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 Title Page
 Preface and acknowledgments
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Lessons
 Resources














Group Title: Curriculum Resource Unit, University of Florida Harn Museum of Art
Title: Reading the world of art
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Title: Reading the world of art
Series Title: Curriculum resource unit
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art, University of Florida
Publisher: Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00090929
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art
Holding Location: Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Preface and acknowledgments
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Introduction
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Lessons
        Page 2.1.1
        Page 2.1.2
        Page 2.1.3
        Page 2.2.1
        Page 2.2.2
        Page 2.2.3
        Page 2.2.4
        Page 2.2.5
        Page 2.3.1
        Page 2.3.2
        Page 2.3.3
        Page 2.3.4
        Page 2.3.5
        Page 2.3.6
        Page 2.4.1
        Page 2.4.2
        Page 2.4.3
        Page 2.4.4
        Page 2.4.5
        Page 2.5.1
        Page 2.5.2
        Page 2.5.3
        Page 2.5.4
        Page 2.6.1
        Page 2.6.2
        Page 2.6.3
        Page 2.6.4
        Page 2.6.5
        Page 2.7.1
        Page 2.7.2
        Page 2.7.3
        Page 2.7.4
        Page 2.7.5
    Resources
        Page 3.1
        Page 3.2
        Page 3.3
        Page 3.4
        Page 3.5
        Page 3.6
        Page 3.7
        Page 3.8
        Page 3.9
        Page 3.10
        Page 3.11
        Page 3.12
        Page 3.13
        Page 3.14
        Page 3.15
        Page 3.16
        Page 3.17
        Page 3.18
        Page 3.19
        Page 3.20
        Page 3.21
Full Text





Curriculum Resource Unit


Reading the World of Art


Produced by the Education Department
Samuel P. Ham Museum of Art

Writers
Valarie Pothier, Art Teacher, Mebane Middle School
Vicki Johnson, Language Arts Teacher, Mebane Middle School

With Contributions By
Bonnie Bernau, Director of Education, Ham Museum of Art
Susan Cooksey, Assistant Curator of African Art, Ham Museum of Art
Rachel Gibas, Education Coordinator, School & Family Programs, Harn Museum of Art
Charles Mason, Curator of Asian Art, Harn Museum of Art
Kerry Oliver-Smith, Curator of Contemporary Art, Harn Museum of Art
Larry David Perkins, Former Curator of Non-Western Art, Ham Museum of Art
Dulce Roman, Curator of Painting and Sculpture, Harn Museum of Art
Christie Shaw, Curriculum Supervisor, Fine Arts, School Board of Alachua County
Janet Tucci, Docent Education Liaison, Harn Museum of Art
Shelley Waters, Vice-President Docent Board, Harn Museum of Art
Harn Museum of Art exhibitions and programs are sponsored in part by: Nationwide Insurance and the
Nationwide Foundation; State of Florida, Department of State, Division of Cultural Affairs; Florida Arts
Council; the National Endowment for the Arts; Harn Museum Program Endowment Fund; Harn Alliance;
Museum Store and private donations.


2003 Har Museum of Art


H amuel P

Museum
University of Florida Cultural Plata


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Hon-rng: tt, p-st, /,.pith, fit,-


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Preface and Acknowledgements


The Ham Museum of Art is proud to present Reading the World of Art. Through
the work of exceptional artists, cross-cultural connections throughout time, media
and theme are presented, featuring treasures from the museum's permanent
collection. This curriculum resource unit is the fourth in an on-going series,
following the highly successful ExploreASIA, Exploring African Arts: A Discovery
of African Cultures and Imagine That! Stories in Art.

All four projects represent the on-going, productive collaboration between the
School Board of Alachua County and the Ham Museum of Art, supported by an
Arts in Education grant from the State of Florida, Division of Cultural Affairs.

Many individual efforts went into creating this outstanding resource. Very special
thanks to Co-authors Vicki Johnson, language arts teacher, and art teacher
Valarie Pothier, both from Mebane Middle School. Their collaborative effort and
commitment to meaningful, high quality educational opportunities for students
resulted in this interdisciplinary unit reflective of much hard work.

Thank you to the Ham Museum docents, a group of highly talented and generous
individuals, for their ongoing service to the museum as they provide tours for
thousands of school children each year. Special thanks go to Janet Tucci and
Shelley Waters for sharing their educational expertise in the creation of this
curriculum.

Thank you to Christina Shaw, Fine Arts Supervisor for the School Board of
Alachua County, for her continual support in all of the Ham Museum's school and
educator programming. Rachel Gibas, the Education Coordinator for School and
Family Programs at the Ham Museum of Art, is to be congratulated for bringing
the project to completion through many ups and downs and for applying her
professional experience as an art educator to this project.

Finally, thank you to the many Samuel P. Ham Museum of Art contributors who
have so generously provided the time, energy and financial support that enables
us to make educational opportunities like this possible.

Bonnie Bernau, Director of Education











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Table of Contents


1. Introduction
Title
Preface & Acknowledgments
Table of Contents
Museum & School Partnership
Educational Rationale
Harn Museum of Art Facts

2. Lessons
Reading the World of Art An Introduction
Asian Lesson Plans
o Tang Horses
o The Ten Avatars of Vishnu
African Lesson Plans
o Alusi Shrine Figures -Guardian Symbols
o Sowei Helmet Mask
Modern and Contemporary Lesson Plans
o Monet
o Butterfield

3. Resources
Glossary
SQ3R
Venn Diagram Template
Feldman's Art Criticism Process Handout
Feldman's Art Criticism Process Worksheet
Web Links
Bishop Study Center Resources
Rubrics
Curriculum Evaluation Form
















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Museum & School Partnership


The Curriculum Department of the School Board of Alachua County is very proud to
continue the long and fruitful partnership with the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art at the
University of Florida through the development and implementation of the Reading the
World of Art Curriculum Resource Unit.

The Reading the World of Art curriculum is designed to correlate visual arts and
language arts goals and standards and to prepare students to tour the correlated
collections at the Harn Museum of Art at the University of Florida. Drawing on the
strengths and unique characteristics of both institutions ensures the successful
development of this unit, the fourth in a series of units for elementary and secondary
students.

The creation and implementation of the Reading the World of Art curriculum is a
yearlong process that begins with the awarding of a generous grant to the School Board
of Alachua County by the Florida Department of State, Department of Cultural Affairs. A
team of School Board and Harn Museum staff writes the Reading the World of Art
resource unit and then presents it to secondary teacher teams in a hands-on workshop.
The workshop includes a tour of selected collections at the Harn Museum. After
receiving instruction, the students tour the museum and produce art at their schools
related to the museum collections. The year culminates with a student art exhibition at
the Harn Museum of Art that includes a reception and awards ceremony.

The activities and lesson plans link the Reading the World of Art curriculum to visual arts
and language arts and meet the FCAT and Sunshine State Standards for grades 6-12.
Supplemental materials include lending modules and CDs.

A number of people contributed their expertise to the development and implementation
of the Reading the World of Art curriculum. The school and museum partnership is
evidenced in the writing team which includes two outstanding teachers from Mebane
Middle School, Valarie Pothier, visual arts teacher, and Vickie Johnson, language arts
teacher, and the resourceful education team from the Harn Museum, Bonnie Bernau,
Director of Education, and Rachel Gibas, Education Coordinator for School and Family
Programs.

I sincerely thank the art teachers of Alachua County for their complete support of the
partnership since the opening of the Harn Museum of Art in 1990. They have worked
diligently to design and implement curricula based on numerous exhibitions at the
museum. I also thank the administrators, curators, and docents of the Harn Museum of
Art for their many years of hard work and devotion to teaching and learning.

Finally, I thank the administrators of the School Board of Alachua County for their on-
going support of this partnership and project. They include Dr. Mary Chambers,
Superintendent of Schools; Ms. Sandy Hollinger, Deputy Superintendent; Dr. Sandi
Anusavice, Director of K-12 Education; Dr. Donna Omer, Director of Project
Development; and Dr. Chet Sanders, Principal, Mebane Middle School.

Christiana F. Shaw
Curriculum Supervisor, Fine Arts
School Board of Alachua County
Gainesville, Florida


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Educational Rationale


This curriculum was designed to assist teachers in creating meaningful art experiences
for their students. The Ham Museum of Art is an incredible resource with a level of
authenticity unmatched by innumerable reproductions. Because there is nothing like
seeing the real art objects, it is very important that every child gets the chance to come
to the art museum and see them personally. That is why we offer this Curriculum
Resource Unit. It is meant as a guide to enrich and expand upon the museum-going
experience.

Thanks in part to the kind funding of the Florida Department of State, Division of Cultural
Affairs, the Ham Museum of Art and the Curriculum Department of the School Board of
Alachua County are able to offer this generous guide to teachers and students
statewide. The grant process also helps pay for the transportation and substitute
teachers under the School Board of Alachua County. Without this funding, a generation
of children could pointlessly grow up without ever seeing a real painting by Monet; a
resource the Ham Museum of Art provides.

Today, busy teachers need all the help they can find, and this unit aims to give teachers
what they need in order to do their jobs more efficiently. Including lessons students can
access directly on computers saves a step for teachers. Including professional
photographs via computer screen, allows teachers and students versatility not found in
slides, posters or transparencies. Additionally, portions of this unit may be printed as
needed. You may use these printed versions with the entire class if computers are not
readily available.

Teachers are encouraged to view this unit as a complement to their regular classroom
resources. We promote the use of this guide, not to give hardworking professionals
another task, but to bring depth of understanding to the concepts teachers are already
using. Perhaps, by using this resource unit, teachers may even broaden their personal
interests and thereby enrich their students' interests along the way.

In creating this fuller picture, we hope that students will gain a greater understanding of
the many treasures of the past, present and future contained in the fine arts. It could
change a kid's life.



Rachel Gibas

Education Coordinator for School and Family Programs

Ham Museum of Art











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Samuel P Ham Museum of Art Facts


The Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art, Florida's first major art museum in a state
university setting, is dedicated to collecting, preserving, presenting and interpreting
original and exemplary works of visual art. Through its exhibitions and educational
programs, the museum enhances the teaching and research activities of the university and
serves the academic community and a culturally diverse regional and national audience.


History
The Harn Museum of Art opened to the public in September 1990, providing up-to-date
facilities for the exhibition, study and preservation of works of art. Funding for the
museum comes from both state and private sources.


Facility
One of the largest visual arts institutions in Florida, the Ham Museum's state-of-the-art
facility (68,800 square feet) includes 26,273 square feet of exhibition space, a 200-seat
auditorium, a museum study center with interactive computer and video technology,
spacious areas for art storage and handling, a gift shop and staff offices for work and
research. The Harn Museum is one of the largest university art museums in the
southeastern United States and ranks among the top art museums nationwide in numerous
categories including attendance and membership.


Staff
49 staff members, 43 volunteer docents and 25 museum volunteers


Budget
Annual operating budget of $2.1 million, including state and federal grants and
gifts of private support



Exhibits and Public Education Outreach
More than 850,000 people have visited the Ham Museum since it opened,
with an average of 70,000 visitors per year.
The Ham Museum serves North Central Florida K-12 students with
educational museum tours.
The Ham Museum offers programs and services to more than 43,000 UF
students from 50 states and more than 100 foreign countries.
The Ham Museum serves more than 204,000 residents of Alachua County
and beyond.
The Ham Museum features a study center with interactive computers and
video technology.


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The Harn Museum houses two active, staff-supervised object study rooms
where students, faculty and visiting scholars may study collections not
currently on view.
The Harn Museum programming and exhibitions continue to be
impressive on a national level; since the museum's opening, world-class
exhibitions have included works by Rubens, Rembrandt, Rodin and Hopper.
The Ham Museum offers a full range of educational programs; students
have research, work and study opportunities, while visitors of all ages benefit
from the museum's films, lectures, tours and workshops.
The Harn Museum averages 15 changing exhibitions per year.
Traveling exhibitions brought to the Harn Museum occupy as many as five
of the museum's seven galleries at any given time.
Time-related arts performances occur year-round with a focus on the
academic year to enhance the visits of students and faculty to the Harn
Museum.
Film/video series include programs by internationally recognized curators
and filmmakers.
Approximately 16 scholarly and general interest lectures are presented
throughout the year.
The Ham Museum has originated and toured numerous traveling
exhibitions to many prestigious venues, reaching more than 400,000 visitors.


Collections
The Ham Museum of Art is charged with the responsibility of consolidating
and caring for the diverse collections of art assembled at the University of
Florida over the past several decades and is committed to the expansion of
its collections and the development of strong holdings in other areas.
Present strengths include works of art from the varied cultures of the
Americas, Asia, Africa, Melanesia and Europe.
The Chandler Collection of American Paintings, the core of the American
collection, contains examples by major early 20 century artists providing a
glimpse of the styles and subjects of art produced during this period.
The contemporary holdings comprise works in all media by established
and emerging artists.
The Spring Collection comprises almost 150 examples of the art of Papua
New Guinea.
Ancient American cultures are represented by an important group of
sculpture and vessels ranging from Mesoamerica to the Andean region of
South America.
Far Eastern holdings include sculptures, paintings and ceramics from
India, China, Korea, Thailand and Vietnam.
The McGalliard Collection of the tribal art of many cultures of sub-Saharan
West Africa is an important segment of the permanent collections.



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Faculty Scholarship
The museum's Harn Eminent Scholar Program in Art History gives students the
opportunity to work with world-class art historians on exhibitions and subsequent
exhibition catalogs. The program also produces a series of lectures by leading
scholars.













































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Reading The World Of Art
Function, Symbolism and Identity

An Introduction

How do people communicate ideas, show what is valued and believed or share
thoughts with each other? Do we limit ourselves to the written or spoken word? If
someone says the word "tree", what do you 'see' in your mind? Although there
may be many types of trees, you will no doubt picture of some kind of vertical,
green and brown object with leaves and branches rather than alphabet letters.
With this information you share a common, basic understanding with the person
who said the word.

A majority of our information comes to us visually. This visual information can be
decoded and "read" quickly, and in many cases, very clearly. Think of how fast
information from a billboard or 60-second television advertisement comes to us.
Art can be "read" in the same way, if you consider the function, symbolism and
identity of each object to discover the personal and cultural information it
contains.

All art comes from life, and art has as many meanings as there have been
cultures and people. So, it is important to realize that the way we encounter
objects can also affect our ability and desire to know more. Museums may
choose to display art works in ways that help observers understand the original
functions.

Function
Throughout history, each society has defined unique purposes for creating art.
Researchers believe that cave paintings were used for storytelling, with the
animals appearing magically by the hand of a spiritual leader. The art of the
ancient Romans celebrated the power of state in the monumental buildings and
sculptures of powerful leaders. Medieval churches used magnificent stained
glass windows to communicate religious history and concepts to make believers
of illiterate people. Northwest Indians pass along information about social rank
while telling family histories on totem poles. Modern artists make art for a variety
of purposes, including the function of dramatically communicating experiences.

Are practical pieces only functional? Adornment objects are often used to add
decoration and beauty to the wearer. Belly aprons, like those in the Harn
Museum's African collection, often use leather pieces decorated with beadwork
for this purpose. These objects are the palettes on which artists create their
works. By reading the symbols from these cultures we can learn about their lives,
their beliefs and their shared customs.





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Symbolism
Visual symbols are everywhere. The "stop" road sign speaks to us more strongly
by its shape and color than by its letters. We know that a sign with a knife and
fork on it means food is available at the next interstate highway exit. A symbol
even tells us which restroom to enter. Throughout time and cultures, symbols
have been used to inform, to teach family and community lessons, to remind
people of important cultural stories, as well as to celebrate and convey traditions.

One philosopher today believes that art contributes to survival because cultures
that have no symbols to pass along beliefs and values to the next generation will
eventually die out or be consumed by another more strongly defined culture.
During times of political upheaval, one culture's symbols are the first to be torn
down or destroyed by the conquering group.

Identity
What is identity? How do we communicate our individuality, uniqueness,
character and personality? How do body language, facial expressions and
physical movement relate one's identity? Does the listener slump in his or her
chair or lean toward the speaker enthusiastically? What do clothing, hair and
jewelry have to do with identity? Consider what these things tell you about a
person.

In much the same way, we can learn about a culture's identity by studying its art.
Becoming aware of the traditions, ideas and beliefs of the people who originally
created the art can inform those from another culture. Belonging to a specific
group sometimes has meant survival, so being able to quickly and accurately
"read" vital information about who was friend or foe was very important. At many
points in history, knowing how to read the identity through symbols in masks,
robes, armor or banners could make the difference between life and death.

Artists communicate ideas and beliefs using a variety of techniques such as
pottery, paintings, photography or carvings. The materials they choose and the
way the artwork is used in the society are all important, because they help the
observer know the cultural context. Removing artwork from its cultural context
means we have to work harder to know the original significance of the object to
the society in which it was created. Many museums now see the need to provide
wall text, printed resources, pictures and even music or special programs to help
visitors understand the cultural context for the artwork.

A culture's art may illustrate identity through gender roles. The production of
practical or utilitarian pieces is often exclusive of one gender or the other. For
example, the mud-dyed textile, called bogolanfini, from the Bamana people of
Mali, is a combined effort by both men and women. Women cultivate the cotton
and spin the thread. Men weave the threads and sew them together to create
long, wrapper-sized cloth. Women then paint the cloth. Once completed, an elder
woman may present the piece to a young woman to keep and wear it throughout


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her life. If worn during the transitional times of her life from young adulthood to
adulthood to motherhood, etc. it is believed that the cloth holds a controlling force
called nyama. The Bamana believe this force helps move women smoothly
through momentous times. Upon the elder's death, the cloth is returned for use
as a burial shroud. When worn by the men of Mali, it is believed that the cloth
protects them as they hunt in the bush. Knowing this cultural context adds to our
understanding of the cloth's significance to those who create and use it.

Summation
Function, symbolism and identity are inherent in many everyday items and from
cultures throughout history. Artwork from both historical and contemporary times
is filled with messages, both obvious and subtle, conveyed by artists. These
messages may connect observers to the natural world or they may depict
important historical events. Artwork may communicate ideas or teach lessons.
We can learn to read the world of art with a knowledgeable, discriminating eye by
gathering information about the original function, symbolism and identity to
unlock messages that provide us with deeper understandings of cultures, both
our own and others'.


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Tang Horses


Artist unknown,
China, Tang Dynasty (618-907 C.E.)
Horses, 8th century
Earthenware with three-color glaze (sancai)
11 % x % x 12 2 inches each
Museum purchase, gift of Dr. and Mrs. Davis A. Cofrin

Evidence found on Asia's Kazakhstan Steppes suggests horses were
domesticated as early as 3,000 B.C.E. Horses were used for transportation by
2,000 B.C.E.

During the Tang Dynasty (618-907 C.E.), the Chinese court encouraged cultural
contact with other peoples and lands far and near. This was a golden age for the
arts, and during this period the emperor raised educational standards,
encouraged the publication of literature and extended China's borders. This was
the heyday of the famous Silk Road, a series of land and sea trade routes that
connected the Far East with the West, extending as far as Rome. Horses were a
sign of status and power during this dynasty, and only upper class or imperial
people were allowed to ride them.

These sculptures show the spirit of mobility and multi-culturalism that
characterized the Tang Dynasty. Horses and camels were essential for travel
and the transportation of goods. In fact, the breed of horse represented in these



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models is one that was imported into China from the territory that bordered it to
the northwest.

Ceramic horses like these were made specifically for use in tombs to protect the
dead and unite them with the spiritual realm and are known in Chinese as
mingqi. In addition to horses, popular forms of mingqi included camels, court
ladies, grooms and guardian figures.

Potters made figures, like the Tang Horses, in large quantities. Kilns were
located all over China, and the two leading kilns for imperial production were the
yue kilns of Zhejiang and the ding kilns of Hebei. Each part of the horses' body
was made in a separate mold and then combined. Small areas like the facial
features were modeled by hand.

The favorite glazing technique combined three colors-green, brown and straw-
known as sancai. Chinese art is known for its acute sense of nature, shown by
the realistic and naturalistic figures of this period. For instance, some horses
have heads tilting left, because horses are mounted from the left.

































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Tang Horses


Visual Arts Activity

Goals
You will be able to:
Research, on the Internet, animal symbolism from various cultures.
Incorporate learned information, symbols and ideas into your works of art.
Create a new form of animal symbolism that is specific to you.
Create a two-dimensional work of art that reflects competency and
craftsmanship.
Communicate your intended symbolism to viewers.

Activity
1. On the Internet, research an animal that has special symbolism to you.
Find another culture that uses that animal as a symbol, but in a different
way. For example, think about the representation of the horse to Native
Americans. How is this similar or different to Asian symbolism of the
horse?
2. Now, reflect upon what that animal symbolizes to you in our current
society. Is it like the Asian symbolism, the other culture you researched or
something completely different? How do social, cultural, ecological,
economic, religious or political conditions influence the symbolism of this
animal?
3. Using the information that you have learned and considered, create a
detailed and finished color drawing of your version of this animal. Make
sure to give it individualized characteristics with special significance.
These characteristics may include exaggerated body parts, interesting
color combinations, or combined animal features.

Assessment
Were you able to:
Research animal symbolism from various cultures on the Internet?
Incorporate learned information, symbols and ideas into your works of art?
Create a new form of animal symbolism that is specific to you?
Create a two-dimensional work of art that reflects competency and
craftsmanship?
Communicate your intended symbolism to viewers?

Selected Sunshine State Standards: Visual Arts
VA. A.1.4.1
Uses two-dimensional and three-dimensional media, techniques, tools, and
processes to communicate an idea or concept based on research, environment,
personal experience, observation, or imagination.


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VA. B. 1.3.1
Knows how different subjects, themes, and symbols (through context, value, and
aesthetics) convey intended meanings or ideas in works of art.

VA. C.1.4.1
Understands how social, cultural, ecological, economic, religious, and political
conditions influence the function, meaning, and execution of works of art.

VA. D. 1.4.2
Understands critical and aesthetic statements in terms of historical reference
while researching works of art.








































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Tang Horses


Language Arts Activity

Goals
You will be able to:
Effectively read the curatorial art object information for this section
Collect information relevant to your writing assignment
Write a creative story or legend illustrating the traits of your animal you
created in the visual arts activity.

Activity
1. Use a journal to record your thoughts about the creation of your chosen
animal. Why did you choose this animal? Does it represent special
personality traits that you admire? Does it have a certain status among the
other animals?
2. Write a story or legend to accompany your animal. Be sure to include any
special powers that your creature may possess that are not physically
visible.

Assessment
Were you able to:
Read and understand the given text?
Compile relevant information that was useful in your journaling?
Write a creative story?

Selected Sunshine State Standards: Language Arts
LA.B.2.3.1
Writes text, notes, outlines, comments, and observations that demonstrate
comprehension of content and experiences from a variety of media.

LA.B.2.4.3
Writes fluently for a variety of occasions, audiences, and purposes, making
appropriate choices regarding style, tone, level of detail, and organization.













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The Ten Avatars of Vishnu


Artist unknown,


Paintings, pigment on cloth






Shiva is the god of destruction.
Vishnu is the god of preservation.
He is frequently depicted as
accompanied by Lakshmi, the
goddess of good fortune.

Ancient sacred texts of the Hindu
tradition say that Vishnu has
incarnated himself to the earth
many times. He is said to come
down to earth time after time in
animal and human form to rid
earth of evil and establish dharma
or righteousness.

Many texts speak of Vishnu as
having ten incarnations, also
referred to as avatars. Nine of
these are said to have already
occurred. Followers of Vishnu
expect him to return to earth a
final time in this eon.

The ten avatars of Vishnu are
represented in these small folk
paintings. The are, in order of

(tortoise), Varaha (boar), Nara-
descent, Mastya (fish), Kurma
simha (man-lion), Vamana
(dwarf), Parasu Rama (Rama with
an axe), Rama Chandra (Rama,
the bowman), Krishna (the
cowherd), Shakyamuni (the
historical Buddha) and Kalki (the


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warrior on a white horse who ends time). These small paintings are thought to be
from a set of modern playing cards.

This set of paintings was created in the 20th century.





















The Ten Avatars of Vishnu (Detail)






























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The Ten Avatars of Vishnu


Visual Arts Activity

Overview
Think of the ways in which the identities of the Vishnu changed from incarnation
to incarnation. Recall the symbolism of the animals previously discussed and
how it is believed each avatar of Vishnu served to help rid the world of evil and fill
the earth with righteousness.

Now consider yourself, and how you have changed from a child. What sorts of
identities have you experienced as you've grown to your current age? What are
some of the major changes in your life? Would it be starting to walk, learning to
swim or ride a bicycle, living in another state, starting school, or becoming the
member of a team?

Think of how others, such as grandparents, distant relatives, teachers or coaches
have perceived you. Does anyone have a pet name for you? What identities do
you think they would ascribe to you? Would it be an animal, an angel or other
being?

Goals
You will be able to:
Create cards with a consistency in their design
Adequately communicate a phase or "incarnation" of your life

Activity
Create a set of cards relating to these various identities.
1. How many cards would it take to describe the stages of your life?
2. How could you illustrate some of the major experiences in your life with a
series of cards?
3. What are
4. What shape would your cards be?
5. Start with a series of sketches with various shapes and border treatments.
6. Sketch a series of personal avatars, representing various phases of your
life and personas of yourself.
7. Use a consistent design element such as a background or border.
8. Draw your best choices onto cardstock for your final set of cards.

Assessment
Were you able to:
Create cards with a consistency in their design?
Adequately communicate a phase or "incarnation" of your life?


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Selected Sunshine State Standards: Visual Arts
VA.A. 1.4.1
Uses two-dimensional and three-dimensional media, techniques, tools, and
processes to communicate an idea or concept based on research, environment,
personal experience, observation, or imagination.

VA.A. 1.3.3
Understands what makes various organizational elements and principles of
design effective and ineffective in the communication of ideas.

VA.C.1.4.1
Understands how social, cultural, ecological, economic, religious, and political
conditions influence the function, meaning, and execution of works of art.

VA.E. 1.3.1
Understands how knowledge, skills, and attitudes gained from the visual arts can
enhance and deepen understanding of life.


































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The Ten Avatars of Vishnu


Language Arts Activity

Goals
You will be able to:
Collect and analyze a selection of describing words that give information
to your audience about your own special qualities
Use the given format to effectively communicate your ideas
Produce a final draft of your Diamante

Activity
1. Brainstorm descriptors that illustrate your identity from your set of cards
2. Using these descriptors, create a Diamante
3. On line one of the Diamante, include a word that indicates where you
began your identity cards
4. On line two, select two words that describe you in your infancy
5. Line three: include three words describing your toddler years, ages 2 5
6. On line four, include four words describing yourself as a student
7. Line five should include three words describing yourself as a young adult
8. Line six should include two words describing how you imagine yourself
during the next ten years
9. Line seven: use a single word that describes who you will be as an adult
10. Share the Diamante and cards with the class as an oral presentation

An example of the layout is as follows:


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Assessment
Were you able to:
Collect and utilize describing words that give information to your audience
about your special qualities?
Use the given format to effectively communicate your ideas?
Produce a final draft of your Diamante?

Selected Sunshine State Standards: Language Arts
LA.A. 1.4.2
Selects and uses strategies to understand words and text, and to make and
confirm inferences from what is read, including interpreting diagrams, graphs,
and statistical illustrations.

LA.A 1.3.3
Demonstrates consistent and effective use of interpersonal and academic
vocabularies in reading, writing, listening, and speaking.

LA.A.2.4.4
Locates, gathers, analyzes, and evaluates written information for a variety of
purposes, including research projects, real-world tasks, and self-improvement.

LA.B.1.3.3
Produces final documents that have been edited for: correct spelling; correct
punctuation, including commas, colons, and semicolons; correct capitalization;
effective sentence structure; correct common usage, including subject/verb
agreement, common noun/pronoun agreement, common possessive forms, and
with a variety of sentence structure, including parallel structure; and correct
formatting.





















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Alusi Shrine Figures Guardian Symbols


Attributed to Ubah of Isufoia Attributed to Ubah of Isufoia
Nigerian, active 1920 1940 Nigerian, active 1920 1940
Female shrine figure (Alusi) Male shrine figure (Alusi)
Wood, patina Wood, fabric, patina
49/4 x 12 4 x 8 2 inches 52/2 x 12 1/8 x 8 % inches
Gift of Rod McGalliard Gift of Rod McGalliard

Igbo peoples inhabit a large area of southeastern Nigeria. They are known for
their independent spirit and entrepreneurial skills as well as their spectacular and
diverse art forms.

Alusi are carved wooden guardian spirit figures that serve entire villages.
Sometimes they are named for spirits associated with the market days. On
market days the village is the hub of activity and everyone is concerned with
prosperity and abundance of food and goods.

The spirits are represented as both small and large figures and are thought of as
family members. The priest, who maintains and renews their shrines, brings the
figures out each year. They are washed, re-painted and given clothing and
ornaments, such as the leopard teeth necklace on the male figure.




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In addition to these adornments, alusi figures have elaborate hairdos, facial or
abdominal scarification, and tattoo patterns, which are the marks of beauty and
high rank in Igbo society. These alusi figures were created between the 1920s
and 1940s.


The tutelary deitiy, alusi Eke with his family and entourage, and attendant priest
in front of their shrine. They are brought outside Eke's shrine to be washed, re-
clothed and re-painted during an annual festival to honor them in Oreri, Nigeria.
Eke is the figure wearing an old military helmet. The family of alusi may live
elsewhere, but are brought together for this annual ritual. Photograph by Herbert
M. Cole, 1966.




















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Alusi Shrine Figures Guardian Symbols


Visual Arts Activity

Overview
The Igbo peoples of southeast Nigeria carved wooden guardian figures that
serve the entire village and are named for the spirits that represent market days.
When carved, the figures are ornamented with facial and abdominal scarification,
tattoo patterns, and elaborate hairdos. These figures reappear during
ceremonies every year and are repainted, clothed in gender specific garments,
and adorned with a variety of beadwork, jewelry, belly aprons and even woven
fabrics. These decorations and adornments represent identifying marks of culture
and class.

Goals
You will be able to:
Create a figure with adornments appropriate to the identity you have
chosen
Use body marks which identify the figure to its group

Activity
1. Think about the types of specific adornments that would identify your own
personal guardian figure. Would it be a special hairdo, a specific type of
necklace or perhaps a kind of jacket?
2. Draw this figure with clothing and other adornments that would identify
your particular group, i.e. skateboarders, surfers, dance troupe, league or
school teams.
3. Be sure to include specific identifying marks for your particular culture.

Assessment
Were you able to:
Create your figure with adornments appropriate to the identity you have
chosen?
Make your figure have identifying body marks?

Selected Sunshine State Standards: Visual Arts
VA.B. 1.3.1
Knows how different subjects, themes, and symbols (through context, value, and
aesthetics) convey intended meanings or ideas in works of art.

VA.B.1.4.3
Understands some of the implications of intentions and purposes in particular
works of art.


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VA.C.1.3.2
Understands the role of the artist and the function of art in different periods of
time and in different cultures.

VA.E. 1.3.1
Understands how knowledge, skills, and attitudes gained from the visual arts can
enhance and deepen understanding of life.















































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Alusi Shrine Figures Guardian Symbols


Language Arts Activity

Goals
You will be able to:
Write and clearly describe details of your figure
Use language that is expressive and provides explicit detail
Read fluently your paragraph to a partner

Activity
1. After you have completed the art activity, write an essay describing your
figure. Provide exact details on the hairdo, personal adornment pieces
such as necklaces, clothing and all other defining characteristics of your
figure.
2. Pair up with another student. One of you will be the reader and the other
one will be the sketcher.
3. The reader will read his or her essay while the partner sketches the figure
based entirely upon what the reader has written in the essay.
4. Then, the reader and the sketcher will switch roles and do the process
again.

Assessment
Were you able to:
Describe distinctly all the physical and personal attributes of your figure?
Select vocabulary that is meaningful to the assignment?
Read and be clearly understood?

Selected Sunshine State Standards: Language Arts
LA.B.2.4.3
Writes fluently for a variety of occasions, audiences, and purposes, making
appropriate choices regarding style, tone, level of detail, and organization.

LA.C.1.4.1
Selects and uses appropriate listening strategies according to the intended
purpose, such as solving problems, interpreting and evaluating the techniques
and intent of a presentation, and taking action in career-related situations.

LA.D.2.3.2
Uses literary devices and techniques in the comprehension and creation of
written, oral, and visual communications.






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Sowei Helmet Mask


Mende People, Southern Sierra
Leone
Sowei Helmet Mask
Wood
15 1/16 x8 7/16 x 9 5/8 inches
Gift of Rod McGalliard

The Mende people live in 3
West African countries: Sierra
Leone, Liberia and C6te
d'lvoire (Ivory Coast). In their
culture, leadership is divided
between men and women's
societies, called Poro and
Sande respectively. Each has
its own rules and codes of
behavior that are taught to its
initiates.

The girls are initiated into
Sande when they are between
age 12 and 16. They must
undergo a long series of rituals
and training while secluded in
special camps. At certain times,
the women leaders of Sande
perform masquerades using a
type of helmet masks called
sowei.

The carved wooden helmet-style mask represents an ideal: a beautiful, dignified
young woman, who is newly initiated as a member of Sande. Her skin and
clothing are black and glossy; her hairdo is elaborate; her forehead is high; and
her eyes, nose and mouth are small and symmetrical. She has downcast eyes to
show she is modest and is thinking about her inner self. She must act properly to
be a good member of society as wife and mother. The heavy rings on her neck
may be one of three things: fat to show she is healthy and can have many
healthy children (also a sign of beauty in Mende culture), the ridges on a
chrysalis, or the ripples in water when she emerges purified from a sacred pool at
the end of the Sande rituals. This mask is from the 20th century.

This mask represents ideals of female beauty within the African culture. The rolls
of flesh around the neck may represent prosperity, and the elaborate hairstyle is
a sign of rank and beauty. The large forehead indicates wisdom and the small


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mouth indicates balance and tranquility. What are some other ways people
decorate themselves with jewelry, tattoos or clothing?


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Sowei mask with her Sande society attendants pauses during a ritual procession.
Photograph by Frederick Lamp.




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Sowei Helmet Mask


Visual Arts Activity

Overview
The Mende people of Sierra Leone have very specific ideas about the
marks of physical beauty in a young woman. In the Mende culture, beauty
is represented by:
o A high forehead
o Small eyes, nose and mouth
o An elaborate hairdo
o Rings on the neck
During certain rites of initiation, the female leaders of the Sande society
perform masquerades using a helmet mask like the Sowei Helmet Mask in
the Harn Museum's African collection.

Goals
You will be able to:
Identify ideals of beauty in your culture
Compare these ideals with another culture

Activity
1. Think about the ideals of beauty in American culture.
2. What would these special characteristics be?
3. How would they be evident in the face?
4. What distinguishing marks of physical beauty would be depicted?
5. Create a drawing that would reflect this ideal face.
6. Be sure to represent these physical attributes in your creation.

Assessment
Were you able to:
Identify ideals of beauty in your culture?
Compare these ideals with another culture?

Selected Sunshine State Standards: Visual Arts
VA.A. 1.3.3
Understands what makes various organizational elements and principles of
design effective and ineffective in the communication of ideas.

VA.B.1.4.3
Understands some of the implications of intentions and purposes in particular
works of art.

VA.C.1.3.1
Understands and uses information from historical and cultural themes, trends,
styles, periods of art, and artists.


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Sowei Helmet Mask


Language Arts Activity

Goals
You will be able to:


*

*
*

Activil


Comprehend the meaning in the Sowei Helmet Mask curatorial art
information reading selection
Determine similarities and differences
Devise a diagram to illustrate your comprehension

y


1. "Read" the Sowei mask by observing its symbolism.
2. Create a Venn diagram comparing and contrasting the symbols of ideal
beauty between the Sowei and that of western culture (See Venn diagram
template in Resource Section)
3. You may use a current photograph from an advertisement or article in a
popular magazine to help you.

Assessment
Were you able to:
Understand the reading selection?
Determine how this mask illustrates ideals of beauty in contrast to your
society's ideals of beauty?
Design a Venn Diagram to illustrate your findings

Selected Sunshine State Standards: Language Arts
LA.A. 1.4.1
Selects and uses pre-reading strategies that are appropriate to the text, such as
discussion, making predictions, brainstorming, generating questions, and
previewing, to anticipate content, purpose, and organization of a reading
selection.

LA.B.2.4.1
Writes text, notes, outlines, comments, and observations that demonstrate
comprehension and synthesis of content, processes, and experiences from a
variety of media.

LA.C.2.4.1
Determines main concept and supporting details in order to analyze and evaluate
non-print media messages.







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Claude Monet and Impressionism


liauut IVlUiei, rivti;iuli k I o--u- I wLO)
Champ d'Avoine (Oat Field), 1890
Oil on canvas, 26 x 36 7/16 inches


Claude Monet was born in Paris on November 14, 1840. He took drawing
lessons in school and began making and selling caricatures at age seventeen.
Artist Eugene Boudin introduced him to painting en plein air or out of doors. The
invention of oil paints in portable tubes enabled artists to paint en plein air. The
palette also changed with the introduction of paints made with chemical dyes,
making a wider range of colors available.

In Paris, Monet met painters like Gustave Courbet and Pierre August Renoir. In
1874 he exhibited with the Soci6t6 anonyme, where his painting Impression:
Sunrise earned the group the title, "Impressionists," as critics thought their
paintings were unfinished impressions.

In 1883, Monet moved to Giverny. There, he began his paintings of the French
countryside, and many of his paintings depict his property at Giverny. In many of
these paintings, one subject was painted several times, so that different effects of
light and atmosphere were shown. Champ d'Avoine is one painting in a series of
three. Although in his earlier career, he focused on industrialization, people and
popular leisure spots, he eventually focused on the landscape, emphasizing the
beauty of light and the lushness of nature.


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Claude Monet and Impressionism


Visual Arts Activity

Overview
Light and its effects on color and the innovation of photography, with its ability to
capture the fleeting moment, fascinated the Impressionist painters. Inspired by
that freeze-frame in time, they realized the potential for painting these effects in
color. Working out of doors (en plein air), their hues became more vivid with their
renderings of sunlight and its interplay with nature.

Observe the painting Champ d' Avoine (Oat Field). How has the artist painted an
asymmetrical composition? Where is the horizon line? What percentage of the
painting is sky? What techniques has the artist employed to create depth?
Discuss the lighting and shadows. What time of day do you think it is and why?
What time of year? What is the weather like?

How do the colors and brushstrokes change as you move from the foreground, to
the middle ground to the background of the painting? How do the colors change?
How do the brushstrokes describe different textures in the field and trees and
sky? How did Monet use complementary colors? Discuss the relationship of the
warm and cool colors.

What does the subject of the painting suggest about the identity of the painter?

Goals
You will be able to:
Create a landscape painting, using color theory and complementary color
schemes, which uses a foreground, middle ground and background to
indicate depth.
Use differing colors, values, sizes and textures to show depth.

Activity
1. Create a landscape painting that has depth.
2. Use color theory to help achieve this effect.
3. Refer to the color wheel for assistance.
4. Be sure to use complementary colors when deciding your palette. You
may either work en plein air, or work from sources such as photographs.
5. To further indicate depth, divide your composition into foreground, middle
ground and background.
6. Make your foreground objects larger and use predominantly warm colors.
Make your background objects smaller with cool colors, mixing white with
your paints.
7. The textures of your brushstrokes should be bold in the foreground and
diminish as you move toward the back of your painting.

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Assessment
Were you able to:
Create a landscape painting?
Work with the color wheel and complementary color schemes?
Clearly show a foreground, middle ground and background?
Use color to convey a sense of depth?
Use various brushstrokes help to show depth?


Selected Sunshine State Standards: Visual Arts

VA. A. 1.4.1
Uses two-dimensional and three-dimensional media, techniques, tools, and
processes to communicate an idea or concept based on research, environment,
personal experience, observation, or imagination.

VA. A. 1.4.3
Knows how the elements of art and the principles of design can be used to solve
specific art problems.

VA. C. 1.4.2
Understands how recognized artists recorded, affected, or influenced change in a
historical, cultural, or religious context.



























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Claude Monet and Impressionism


Language Arts Activity

Goals
You will be able to:
Listen and respond effectively to questions
Write fluently and with appropriate language for the assignment
Use language that is figurative and generates images

Activity
View the painting Champ d' Avoine (Oatfield) by Monet. Allow a few minutes to
reflect. Write answers to the following questions as you continue to view the
painting.
1. What time of year is depicted in the painting? Where is this scene? Is it in
the United States? Could it be another country? Is this a garden area or
just a wildflower field? Is it in the country or a secluded park in a large
city?
2. What are the weather conditions? What time of year is depicted in the
painting? What is the time of day?
3. Describe the scene. What types of plants do you think they are? Are they
flowering or shrub-like?
4. Put yourself in the painting. Where would you be? What perspective would
be presented to the viewer? Profile? Front? Back? Silhouette? What are
you wearing? Be very complete in your description. Are you alone? If yes,
why? If no, who or what is with you? A pet? A friend? A relative?
Completely describe all the other people or animals who are with you.
Make sure we can visualize all the aspects of these additional characters
as well as of you.
5. What are you doing while in the painting? How does this painting make
you feel? What about the painting gives you that feeling? The colors? The
scene itself? The paint stroke techniques?
6. Now, take a moment to reflect on how you have answered each of these
questions. Again, look at the painting. Make sure you have included
details to all the questions that were asked.
7. Using your answers, write a creative story telling us about you and this
painting. Add any information you feel is needed to complete your story.

Assessment
Were you able to:
Complete the questions and answer according to directions?
Write a detailed story that effectively communicates your ideas to your
audience?
Use language that evokes images and connections in your reader?



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Selected Sunshine State Standards: Language Arts
LA.B.1.4.3
Produces final documents that have been edited for: correct spelling; correct
punctuation, including commas, colons, and common use of semicolons; correct
capitalization; correct sentence formation; correct instances of possessives,
subject/verb agreement, instances of noun/pronoun agreement, and the
intentional use of fragments for effect; and correct formatting that appeals to
readers, including appropriate use of a variety of graphics, tables, charts, and
illustrations in both standard and innovative forms.

LA.C.1.4.1
Selects and uses appropriate listening strategies according to the intended
purpose, such as solving problems, interpreting and evaluating the techniques
and intent of a presentation, and taking action in career-related situations.

LA.C.1.3.4
Uses responsive listening skills, including paraphrasing, summarizing, and
asking questions for elaboration and clarification.

LA.D.2.4.1
Understands specific ways in which language has shaped the reactions,
perceptions, and beliefs of the local, national, and global communities.




























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Butterfield


Deborah Butterfield, American, born 1949
Rory, 1992, Painted steel, 79 x 137 x 28 inches
Museum Purchase, funds provided by the Caroline Julier and James G. Richardson Acquisition
Fund and gift of S.F.I. Foundation

"You know, horses actually changed the history of the world." Deborah Butterfield

Deborah Butterfield, born in 1949, grew up in San Diego, California. She
considered becoming a veterinarian but chose to be an artist instead. She began
sculpting horses in the 1970's while working on her Master of Fine Arts degree at
the University of California at Davis. Today Butterfield sculpts horses at her
studios in Montana and Hawaii.

Butterfield's abstract style is evident in all her sculptures. She uses materials,
such as wire, wood, bronze, plaster, steel, found metals and even mud, to help
capture the personality, emotions and mood of the horse.

The horse has been a major theme in art, whether we are referring to prehistoric
cave paintings, Chinese Tang horses, or the horse of the American West,
cultures around the world have revered the horse as a symbol of adventure and
status. The Spanish introduced horses to the Americas where the horse greatly
expanded transportation. The exploration of the US western territories was
dependent on the horse, and the horse was essential to farmers and ranchers.
Throughout this history, the horse has remained a status symbol and a mark of
identity for its owner.


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Discussion Themes
How is Rory both abstract and realistic?
What qualities make it abstract, and what seems most realistic?
What sort of geometric shapes are there?
What parts of the horse seem most organic?
What materials are used to create Rory?
How many discarded objects can you identify?
What opinions could the artist be trying to express in her choice of
materials?
Do you think there is a parallel between the elements of this sculpture and
the role of the horse in our society?
Think of how the role of the horse has changed since the inventions of the
tractor, the train and the car. How do you think this has affected our
society?

Butterfield Websites
http://www.gregkucera.com/butterfield.htm
http://www.varoregistry.com/butterfield/
































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Butterfield

Visual Arts

Overview
Deborah Butterfield has sculpted the horse for her entire career. Just as the role
of the horse in society has changed, her sculpting methods and materials have
altered. Changing the media can have a strong effect on how the subject is
perceived in terms of mood, feeling and/or function.

Goals
You will be able to:
Verbally explain your choices and what they represent to you.
Successfully make your animals express contrasting moods.
Use good craftsmanship so that your animals stand or sit alone.
Identify the most difficult part of construction.

Activity
1. After thinking about the curatorial information passage, sculpt two animals
using contrasting media.
2. Consider the differences in various materials such as wire, clay, branches,
wood scraps or papier-mache'.
3. Using good craftsmanship, make the animals about the same size, but
vary their gestures and positions of their heads, legs and tails to achieve
contrasting moods.

Assessment
Were you able to:
Verbally explain your choices and what they represent to you?
Successfully make your animals express contrasting moods?
Use good craftsmanship so that your animals stand or sit alone?
Identify the most difficult part of construction?

Selected Sunshine State Standards: Visual Arts
VA. A. 1.4.4
Uses effective control of media, techniques, and tools when communicating an
idea in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional works of art.

VA. B. 1.4.2
Understands that works of art can communicate an idea and elicit a variety of
responses through the use of selected media, techniques, and processes.

VA. C. 1.4.1
Understands how social, cultural, ecological, economic, religious, and political
conditions influence the function, meaning, and execution of works of art.


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Butterfield

Language Arts

Vocabulary Activity

Goals
You will be able to:
Identify five unfamiliar words.
Identify the parts of speech and definitions of those words within their
correct contexts.
Write new sentences using those vocabulary words in the same context.

Activity
1. Read the curatorial information passage and visual arts assignment and
find five unfamiliar words.
2. Identify the part of speech and definition of the word in the correct context.
3. Write a new sentence using that vocabulary word in the same context.

Assessment
Were you will be able to:
Identify five unfamiliar words?
Identify the parts of speech and definitions of those words within their
correct contexts?
Write new sentences using those vocabulary words in the same context?

Selected Sunshine State Standards: Language Arts
LA.A 1.3.2
Uses a variety of strategies to analyze words and text, draw conclusions, use
context and word structure clues, and recognize organizational patterns.
LA.A 1.4.1
Selects and uses pre-reading strategies that are appropriate to the text, such as
discussion, making predictions, brainstorming, generating questions, and
previewing, to anticipate content, purpose, and organization of a reading
selection.

LA.A 1.4.4
Applies a variety of response strategies, including rereading, note taking,
summarizing, outlining, writing a formal report, and relating what is read to his or
her own experiences and feelings.

LA.B 1.3.2
Drafts and revises writing that: is focused, purposeful, and reflects insight into the
writing situation; conveys a sense of completeness and wholeness with
adherence to the main idea; has an organizational pattern that provides for a


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logical progression of ideas; has support that is substantial, specific, relevant,
concrete, and/or illustrative; demonstrates a commitment to and an involvement
with the subject; has clarity in presentation of ideas; uses creative writing
strategies appropriate to the purpose of the paper; demonstrates a command of
language (word choice) with freshness of expression; has varied sentence
structure and sentences that are complete except when fragments are used
purposefully; and has few, if any, convention errors in mechanics, usage, and
punctuation.

LA.B 2.4.3
Writes fluently for a variety of occasions, audiences, and purposes, making
appropriate choices regarding style, tone, level of detail, and organization.









































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Glossary


Adornments- ornaments used to decorate the body or garments of a person

Asymmetrical- another name for informal balance, in which unlike objects have equal
visual weights or eye attraction

Attributes- natural characteristics or qualities

Background- the part of the picture or view farthest from the viewer

Cast- to give shape to by pouring in liquid or plastic form into a mold or form and letting
harden without pressure

Characteristic- something that marks a distinctive feature or quality

Color theory the study of colors and their relationships and reactions with other colors,
a phase of art that is also a science

Color wheel- a means of arranging the primary and secondary colors in a sequential
order

Complementary color- Colors across from each other on the color wheel. Each primary
color is opposite a secondary color.

Composition- the combinations of elements in a painting or other works of art and the
way they are arranged

Concept- an abstract idea generalized from particular instances

Consistent- marked by harmony, regularity, or continuity

Contemporary- existing in the present or at the same time historically

Continuity- an uninterrupted connection, succession, or union, persisting without change

Cool color- a color that suggests sensations of coolness, such as blue or its associated
hues, blue-green, and blue-violet

Critique- to act of examining, judging or evaluating

Deconstruct- to take something apart

Depict- to represent by a picture or words

Elaborate- to add detail or distinction to something

Enhance- to make greater or heighten in desirability or value

Equestrian- one who rides on horseback, representing a person on horseback


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Foreground- the part of the picture or view depicted as nearest to the viewer

Glaze- a transparent or translucent substance used as a coating

Horizon line- in linear perspective, the line where earth and sky seem to meet

Impressionism The theory or practice of utilizing the study of the effect of light on
objects using broken strokes of unmixed pigment blended together and then viewed
from a distance

Incarnation- the embodiment of a deity or spirit in an earthly form

Incise- to cut into; engrave

Initiation- the act of, or ceremony of admission into a certain membership or group

Juxtaposition- a placing or being placed side-by-side

Media- materials such as paint, glass, paper, clay, or, fabrics

Middle ground- the part of the picture or view depicted as the middle part to the viewer

Organic- shapes or forms visually more derived from nature

Overlap- to extend over and cover part of

Perspective- the appearance of the true relationship of objects or events to each other

(En) plein air- painted out of doors

Porcelain- a hard, fine-grained, non-porous, usually translucent white ceramic ware that
consists of a variety of minerals

Proportion- the relation of one part to another or to the whole

Scarification- to make scratches or small cuts in the skin; used for identity purposes

Status- a position or rank in relation to others

Symbolism- the use of something concrete that represents or suggests another thing

Textile- a woven or knit cloth

Texture- the way something feels or looks like it feels

Thumbnail- concise, brief

Underglaze- a preliminary coating that usually adds color to a ceramic piece, which is
added before the glaze

Warm color- a color that suggests sensations of warmness such as yellow or red


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Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review (SQ3R)*

Use the following steps to work through any reading passage.

Step One:
Pair up with another student.

Step Two:
With your partner, preview the assigned article by looking at the title, subtitles,
bold-print text or words, pictures and graphics included in the article. Read any
captions that are included under the pictures or graphics.

Step Three:
Skim the questions at the end of the article.

Step Four:
Review the definitions for any bold-faced print text or vocabulary words.

Step Five:
Circle the punctuation at the end of each paragraph in the article.

Step Six:
Decide who will be the first reader and who will be the listener. The first reader
reads the first paragraph aloud stopping at the circled ending punctuation.

Step Seven:
The listener asks a question to identify the main idea.

Step Eight:
The reader answers the question.

Step Nine:
Switch roles. The reader becomes the listener, and the listener becomes the
reader.

Step Ten:
Repeat switching reading and questioning roles for the entire reading
assignment.







*Adapted from Linda Tilton's The Teacher's Toolbox for Differentiating Instruction.


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Venn Diagram Template

Use the template below to create a Venn diagram comparing and contrasting the
symbols of ideal beauty between the Sowei and that of Western culture.



Ideal Beauty


Sowei ideal beauty Western ideal beauty








































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Art Criticism As A Four Step Process
Based on the work of Dr. Edmund Feldman, from Varieties of Visual Experience.

Go beyond initial judgments of "I like it" or "I don't like it" with these four steps to
unwrap a work of art and discover meaning. These questions flow forward and
back as the viewer is guided to find meaning based on clues from the work.

1. Description = "What do you see?"
2. Analysis = "How is it arranged?"
3. Interpretation = "What does it mean?"
4. Judgment = "Is it significant?"


1. Description
Describe the work in terms of what can be seen. Include sensory elements of
color, line, texture, shape and space. Take into account the title, artist, date
created, size, subject matter, materials used and presentation.

Prompts:
"What do you see?"
"Are there things in the art work that you recognize?"
"Discover as much as you can about the art work."
"Think like a detective."

Good questions to ask:
Can you identify any objects? Describe them. Where are they in the
image?
Are there open and closed spaces in the work? What takes up the most
space in the picture?
Are people shown to you? What are they doing?
Is a time, place or event shown?
What kind of colors, shapes, lines and textures has the artist used?
Describe them. Where do you see them?
What is the first thing you notice when you look at the artwork?


2. Analysis
Analyze how the parts you see and have described are arranged and work
together. The formal principles of art including balance, movement, proportion,
rhythm, unity and contrast relate to the organizational properties in a work of art.

Prompts:
"How is it arranged?"
"How has the artist used the elements together?"


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Good questions to ask:
Is this picture balanced? Is it symmetrical or asymmetrical? Has the artist
used color, shape or space to influence the sense of balance?
Do you see pattern or repetition? What has the artist used to create that
effect? How does your eye move around the picture? Has something else
created movement?
Unity is the feeling of the image holding together. Is this picture unified?
What elements has the artist used to create unity?
Where is the focus? How does the artist make this area stand out? Does
another color, shape, space or texture make it stand out?
Is there distance created in this picture? Is there a foreground, a
middleground and a background? What visual tricks has the artist used to
create the feeling of distance?


3. Interpretation
Interpret the meaning based on the description and analysis. Return to what you
know about the artwork to support the interpretation. Multiple meanings are
appropriate if they make sense based on the evidence. Convincing
interpretations explain all obvious parts.

Prompts:
"What does it mean?"
"What is the artwork about?
"Have we covered all the possible meanings?"

Good questions to ask:
What mood or feeling seems to be expressed in this artwork?
Does it seem quiet? Happy? Powerful? Dreamy?
What in the work makes you think this?
What are the main ideas, meanings and concepts? How are they
presented?
Are any of the following devices used?
o Allegory: a representation that illustrates a deeper meaning
o Symbol: a representation of something else
o Sign: a thing that stands for something else
o Iconography: an identifying subject matter
What insights do you have about this work now that you have looked at it
in depth? Have you changed your idea of what it means?






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4. Judgment
Decide if the artwork is good, important, worthwhile, bad, trivial or not worth
examining. Judgments require reasons. Reasons are found in criteria and
standards of art theories. This is a way to find value and significance in artwork.

Prompts:
"Is it significant?"
"Give careful reasons for your opinion."

Good questions to ask:
What do you see in the artwork to help you judge it?
Is the artwork important because of what it means? Why?
Is the artwork important because of what it does? Why?
How well does the art meet the interpretation?
What standards are you using to judge this artwork? Some standards from
traditional theories of art are:
o Mimetic: art is an imitation of the world
o Expressionistic: art is an expression of an emotion
o Pragmatic: art works toward some practical end
o Formal: art is a significant arrangement of sensory elements





























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Art Criticism As A Four Step Process
Based on the work of Dr. Edmund Feldman, Varieties of Visual Experience

1. Description = "What do you see?"

2. Analysis = "How is it arranged?"
3. Interpretation = "What does it mean?"
4. Judgment = "Is it significant?"


1. Description
Describe the work in terms of what can be seen. Include sensory elements of
color, line, texture, shape and space. Take into account the title, artist, date
created, size, subject matter, materials used and presentation.

Prompts:
"What do you see?"
"Are there things in the art work that you recognize?"
"Try to discover as much as you can about the art work."
"Think like a detective."

Good questions to ask:
1. Can you identify any objects? Describe them. Where are they in the
image?



2. Are there open and closed spaces in the work? What takes up the
most space in the picture?



3. Are people shown to you? What are they doing?



4. Is a time, place or event shown?



5. What kind of colors, shapes, lines and textures has the artist used?
Describe them. Where do you see them?



6. What is the first thing you notice when you look at the artwork?

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2. Analysis
Analyze how the parts you see and have described are arranged and work
together. The formal principles of art including balance, movement, proportion,
rhythm, unity and contrast relate to the organizational properties in a work of art.

Prompts:
"How is it arranged?"
"How has the artist used the elements together?"

Good questions to ask:
1. Is this picture balanced? Is it symmetrical or asymmetrical? Has the artist
used color, shape or space to influence the sense of balance?





2. Do you see pattern or repetition? What has the artist used to create that
effect? How does your eye move around the picture? Has something else
created movement?





3. Unity is the feeling of the image holding together. Is this picture unified? What
elements has the artist used to create unity?





4. Where is the focus? How does the artist make this area stand out? Does
another color, shape, space or texture make it stand out?





5. Is there distance created in this picture? Is there a foreground, a
middleground and a background? What visual tricks has the artist used to
create the feeling of balance?







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3. Interpretation
Interpret the meaning based on the description and analysis. Return to what you
know about the artwork to support the interpretation. Multiple meanings are
appropriate if they make sense based on the evidence. Convincing
interpretations explain all obvious parts.

Prompts:
"What does it mean?"
"What is the art work about?
"Have we covered all the possible meanings?"

Good questions to ask:
1. What mood or feeling seems to be expressed in this artwork? Does it
seem quiet? Happy? Powerful? Dreamy? What in the work makes you
think this?





2. What are the ideas, meanings, and concepts? How are they presented?





3. Are any of the following devices used?
Allegory: a representation that illustrates a deeper meaning
Symbol: a representation of something else
Sign: a thing that stands for something else
Iconography: an identifying subject matter





4. What insights do you have about this work now that you have looked at it
in depth? Have you changed your idea of what it means?












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4. Judgment
Decide if the artwork is good, important, worthwhile, bad, trivial or not worth
examining. Judgments require reasons. Reasons are found in criteria and
standards of art theories. This is a way to find value and significance in artwork.

Prompts:
"Is it significant?"
"Give careful reasons for your opinion."

Good questions to ask:
1. What do you see in the artwork to help you judge it?





2. Is the artwork important because of what it means? Why?





3. Is the artwork important because of what it does? Why?





4. How well does the art meet the interpretation?





5. What standards are you using to judge this artwork? Some standards from
traditional theories of art are:
Mimetic: art is an imitation of the world
Expressionistic: art is an expression of an emotion
Pragmatic: art works toward some practical end
Formal: art is a significant arrangement of sensory elements









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Web Links


African
African Symbols
http://www. lam.mus.ca.us/africa/teacher/bowers/058.htm

Objects of Identity
http://www.dia.org/collections/aonwc/africanart/symbolsofroyalpower.html

Cloth Symbols-Akan
http://www.marshall.edu/akanart/fr intro.htm


Asian
Animal symbols for kids from the Metropolitan Museum of Art
http://www. metmuseum.orq/explore/neweqypt/htm/ls ani.htm

Animals and Their Symbolic Meanings
http://www.symbolart.com/symbols.html


Avatars of Vishnu
South Asian and Himalayan Art
http://www.asia.si.edu/collections/himalavanHome.htm


Deborah Butterfield
Greg Kucera Gallery
http://www. reqkucera.com/butterfield.htm

The Varo Registry of Women Artists
http://www.varoreqistrv.com/butterfield/


Monet and Impressionism
Impressionism: Paintings Collected by European Museums
http://www.impressionism.org/teachimpress/


Miscellaneous
State of Florida Sunshine State Standards
http://www.firn.edu/doe/curric/prekl2/frame2.htm

The Samuel P. Ham Museum of Art
http://www.harnmuseum.org



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Bishop Study Center Resources


Photography

Educator Resource Program Videos
Ansel Adams
American Photography: A Century of Images
Henri Cartier-Bresson
Photography 101: The Successful Guide to Making Great Photographs
(Landscape)
Photography: Still Frame Format
Portrait of Imogen: Photographer Imogen Cunningham
Sebastio Salgado: Looking Back at You

Educator Resource Program Books
Take A Look Around: Photography Activities

Reference Books in the Bishop Study Center
The History of Photography by Beumont Newhall
Susan Sontag on Photography
Dialogue with Photography by Paul Hill and Thomas Cooper
Bystander: A History of Street Photography by Colin Westerbeck & Jeol
Meyerowitz
Watkins to Weston: 101 Years of California Photoraphy 1849-1950
An American Century of Photography: From Dry-Plate to Digital
A World History of Photography by Naomi Rosenblum
The Art of Photography 1839-1989


Claude Monet & Impressionism

Educator Resource Program Videos
Monet: Legacy of Light
Monet's Garden at Giverny
Monet: Shadow & Light
The Life & Works of Claude Monet (including Art Lessons)

Educator Resource Program Books
Monet and Impressionism
Impressionism: The essential visual guide to the Impressionist painters,
and to the influences that shaped their work



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Monet: Explore Claude Monet's life and art, and the influences that
shaped his work
Claude Monet


The Ten Avatars of Vishnu

Educator Resource Program Videos
Puja: Expressions of Hindu Devotion
India: The Empire of the Spirit

Educator Resource Program Books
India: Discover the people and traditions of one of the most dynamic
countries in the world

Educator Resource Program Curriculum Binders
Telling Stories in Art Images

Reference Books in the Bishop Study Center
Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization by Heinrich Zimmer
Hindu Art by T. Richard Blurton


Reading the World of Art

Educator Resource Program Books
Signs and Symbols: An Illustrated Guide to Their Meaning and Origins

Reference Books in the Bishop Study Center
The Secret Language of Symbols: A visual Guide to Symbols and Their
Meanings
















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Rubric for Evaluating Studio Art Projects

Assignment:
Student: Class:

Creativity
5 Demonstrates exciting, original and complex ideas, shows evidence of deliberate
experimentation and problem solving.
4 Use of new ideas and creative problem solving, work is original.
3 Work is adequate but lacks originality, no new ideas.
2 Minimal creative thought or student originated ideas.
1 No evidence of creative thought.

Craftsmanship
5 Superbly planned and executed with careful attention to details and overall quality.
4 Very good overall quality and use of details--careful work.
3 Acceptable quality of work with some sloppiness and minimal attention to detail.
2 Low work quality, sloppy technique and not careful work.
1 Unacceptable work quality, lacks evidence of skill or attention.

Concept
5 Sophisticated comprehension of assignment concepts, connected to pre-existing or
multi-disciplinary knowledge and raises meaningful questions.
4 Full understanding and application of assignment concepts.
3 Responds to assignment concepts adequately.
2 Minimal attention to assignment concepts.
1 Does not address assignment concepts.

Effort
5 Effort beyond the expectations of the assignment.
4 Concentrated, consistent effort.
3 Adequate effort with some distraction or carelessness.
2 Minimal effort, work is barely complete.
1 No effort or work was never completed.

5 Excellent
4 Above Average
3 Average
2 Below Average
1 Needs Improvement










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Studio Art Rubric for Student Self-Evaluation

Assignment:
Name: Class:

5 Excellent
I understood the big ideas of this project and used these ideas in my artwork. I thought
carefully about my work and used original ideas, good skills and added a lot of details. I
worked very hard on this project and feel proud that it is my very best work.

4 Above Average
My artwork is detailed and complete. I put good effort into my artwork and used my
skills. The artwork shows that I understood the ideas in the lesson. I feel good about my
art even though it isn't my best work.

3 Average
I put some effort into my artwork. I added a few details. I finished my artwork but it
does not show new ideas. I feel okay about my art but want to do better next time.

2 Below Average
My artwork looks sloppy. I did not put in good effort to show that I learned new ideas. I
did not work very hard and could do better than this.

1 Needs improvement
The artwork looks unfinished and very sloppy. I did not use a lot of skill or care. I did
not use any new ideas. I should do this project again.

My artwork fits bests in number

What I like best about my artwork:



What would I do differently next time?


Teacher Comment:


Parent Signature: Date:









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FCA T Writing Assessment Rubric

Assignment:
Student: Class:

6
The writing is focused on the topic, has a logical organizational pattern
(including a beginning, middle, conclusion and transitional devices), and has
ample development of the supporting ideas. The paper demonstrates a sense of
completeness or wholeness. The writing demonstrates a mature command of
language including precision in word choice. Subject/verb agreement and verb
and noun forms are generally correct. With few exceptions, the sentences are
complete, except when fragments are purposefully used. Various sentence
structures are used.

5
The writing is focused on the topic with adequate development of the supporting
ideas. There is an organizational pattern, although a few lapses may occur. The
paper demonstrates a sense of completeness or wholeness. Word choice is
adequate but may lack precision. Most sentences are complete, although a few
fragments may occur. There may be occasional errors in subject/verb agreement
and in standard forms of verbs and nouns but not enough to impede
communication. The conventions of punctuation, capitalization and spelling are
generally followed. Various sentence structures are used.

4
The writing is generally focused on the topic, although it may contain some
extraneous or loosely related information. An organizational pattern is evident,
although lapses may occur. The paper demonstrates a sense of completeness or
wholeness. In some areas of the response, the supporting ideas may contain
specifics and details, while in other areas the supporting ideas may not be
developed. Word choice is generally adequate. Knowledge of the conventions
of punctuation and capitalization is demonstrated, and commonly used words
are usually spelled correctly. There has been an attempt to use a variety of
sentence structures, although most are simple constructions.

3
The writing is generally focused on the topic, although it may contain some
extraneous or loosely related information. Although an organizational pattern
has been attempted and some transitional devices have been used, lapses may
occur. The paper may lack a sense of completeness or wholeness. Some of the
supporting ideas may not be developed with specifics and details. Word choice
is adequate but limited, predictable and occasionally vague. Knowledge of the



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conventions of punctuation and capitalization is demonstrated, and commonly
used words are usually spelled correctly. There has been an attempt to use a
variety of sentence structures, although most are simple constructions.

2
The writing may be slightly related to the topic or may offer little relevant
information and few supporting ideas or examples. The writing that is relevant
to the topic exhibits little evidence of an organizational pattern or use of
transitional devices. Development of the supporting ideas may be inadequate or
illogical. Word choice may be limited or immature. Frequent errors may occur
in basic punctuation and capitalization, and commonly used words may
frequently be misspelled. The sentence structure may be limited to simple
constructions.

1
The writing may only minimally address the topic because there is little, if any,
development of supporting ideas, and unrelated information may be included.
The writing that is relevant to the topic does not exhibit an organizational
pattern; few, if any, transitional devices are used to signal movement in the text.
Supporting ideas may be sparse, and they are usually provided through lists,
cliches, and limited or immature word choice. Frequent errors in spelling,
capitalization, punctuation and sentence structure may impede communication.
The sentence structure may be limited to simple constructions.

Unscorable
The paper is unscorable because
The response is not related to what the prompt requested the student to
do,
The response is simply a rewording of the prompt,
The responses is a copy of published work,
The student refused to write,
The response is written in a foreign language,
The response is illegible,
The response is incomprehensible (words arranged in such a way that no
meaning is conveyed),
The response contains insufficient amount of writing to determine if the
student was attempting to address the prompt, or
The writing folder is blank.









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Curriculum Resource Unit Evaluation Form


Samuel P. Harn Museum ofArt
Reading the World of Art

We need your assistance in evaluating this curriculum resource unit. Your
opinions and comments are important to us as we continue to develop and
secure grant funding for our school programming. Please complete the
following questionnaire.


i I am an art teacher.
i I am a classroom teacher for
i Other


grade.


1. The lesson plans in the curriculum were useful for
my classes.

2. The selected art objects were appropriate, engaging and
meaningful for my students.

3. The visual resources in this curriculum were useful and
motivating for my students.

4. The curriculum resources were effective in preparing my
students for their visit to the Harn Museum of Art.

5. The curriculum resources were effective for extending my
students' learning after our visit to the Harn Museum.

6. The curriculum aligned well with the Sunshine State
Standards in Visual Arts.

7. The curriculum helped support the Sunshine State
Standards in other curriculum areas.

8. The curriculum resources were effective in making
multi-disciplinary connections.

9. These curriculum activities prepared my students for
the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT).


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Comments:


1. What parts of the curriculum did you find to be the most effective?




2. What parts of the curriculum did you find to be the least effective?




3. What changes or improvements would you suggest in content, format, etc.?




4. Did you utilize the Harn Museum's Educator Resources Program to support
your use of this curriculum?




5. What art and/or instructional resources would you like to have available
through this program?




Any additional comments you have would be appreciated.



Thank you for taking the time to respond.
Please return this evaluation by mail or fax to:

Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art

Education Department
PO Box 112700
Gainesville, FL 32611-2700
Fax (352) 392 3892

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