I Q U E R K

L O W A E S A E

E R O L P X E R

L E H S A E S V

A C H E E Q O H

DD I M O U N D


Apalachee disease
archaeology explorer
artifact farmer
Cacique fish
Calusa fisherfolk
canoe gatherer
celt hunter


ice age
manatee
midden
mound
netmaker
paleoindian
palm


2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu


pottery
seashell
seawolf
shark
Timucua
water







FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE

ACTIVITY TWO WORD PUZZLE


CATT
PPMA
AKIN
NRCO
HOC I
AWOS
NHSS
DCUI
LTKM
EAEM
SPEU
ACXN
EHPI
SIOT
ICRY
DKTC
SEHD
METO
EXHI
MUSE

agriculture
Apalachee
Archaic Period
artifact
ballstick
Bartram
berm
Calusa
camp
canoe
cattle
celt
chert
chickee
Chunkey stone
clan


LELFTA
CNATUR
ROFRCC
ETLETH
OSOHCA
NYRCA I
AE I FC
CKDM I P
ONAETE
OUNDRR
NHKI AI
TCRPDO
I EAEED
ELBAHC
AT I EGA
HAGR I C
TCN I TX
TLWO I A
B ITUAP
UMCREE

collection
contact
context
coontie
cordage
corn
Creeks
disease
dugout
epidemic
exhibit
export
extinct
Green Corn Dance
hammock
immunity


PASULACGBB
ALRESOURCE
LOEM I DDENR
EEPSDCJETM
OCLZULENCY
ISI NGAKCAN
NOCOONBOTO
DLAI U IARNI
ILUTTULNOT
A ICCXQLDCA
NKUEEESAEV
SDMLTNTNRR
YAI LNN I CPE
UOTOOACELS
DROCCMKOHE
ULTUREHSGR
ESMARTRABY


ORUHS
MKCOM
KSPEC

La Florida
mannequin
matrilineal
Miccosukee
midden
mission
mound
museum
natural resource
Osceola
owl totem
paleoindians
Panhandle
patchwork
post contact
posthole


I NAPS
MAHVD
I MENV

pre contact
replica
reservation
roadkill
Spanish
specimen
Timucua
touchable
trade


www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida








MAP OF FLORIDA'$ NATIVE GROUPS AT THE

TIME OF EUROPEAN CONTACT




Apalachee S aturiwa
S/ ustega

Potano Freshwater
Acuera
Ocale

Approximate names and locations of
Florida's major native people groups at
time of European contact.

Ais
Tocobago




b' Jeaga
Calusa Jeaga






00
Tequesta



0 cP


Comparing Florida's Early Native people

The questions below are intended to stimulate students' critical thinking and strengthen their use of observation and
comparison skills. Comparisons may be made in any combination that suits the class: Early Northern and Southern
People, Early Northern and Seminole, Early Southern and Seminole, all three, or perhaps even Paleo-people and Early
Northern/Southern People.

In large or small groups or individually, have students consider, for example:
1. Why would there be a difference between how groups raised, hunted, or gathered their food? Geography?
Weather? Lifestyles? Cultural factors? Other possibilities? Think, for instance, about the Apalachee agriculture
versus Calusa hunting/gathering.
2. Was their clothing different depending on where they lived? Why might this be the case?
3. Would there be any difference in the types of houses they built? What factors might affect their buildings?
4. The same could be asked about their transportation, and about group traditions, heritage, and culture. Is it likely
there would be more similarities than differences? Why or why not?






2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu







PART TWO

SOUTHERN FLORIDA'S


EARL


NATIVE PEOPLE


www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida 19








SOUTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE


Please be sure to read Part One before going through this section. It contains information
necessary to use this and other Inquiry Boxes and to visit the Museum.


I'!


I


...." .. .'. E .. I
I






SL
"`



.. mi ., -


4'-


To see individual items in the Southern Florida's Early Native People Inquiry Box, visit the Museum's website at
www.flmnh.ufl.edu.











20 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu
20 @ 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu


.j-- M


';*








SOUTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE


Frequently Asked Questions about Southern Florida's Early Native People


S Who were the early native people
'/ of southern Florida and where
.. ,^ did they live?

The group names we associate
with southern Florida after 500 BCE include the Calusa
(the dominant group post-contact), Tequesta, and
Jeaga. These groups and others lived along the Gulf
(Calusa) and Atlantic (Tequesta and Jeaga) coasts, on
adjacent islands, and along interior waterways from the
Charlotte Harbor area southward.

What kind of houses did southern Florida's early
people live in?

We don't know much about early housing in South
Florida because few historical documents discuss
houses and so far very little information about
buildings has been discovered by archaeologists. Our
limited information suggests small circular houses made
of wooden poles covered with palm-leaf thatch. Some
structures were built on the top of "midden" (like
today's landfills). In the late 1600s, an Englishman
described houses on the east coast of South Florida as
being made of poles tied together at the top and
covered with palm thatch.

There were also large community buildings. In 1566,
Spaniards described the Calusa leader's house in
southwest Florida as made of palm thatch and large
enough to hold 2,000 people comfortably. In the late
1600s, one village chief's house in southeast Florida
was 40 by 25 feet, "covered with palmetto leaves both
top and sides."

Mats of woven palm leaves were popular throughout
Florida for use inside houses, sometimes on the floors,
sleeping areas, or walls.

What did they eat?

The Calusa, one of southern Florida's groups of early
people, ate mostly seafood but also ate plants and
hunted land animals.


Their diet varied with location and season and certainly
changed after European contact. Their diet consisted
mainly of fish and shellfish: shark, catfish, sheepshead,
gar, mullet, pinfish, oysters, marine snails, clams, etc.
Plants included coontie, sea grape, acorns, grasses,
prickly pear, maypop, palmetto berries, sabal palm,
grapes, papaya, etc. They hunted deer, alligator, turtle,
snake, rabbit, opossum, raccoon, etc.

Unlike Indian people of North Florida, those in South
Florida did not raise crops such as corn.

After Europeans arrived in Florida, foods like peaches,
citrus, and grains were added to the Indian diet.

What kind of clothing did they wear?

In Florida's mild climate, very little clothing was
necessary. Sketches by the Frenchman LeMoyne
showed North Florida men with buckskin loincloths and
women in Spanish moss or woven-fiber skirts.

In cooler weather, a buckskin cloak, or cape, might
have been added for warmth. Feet were probably bare.

The Spaniards also reported body paint and
tattoos, especially for men and chiefs. People wore
shell and bone jewelry and may have used feathers
as ornaments.

How did they travel?

People have always traveled by foot. But by at least
5,000 years ago, canoe travel was also common in
Florida. Spaniards documented several types of Calusa
canoes, including simple dugouts, barges made by
lashing a platform between two canoes, smaller canoes
pulled as dinghies, and fancy canoes to carry the
Calusa leader: "Within two hours [came the leader
Carlos], with as many as twelve canoes, and two of
them fastened one to the other, with decks covered
with awnings of hoops and matting" (Gonzalo Solis de
Meras, 1567).


www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida 21








SOUTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE


Why are the people not around anymore, and why did
they disappear?

After Europeans arrived, Florida's native populations
were decimated by disease, warfare, and slavery. Some .
South Florida people left to go to Cuba with Spaniards.
Others may have remained in South Florida, but as
S living cultures, they were gone by the mid-1700s.

How do we know about these people and
their environment?

Most of our present written information comes from
the records of Spanish, French, and English explorers
and colonists. The old European languages are difficult
to translate, and their references and pictures are not
always understood and are sometimes biased.
However, their records provide basic information about
the people and the conditions existing at the time of
their arrival.

Early Florida people had no written languages, as far as
it is presently known.

Archaeological evidence before and after European,
contact provides additional information.




























22 @ 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu








SOUTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE


INQUIRY BOX CHECKLIST

8 1/2 x 11 Laminated Cards
'/ Picture contents cards
.^ Culture periods
Changing coastline map
Group names & location map
Fontaneda quote
DeBry/LeMoyne ceremonial picture
DeBry/LeMoyne food preservation picture
Netmaking diagram
Dwelling drawing
3-souls drawing
2 masks photograph

Artifacts
Whole pot in bag with 2 potsherds
Plastic food box with multiple food items
Small wooden canoe
2 paleo-points bagged with 1 ivory shaft
Shell tools (hammer, cup and awl) bagged together
Fabric timeline
Sorting screen
Midden material jar
Stone tools (7 small sacks bagged as one)
Cordage bag (contains net piece, shell weight, net mesh gauge, fish hook,
vine-wrap, jute triad, etc.)
Clothing bag (contains Spanish moss and olive shell)

Books and Video
Florida's First People (Brown)
Archaeologists Dig for Clues (Duke)
Best Management Practices: An Owner's Guide to Protecting
Archaeological Sites (Florida Dept. of State)
The Domain of the Calusa (30 minutes)


Word Cards
Archaeology Paleoindian
Archaic People Post-contact
Artifact Potsherd
Context Replica
Midden


Activity Cards
Laminated "Extinction" directions card
30+ laminated skill cards





www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida 23








SOUTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE


INQUIRY BOX CONTENT DESCRIPTIONS

Laminated Culture Periods Chart

Archaeologists use a detailed breakdown of the culture
periods that characterize Florida's first people. It is
another way of noting that European contact (after
which we have some, albeit limited, written record
about early Floridians) did not happen until very late in
the human occupation of Florida.

Fabric Timeline

Because children, in particular, have a hard time
comprehending the passage of time, the scroll is meant
to help make our time period more visual. Scaled at
roughly 1" = 100 years, markers are set from right to
left indicating a very limited number of recent, but
equally "old" to children, references:

2000 = today
1900 = about the time the car was invented
1800 = the U.S. was constituted just before this marker
1500 = when Europeans first came to this continent
0 = for reference only, but around 2,000 BCE we begin
to see pottery, and by 1,500 CE there is evidence of
agriculture in the northern portions of the state
5,000 BCE = another general marker, but somewhere
after this point sea level begins to stabilize
10,000 BCE = evidence of earliest Floridians

Laminated Names/Locations Map of Florida's Native
Groups at Time of European Contact

Names were generally given by the Spanish, although
most were probably based on what they thought they
heard natives saying about themselves and other
groups. Sometimes the group name was the same as
the group leader's name or the village place name.
Note the lack of the term "Timucua" on the map. This
is because Timucua is a term for a language grouping
(not a specific tribe), although it has come to describe
many of the groups in north/northcentral Florida.
Trivia: the group in the Gainesville area was probably
the Potano.


Paleoartifacts

These three items (all plastic
replicas), two points and an ivory
shaft, are from the earliest period
of Florida's peopled history and
are fairly rare, possibly because
we have access to so few sites from this period. The
Clovis point (the more straight-sided of the two) is a
familiar item in the Southwest. This one is the
southeastern variety, however, and dates from 11,500-
10,900 years ago. It would have been made of chert (a
sedimentary stone found as outcroppings in limestone).
The Simpson (sunfish) point (the more shapely of the
two) is slightly younger (10,500 years old) with the
same construction techniques. Either could be used as a
knife or as a spear point when attached with rawhide.
Good for large game. The ivory shaft is the largest
ivory tool in the New World and is probably made from
mastodon or mammoth tusk (which paleoindians
hunted here). It dates from 11,500-10,900 years ago
also. Its function is a bit of a puzzle. Sometimes the
shaft is decorated but whether that's aesthetic only,
indicates ownership, or is a charm of some kind is still
unknown. Incidentally, the dark color of all three is a
function of where they were found in river muck,
probably stained by tannic acid.

Sorting Screen

This is a small version of what might be used at an
archaeological site. The screen is very fine and thus
would catch very small objects. It was only when
archaeologists started using a smaller-holed screen that
they started finding very small objects, items that used
to be lost when screen size was larger. This has helped
the study of plant materials particularly. For the Calusa,
this has been the basis for finding many small fish
bones, suggesting that fish and not shellfish were the
main item in their diet.

Midden Jar

This sealed jar is full of material from a real
archaeological site. It has not been sorted and should
NOT be. We have neither the quantity of material nor
facilities to allow sorting at this time.


24 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu








SOUTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE


In addition to dirt, the jar may
contain plant and animal remains
and sometimes pottery pieces. It
K/ can be turned gently so students
:: ,can try to determine what might
Sbe in the jar.

Laminated Fontaneda Quote (two sides)

This is one paragraph from the memoirs of d'Escalante
Fontaneda, a young (some say 10 years old; some 13)
Spaniard who was shipwrecked off the southern Gulf
coast of Florida and taken in by the Calusa. In the 15-
20 years before he was returned to Spain, he evidently
lived among several of the Florida tribes and eventually
wrote one of the most useful documents we have. One
side of our "document" is a Spanish paragraph from
his Memoir and the other is an English translation. This
is an opportunity to talk about understanding foreign
languages as they existed at a previous time,
translations, and the names of things in other times.
What's tunny? What's a seawolf?

Laminated LeMoyne/DeBry Pictures (2)

These are prints from the engravings of Theodor DeBry
which were made in the 1590s from the watercolors
drawn by the French cartographer and artist Jacques
LeMoyne following his visit to La Florida in about
1565. (The green color of one is an accident of this
reproduction.) The pictures are one of few visual
records we have from this period.

Laminated Coastline Map of Florida
(orange/white/blue)

The outer, less recognizable shape (the orange)
indicates the larger size of Florida during the last Ice
Age. Sea levels were lower because water was frozen
into ice caps. This is the same principal involved in the
exposure of Beringia the land strip across which
animals and people came into North America. The
white outline is Florida today, with the orange now
covered by water. The difference in the two shapes
explains why we find early artifacts under the ocean.
The orange Florida is also the period of cool, dry
conditions here when the whole water table was lower


and water was scarcer. The availability of water was
the determining factor in where people lived.

Plastic Food Box

The "ingredients" of this box are listed inside the cover
and are only examples, but they are illustrative of the
kinds of food that we have found evidence of pre-
contact (after European arrival, the variety of food
increased; grains were added, plus things like peaches).
Several groupings can be used with this material: plant
vs. animal; fresh water vs. salt water; vertebrate vs.
invertebrate; etc. The items are all small, so several
children could choose something they recognize or
something they would like to know more about, and
use those examples to focus a food discussion. This is
also a good time to remind students that if you knew
where each of these items was found (context), you
might be able to draw some conclusions about the diet
of a particular group.

Laminated Dwelling Drawing

Houses being made of "soft" things like wood,
archaeological evidence is not strong except
for discolored postholes. Spanish records do give
some description. This is an artist's rendering of
that information.

Laminated Masks Drawing

Among the finds from early archaeological work on
Marco Island were wooden masks. Fortunately, the
expedition artist, Wells Sawyer, made drawings of these
masks, since they began to deteriorate and lost their
colorful designs after removal from the water-filled site.
The mask on the left is the Sawyer drawing. On the
right is how the mask looks today. A procession of
masked figures was described by Father Rogel while he
was trying to Christianize the Calusa. Masks may have
been used in secret ceremonies too.


www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida 25








SOUTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE


Shell Tools (Hammer, Awl, and Cup)

The lightning whelk was a great source of tool parts for
the Calusa and other coastal people in Florida.
The hammer-like tool basically has only the central
column removed and a handle inserted. The awl is
that center column. And the cup is another outer
shell with more extensive centerpieces removed.
These "tools" may have provided dinner first. Shells
were also used as trade items to northern neighbors,
for use as drinking vessels, and as material to make
shell beads and ornaments.

Stone Tools (Points, Cores, Celt)

When animals in Florida got smaller, tools did too.
Except for chert, Florida is not a good source of stone.
The groundstone celt would have come via trade
from the Appalachian piedmont. All these pieces
come from the Gift, Trade & Loan collection at
Dickinson Hall real artifacts with the context
removed so they are unusable for research. Most
were given to the Museum.

Pot and Sherds

Calusa pots were usually fairly plain and functional, but
some pottery in Florida was more decorated. Pottery
can be used to date and place the culture it came from.
Sometimes it is the composition of the clay that is
distinctive; sometimes the design. One pot even shows
designs that had to be made by corncobs but was
found in a place and at a time not known to grow
corn. The whole pot is a breakable replica. The sherds
show a variety of styles.

Basket-making Vine

Multiple plants could be used in basket-making, which
was an important skill. This is just grapevine and can be
used to demonstrate the good and bad of dried vines.

Netmaking Equipment (Piece of Net, Net-Mesh
Gauge, Triad of Jute), Ark Shell and Fishhook

"Cordage-making" was another valuable skill,
especially in a fish/seafood-eating culture such as many
in Florida. This net is obviously modern but will allow


you to talk about what net might
be made of and how the gauge
helped to make even holes (so
little fish don't slip out the bigger I,
holes in your net). Ark shells were
used as net weights. The little
piece of jute can be used to
demonstrate braiding (although it probably was done
with only two strands). There is also a replica of a
1500-year-old fishhook probably made from deer
bone. Why are few samples of net found in
archaeological sites?

Laminated Netmaking Diagram

Note the net-mesh gauge and shuttle drawings. Fish
spine needles could have been used as shuttles.

Laminated Three-Souls Drawing

This picture is artist Merald Clark's idea about a Calusa
belief described by a Spanish priest in 1567: "They say
that each person has three souls...One is the little pupil
of the eye; another is the shadow that each one casts;
and the last is the image of oneself that each one sees
in a mirror or a calm pool of water."

Potential Clothing

The Spanish moss and an olive seashell suggest some
potential sources (plants and the sea) of what little
clothing the early people of Florida needed. The other
obvious source would be animal skins.

Canoe

Yellow pine was probably the tree of choice among
early Florida natives, although cypress is also a
possibility. For the burn and scrape method used
(hence "dugout"), pine burns nicely. Wet clay could be
used to slow/limit the fire. The Calusa, in particular,
were sophisticated seamen. Canoe style varied
depending on its use shallow water, rough water, etc.
The Spaniards reported that South Florida Indian men
and women traveled to Cuba by canoe in the 1600s to
trade with Spanish Cubans.


26 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu








SOUTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE


KEY WORDS

archaeology explorer environment midden population







INQUIRY BOX CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES

Teachers may wish to have students engage in the
following activities.


1. State archaeological sites to visit in person or on
the Internet:

Crystal River State Archaeological Site Crystal River:
www.citruscounty-fl.com/CrysRiv.html
Shell Mound Archaeological Site near Cedar Key
(no Internet address)
Randell Research Center Pineland near Ft. Myers:
www.flmnh.ufl.edu/anthro/sflarch/calusa
8/pineland.htm

2. Why is the saying, "Take nothing but pictures,
leave nothing but footprints," a good one at any
archaeological site?

3. Southern Florida's native people used many natural
resources to make things: seashells, animal bones,
plants, and stones. Which do you think was most
valuable to them? Why? Explain your thinking in
one or two paragraphs.

4. You are the first person to see a Spanish ship
approaching your land. What is your reaction?
What do you do? Choose one of these ways to tell
others about your experience.

Write a newspaper article about the experience.
Don't forget to give your article a title.

Write a poem about your feelings when seeing this
strange sight.


Divide your class into several groups with each
group deciding what reactions you wish to act out,
and who takes which part. Ask your teacher how
much time you have for planning and for acting
out your scenario before the whole class.

5. Pre-contact native people had to rely on natural
resources for food, tools, housing, and decorations.
Which of the workers skilled in those areas -
pottery maker, fisherman, hunter, gatherer, stone
tool maker, basket maker, woodworker, or builder -
would you like to be? Why? Write about your
work in one or two paragraphs. Include a picture
of yourself at work.

6. How did living close to the sea affect the lives of
southern Florida's natives? Tell about at least two
ways in one or two paragraphs.

7. You, as an archaeologist, have found evidence of
what appears to be wooden postholes in a midden.
What might this mean? Explain your reasoning in
one or two paragraphs.

8. Explain why canoes were important to Calusa life.
Why would they want different sizes and styles of
canoes? You may either write your explanation in
one or two paragraphs or have a class discussion
where everyone states their ideas.


www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida 27








SOUTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE


9. What is an estuary? Why is it sometimes called
"the cradle of the ocean?" Explain how you came
to this conclusion. What references did you use?

10. In the late 1600s, Yamasee and Creeks from the
north came into Florida. They captured some South
Florida natives and sold them into slavery to the
English in North Carolina. Why would the northern
natives do this? Write one or two paragraphs
explaining your reasoning. If you were a Calusa
Indian, would you agree with this reasoning? If
you were an English settler, would you agree with
this reasoning?

11. Imagine that you are a Calusa child. Write a story
of a typical day in your life from the time you wake
up in the morning until you go to sleep at night.
What do you eat? What games do you play? What
is your family like? How do you help your family?
Who are your friends?


13. The Calusa were very
dependent on fish and other
aquatic life for food. Are
people today dependent on
aquatic environments as food 1 .,
sources? Do the Project Wild
Aquatic activity called "Water
We Eat."

14. Study the picture in your teacher's Inquiry Box
guide that shows a man emptying more garbage
onto a midden. Write a story that explains the
history of this situation. Your story might explain
what the man is doing and how he feels about his
job. The story might explain what the midden tells
us about the people who live near this site. It could
also tell about the people who created the buried
structure at the bottom of the cutaway. Maybe you
could write about the reaction of the cotton mouse
or seagulls visiting the site.


12. Each student in your class needs one seashell. Now
imagine that you are all Calusa Indians and think
about what your shell might be used for. An eating
utensil? An ornament for clothing? A tool for
preparing animal skins? A weapon? A weight for a
fishing net? How would you change the shell to
make it work for your purpose? Draw the shell as it
is. Then draw the shell as it might be used in
everyday Calusa life.

























28 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu








SOUTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE


Wherever people lived, garbage middens seemed to grow.


www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida 29


r







SOUTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE

I





R







































30 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu








SOUTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE


Mask Drawings


Among the finds from early
archaeological work on Marco
Island were wooden masks.
Fortunately, the expedition
artist, Wells Sawyer, made
drawings of these masks, since
they began to deteriorate and
lost their colorful designs after
removal from the water-filled
site. The mask on the left is the
Sawyer drawing. On the right is
how the mask looks today. A
procession of masked figures
S.A was described by Father Rogel
while he was trying to
Christianize the Calusa. Masks
Ii. may have been used in secret
ceremonies too. Colored copies
of these drawings are included
in the Inquiry Box.






























www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida 31








SOUTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE


CALUSA LEADER'S HOUSE DIORAMA


Much research goes into creating a diorama. Many
people help in its creation. The researchers and artists
thoroughly review historical documents, artifacts and
other archaeological evidence, and occasional early
drawings of artifacts and people. Researchers then try
to establish a framework for the scene from these
various researched facts. Certain facts are known, while
other facts are not known. For example, it is known
that the Calusa people depicted in the Calusa Leader's
House painted their bodies, much like tattooing but
without the paint being permanent. But what the body
paint designs actually looked like is not known. So the
artist looks at designs used by Calusa people on other
artifacts, and then makes reasonable guesses about
possible body paint designs. This is how researchers
and artists decide how to create a scene that is based
on real facts whenever possible, and on reasonable
"guesses" about other details that are not known from
history or archaeology.

The artist imparts a vision of the scene based upon
historical and archaeological facts. The items that you
see in the diorama are sometimes replicas of actual
artifacts, and sometimes creations partially based on
fact and partially on "good guesses" based on other
facts. For instance, there are plaques on the walls of
the house that may represent family, or tribal, seals.
These seals are intricately designed and highlight the
Calusa's highly developed arts of woodcarving and
painting. There are also masks hanging on the walls of
the same quality as the seals. It is known that the seals
and masks were painted. The colors used were white,
black, blue, and red. Their exact brightness and how
the paint was applied is unknown, just like it is
unknown if certain colors had certain significance. It is
also not known exactly how these seals were used: for


In the Leader's House scene, more
information exists about the
period of time after the Spaniards
arrived in Florida than about times
further in the past. In the Calusa
Leader's House, the researchers and artists made a
decision to depict the scene during the time period
after the arrival of the Spanish because of the
comparative wealth of information available about that
time: approximately 1564 CE.

The people in the scene are not stereotypes. They are
re-creations of people who actually lived. Spanish
documents recorded their names and relationships as
well as details about a meeting such as that shown in
the diorama.

The diorama incorporates known facts from research
and re-creations of actual artifacts and people. The
diorama is an educated, conjectural scene based on the
researchers' and artists' interpretations of known
historical and archaeological data.


example, whether they were hung on the walls, carried
in ceremonies, or used in some other activity. The
researchers and artists supply the interpretation as best
they can based upon their research and experience.












32 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu







SOUTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE


Photo of the Calusa Leader's House Diorama


www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida 33






SOUTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE
ACTIVITY ONE WORD PUZZLE


F I S H I N G M PCP

P U Z N U D C I A A Y E

S H I N H Q O D E H P A

P A L E O I N D IA N S

W I U W W A T E R M B H

S C A L U S A N G J X E

C R Y O L U C A N O E L

D U D I L J T O O L S L

A R C H A E O L O G Y I




archaeology
Calusa
canoe
contact
fishing
midden
paleoindians
seashell
tools
water


34 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu






SOUTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE
ACTIVITY TWO WORD PUZZLE


U F FONT
0 0 L S B F


S U T
PAX
A F E


C C A R
M E C R
P R E -
MECR
PRE-


A N E DAO P E
IS H E RMAN
T I F A C T E I
E T N U HQ R L


CO N T


A C T E


I GT G A N E
N I NY GO L


T M A K I


NGM


SE A H C R A


0 E 0
OEO
Z UC
B AA
R H L


Z D R E
S N A I


E X T


G NED


I Y U A S E A
TV S ES EC
H NACOO N
F C D I S EA

archaeology gatherer
archaic people hunter
artifact ice age
Calusa masks
canoe midden
context netmaking
coontie paleoindians
disease potsherd


extinction
fisherman
Fontaneda


pre-contact
resources
seashell


H S TOP


J GT


D N I OELAP


I N C T


I N T M


D I M G P P H A
SH E L L W E S
R UO S E R R K
T I E V E G E S
S EO N A C R K

Spain
timeline
tools


www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida 35







SOUTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE

ACTIVITY THREE CROSSWORD PUZZLE




12 3 4
[--------- ____
r

__-_^ ^ ^ _


10



F1 2
- ~L9


artifact
Calusa
canoe
context
cordage
Disease
immunity
midden
natural resources
paleoindians
posthole
pre-contact
replica
Tequesta


Across
2. before
Europeans and
Florida's early
native people
met each other
4. the
surrounding
elements of an
artifact
5. a trash heap
9. rope, netting,
string, etc.
made from
plants


11. the major
source of
building
material for
early people
12. one of the
main causes of
death for
post-contact
native people
13. a group of
early native
people from
southwest
Florida


Down
1. archaeological
evidence for
buildings
2. the earliest
people to live
on the Florida
peninsula
3. a popular form
of
transportation
for early
southern
Florida native
people


6. being
protected from
a disease via
antibody
build-up
7. a group of
South Florida's
early native
people
8. an exact copy
or model
10. an object
made by
people


36 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu








SOUTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE

ACTIVITY FOUR- CROSSWORD PUZZLE


artifact
Calusa
collection
contact
context
cordage
disease
dugout
epidemic
explorer
fiber
midden
mound
paleoindians
replica
whelk


Down


2. an object used by early people
4. objects acquired and organized for
study
7. trash heap
9. a person looking for new territory,
wealth or information
13. the immediate situation and its
surrounding elements
14. canoe made by hollowing out a log
15. an exact copy of something
16. multiple plant fibers used for making
ropes, cords, twine, etc.


1. the name given to the oldest known
people of Florida
3. a large, edible marine snail whose shell
was used by early Florida native people
5. a widespread disease that affects many
people at the same time
6. plant material that can be separated
into thread-like parts for weaving
8. the interaction of one group with
another
10. illness that causes sickness or death
11. a group of early native people who lived
along the southwestern coast of Florida
12. an elevated geographical area. It may
be a burial mound, midden mound or
platform mound


www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida 37


Across







SOUTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE

ACTIVITY FIVE BREAK THE CODE





Break the code and discover the hidden message about
the Calusa people
The code is hidden in the arithmetic answers below. Decipher the code for each
word and replace the number with the word.


6 44 23


8 21 49 15


28 63 5


38


The clues to break the code:


7X2+3=

4X5+3=

4X4=

64 -14 =

7X6-4=

53 + 18 =

3X3-1=

7X7=

62 34 =


Atlantic

and

before

coast

Egypt

Europeans

fished

Florida's

first


3X5=

32 27 =

6X6+8=

8X7=

9X4+4=

7X3=

18/. 3=

8X8-1=

28 /. 2 =


38 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu


Gulf

in

lived

long

net

on

people

pyramids

the








SOUTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE


HOW EXTINCTION CAME TO EARLY SOUTHERN FLORIDIANS

It takes many people working together to make a community function. If we think of an
early South Florida community before the Europeans arrived in La Florida, you could find
these skilled workers:


warrior
fisher person
healer
stone toolmaker
pottery maker


food gatherer
net maker
shell toolmaker
story teller
religious leader


basket maker
village leader
hunter
canoe builder


You may want to write this list on the chalkboard for reference.



A complete set of skill cards is included in the Inquiry
Box, or you can make a set by writing each of the
above skills on small cards numbered randomly one
through five. Repeat until the number of cards equals
the number of students.

Distribute the skill cards.
Ask everyone to stand.


1. When the Spanish explorers first came to Florida,
many conflicts arose. There were many
misunderstandings between the Spaniards and the
native people because of their different languages.
Often the Indian people thought that the Spaniards
had come to take land and possessions away from
them. Sometimes the Spaniards took the food that
belonged to the Indians. The Spaniards forced the
Indians to serve as guides and carry their goods.
Spaniards tried to force Indian people to accept
their religion, Catholicism. Battles arose. The
Spaniards had many battle advantages like horses,
guns, and war dogs. Many native people died.

Look at the number on the back of your card. All
those who have a #1 on their skill card have now
died from these conflicts. #1s should be seated.


2. Europeans brought diseases with them. Native
people had no resistance to new diseases like small
pox and measles. Even diseases like the flu were
unknown among the native people. If people
happened to come in contact with a European who
carried the germs from one of these diseases, then
the people could get sick. In fact, so many people
got sick that not enough healthy people were left
to care for the sick ones. So more people died.
Parents who were sick could not care for their
children, so their children died.

Look at the number on the back of your skill card.
All those who have a #2 on their skill card have
now died from some disease. #2s should be seated.


How Extinction Came To Early Southern Floridians continues on next page.







www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida 39








SOUTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE


3. As the 1600s began, more Spaniards came to
Florida. Many sought the native people as slaves.
The Spaniards forced the Indians to go with them
and work as laborers as they traveled through
Florida. Indians were also forced to work in
missions that the Spaniards were building as part of
their effort to force religion on the native people.
This meant that native people were removed from
their villages. They may not have died, but they
may never have lived with their own people again.

Look at the number on your card. All those who
have a #3 on their skill card have now been
enslaved and removed from the community. #3s
should be seated.


4. The British who settled north of Florida and their
Yamasee Indian allies attempted to move into
Spanish territory. More Florida natives were killed
or enslaved.

Look at the number on your card. All those who
have a #4 on their skill card have now died from
British and Yamasee raids. #4s should be seated.

Who is left standing? What skills do the remaining
students have? Using the skilled worker list, check
off the skills that are left. The tribe no longer has
to provide
their skills and services to the community and to
pass those skills on to the young people. How is
the community going to survive? What will happen
to those people who are left?


40 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu







PART THREE

NORTHERN FLORIDA'$
EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE


www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida 41






NORTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE

h Please be sure to read Part One before going though this section. It contains information
necessary to use this and other Inquiry Boxes and to visit the Museum.


'lIt fi ,1111,. I1 I' i 111di'1


\


To see individual items in the the Northern Florida's Early Native People Inquiry Box, visit the Museum's website
at www.flmnh.ufl.edu.








42 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu


-lfllllllll~


"+s







NORTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE



Frequently Asked Questions about Northern Florida's Early Native People I


Who are they and
where did they live?

Two group names dominate northern Florida:
Apalachee and Timucua. Yet they are very different
kinds of "groups."

The Apalachee controlled the area between the Aucilla
and Ochlockonee Rivers. They are best known from
the time of Spanish contact because of DeSoto's
activities in this region and later mission activities. Early
Apalachee culture was closer to the Mississippian
cultures of the southeastern United States than to other
Florida groups. The Lake Jackson Mounds are prime
sources of evidence.

The Timucua, on the other hand, are not a single
group. "Timucua" reflects the common language
spoken by multiple groups in northern Florida
(excluding the Panhandle), northcentral Florida,
and even southern Georgia. The best known names
in this large group are probably the Saturiwa, Utina,
and Potano.

What kind of houses did they live in?

Early Spanish records described a round or oval house.
Archaeological evidence tells us little about houses or
living facilities because soft materials like wood and
fiber do not preserve well.

Archaeologists at Mission San Luis de Apalachee found
postholes in circles of 65 foot and 120 foot diameters,
as well as those for rectangular Spanish buildings.
Except for the council house and the houses of leaders,
dwellings of most Indian people were probably in
outlying areas closer to their work.


What did they eat?

Diet varied with location and season. It certainly
changed after European contact. Northern native
people hunted deer, alligator, turtle, snake, rabbit,
opossum, raccoon, etc. and fished for shark, catfish,
sheepshead, gar, mullet, pinfish, oysters, marine snails,
clams, etc. They also gathered wild plants like coontie,
hickory nuts, acorns, prickly pear, maypop, wild grapes,
etc. The Apalachee in particular, and other North
Florida groups to a lesser degree, grew crops such as
corn, beans, and squash.

After Europeans arrived in Florida, foods like peaches,
citrus, sugar, beef, and grains were added to native
people's diets.

What kind of clothing did they wear?

In Florida's mild climate, very little clothing
was necessary.

Sketches by the Frenchman Jacques LeMoyne showed
North Florida men with buckskin loincloths and women
in Spanish moss or woven-fiber skirts. In cooler
weather, a buckskin cloak, or cape, could be added for
warmth. Feet were probably bare.

Spaniards also reported body paint and tattoos,
especially for men and chiefs. Shells, bone jewelry, and
feathers adorned the hair.

How did they travel?

People traveled on foot. Canoes have been
common for at least 5,000 years in Florida. By the
time of Spanish arrival, specialized types of canoes
were being used.


www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida 43








NORTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE


Why are the people not around anymore, and why did
they disappear?

After Europeans arrived, the native populations and their
cultures died from disease, warfare, and slavery. Some
northern Florida native people fled with Spanish residents
as the British invaded from the north. As living cultures,
they were gone from Florida by the mid-1700s.

How do we know about these people and
their environment?

Much of our present written information comes from the
written records of Spanish, French, and English explorers,
priests, and colonists. The old European languages are
difficult to translate, and the references and pictures are not
always understood and are sometimes biased. However, the
records provide basic information about the people and the
conditions existing at the time of European arrival.

Early Florida people had no written languages, as far as it is
presently known. Catholic priests wrote down what they
learned of northeastern Florida's languages. Two letters and
a dictionary of the Timucuan language exist.


Archaeological evidence before and after European contact
provide additional information.


44 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu








NORTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE





INQUIRY BOX CHECKLIST


Individual Boxes
Owl totem
Celt or other stone tool
Chunkey stone
Food bag corn kernels, pumpkin seeds, squash seeds, dried beans, jerky piece, seashells,
sunflower seeds, peach pits, fish bones, acorns, shark's tooth, & peas
Pottery bag 2 pieces of terra cotta clay
Trade bag glass beads, seashells, mica, "string," bell, potsherd, shark's tooth
Cordage bag raffia twist

Word Cards
Archaeology Post-contact
Artifact Trade
Context Potsherd
La Florida Celt
Apalachee Chunkey stone
Timucua Cordage
Pre-contact Import
Replica Export

Books and Video
The Timucua Indians; A Native American Detective Story (Weitzel)
The Apalachee Indians and Mission San Luis (Hann & McEwan)
The Timucua (Milanich)
Florida Archaeology: An Overview (Florida Anthropological Society)
National Geographic, Dec. 2000 plus MAP
Best Management Practices: An Owner's Guide to Protecting Archaeological Sites
(Florida Dept. of State)
Mission San Luis de Apalachee, (12 minutes)


Picture Cards
Culture periods chart
Florida's coastline diagram
Florida map with current reference points
Florida map with group names
LeMoyne/DeBry deliberation picture
Reconstructed interior of Council House exhibit photo
Reconstructed exterior of Chief's and Council Houses exhibit photo
Purdy newspaper column






www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida 45








NORTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE


INQUIRY BOX CONTENT DESCRIPTIONS

Two suitcases, labeled A and B, are required for each
NORTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE
presentation or loan. Together, Inquiry Box A and B
contain 15 student boxes. Each student box is labeled
with a colorized version of a shell gorget, probably
depicting a chunkey game player, and contains the
items listed on the Checklist and described below.

Each student box includes the following artifacts.

The Chunkey Stone (replica) was used to teach life
skills through a game. It was also a trade item. The
chunkey stone was a disk-shaped stone usually made
of greenstone or quartzite. Someone would roll a
chunkey stone across a flat area. While the stone was
still moving, two players would throw spears to mark
the spot where they thought the stone would stop.
Since animals or enemies did not stop for a spear to hit
them, a hunter or warrior needed to know how to
calculate the speed and distance of a moving object.
The game was both fun and taught a valuable skill for
hunters and warriors.

The costumed "thrower" pictured on the gorget (a
shield-like necklace piece) on top of each box suggests
that this was a game with much ceremony. Spanish
priests complained about the gambling that took place
during the game. What might the object pictured in
the other hand of the player be used for?

The Owl Totem is a miniature replica of a real totem. A
full-sized, 6-foot-high replica stands inside the door of
the Museum. The original is in the museum at Ft.
Caroline. It is carved from a pine log and dates about
1200 CE. It was found in the muck of the St. Johns
River in Volusia County. The rough carving was
probably done through the use of fire and scraping,
like a canoe would be made. Details were added with
seashells and sharks' teeth. The squared end below the
owl's feet indicates that the totem stood upright. What
did the owl represent? What was the totem's purpose?
It cannot be said for sure, but it may have been a
territory marker or family "clan" symbol. It also may
have been warning sign, had religious significance, or
have marked a burial ground.


The owl totem is one of a few I"
wooden artifacts found in Florida.
Wood does not preserve well in
Florida's warm and damp climate, which is
especially destructive. Under certain conditions in
underwater environments like river bottoms,
peat moss beds, or certain springs, conditions
without oxygen promote preservation. This was
the case with the owl totem.

A Stone Celt is an early tool sometimes used to pound
or chisel and sometimes used for ceremonies. It was
commonly made in the southeastern U.S. from
greenstone, which is a metamorphic rock (a rock that
has been changed in form from natural forces) that
could be ground and shaped. Many celts that are
found show wear from use. Some are polished and
were probably used in ceremonies. Copper celts have
also been found in burial sites. Celts were sometimes
made from whelk shells and tied to a wooden handle.
Celts were usually made from greenstone or copper,
which are not found in Florida. The closest source for
greenstone is in the Appalachian piedmont in northern
Georgia and the Carolinas. The closest source of copper
is in the Great Lakes region. This indicates that celts
were trade items.

The Food Bag contains modern items that are
NOT EDIBLE.

The items represent both pre-contact and post-contact
foods and can be sorted accordingly. Included are
gathered, farmed, fished, and hunted items. Another
"sort" might be farm versus non-farm items.

Corn is a pre-contact crop. It is one of the oldest and
most successful farmed crops in North America. It was
introduced from Mexico 2,000 years ago and became
the dominant crop 1,000 years ago. Corn ears were
much smaller than they are today. In Florida, men
would clear and burn the fields for farming. The
women planted the corn seeds in small hills. Corn was
eaten fresh or cooked. Dried corn could be prepared
for eating by soaking it in an "ash" mixture. The
mixture would soften the dried corn so it could be
ground for use as hominy, mush, corn bread, tortilla-
like cakes, etc.


46 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu











- T Beans are a pre-contact crop.
SThey were valuable as a source of
protein when fish or game was scarce.
They also could be dried for later use
and transported easily. DeSoto found several
varieties in Florida.

Pumpkin was probably an "accidental" crop. Pumpkin
was not generally planted as a row crop, but it was
raised, perhaps in "kitchen gardens" or planted
between other row crops.

Squash was boiled or roasted and used in stews or for
bread. The oil from the seed also could be used.

Sunflower seeds were probably another accidental
crop. They were roasted and used as a source of
carbohydrate and oil.

Jerky represents a preserving process well known to
Florida native people. Deer or bear jerky would indicate
pre-contact, and beef would indicate post-contact.

Sharks' teeth are included to remind students that
some animals, like sharks, were used in many ways.
Sharks were used first as food, their liver was a source
of oil, teeth were used as drills or decorations, and the
skin could become sand paper.

Fish bones remind us that fish were abundant in all
parts of Florida. Both freshwater and saltwater fish
were a large part of the diet.

Peas were introduced into Florida by Spaniards.

The peach pit represents another food item introduced
by Spaniards.

The acorn comes from an oak tree. White oak acorns
from the Florida Panhandle could be eaten raw. Red
oak acorns were bitter and had to be processed. Acorns
were the best source of oil in early diets. There are
accounts that acorn butter was served only to a chief.


RIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE


The seashell represents shellfish such as oysters, clams,
coquinas, whelks, crabs, conchs, and shrimp as food
sources. Shellfish was abundant along the seashore, in
bays, and in estuaries in northern Florida waters.
Seashells were used as tools and as decorations.

The Clay Bag contains two small pieces of non-
hardening terra cotta colored clay. Students can make a
coil pot. (See demonstration pictures in Robin Brown's
Florida's First People.) The pots will be small, but the
idea is to find out how difficult it is to make one. The
clay will soften with use. Please smash the clay into
two pieces before returning the pieces to the bag.

The Cordage Bag contains a knotted twist of several
strands of raffia. It can be used to make string or rope.
Raffia is from a palm tree native to Africa. In Florida,
other palms and plant products were used. Try to twist
the strands into a strong cord. This activity requires two
students. Robin Brown's description or demonstration
pictures should help. Strands should be twisted in
opposite directions to make the rope. The string or
rope was used to tie stone, bone, or seashells to a
handle; string jewelry or jerky; build houses or carrying
packs; make fishing nets; and tie clothing together.

The Trade Bag contains several items that were valued
for trading purposes. There are some replicas of items
that were found, but not made, in Florida. There are
also replicas of items found outside the state but made
in Florida. Only the potsherds are real artifacts. They
were donated and their history is unknown. This is a
good reminder that artifacts lose their research value
when they are removed from a site without proper
documentation of their context.

The potsherd provides a lasting record of the early
people of Florida. The pottery breaks, but the pieces
survive. The potsherds tell us what pottery was made
from and how it was decorated. Where it was found
in relation to other artifacts also provides additional
information about the early people. Sometimes
the shape of a potsherd suggests the pot's shape
and size, and therefore its use. Florida pottery could
be traded to outsiders.


www.fmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida 47








NORTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE


Mica is a mineral found in clay in North Florida. Larger
pieces came to Florida as trade items, sometimes in
square shapes. Their use is unknown. Occasionally, a
piece is found that is intricately etched and probably
belonged to nobility.

Bells were given to the early people by the DeSoto
expedition. The gifts were given to promote goodwill,
obtain food, or obtain information.

Shells in the trade bag represent the use of shellfish
and shells as valuable trade items: as food, tools, and
decorations. Look at the River Trade Scene in the
Northwest Florida Hall at FLMNH.

Beads were given to early native people to promote
good will or obtain food or information. Indian people
enjoyed using beads as ornaments.


"String" was made from the 7~ 4
abundant resources of Florida. The
ability to fasten things together was
vital to building and to making items like
clothing. Cord was made from either plant material or
animal sinew or hide.

Note to teachers:
One of the objectives is to teach students proper care
of the items in their boxes. Controlling how students
open and remove items from boxes and helping them
replace materials and close the boxes is important.



KEY WORDS

acorn butter ash
chiseling colonist cultivated
DeSoto fiber gorget
mission nobility
Panhandle peat moss raffia sinew whelk


48 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu











INQUIRY BOX
CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES


Teachers may wish to have students engage
in the following activities.

1. State archaeology sites to visit in person or
on the Internet:

Marcos de Apalachee St. Marks Island:
www.adp.fsu.edu/clovis/r98709al.html
Crystal River State Archaeological Site -
Crystal River:
www.citruscounty-fl.com/CrysRiv.html
Shell Mound Archaeological Site -
near Cedar Key (no Internet address)
Ft. Caroline Jacksonville:
www. nps.gov/foca/
Lake Jackson Mounds Archaeological Site -
near Tallahassee:
http://abfal.com/parks/LakeJacksonMounds
/lakejackson.html
Ft. Walton Temple Mound Museum and Park -
Fort Walton Beach:
(no Internet address)
Mission San Luis de Apalachee Tallahassee:
www.dos.state.fl.us/dhr/bar/san luis/

Tell the class what you found at these sites and why
you think it is important to learn about our history.

2. Why is the saying, "Take nothing but pictures,
leave nothing but footprints," a good one at any
archaeological site?


DRIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE



3. Make your own chunkey stone for use on the
playground by filling a tuna can, or something
similar, with plaster of Paris. You could also
sculpture clay, as long as you can keep the stone
round with flat edges. You may need to smooth
edges with fine-grained sandpaper. Instead of the
spear that early native people would have used to
throw at the stone, you might try throwing a flat
stone, or other object like an eraser, that will not
roll. Remember the idea is to see which player can
come the closest to where the chunkey stone stops
rolling. You will need a third student to roll the
stone for the two players. CAUTION: Be careful of
other students in the area who may be hit by any
thrown objects. Besides the fun, why would early
Indian men and boys want to perfect this skill?

4. How did living in northern Florida affect a boy's or
girl's life in the 1500s? Discuss at least two
different ways.

5. Which of the materials listed below would you, as
a Timucuan of the 1400s, prefer to work with? If
you were a hunter? If you were an artist? Explain
which item you would choose for each situation
and why.


Mica Greenstone
Seashell Animal bone


Chert Limestone
Clay


'"/


www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida 49








NORTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE


6. You are an Apalachee man in the year 1635. You
live at Mission San Luis de Apalachee. What kind
of work would you prefer: potter, warrior, religious
leader, hunter, chief? Write a job description of
what you would do for one of these occupations.
Now, write a job description for a woman of the
same period and place.

7. If you lived near Gainesville in the 1500s, what
group of people would you belong to? What
language would you speak? Write one or two
paragraphs describing the land around your village.

8 The Spaniards came to America for "Gold, Glory,
and God." What does that mean?

9. Matanzas Inlet, south of St. Augustine, gets its
name from an incident that occurred between the
French and Spanish in 1565. Research the incident
and lead a class discussion.


10. If you had a choice of a career I I
as an archaeologist or a
historian, which one would you -
choose? Why?

11. How did Florida get its name? Write a one or two
paragraph explanation.

12. Pedro Men6ndez, a Spanish explorer in Florida,
thought he was able to sail from today's cities of
Jacksonville to Tampa and to Lake Okeechobee,
and from Lake Okeechobee to Miami or Ft. Myers
without sailing into the ocean. Look at a map of
Florida. Do you think that this could be done?
Why or why not?


River Trade Scene Diorama


Much research goes into creating a diorama. Many
people help in its creation. The researchers and artists
thoroughly review historical documents, artifacts and
other archaeological evidence, and occasional early
drawings of artifacts and people. Researchers then try
to establish a framework for the scene from these
various researched facts. Certain facts are known,
while other facts are not known. Researchers and
artists decide how to create a scene that is based on
real facts whenever possible, and on reasonable
"guesses" about other details that are not known from
history or archaeology.


The artist imparts a vision of the scene based upon the
historical and archaeological facts. The items that you
see in the diorama are sometimes replicas of actual
artifacts, and sometimes creations partially based on
fact and partially on "good guesses" based on other
facts. The researchers and artists supply the
interpretation as best they can, based upon their
research and experience.

The diorama incorporates known facts from research
with re-creations of actual artifacts and people. The
diorama is an educated, conjectural scene based on the
researchers' and artists' interpretations of known
historical and archaeological data.


50 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu







NORTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE

































Photo of River Trade Scene Diorama
















www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida 51







NORTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE


Timucua areas


Apalachee areas


The location of some of Florida's native groups are shown as they were recorded
at the time that Europeans came to the Florida peninsula in the 1500s.
Note that those tribes in the darker area shared a similar language and are therefore all known as Timucua.




52 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu






NORTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE
gp ACTIVITY ONE -WORD PUZZLE

AHOA P T I M U C U A D Y
P Z C E L T S P X J S R J A
ADP KRR E SOURCES
L F J C F A F XWY K HQQ
A C D X ND Y K LN I APS
C H U N K E Y STO N E C N
H V M G HG I SOL WOH T
EONAC X D Q T O Y L Z U
E D D I S E A S E T K O F B
C L NOI S S I M T L G Y E
W P M L J K F Z J M S Y F S
Y X V T MQ Z X K K COFT
T P OW F J FR Y F L Y B D
CVPO D R K T I P Y K Z F
WQ W P ZXGYCK L W R N

Apalachee Timucua
archaeology trade
canoe
celt
chunkey stone
disease
mission
owl totem
resources
Spain


www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida 53






NORTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE
k ACTIVITY TWO WORD PUZZLE


F C I Z X A B V M


Z HMO V B C A N OE K
T L EC G P A N H A N D
N A T U R A L RESOU
AFO N E X PO R T T R
I L T R E H C E U ESA
DOLDNUOMTR Y L
NRWP S Y GO LO E A
I IOD T H C H U C K R
ODN PO S T CONT
EAOSN F E U I R U I
L R I Z EC Z R R D HF
A C S P A IN E G A C A
POSTHO L E A G UC
P O NSCO N T E X T
ABM I D D E N TWO


VDC I
OWGV
L E R L
R C E D
A D E B
ADEB


ES


I D


EZ SL
H C R A
C T D U
A C T C
L L J U
A H J M
P 0 H I
A F L T
I N C T
Y S D M
HCRA
CTDU
ACTC
LLJU
AHJM
POHI
AFLT


YSDM


agriculture
Apalachee
archaeology
artifact
canoe
celt
chert
chunkey stone
context
cordage
disease
export


extinct Spain
greenstone Timucua
La Florida trade
midden
mission
mound
natural resource
owl totem
Paleoindian
Panhandle
post-contact
posthole


54 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu


WWD








NORTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE

ACTIVITY THREE CROSSWORD PUZZLE A


Across
1. a round stone
disk used by
early Floridians
to play a game
4. one of the
animals brought
by the Spanish
to Florida to
provide food
6. exchanging one
item for another
9. the study that
helps us know
about people by
looking at
"things"


Down
1. an early means
of transportation
used in Florida
2. the group of
people who
shared a
language in
northeastern
Florida
3. a stone tool
shaped like a
chisel
5. the early people
who lived
around
Tallahassee


7. one of the main
killers of early
Floridians after
contact with
Europeans
8. an early crop
raised by North
Floridians


Apalachee
archaeology
canoe
cattle
celt
chunkey stone
corn
disease
Timucua
trade


www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida 55









NORTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE


ACTIVITY FOUR- CROSSWORD PUZZLE


Across
5. farming, raising crops
7. a round stone disk
used by early
Floridians to play a
game
9. sending a local item to
another, distant
location
11. one of the animals
brought by the
Spanish to Florida to
provide food
12. the early people who
lived around
Tallahassee
13. an early crop raised by
North Floridians


15. the country whose
explorers named
Florida
16. no longer living
18. exchanging one item
for another
19. one kind of Florida
mound
S Down
1. the study that helps us
know about people by
looking at "things"
2. the first people on the
Florida peninsula
3. the time before
Europeans and native
people met each other
4. details about where an
artifact is found


6. a stone tool shaped
like a chisel
8. the group of people
who shared a
language in
northeastern Florida
10. one of the main killers
of early Floridians after
contact with Europeans
12. an object used by
people and found by
archaeologists
14. the community built by
Catholic priests who
wanted to Christianize
Florida natives
17. an early means of
transportation used in
Florida


agriculture
Apalachee
archaeology
artifact
canoe
cattle
celt
chunkey stone
context
corn
disease
export
extinct
midden
mission
Paleoindians
pre-contact
Spain
Timucua
trade


5P N L 0 0 Flrd Mueu of Naua Hsoy Gansvle Floid www P


56 @ 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida


www.flmnh.ufl.edu








NORTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE

ACTIVITY FIVE BREAK THE CODE




Break the code and discover the hidden message about
the Apalachee People

The code is hidden in the math answers below. Decipher the code for each word and replace
the number with the word.


1


44 22 53 70 15 28 18


21 8 63






The clues to breaking the code:


7X2+1 =

4X5+7=

2X4=

64-11 =

8X6-4=

53 + 17 =

3X3-8=

7X9=

52 34 =


teach

chunkey

a

and

trade

to

The

game

skills


www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida 57


3X7=

42 37 =

6X6-8=

8X9=

9X5+4=

7 X 4 -6=

21 '. 3=


through

stone

life

as

used

item

was









NORTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE ...

ACTIVITY SIX REVERSE JEOPARDY, PART A


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58 @ 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida


www.flmnh.ufl.edu









NORTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE

ACTIVITY SIX REVERSE JEOPARDY, PART B A


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www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida 59


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NORTHERN FLORIDA' EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE








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60 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu







PART FOUR


FLORIDA'$ SEMINOLE


PEOPLE


www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida







FLORIDA'S SEMINOLE PEOPLE


Please be sure to read Part One before going through this section. It contains information
necessary to use this and other Inquiry Boxes and to visit the Museum.


4
* A

^...^*^ .


To see individual items in the Florida's Seminole People Inquiry Box, visit the Museum's website at
www.flmnh.ufl.edu.










2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu







FLORIDA'$ SEMINOLE PEOPLE



Frequently Asked Questions about Florida's Seminole People


^ Who are they and where did they
come from?

The Seminoles are Native American people who still live in
Florida today.

The Seminoles are a mixture of native people and refugees
who came to Florida from the lower southeastern part of
America. By the early 1700s, the early native populations in
Florida were greatly reduced in number because of disease,
warfare, and slavery. Florida was largely uninhabited.
Native people in the lower southeast were also under great
pressure from the Europeans. With encouragement from
the local Spanish government, southeastern native people
began migrating to Florida. Other refugees, including
African Americans, also migrated to Florida.

These early immigrants were called "cimarrones," which
meant wild or untamed in Spanish. The name then became
"Simanoli," which connoted emigrant or frontiersman
among the Indian people. It was eventually accepted as
"Seminole" and referred to all Indian people in Florida. The
name has also been translated as runaway, renegade,
pioneer, adventurer, separatist, and freeman.

The name Seminole first appeared in documents in the
1760s. This reflected the continuing migration of the native
Creek people into Florida from the early 1700s.

Between 1817 and 1858 there were three wars between
the Seminole people and the U.S. government. The
Seminole never conceded defeat in any of the wars.
However, more than 3,000 Seminole people were captured
and deported to Oklahoma. A few hundred evaded capture
and survived in the remote areas of southern Florida's
Everglades. These are the ancestors of today's Florida
Seminole and Miccosukee people.


Today the name refers to one group of Native
Americans in Oklahoma and three groups in Florida.
Only one group in Florida is officially "The Seminole
Tribe of Florida." Another group in Florida is officially
the "Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida." It is a
culturally similar group that chose not to apply for
federal status with the Seminole Tribe of Florida in
1957. However, it later received federal recognition as
the Miccosukee Tribe. The last group is a small
independent group that has not sought federal
recognition. They are culturally related to the Seminoles
and Miccosukees.

Where do the Seminoles live today?

Most members of Florida's Seminole tribe live on six
reservations. There are approximately 2,500 members.
The reservations are located around South Florida:
Hollywood (where the tribal headquarters is), Big
Cypress, Brighton, Immokalee, Tampa, and Ft. Pierce
(the newest reservation). Seminoles also live elsewhere
in Florida and across the nation. Large numbers live in
Oklahoma. They are the descendants of those forced
west by the U.S. government.

What kind of houses do they live in?

Today most Seminoles live in houses like
other Americans.

A few Seminoles still live in the traditional chickee.
A chickee is an open-sided house made of cypress
poles with a palm-thatch roof. It is the house that early
Seminoles lived in for many years in isolated
hammocks.


www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida







FLORIDA'$ SEMINOLE PEOPLE


What did they eat?

Early Seminole people depended on hunting and
fishing like other Florida Indian people.

They grew gardens of corn, beans, squash, Indian
potato, and a type of pea. They also gathered wild
plants like coontie, the root of which was used to
make flour.

The Seminole also raised livestock like cattle and hogs.

Today they eat the same kinds of food that everyone
else does. But they also enjoy some traditional foods.

What kind of clothing did they wear?

Early Seminoles wore the traditional clothing of
southeastern native people. As they moved south,
their clothing was adapted to the warmer, more
humid climate. They also adopted some elements
of European clothing.

In the 1880s, sewing machines became available to the
Seminoles. The women started to sew with the
machines instead of sewing by hand. By the 1920s, the
old appliques became patchwork that was sewn into
the cloth rather than on top of it.


E


How did they travel?

Seminoles used dugout canoes as their
primary means of transportation because of
the extensive waterways that existed in the Everglades.
As always, people walked, and horses were useful
when available.


Today Seminoles use mostly cars and trucks.


How do we know about these people and
their environment?

Our knowledge of early Seminoles comes primarily
from the records of the Spanish, British, and Americans.

Accounts also come from visitors like William Bartram
and from archaeological evidence found at sites like
Payne's Town, Cuscowilla, Ft. King, Ft. Brooke, Powell's
Town, Oven Hill, and Talahasochte.

Today, Seminoles share their culture through many
different avenues. They have a website at
www.seminoletribe.com, publish a newspaper called
the Seminole Tribune, and also have two museums
located at the headquarters in Hollywood and on the
Big Cypress reservation.


2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu








SFLORIDA'S SEMINOLE PEOPLE


it INQUIRY BOX CHECKLIST


8 1/2 x 11 Laminated Cards
Picture contents cards
Map of southeastern United States
Woman sewing
Cattle herd
Ball stick game
Woman with mortar and pestle
Coontie plant

Artifacts
Sweetgrass basket
Seminole doll
Branding iron
Sofkee spoon
Wooden canoe
Ball stick
Mortar
Pestle
Seed jar
Ear of corn
Smilax root
Flag
Children's vest and/or skirt and patchwork sample
Newspaper

Books and Video
Legends of the Seminoles (Jumper)
Seminoles: Days of Long Ago (Mulder)
Native Americans in Florida (Wickman)
Seminole Colors (Seminole Indian Artists)
Seminole (30 minutes)



Word Cards
chickee reservation
cimarrones Seminole
La Florida Simanoli
Miccosukee sofkee
replica

Game
30+ bean bags
30+ laminated word cards
Laminated directions card






www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida







FLORIDA'$ SEMINOLE PEOPLE


INQUIRY BOX CONTENT DESCRIPTIONS

Laminated Southeastern United States Map

Trace the history of the Seminole people to
Florida, note reservation locations, and/or pinpoint
familiar landmarks.

Ear of Corn; Jar of Beans and Squash and
Pumpkin Seeds

These represent basic Seminole crops. Corn is the most
important. Crops were grown again after the
Seminoles' lives became more settled. During the war
years and the first years in the Everglades, farming was
not practical. These were lean years, and the Seminoles
relied more on wild food. See also sofkee spoon,
mortar and pestle, and picture of woman with mortar
and pestle.

Coontie Plant

Coontie (from the Mikasuki word konti) is a tropical
cycad of the scientific genus Zamia. Both Seminoles
and earlier Florida people ate the root after processing.
Coontie had to be washed, boiled, and fermented
before it was safe to eat. It was prepared by grinding it
into flour for use as a staple carbohydrate. If you want
to view a whole plant, see the FLMNH's ancient plant
garden outside the front entrance.

Sofkee Spoon

Our sofkee spoon is a miniature replica of a wooden
ladle that always accompanied an ever-ready pot of
thin corn soup (sofkee). The spoon's shape is
somewhat unique. There is a slight bend halfway up
the handle. In full size, it would be about 18" long.
Ours was made by a Seminole woodcarver. One recipe
for sofkee says to add 1 cup of grits to 6 cups of water
and cook until milky in color.

Mortar and Pestle

This miniature replica represents a large mortar and
pestle like the one shown in the picture of the woman
with the mortar and pestle near the chickee. The
original tools were made from oak. Large ones were


used for grinding large quantities ,-
of corn. Smaller ones were used for S
small quantities and other food items.
The pestle is held with the heavy end up for
increased leverage. Folklore says that only a family
with multiple daughters could have a large mortar
and pestle.


Laminated Picture of Woman with Mortar and Pestle

Note the relative size of the picture's contents and that
the heavy end of the pestle is up. Also note the
woman's dress, necklace, hairstyle, and chickee.

Branding Iron

Seminole cowboys would have used this piece of
equipment in their cattle ranching. The original cattle
were inherited from abandoned Spanish ranches on the
La Chua prairie. The Seminole people probably stopped
raising cattle during the Seminole wars. In the 1920s
the federal government shipped drought-starved
western cattle to Florida. This gave the Seminole
another opportunity to start cattle enterprises.

Laminated Picture of Cowboys Working Cattle at Pens

This picture depicts a modern Seminole
cattle operation.

Chickee (chikfe, pronounced chi-g6t in Mikasuki)

Chickees come in two styles. One has a raised wooden
floor and was used for sleeping, storage of goods, and
sometimes eating. The floor raises the inhabitants and
goods above the soggy ground. It allows air to circulate
above and below the floor and keeps some animals
out. The lower roof sides provide protection against the
weather, but still allow good air circulation. The other
style of chickee has no floor. The roof is only a
covering from weather to protect fires, cooks, and
kitchen goods. Both styles were made from cypress
logs and palmetto fronds. In the laminated pictures,
note the chickee in back of the woman with the mortar
and pestle and the chickee over the woman who is
making patchwork using an old sewing machine.


2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu







FLORIDA'$ SEMINOLE PEOPLE


S ---- Dugout Canoe

NAA A)The canoe was "as important to
[Seminole] life as the horse would later
become to the Plains Indians," according to Patricia R.
Wickman in Seminole Colors, particularly after the
Seminole moved into the Everglades. A full-sized canoe
would have been made from a cypress log. Cypress was
plentiful in swamps. Because the tree grew in water, it did
not rot easily and could be "sunk" when necessary. The
boat was built in two sizes: one size for carrying a single
person and another size for carrying an entire household
and its contents. The canoe was propelled with a pole. The
larger canoe may have been fitted with a sail in addition to
the pole. The main purpose of the canoe was
transportation since the Seminoles were not a major fishing
culture. Some of the Inquiry Box miniature canoes were
made by one of the Seminole's last traditional canoe-
makers, Henry John Billie.

Ball Stick

The traditional ball game was played in some version by
many southeastern tribes. Hitting a tall, slim pole with a
hard tennis ball-sized sphere that is thrown with a small
tennis racket-like stick scores points. The game is played on
many occasions, including the Seminole's Green Corn
Dance. Rules vary with location and occasion.

Laminated Picture of Ball Game

Note the dress of men and women. The women have no
sticks and have bare feet. Can you tell from this picture
whether those are traditional factors in the game?

Legends of the Seminoles, by Betty Mae Jumper

There are two Seminole languages, and both are based in
the oral tradition. Jumper is a former tribal chairwoman
who has gathered and had illustrated some of the stories
that she remembers. She says that stories were usually told
by grandmothers at night around a fire to teach children.
"The Corn Lady" is long, but it has been successfully used
with fourth grade classes. Shorter stories, suitable for
reading aloud, are noted inside the front cover of the book.


Child's Patchwork Vest and/or Skirt

Connie Gowens and Linda Jim Seminole Indian Bird
Clan made many of the Seminole clothing items. Red,
white, black, and yellow are considered powerful
colors. Shirts, jackets, and skirts are common Seminole-
made garments. Patchworks are distinctive bands of
designs that are made of colorful strips of cloth. Large
strips are cut into smaller strips and sewn together into
a pattern. Patchwork became possible when hand-
driven sewing machines became available in the late
1800s. Better machines were introduced in the 1920s.
Earlier Seminole garments were just bands of colorful
cloth without a pattern or design.

Laminated Picture of Woman with Sewing Machine

In addition to the old sewing machine, note the
woman's dress with cape, her necklaces, and the poles
of the chickee above her. The cape was probably an
adaptation of an earlier ruffled garment: a long-sleeved
blouse. A lightweight cape over a sleeveless blouse
would have been cooler in the warm climate of South
Florida. However, it still offered protection against the
sun and insects.

Palmetto Doll

The body of the doll is made from palmetto fibers. She
is dressed in the traditional Seminole style: her dress
has bands of cloth and not patchwork; she wears
necklaces; her hair is arranged in the old style. A young
girl was given her first necklace by the age of 12 and
received another one each year. As a mature woman,
she began removing one a year. The doll's hairdo is not
a hat. It is hair arranged over a frame to appear like a
wide- brim hat. This creative hair design resembles a
hat, but is distinctly Seminole.

Sweetgrass Basket

Other materials have been used by the Seminoles to
make baskets, but the decorated sweetgrass basket is
now the most common. These baskets are usually
made for the tourist trade. It is becoming harder to find
sweetgrass in South Florida. It is harvested only during
certain times of the year and in limited locations.


www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida







FLORIDA'$ SEMINOLE PEOPLE


Seminole Flag

The Seminole Tribe of Florida currently uses this flag
even though the Tribe has not officially adopted it.
The four traditional colors represent the four points
of the compass. East is yellow. North is red. West is
black. South is white. The central seal represents the
tribal council that leads the Tribe and includes a fire
and a chickee.

Miccosukee Flag

It is shown on the reverse of the Seminole Flag.
The Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida adopted
this flag in 1962. According to Miccosukee belief, life
spins in a circle starting in the east and moving to the
north, to the west, and to the south. The colors that
represent those directions are the same as those in the
Seminole flag.






The Seminole Tribune

"The Voice of the Unconquered"


reports current and historical news of
interest to members and friends of the Seminole
culture. "The Unconquered" refers to the fact that
none of the three wars fought between the U.S. and
the Seminole resulted in a formal surrender.


KEY WORDS

appliques
chickee
Creek
emigrant/immigrant
hammock
Miccosukee
migration
refugee
reservation
sofkee








2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu








FLORIDA'S SEMINOLE PEOPLE


This map of the southeastern United States shows
1) some common landmarks,
2) the most recent Seminole ancestors (the Creeks) and
their approximate locations, and
3) small letters designating the current Seminole
reservations
T = Tampa I = Immokalee
B = Brighton H = Hollywood
FP = Ft. Pierce BC = Big Cypress
4) and the Miccosukee (Mic) reservation


www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida






FLORIDA'S SEMINOLE PEOPLE


Photos of traditional Seminole clothing


AFRTStCRRFTS
.7-


2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu


1\








FLORIDA'S SEMINOLE PEOPLE


INQUIRY BOX CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES

Teachers may have students engage in the
following activities.


1. Visit the Seminole Tribe's website:
www.seminoletribe.com. Report to your class what
you found there.

2. Visit the Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Museum on the Big
Cypress reservation in person or online. What does
the museum's name mean?

3. Write a paragraph about one way that life changed
for the Seminoles after they moved from Georgia
and Alabama to southern Florida.

4. Using a map of Florida, find three of the six
Seminole reservations. What towns are they near?
Explain the route you would take to get to the
closest one.

5. Write a story that explains why you think the
sofkee spoon has a bend in it, or why the raccoon
looks like he is wearing a mask.

6. Seminoles enjoy the traditional ball game common
to southeastern native people. There were
differences in the game between each tribe.
Sometimes two towns would challenge each other.
Play was so vigorous that players would be hurt, or
even killed. Today's version of the ball game
involves only one pole and play is not so fierce.
Both men and women can play. With the right
equipment, you can play also.

Equipment

A pole that is 25-30 feet high
Masking tape
A tennis ball
Paper and pencil to keep score


Version One

* Mark the pole about 10 feet from the top with
masking tape.
* Players need to stand back 5 feet from the pole.
* Each player has 5 turns to throw the ball at
the pole.
* If the ball hits the very top of the pole, the player
gets 4 points.
* If the ball hits above the tape, the player gets
2 points.
* If the ball hits below the tape, the player gets
0 points.
* A referee may be needed to judge exact
ball locations.

Version Two

* Divide the players into 2 teams. Proceed as above.
* The team with the most points wins.

Version Three

* Players can score only by hitting the top of
the pole.
* Players are divided into two teams.
* The ball is a hard tennis ball.
* The players need a throwing stick. It should have a
rounded, woven basket at one end for throwing
the ball.
* Players use one or two sticks and throw the ball at
the top of the pole from anywhere on the field.
* The first team to reach a pre-set number of
points wins.


www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida








FLORIDA'S SEMINOLE PEOPLE


Inquiry Box Seminole Game words and instructions

1. The object of the game is to cover (with a bean)
five words in a row down, across, or diagonally. If
time allows, you might ask for ALL words to be
covered. Students should say "Seminole" when
they have reached the announced goal.

2. The leader may simply call out these words, or,
where possible, show the objects in the Inquiry
Box. If you are showing the objects only, note that
a) either "canoe" or "dugout" (or both) would
satisfy for that object, and b) squash, pumpkin,
and beans are all noted in the seed jar.


coontie

Spanish

dugout

corn

pumpkin

swamp

branding iron

ball stick


Oklahoma

mortar & pestle

squash

basket

camp

Florida

doll

legend


This game could be used as an ongoing activity as you
talk about objects, or as a review activity, or with a
class that needs a group interactive. o \

There are 30+ game cards and 30+ bean bags (25 \ ans oN \Nm oiP
beans each) per Inquiry Box. Please try to return all soee
beans and bags to the Inquiry Box after use. O tYr
















2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu


beans


patchwork


canoe


Seminole


sofkee


clan


Creek

chickee








FLORIDA'$ SEMINOLE PEOPLE









)(Y here





/ sick Samples of the laminated playing
cards which may be found in the
Sdn Inquiry Box.


www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida


SEMINOLE GAME CARD


swamp ballstick patchwork legend beans


clan mortar & sofkee Creek corn
pestal

camp pumpkin FREE spanish chickee
SPACE

canoe Florida Oklahoma Seminole coontie


squash dugout basket branding doll
iron







FLORIDA'S SEMINOLE PEOPLE


Photos of modern chickee construction


..... ... ... .. .....-. ......

-0 d. ............... .. . . . . .


2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu







FLORIDA'S SEMINOLE PEOPLE


www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida






FLORIDA'S SEMINOLE PEOPLE
ACTIVITY ONE WORD PUZZLE


B E
B D


A N S Q
E E R Y


E Y E N H


R W


R Y
I K


NUTS
HSAN U T S
H S A U
M J G C


E P B E I 0
S U N F L O
L M H L L N
E P 0 T A T
M K G V F I
H I E J HE


Z N
K U


C V C
U E I


Z V Y H D R


U I R R E L
P K Z P U C
A 0 F E O N
M I L A X U
Q S A C N S
C W C H N R
0 X 0 E F M
W E R S Q X
S S N E K F
0 E S G O H
X L Q N V H
B T Y A J F
C R U R I N
S U L O G Q
V T E OO U


S E I
A X Q
E U K
P M Q
V P I
F Q O
K A M
R S L
R M J
EE W
0 J G
Y G J
R E G
C K C
B C O


acorns
alligators
beans
berries
coontie
corn
cows
deer
hogs
honey


nuts
oranges
peaches
peas
potatoes
pumpkin
rice
smilax
squash
squirrels


sunflowers
turtles


2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu


tr~F


I






FLORIDA'S SEMINOLE PEOPLE
ACTIVITY TWO WORD PUZZLE


C H I C K E E F L A G
B A L L S T I C K S H
E F L O E D A H S E R
A I D O N D S A E A O
N A N E I A R K M R N
S A G R U G UOI I M
C E O Q T S H G K E P
L L S E O A N P L M E
F E E C L I M O A E O
OWC K D U N W R L F


T P B C
E A A 0
N T R 0
S C T N
0 H R T
F W A I
K O M E
E R U S
E K U M
RENT


S I 0 N P I S
M U A N M B A
R R A E S P A
B L S T R I B
C A M P S T 0


ballstick
Bartram
basket
beans


clan
coontie
corn
Creek


branding iron doll
camp dugout
canoe flag
chickee Florida


C A T M
S K E T
N I S H
E E L U
P R D 0


legend
Miccosukee
mortar
Oklahoma
palmetto
patchwork
pestle
pumpkin


L T U C
E 0 A 0
G T A R
H I T N
L L Y 0


Seminole
sofkee
Spanish
squash
swamp
sweetgrass
tribe


www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida







FLORIDA'S SEMINOLE PEOPLE

ACTIVITY THREE CROSSWORD PUZZLE


ball game
canoe
chickee
clan
corn
cypress
Florida
Osceola
palmetto
patchwork
Seminole
sweetgrass


| Across
1. an outspoken
Seminole war
leader
3. the state where
displaced
southeastern
Indians found a
new home
8. the long, narrow
boat used by the
Seminole;
sometimes called
a dugout


9. the kind of tree
used in making
Seminole dolls
and chickees
10. a group of related
Seminoles
11. a kind of native
grass used for
making baskets
today
Down
2. a traditional
Florida Seminole
house
4. a Seminole food
staple


5. a traditional
Seminole
competition
6. a distinctive
clothing style
created by the
Seminole in the
1920s
7. one of two Native
American tribes
7 based in Florida
today
8. the kind of tree
used in making
Seminole canoes
and chickees


2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu







FLORIDA'S SEMINOLE PEOPLE


ACTIVITY FOUR- CROSSWORD PUZZLE


S__ [


ballstick
basket
branding iron
canoe
chickee
coontie
corn
legend
patchwork
pumpkin
Seminole
sofkee
swamp


Down


1. Heated in a fire, this metal tool is used to
identify cattle ownership.
3. A hut which is usually open on all sides but
roofed with palm fronds.
4. Many believe this name for these Native
Americans means runaway or wanderer.
5. This popular vegetable is sometimes
called an ear.
6. A story that is passed down through
generations.
8. A traditional food made of ground corn and
water.
9. These pieces of colored cloth are sewn
together into a design.


1. A traditional Seminole game which uses a
round object and this tool to propel the
round object.
2. This large orange fruit contains seeds and
pulp in the center and is sometimes carved
into jack-o-lanterns.
3. A native plant resembling a fern but having
a root that can be processed into a starch.
5. A long narrow boat usually propelled by
oars or a pole.
7. A container made by weaving grasses,
palm fibers or vines.
8. Another word for the humid, soggy land
that was home to early Native Americans in
southern Florida.


www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida


SI I I I I I


11111 EtIfi


ii Ii


9l


Across


5


I







FLORIDA'S SEMINOLE PEOPLE

ACTIVITY FIVE BREAK THE CODE


S ~


Break the code and discover the hidden message about
the Seminole people

The code is hidden in the arithmetic answers below. Decipher the code for each word z
replace the number with the word.




49 31 17 6 4 63 61



68 58 48 27 24






The clues to break the code:


8X3+7=

3X5+9=

8X6=

74 -16 =

7X3 -4=

43 + 18=


and

dances

during

legs

Miccosukee

on


8X8-1 =

7X7=

98 30 =

3X9=

36 '/. 9 =

66 '/. 11 =


rattles

Seminole

their

traditional

wear

women


2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu







A FLORIDA'S SEMINOLE PEOPLE


ACTIVITY SIX THE MAIZE MAZE


Maize, or corn, was an important food grown by the Seminole in Florida.
It was first grown by other natives in the Americas.
Can your pencil (or pen or colored pencil or crayon)
"eat" its way from one end of the ear to the other?


www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida







FLORIDA'S SEMINOLE PEOPLE


Many Florida Indians traveled by water.
Boats called "canoes" were made
from cypress trees.


Begin Here

J~L~


DANGER!
Rattlesnake go Back!


DANGER! I
Bear go Back!


ACTIVITY SEVEN TWO PLAYER CANOE RACE



2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu







FLORIDA'S SEMINOLE PEOPLE


This canoe race needs 2 players.
Start at the same time. Paddle down the
river maze by finding the broken lines
in the waves. First player to make it
home to the chickee wins.
But be careful of dangers!


Begin Here


DANGER!
Rattlesnake go Back!


DANGER!
Bear go Back!


www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida





FLORIDA'S SEMINOLE PEOPLE


I


H


Photo of Seminole patchwork





2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu


1\








PART FIVE


REFERENCES




























www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida







FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE


Activity One Page 16


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@ 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida


www.flmnh.ufl.edu








SOUTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE


Activity One Page 34


Activity Two Page 35


F I S H I N G M P C P
P U Z N U D C" I A A Y
S H I N H Q O D E H P


P A
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Activity Three Page 36




:'P R E- C L 0 N T A C T C NCT E X T
A A S
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Activity Four Page 37
'p
A R T I FA C T


CC O R D AiG E


Activity Five Page 38

BREAK THE CODE
Calusa People lived and fished on Florida's Gulf Coast long before the first pyramids in Egypt.







www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida








NORTHERN FLORIDA'S EARLY NATIVE PEOPLE


Activity One Page 53


Activity Two Page 54


A H
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P T I
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WQW P Z X G Y C K


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Activity Three Page 55


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Activity Four (above) Page 56


Activity Five Page 57

BREAK THE CODE
The chunkey stone was used as a trade item and to teach life skills through a game.







2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu







FLORIDA'S SEMINOLE PEOPLE


Activity One Page 76


Activity Two Page 77


A / 1 E \ b U G
F I X L Q N V
H E B T Y A J
VCCIR U R I
El S U L 0 G
DR, VT E 0 0


Activity Three Page 78


CH I C K E E) F L A G T) P'i'BC
B'A L L S T I C K H E A AO
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AI DONDSAEAOSCTN
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MUANMBASKETEOAO
\RRA ES PAN IS HGTAR
BLSTR I BE ELUHI TN
CAMPSTOPRDOLL;YO


Activity Four Page 79


Activity Five Page 80

BREAK THE CODE
Seminole and Miccosukee women wear rattles on their legs during traditional dances.






www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida


E P
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MH L N K I




































































































2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu








VOCABULARY


Agriculture the practice of raising crops, farming

Apalachee the people of early Florida who lived in an
area bounded by the Ocklockonee River on the west, the
Aucilla River on the east, the Georgia state line on the
north, and the Gulf of Mexico on the south

Archaic Period people early native people who lived on
the Florida peninsula from 6,000 BCE to about 1,200 BCE

Artifact an object used by people. It usually refers to an
object found by an archaeologist.

Ball stick a tennis racket-like stick that was used by
players in a traditional game played by Seminoles and other
southeastern native people. The stick was used to catch
and throw a hard, tennis-sized ball at one or two tall poles
in a field.

Bartram, William an American botanist who traveled
widely in the southeast during the 1770s. He published one
of the few early accounts of the natural and native life in
Florida. His book contains "an account of the soil and
natural productions of those regions, together with
observations on the manners of Indians." He was known to
the Seminole as "Puc Puggy" (the Flower Hunter).

Berm an embankment next to a building

Calusa a group of early native people who lived along
the southwestern coast of Florida. They were among the
first native Floridians to have contact with Spaniards.

Camp a housing area for a Seminole clan or family. It
would include both sleeping and cooking chickees. A
campfire served as the heart of the camp. Camps were
sometimes moved seasonally for food or weather reasons.

Canoe a long, wooden, floatable vessel that is large
enough to hold one or more people. It was made of pine or
cypress in Florida. The canoe was a major means of
transportation for Florida native people.

Cattle domesticated animals introduced to La Florida by
Spaniards. They were raised on ranches and farms for food
and hides.


Celt usually a stone (or shell, especially in South
Florida) tool shaped like a chisel; sometimes made from
copper for ceremonial purposes

Chert flint-like stone found in northern Florida. It was
the hardest material early people in Florida had for
making tools.

Chickee a kind of house built by the Seminole. It has
four open sides with supporting poles made from
cypress logs and a roof of palm fronds. If used for
sleeping, it has a raised log floor. Cooking chickees
have no floors so that a fire can be built on the ground.

Chunkey stone a round stone disk used in an
Apalachee game

Clan a group of people related through the mother's
bloodline. The clan includes a woman's children and
her maternal relatives. Each clan has a name, usually
that of an animal or force of nature. There are currently
eight Seminole clans in Florida: Bear, Wind, Panther,
Bird, Otter, Deer, Snake, and Big Town.

Collection objects acquired and organized for study

Contact (as a verb) to touch; (as a noun) the
interaction of one group with another

Context the immediate situation and its
surrounding elements

Coontie a tropical plant named Zamia. The plant is
poisonous unless processed. The root was used by the
Seminole as a starch in their diet, especially when corn
was not available.

Cordage multiple plant fibers used for making ropes,
cords, twine, etc. Cordage was used for fishing, house
construction, clothing, and for other types of binding.
Useful plants included sabal palm, saw palmetto,
century plant, and Spanish moss.

Corn a staple crop of the Apalachee and the
Seminole; also grown by Timucuan groups. It is the
traditional basis for Seminole sofkee.


www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida








VOCABULARY


Creeks the name given to several Indian groups in
Georgia and Alabama by Europeans. The name comes
from the location of their villages near streams or
rivers. The tribes were divided, based on geography,
into Upper Creeks and Lower Creeks.

Disease an illness that causes sickness or death.
Europeans introduced illnesses such as smallpox,
measles, influenza, plague, diphtheria, cholera, scarlet
fever, yellow fever, and typhus into Florida. These
diseases were among the main causes of native
people's deaths following European contact.

Dugout a canoe or boat that was made by hollowing
out a log. Small fires were built to burn holes in a log.
Then the log was scraped out to create a dugout.

Environment all the factors surrounding an organism,
e.g., soil, climate, other organisms, etc.

Epidemic when a disease is widespread and affects
many people at the same time

Exhibit the display of a collection, artifact, or
specimen

Explorer a person looking for new territory or
information; e.g., Spaniards like Christopher Columbus,
Juan Ponce de Le6n, or Hernando de Soto or
Frenchman like Jean Ribault, Ren6 de Laudionniere, or
Pedro Men6ndez de Avil6s.

Export sending locally made items to another location
for trade

Extinct no longer living or used; frequently applied to
whole groups

Fiber plant material that can be separated into
thread-like parts for weaving

Green Corn Dance a 4-day tribal ceremony held each
June by the Seminoles. A fire, cleansing rites, a
medicine bundle, dancing, and the traditional ball game
are all elements of the ceremony.


Hammock a small patch of raised land that forms
an island within a swamp. Hammocks were used
by Seminole clans in southern Florida as camp
sites because of a limited amount of dry land in
the Everglades.

Immunity being safe or protected from a disease,
especially because of antibody build-up

La Florida the name given to this peninsula by Juan
Ponce de Le6n when he made his discovery during the
Easter season, or the feast of flowers.

Mannequin a sculpted human figure used for
display purposes

Matrilineal (matris mother, plus lineal line) the
line of kinship descends through the mother; therefore
young boys frequently were trained by their maternal
uncles and not their fathers. One's mother determined
clan affiliations. The Apalachee, Calusa, and Timucua
were all matrilineal societies, as is the Seminole.

Miccosukee one of two federally recognized Indian
tribes based in Florida. Its official name is "The
Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida." These people
share the same cultural background as the Seminoles
but are a separate tribe.

Midden a trash heap. It is one of the most common
types of mounds found in Florida.

Mission a community built by religious groups to
help spread their religion

Mound an elevated geographical area. It may be a
burial mound, a midden mound, or a platform mound.
In South Florida, huge midden mounds were
constructed. In North Florida, a platform mound was
the base for either a house of an important person or a
base for a religious building.

Museum a building used for storing and exhibiting
objects of historical, artistic, scientific, or cultural value

Natural resource something found in nature that is
usable by people


2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu








VOCABULARY


Osceola probably the best known of the Seminole
leaders. He was not a chief but a war leader. Osceola
objected to the U.S. government's policy of removal
(sending Indians to alternate places-like Oklahoma) in
the 1830s. Osceola was captured under a flag of truce,
imprisoned, and died at Ft. Moultrie, South Carolina.

Owl totem a carved wooden figure of an owl. The
large figure found in the St. Johns River near Deland
was 6 1/2 ft. high and made of pine.

Paleoindians the name given to the oldest known
people of Florida. They lived between 12,000 BCE and
6,000 BCE.

Panhandle that portion of Florida from Taylor County
and Madison County west. It is so named because its
shape resembles the handle of a pan.

Patchwork a detailed design made from strips of
cloth. It is used in making Seminole clothing. The
Seminoles wear patchwork for special occasions and
sometimes daily. It is also sold to tourists.


Roadkill an animal that was killed, usually by a car

Sinew an animal tendon, especially after it has been
cleaned for use as a cord or tie

Sofkee a thin corn soup made by the Seminole

Spanish originating in Spain

Specimen an example taken for scientific examination
or investigation

Timucua the name given to several groups of early
people who shared a common language. They resided
in northeastern Florida and southeastern Georgia.

Trade the practice of exchanging goods of equal
value. It is usually done to acquire items not
available locally.

Whelk a large, edible marine snail whose shell
was used by Florida's early native people to make
a variety of tools


Pre-contact the time before early Florida people came
into contact with Europeans

Post-contact the time after early Florida people came
into contact with Europeans

Posthole a space where the base of a post once was
buried. It is detectable by the discoloration of the earth
that surrounded the post. It is the most common
information that archaeologists find to indicate the
location of a building.

Refugee a person who runs from home, confinement,
or captivity

Replica an exact copy of something

Reservation land held in trust by the federal
government for a recognized Indian tribe. The tribe
governs the land.









www.flmnh.ufl.edu 2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida








BIBLIOGRAPHY


*indicates inclusion in an Inquiry Box

Andryszewski, Tricia. The Seminoles: People of the
Southeast. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1995.
J970.3 Seminole

Bleeker, Sonia. The Seminole Indians. New York:
William Morrow & Co., 1954. J970.3 Seminole

Boyd, Mark F., Hale G. Smith, and John W. Griffin.
Here They Once Stood: The Tragic End of the
Apalachee Missions. Gainesville: University Press of
Florida, 1951.

Brooks, Barbara. The Seminole. Vero Beach, FL: Rourke
Publications, 1989. J970.3 Seminole

*Brown, Robin C. Florida's First People: 12,000 Years
of Human History. Sarasota, FL: Pineapple Press, 1994.

Buckmaster, Henrietta. The Seminole Wars. New York:
Collier Books, 1966. J973.5 Buc

Country Beautiful. The Story of the Seminole. New
York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1973. J970.3 Seminole

*The Domain of the Calusa: Archaeology and
Adventure in the Discovery of South Florida's Past. 30
min. video: Florida Museum of Natural History, 1995.

Downs, Dorothy. Art of the Florida Seminole and
Miccosukee Indians. Gainesville: University Press of
Florida, 1995. 970.3 Seminole

*Duke, Kate. Archaeologists Dig for Clues. New York:
Harper Collins Publishers, 1997. J930.1 DUK 1997

*Florida Anthropological Society. Florida Archaeology:
an Overview. N.P.: FAS, 1997.

Florida Anthropological Society. Shadows and
Reflections: Florida's Lost People. 22 min. video:
Florida Heritage Production, 1998.


Florida Heritage Education Program. Unit One Lesson
Plans: Florida's Native Peoples (7. Discovering Florida's
Indian Mounds, 11. Discovering Florida after the Ice
Age, 12. Calusa Indians, 13. Demise of the Native
Peoples of Florida, 14. Apalachee Indians of Florida
15. Timucua Indians of Florida, 16. Seminole Indians
during the Colonial Period.) Tallahassee: Florida Dept.
of State, 1996-97.

Gannon, Michael, ed. The New History of Florida.
Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1996. 975.9
New 1996

Garbarino, Merwyn S. The Seminole. New York:
Chelsea House Publishers, 1989. J970.3 Seminole

Glenn, James Lafayette. My Work Among the Florida
Seminoles. Edited by Harry A. Kersey, Jr. Orlando:
University Press of Florida, 1982. 970.3 Seminole

*Hann, John H. and Bonnie G. McEwan. The
Apalachee Indians and Mission San Luis. Gainesville:
University Press of Florida, 1998. 970.3 Apalache 1998

Hann, John H. A History of the Timucua Indians and
Missions. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1996.
970.3 Timucua 1996

Henderson, Ann L. and Gary R. Mormino, eds. Spanish
Pathways in Florida: 1492-1992. Sarasota, FL:
Pineapple Press, 1991. 975.901 Spa

*Jumper, Betty Mae (as told by). Legends of the
Seminoles. Sarasota, FL: Pineapple Press,
1994. J398.2 JUM

The Corn Lady: Seminole Indian Legends. 30
min. video: Seminole Tribe of Florida, 1991.

Kersey, Harry A., Jr. and Voncile Mallory. The Seminole
World of Tommy Tiger. Tallahassee: Florida Dept. of
State, Division of Archives, 1982. J970.3 Seminole

Kudlinski, Kathleen V. Night Bird: A Story of the
Seminole Indians. New York: Viking/Penguin Books,
1993. jHist Kudlinski


2002 Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida www.flmnh.ufl.edu








BIBLIOGRAPHY


Lepthien, Emilie U. The Seminole. Chicago: Children's
Press, 1985. J970.3 Seminole

Lund, Bill. The Seminole Indians. Mankato, MN:
Bridgestone Books (Capstone Press), 1997. J970.3
Seminole 1997

Mancini, Richard E. Indians of the Southeast. New
York: Facts of File, 1992. JREF 970.45 Man 1992

Milanich, Jerald T. Florida's Indians from Ancient Times
to the Present. Gainesville: University Press of Florida,
1998. 970.459 Mil 1998

* The Timucuan. Malden, MA: Blackwell
Publishers, 1996. 970.3 Timucua 1996

*Mulder, Kenneth W. Seminoles: Days of Long Ago. 2d
ed. Tampa: Mulder Enterprises, 1996.

*Museum of Florida History. Mission San Luis de
Apalachee. 12 min. video: Florida Dept. of State, 1999.

Neill, Wilfred T. The Story of Florida's Seminole
Indians. 2d ed. St. Petersburg, FL: Great Outdoors
Publishing Co., 1956. J970.3 Seminole

Osceola's Journey: The Seminoles Return to
Charleston. 35 min. video: Dept. of Anthropology and
Genealogy, Seminole Tribe of Florida, 1999.

*Parfit, Michael. "Hunt for the First Americans."
National Geographic, 198(6):40-67, Dec. 2000. (MAP
inside magazine but loose)

Perry, I. Mac. Indian Mounds You Can Visit. St.
Petersburg, FL: Great Outdoors Publishing, 1998.
975.9 Per

Seminole. 30 min. video: Schlessinger Video
Productions, 1993.


*Seminole Colors: A Coloring and Learning Book for
Young Minds (drawn by Seminole Indian artists with
notes on Seminole life by Patricia R. Wickman).
Hollywood: Dept. of Anthropology and Genealogy,
Seminole Tribe of Florida, 1999.

*The Seminole Tribune (the weekly newspaper of the
Seminole Tribe of Florida, published in Hollywood, FL)

Seminole Tribune, a Commemorative Issue (Grand
Opening of Ah-Tha-Thi-Ki Museum: 40th Anniversary
of the Seminole Tribe of Florida). Hollywood: Seminole
Communications, 1997.

Smith, Buckingham, translator. Memoir of Don
d'Escalante Fontaneda; written in Spain circa 1575.
Edited by David 0. True. Coral Gables, FL: Glade
House, 1945. UF 975.9/E74mEs/1944

Sneve, Virginia Driving Hawk. The Seminoles: A First
Americans Book. New York: Holiday House, 1994.
J970.3 Seminole

Tebeau, Charlton W. A History of Florida. Coral Gables,
FL: University of Miami Press, 1971. 975.9 Teb 1971

Weisman, Brent Richards. Unconquered People:
Florida's Seminole and Miccosukee Indians. Gainesville:
University Press of Florida, 1999. 975.9004 Wei 1999

*Weitzel, Kelley. The Timucuan Indians; A Native
American Detective Story. Gainesville: University Press
of Florida, 2000. J970.3 Timucua 2000

*Wickman, Patricia R. Native Americans in Florida.
Hollywood: Dept. of Anthropology and Genealogy,
Seminole Tribe of Florida, 1997.

www.seminoletribe.com (the official website of the
Seminole Tribe of Florida)


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