Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Introduction & overview
 Quality of life indicators
 Preservation laws & policies
 Heritage tourism
 History museums
 Historic and affordable housin...
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Title: Contributions of historic preservation to the quality of life in Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00090906/00001
 Material Information
Title: Contributions of historic preservation to the quality of life in Florida
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: McLendon, Timothy
Publisher: Center for Governmental Responsibility, Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00090906
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Introduction & overview
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Quality of life indicators
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Preservation laws & policies
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Heritage tourism
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    History museums
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Historic and affordable housing
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Back Matter
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Back Cover
        Page 40
Full Text


S- a

In the preamble to the National Historic Preser action Act Congress found that the piesert action :of America ; heritage
".. .is in the public interest so that its vital legacy of cultural, educational, aesthetic, inspirational, economic and
energy benefits will be maintained and enriched for future generations of Americans." In o.:ther .:.vcd; in 1966
Congress vvas convinced that the American public "quality :f life would impro e a; an Indigenous pa t :of the preser-
vation of its historic to.rns and neighborhoods Fc.ur decades later National Trust for Historic Preservation President
Richard lMoe opened the annual conference vvith rema ks that re-confirmed that organization s concern n for quality of
life and ho:l preseFrvation rf properly inteil ated can better our communities

Recently D:ono\an Rypkema one of the nation s foremost prese\ation planners made the obse ation about ne..ly
re..vitalized historic area; that not long a-go \'veie nearly dead I do not kn:ovw a single -ustaine,:d .uc::ess stoiy in
do:,\ntor: n revitalization anyv.ihere in the IIS there resto:ratrion pr-eservationi .as not a key component of the eff:.r
That ,doesn t mean it isn t theoretically, possible to haze dovJvnto%.n revitalization but no resto'lation but I don t knort
about it I ha% en r read about it I haien r seen it

Indeed the vvell-being and potential for the recycling of older communities is an incieasiing concern in states such as
Florida in all aspe:ts of urban and regional planning For some time piFeserationists have suspected that there is a
real connection ~.ith a tangible and elusive community spirit that rises from a sense of place often associated vith
unique neighborhoods whetherr they qualify for the Nlational Register of Historil Place. o:r not It just so: happen- that
recognized neighborhoods hae one up on those that do not have that identity

B1 understanding ho.i this connection .i:orks vwe can ;see the means to maintain the cultural and historical qualities
that contribute to Flolida s older neighborhoods while also meeting the needs :of quality living and housing As this
study sho:js quality of Irfe is no:e being measured from all angles its quantifiable qualities can in large part include
standard of living ecc.nomric and housing opportunities as .iell as access to goods and ser ice Quality of life can also
encompass freedom, happiness creati it~ and artistic impression environment and health .- qualities that are far
harder to measure

Although in the past hstoiic pieseiation ha- too often been seen as a -epai ate and prioi actlith that prepares the
\. ay fo, the improvement of neighbci hoods. \.e knov nova that ieitalization requies that histoiic sites be gien a role
in the life of the community The point i, not to place the community's histoiic asset undei lock and ke,, but to
integrate them safel) and evenly into the fabric of eve, 'ida. life Local residents can benefit though outdoor markets
handicrafts, houses, Cuii'ne, businesses, Civic and ieligiou- centel- and interpreted components such as lea ninq and
recreational acti, ties that complement a historic sites didactic : offe inngs and c:onie. a special meaning between its
past present and future The more the community is involved. the molie Succes--ful and inviting the area will become
for everyone

Because of this oei lap in the relationship bet.reen better quality) of life and histoni c preservation ..hen properly inte-
grated into planning, this ver, much needed report explo ing these condition- will help in developing an integrated
approach to planning foi historic and other, uniquely special communities in Flonda It is a wo.th. companion to the
previously published Economic Impacts of H;itoric Pieser\ation in Fl ida '

Roy Eugene Gaham
Beinecke-Reeves Distinguished Piofessor
Director College Pieserzaton Pr:ogram-
School of Achitectuie
College of Design, Constiuction and Planninq
IUn, ei sty of Florida


Contributions of

Historic Preservation


Introduction & Overview

Quality of Life Indicators

Preservation Laws & Policies

Heritage Tourism

History Museums


Historic and Affordable Housing


Timothy McLendon
Staff Attorney,
Center for Governmental
University of Florida
Levin College of Law

Kristin Larsen, Ph.D., AICP
Assistant Professor
Department of Urban and
Regional Planning,
University of Florida
JoAnn Klein
Development Director,
Center for Governmental

University of Florida
Levin College of Law
Rhonda Phillips, Ph.D., AICP
CEcD, Director Center
for Building Better
Communities, Associate
Professor, Urban and
Regional Planning,
Department, College of
Design, Construction and
Planning, University of Florida

Glenn Willumson, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of
Art History, Director

of the Graduate Program in
Museum Studies,
University of Florida

Lori Pennington-Gray, Ph.D.
Center for Tourism
Research and Development
College of Health and
Human Performance,
University of Florida
John Confer, Ph.D.
Center for Tourism
Research and Development
College of Health and
Human Performance,
University of Florida





Photos: COVER (clockwise from top left) Mission San Luis, Tallahassee,
winner of the 2006 "Preserve America" Presidential Award for Heritage
Tourism; Miami Beach Art Deco District; Mount Dora's Historic District; and
Lake Mirror Promenade, Lakeland. TABLE OF CONTENTS: (top) Ca d'Zan,
Ringling Estate, Sarasota. BACK COVER: Ybor City.










Introduction & Overview

The State of Florida's heritage, whether in

archaeological resources, historic structures, sites, and

districts, spans the entire era of human settlement:

* Indian Mounds
* 18th century Spanish colonial
* Cracker structures of the 19th
* Bungalows and chert houses of the
early 20th century
* The distinctive modern style of the
Sarasota School of Architecture
* Roadside structures and sites such
as the early theme parks
* 1950s ranch houses that are just
now becoming eligible for listing
in the National Register of Historic
Places and many local registers.
The heritage of our past and the
productive, respectful use of such his-
toric places in the present strengthen
the quality of life for the future of our
state. Identifying what is distinctive
and shared about this heritage is
essential to understanding how his-
toric preservation contributes to the
quality of life in Florida.
What is the relationship between
historic preservation and quality
of life? Historic preservation
contributes to economic and cultur-
al values in the State of Florida.
Those cultural values are reflected in
the quality of life found in the state's
communities from small towns to
large urban areas. Historic preserva-
tion contributes to quality of life due
to the sense of place created by the
tangible and intangible characteris-
tics of Florida's historic places.

Florida's elected officials have
directly addressed the significance
of historic preservation to the
quality of life in Florida, finding
"The rich and unique heritage
of historic properties in this state,
representing more
than 10,000 years of
human presence, is an
important legacy to be
valued and conserved
for present and
future generations.
The destruction of
these nonrenewable
historical resources
will engender a signif-
icant loss to the
state's quality of life,
economy, and cultural
(FLA. STAm. 267.01(1)(A))
This report, "Contributions of
Historic Preservation to the Quality
of Life in Florida", represents the
first statewide study of how historic
preservation fits into the overall
quality of life in Florida. The report
includes models and tools available
to further historic preservation in
Florida and to measure the impact
of historical structures, events, and
related activities on the enhance-
ment of the quality of life in Florida.
It is sponsored by the Florida
Historical Commission and the

Division of Historical Resources in
the Florida Department of State.
This report, a collaboration of
four different colleges of the
University of Florida and a non-
profit organization specializing in
historic preservation, is a follow-up
to a 2002 report on the "Economic
Impacts of Historic Preservation in
Florida", with the same sponsors
and some of the same research team
members. The two studies differ in
that the economic impacts study
was derived from a
quantitative review of
S available data related
DI to historic preserva-
tion. That study
S offered a statewide
analysis of historic
preservation activity
in Florida. It exam-
ined direct and multi-
plier effects from
investment in historic
preservation through-
out the state in such
activities as historic
rehabilitation of all
types of properties, heritage
tourism, Main Street investment,
grants programs, tax credits and
museum operations.
The quality of life study, con-
tained in this Executive Summary,
while reviewing many of the same
programs available in Florida in the
field of historic preservation, pres-
ents a qualitative analysis. Explicit
measuring that results in a definitive
number or dollar amount is not
easily ascertainable for quality of
life. For that reason, this report is


DeFuniak Springs

;( ome of the most lovingly preserved and picturesque downtown are
found in Florida's small towns. For sheer harmony and grace, DeFuniak
Springs may be the state's most unspoiled city."'
DeFuniak Springs shares a great deal with many other Florida cities
it was founded in the late nineteenth century when a variety of people were
attracted to the state by a stream of publications that celebrated Florida's exotic
landscape. As in many towns founded at that time, the railroad played a pivotal
role; and development concentrated around the city's spring-fed lake and reflect-
ed a mix of low density commercial, govern-
mental, religious, and residential structures in
the vernacular and late Victorian styles that
typified the era.
What is distinctive about DeFuniak
Springs is its sense of place reinforced by its
social history connected to the Chautauqua
Institute founded in 1869 in New York State.
From its first assembly in 1885 until the early
1930s, DeFuniak Springs functioned as the
southernmost home of the adult education movement that endorsed learning in a
pleasing natural and built environment to uplift the intellect and the spirit.
In 1902, nationally prominent architects were hired to develop a plan to make
the settlement into a model town. The layout a public park surrounding the lake
with public buildings interspersed in the landscape bounded by a street from
which axial roads extend makes the lake the town's centerpiece. Homes pre-
dominantly sit across the lakefront drive and the nearby railroad station forms the
center of the town's commercial district. This core area of the historic town was
listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1992.

1. Mormino, G.R. (2005). Land of Sunshine, State of Dreams: A Social History of Modern Florida.
Gainesville, FL: Univ. Press of Florida, p. 40.

compiled by a collaboration of researchers,
representing experts in the respective fields
addressed in this study.
While measuring economic impacts
can be approached from a statewide level,
quality of life evaluations occur more
often at the local level. Measuring quality
of life occurs in people's perceptions and
enjoyment of their state and communi-
ties. It looks at the physical environment
but also the cultural aspects of the
community. Defining quality of life issues
encompasses several components,
including historic preservation. How
does historic preservation impact the
livability of a city or a community?
The challenge posed in this research
is identifying, developing, or applying
methods for assessing the impact of his-
toric preservation on the quality of life in
Florida's communities. The value of this
report is to assist individuals, neighbor-
hoods, and communities in identifying
creative methods for fostering historic
preservation and for measuring its contri-
bution to the quality of life in an area.
A 2005-2006 survey found that
Florida residents are aware of their his-
toric resources (roughly 55% of 1505
respondents had visited a historic site in
the past year) and value the role that his-
toric preservation plays in the state of
Florida. Specifically, preservation is val-
ued for what it can contribute to future
generations (24%), for aesthetic reasons
(17%), for educational reasons (14%),
and for environmental reasons (13%)
(see Russin in Technical Report to
this work).

Researchers in this study examined
historic preservation's impact on Florida's
quality of life in five key areas:

Quality of Life Indicators
Community indicators allow us to
explore the relationship between his-


toric preservation and quality of life,
expressed in terms of explicit out-
comes. Community indicators are
bits of information that when com-
bined, provide a picture of what is
happening locally. Quality of life is
reflective of the values that exist in a
community, and indicators can be
used to identify and promote a par-
ticular set of values. This chapter
includes a chart of indicators to use
in gauging, protecting, enhancing,
and interfacing with historic preser-
vation. The research also provides
recommendations for implementing
the framework through monitoring
and measuring the indicators.
The Northeast Florida communi-
ty of Fernandina Beach is offered as a
case study of how economic develop-
ment and historic preservation can
be compatible and integrated to pro-
vide desirable outcomes while pro-
tecting a community's valuable

Preservation Laws & Policies
Laws and policies reflect the pri-
orities of a democratic society. They
restrict things deemed harmful and
seek to promote actions that are
viewed as beneficial. Historic preser-
vation laws reflect a decision by pol-
icy makers that our heritage,
whether national or local, is signifi-
cant and should be preserved for
future generations.
This chapter discusses the two
types of laws and policies that
promote historic preservation: regu-
lations and incentives.
Community programs that are
described in this chapter include:
mitigation efforts to protect historic
resources in an interstate widening
in Tampa; the Bridge of Lions reha-
bilitation in St. Augustine; adaptive
reuse of an old church in Tampa
Heights; Emerson Apartments reha-

bilitation and Pennsylvania Hotel
rehabilitation, both in St. Petersburg;
and projects enabled by state grants
and the Florida Main Street Program.

Heritage Tourism
Historic preservation and heritage
tourism support one another. Historic
preservation provides the setting, the
history, the persona, and the tradi-
tions for heritage tourism; heritage
tourism provides the opportunity to
educate, enjoy, and appreciate historic
The chapter on heritage tourism
examines a county's investment in
heritage tourism by evaluating the
percentage of annual tourist-related
tax revenue that the county allocates
for activities and programs related to
historic preservation. The researchers
examine three case studies of use of
lodging tax, including:

* Suwannee County
* Monroe County
* St. Johns County

History Museums
Arguably, the central mission of
history museums is to preserve the


past for local audiences that are
diverse and include seniors, tourists,
and school children. In fact, Florida
educators and history museums
work in collective partnerships to
utilize this community resource as an
educational tool. The chapter on his-
tory museums assesses history muse-
ums' effect on three areas of quality
of life:
Researchers, through survey and
interviews, collected data from history
museums located throughout the state
to assess what programming and sup-
port services the museums offer in
ways that positively affect the quality of
life in their communities. From those
findings, the researchers selected three
case studies that represent a broad
spectrum of Florida historic museums,
1. St. Augustine Lighthouse and

Museum, a large history museum;
2. Fort Christmas Historical Park in
Central Florida, a small history
museum in a rural area;
3. Riley House Museum, a small his-
tory museum near Tallahassee,
specializing in a particular topic.
These case studies are described in
detail in the Technical Report that
accompanies this Executive Summary.

Historic & Affordable Housing
Affordable housing and historic
resources can mutually co-exist in
neighborhoods and communities,
though the rehabilitation of deterio-
rated houses may indeed pose chal-
lenges to affordability. The chapter on
affordable housing identifies creative
solutions to conflicts of gentrification,
sustainability, and rehabilitation.
What tools are available to attract
the private sector to undertake such
rehabilitation projects? Among them
are building codes that accommodate

rehabilitation, neighborhood conserva-
tion districts to complement local his-
toric districts, community land trusts,
expansion of existing revitalization
programs, the historic rehabilitation
tax credit combined with the low-
income housing tax credit, preserva-
tion easements, revolving loan funds,
property tax relief to address increased
property values due to historic desig-
nation, and coordinated planning to
proactively address potential chal-
lenges such as gentrification.
Specific case studies examine the
use of Conservation Districts in
Tampa, Sarasota and Zephyrhills, as
well as an investigation of a
Community Land Trust in Key West.
Within these five areas, researchers
identify quality of life indicators that
can be used to determine how that
component contributes positively to a
community. Individual case studies are
selected to illustrate how to evaluate
quality of life indicators.



Which historic resources in Florida
are the most threatened?

Old downtown among most threatened 17%
Public buildings among most threatened 8%
Old homes and neighborhoods among most
threatened 21%
Old schools among most threatened 7%
Historic and scenic landscape among most
threatened 21%
Old industrial sites among most threatened 3%
Archeological sites among most threatened 12%
Other 8%
Don't Know 3%

What are the most important
reasons to preserve Florida's
historic resources?

10% 2% r%

To better gauge public perceptions
of the relationship between historic
preservation and quality of life,
researchers commissioned a three-
month-long survey of the attitudes of
Floridians in regard to these topics.
More than 1,500 Floridians were ran-
domly sampled and interviewed
between November, 2005 and
January, 2006. The survey was con-
ducted by the University of Florida
Survey Research Center, the research
and service unit of the Bureau of
Economic and Business Research at
the University of Florida.
The complete findings of the sur-
vey are included in the Technical
Report that accompanies this
Executive Summary.
Two key findings emerged that are
relevant to this project.

1. Respondents identified what they
see as Florida's most threatened
historic resources as, in order: his-
toric and scenic landscapes (21%);
old homes and neighborhoods
(21%); and old downtown (17%).
2. Respondents said the most important
reasons to preserve Florida's historic
resources are, in order: for future gen-
erations (24%); scenic reasons (17%);
and education (14%). These findings
appear to indicate that the Floridians
surveyed have an appreciation for
historic resources and see a need to
preserve them for the future.
The following chapters detail how
each component of historic preservation
can be measured to determine its impact
on quality of life in Florida. Detailed
descriptions of each of these programs
are included in the Technical Report that
supplements this Executive Summary.


] Scenic among most important reasons
to preserve 17%
] Affordable housing among most important
reasons to preserve 4%
Economic redevelopment among most
important reasons to preserve 6%
Education among most important reasons
to preserve 14%
] For future generations among most important
reasons to preserve 24%
Environmental reasons among most important
reasons to preserve 13%
Sense of place among most important reasons
to preserve 9%
[ Promote tourism among most important
reasons to preserve 10%
H Other 2%
H Don't Know 1%


- II

i I .




I Iff-

Quality of Life Indicators

Historic preservation provides numerous benefits,

including a profound and positive effect on quality

of life for citizens and visitors alike.

There are numerous references
to quality of life in historic preser-
vation documents, in all types of
literature popular press, academ-
ic, and practitioner related works.
Quality of life is assumed to be one
of the valuable outcomes of his-
toric preservation efforts, yet there
are not many evident attempts to
express this relationship explicitly.
It is this implicit, assumed nature
that provides the research opportu-
nity at hand: what is the strength of
this relationship, expressed in
terms of explicit outcomes such
as impacts?

This report pres-
ents a framework for B
exploring the relation-
ship between quality
of life and historic
preservation, using
community indicators.
This chapter pres-
ents a set of indica-
tors, based on avail-
able historic preserva-
tion programs, sites,
and activities, by which community
leaders can develop an evaluative
number to measure their contribu-
tions to the quality of life of the area.

The measure can then be used to
monitor the success of a community
in contributing positively to the
quality of life.

What is the appeal
of indicators? When
used as a system, they
hold much promise
as an evaluation tool.
What makes indica-
tors any different
from other measures
of aspects of places,
such as job growth,
per capital income, or
housing prices? The
key is developing an integrative
approach one that considers the
impacts of change not only in eco-
nomic terms, but also the social/




ernandina Beach is located
on Amelia Island, a coastal
barrier island along the
northeastern Florida coast.
It is one of three incorporated areas
in Nassau County and contains
many of the area's historic proper-
ties. Its rich history includes the dis-
tinction of being the last town plat-
ted by the Spanish before they
ceded Florida to the United States
in the early 1800's. As one of the
oldest settlements in Florida, it
offers a charming Victorian seaside
setting. Fernandina Beach was
named "One of a Dozen Distinctive
Destinations Worth Discovering" in
2002 by the National Trust for
Historic Preservation. Given its
expansive historic resources, it pro-
vides an excellent case study of
how economic development and
historic preservation can be com-
patible and integrated to provide
the community desirable outcomes
while protecting valuable resources.
Fernandina Beach has a rich his-
toric fabric that for decades in the
early and mid-20th century did not
receive development pressures like
other Atlantic coastal towns in
Florida. This turned out to be very
fortuitous for present day outcomes -
be.:au. of its relative isolation away
fI.:.m the rapid build-up areas, the city
\,3s" ,ble to preserve its historic fab-
ric. By the late 1960's, some began to
-ealize what treasures these historic
resources represented and initiated
efforts to revitalize and preserve
them. They realized that the
resources represented a basis on
which to *uild a tourism industry
and the ba.i f.:. desirable economic
development out..co.me Actually,
Fernandina Be3.:h ie.bult" a
tourism industry because in the late
110011, the city was a well recog-
nized tourist destination, promoted
and renowned by many as the
"Newport of the South" (referring to
Newport, Rhode Island, as a popular
seaport resort town).

There are two historic districts in
Fernandina Beach that together con-
tain 336 historic buildings. The dis-
tricts are:
1. Old Town This district encom-
passes the original settlement area
for Fernandina Beach and abuts the
waters of Amelia River.
2. Downtown Historic District -
This district, the Fernandina
Beach Historic District, is a result
of development of Fernandina in
its "new" location to the south of
Old Town Fernandina after the
mid-19th century.
The City of Fernandina Beach has
benefited tremendously from its his-
toric resources and by pursuing
preservation-led strategies for eco-
nomic development. Its downtown
district is a major attraction for many
tourists each year and offers a unique
and quaint experience that is different
from many coastal towns where all
the same chain stores may exist and
newer buildings are the standard. It is
a charming Victorian era seaside town
and has done a commendable job of
preserving its historic resources.
Fernandina Beach has garnered eco-
nomic gains that are quite impressive
for a small city.

Some issues have emerged that
the City of Fernandina Beach and oth-
ers concerned with protecting their
historic resources will need to consid-
er. One of these is that the rapid rise
in market values of the properties can
have some chilling effects on business
activity, if property tax bills rise too
high for local businesses to support. It
also impacts new property tax assess-
ments for buyers when a property is
sold and may indicate that small,
unique businesses could not afford to
pursue new opportunities. A key to
preserving the quality and character
of a unique place like Fernandina
Beach will be to address this and
other issues to maintain balanced and
sustainable preservation-based devel-
This case illustrates that economic
development and historic preserva-
tion are compatible and can serve as
a valuable basis on which to build and
enhance a local economy. By preserv-
ing historic resources and enhancing
their use and appeal, development
outcomes can be realized that benefit
not only the economic aspects but
also the social and cultural dimensions
with provision of a unique and desir-
able community.


cultural and environmental dimen-
sions. A community indicators sys-
tem reflects collective values, pro-
viding a more powerful evaluative
tool than simply considering the
"economics" of change and growth.
By integrating an indicators system
into overall community or regional
planning, it is easier to evaluate the
impacts of changes, whether posi-
tive, negative or neutral. It is this
ability of community indicators
systems to be integrated as a sys-
tem for gauging impacts across a
full spectrum of outcomes that
makes it beneficial to explore using
them. Further, indicators incorpo-
rate both frameworks of perform-
ance and process outcomes, which
serve to facilitate evaluation. When
properly integrated, indicators may
be utilized in the decision-making
process as indicators of impacts
and outcomes.
Just what is a community indi-
cator? Essentially, community indi-
cators are bits of information that
when combined, provide a picture
of what is happening in a local sys-
tem. They provide insight into the
direction of a community: improv-

ing or declining, forward or back-
ward, increasing or decreasing.
Combining indicators provides a
measuring system to provide clear
and honest information about past
trends, current realities, and future
direction, in order to aid decision-
making. Community indicators can
also be thought of as a report card
of community well being. These
systems generate much data, and
the analysis of these data can
be used in the decision-making
and policy/program improvement
process. There are numerous func-
tions of indicators, including:
description, simplification, meas-
urement, trend identification, com-
munication, clarification, and as
catalysts for action.
Four common frameworks are
used for developing and implement-
ing community indicators systems in
the U.S.:
1. Quality of Life
2. Performance Evaluation
3. Healthy Communities
4. Sustainability
The framework presented here
most closely follows the quality of
life format.

This chapter was prepared by Rhonda Phillips, Ph.D., AICP CEcD, Director Center for Building Better
Communities, Associate Professor Department of Urban and Regional Planning, ( .. fDesign, Construction
and Planning, University of Florida. The "Indicators" section is excerpted in part from Community Indicators,
Rhonda Phillips, American Planning Association, PAS Report No. 517, 2003.

1C -'

Indicator Framework

The following table presents a list of the
indicators selected to calibrate the frame-
work. They are divided into four categories:
gauging (related to type and amount);
protecting (ordinances and regulations);
enhancing (partnerships and incentives);
and interfacing (uses).

A. Gauging
These indicators are related to the amount and
type of historic resources in the community.
* Historic fabric Rehabilitation/
* Districts, structures, certified tax credits
landmarks Assessed property
* Distressed historic value trends
neighborhoods Historic district/
property reinvestment

B. Protecting
These indicators are ordinances and regulations.
* Historic preservation Preservation ordinances
element/plan Historic preservation
integration survey
* Design guidelines Historic preservation
* Historic preservation staff
commission Certificates and
enforcement actions

C. Enhancing
These indicators are related to partnerships
and incentives.
* Main Street program Neighborhood
* Certified Local participation
Government Civic/museum
* Participation in other partnerships
state/federal programs Tax exemptions
* Historic preservation Other incentive
non-profits programs

D. Interfacing
These indicators are related to the uses of
* Housing affordability Community use factors
* Business use Heritage/cultural
* Community draw interactions




Preservation Laws & Policies

In a democratic society, our laws and policies ulti-

mately reflect our priorities. Thus, we restrict

things deemed harmful and seek to promote things

that are viewed as beneficial. Historic preservation

laws reflect a decision by policy makers that our

heritage, whether national or local, is significant

and should be preserved for future generations.

Historic resources have a value that
can be seen as aesthetic and educa-
tional, in addition to whatever
economic value they may have. There
are two types of laws and policies that
promote historic preservation: regula-
tions and incentives.

How do Historic Preservation
Laws contribute to Quality of Life?
Historic preservation programs
can be a key piece of community
revitalization, as well as an impor-
tant part of maintaining the prop-
erty and character of local historic
neighborhoods. Historic districts
typically require maintenance of
property, thus preventing proper-
ties from becoming derelict.
Historic tax credits and tax exemp-
tions can foster the restoration
of decayed historic buildings,
whether in downtown or residen-
tial neighborhoods. Historic dis-
tricts need not be frozen in time.
Sensitive infill development is

often necessary and appropriate,
especially where there are numerous
vacant lots. The revi-
talization that accom-
panies an ongoing
historic preservation
program can also
contribute to increased
public safety as vac-
ant buildings become
inhabited homes and

Types of Historic
Preservation Laws
Regulatory historic
preservation laws may
mandate a specific substantive result
(i.e., preservation of the historic
resource). For example, local ordi-
nances allow for the designation of
certain properties or neighborhoods
as historic, and then authorize restric-
tions on the appearance or demolition
of historic properties. These local
laws are the most important element

in preserving privately-owned his-
toric properties. The 52 Florida com-
munities recognized by the State
Historic Preservation Office as
Certified Local Governments each
have local programs certified as meet-
ing basic standards in the expertise of
their preservation boards, the stan-
dards required for designating his-
toric districts and landmarks, and the
adoption of guidelines to protect his-
toric properties and neighborhoods.
Regulatory laws may also control
a process (e.g., obliging federal or
state agencies to consider the impacts
of their undertakings
on historic resources).
Thus, under Section
106 of the National
Historic Preservation
Act, federal agencies
must consider the
effects of federal or
federally funded proj-
ects on historic
resources. Similar
procedural considera-
tions are required
by the National
Environmental Policy
Act and Section 4(f)
of the Transportation Act. These acts
require notification of federal, state,
and tribal historic preservation offi-
cers about possible impacts on
historic resources and allow time
to provide comments and suggestions
about alternative approaches which
will minimize any harm to historic



Tampa Heights Sanctuary Lofts

his former Methodist Church, located in Tampa Heights north of down-
town, was originally built in 1910, and a Sunday School facility was
added in 1927. When the congregation moved to another facility in
1998, the historic building was left vacant. A group of investors, led by
Andrew Ham of Urban Trust, LLC, saw an opportunity to restore the building as a
combination office/apartment complex. A partnership of several investors and the
City of Tampa acquired the property and arranged financing. The federal rehabil-
itation tax credit, a 20 % tax credit for rehabilitation of historic properties, made
the $3.1 million construction project possible.
The rehabilitation of the Classical Revival building had to be certified by the
National Park Service as complying with the Secretary of the Interior's Standards
for Rehabilitation. Following these standards, developers retained the building's
historic features, including the outer
walls, stained glass, hardwood floors,
original corridors and the interior space
of the former sanctuary. The Sunday
School bu.IJng became 32 residential
loft units with 12 foot ceilings, large win-
dows and original architectural features.
The former sanctuary was developed as
4,000 square feet of office space with a
view to the dome overhead.
Sanctuary Lofts is one of the first res- -
idential loft projects undertaken in
Tampa. The project benefited from a $100,000 loan from the City to acquire the
property, and f.:.m 5.497,408 in rehabilitation tax credits. The result is attractive
living and working space near downtown, and a model for adaptive reuse of
historic buildings.

Incentives to promote
Historic Preservation
Incentives, on the other hand, encour-
age preservation by providing some tangi-
ble benefit. These benefits may include tax
relief, grants or relief from certain regulato-
ry or procedural burdens. The benefit may
be simple recognition of the historic
importance of a structure or neighbor-
hood, as is provided by the National
Register of Historic Places or by the
National Historic Landmark Program.
Florida currently has more than 1,500 sites
and districts on the National Register, and
39 National Historic Landmarks.
This recognition may entitle properties
to further benefits. For example, owners
and long-term lessees whose rehabilitation
of income-producing historic properties is
certified to be in conformity with the
Secretary of the Interior's Standards for
Rehabilitation, may receive the Federal
Rehabilitation Tax Credit, a tax credit of up
to 20% of the value of the rehabilitation
work. Since 1986, nearly 450 Florida tax
credit projects representing some $556
million in construction have been
approved by the National Park Service.
Local governments raise much of their
revenues through property taxes. The will-
ingness of counties and/or municipalities
to forego some revenues in the form of tax
exemptions can serve as an encourage-
ment to property owners to invest in and
rehabilitate their properties. Three types of
local tax exemptions are possible in
Florida. The first allows exemptions from
property taxes for up to 50% of the
assessed value of property that is: 1) used
for commercial purposes or by a non-prof-
it organization; 2) listed in the National
Register, designated as a local landmark, or
part of a National Register or local historic
district; and 3) regularly open to the pub-
lic.1 The second, most common type of
exemption, allows for a ten-year exemp-
tion of the value by which historic proper-
ties are improved by rehabilitation.2 A final
exemption allows a total property tax
exemption where rehabilitated historic


properties are used for nonprofit or
governmental purposes and where the
building is open to the public.3
Florida communities increasingly
make use of these tax incentives: in
2005, over $137 million worth of
property was exempt from ad valorem
taxes due to these three types of his-
toric tax exemptions.
Grants are another important
incentive to preserve historic prop-
erties. The federal government
provides grants under the Save
America's Treasures program to pre-
serve some of the most important
landmarks in Florida. Under this
program since 1999, thirteen Florida
projects have been funded, including
$353,000 for preservation at the
Ringling Estate of Ca d'Zan in
Sarasota, $795,000 for preservation
work at the Biltmore Hotel in Coral
Gables and $450,000 to preserve the
Singing Tower at the Bok Sanctuary
in Lake Wales.5


Florida Historical Grants


.) ................. 1 U5

u.uu 1

u" '1 '02 '03 '04 05 '06

']Grant Funds r.13r Ii Funds No. of Projects

Recent Grant Projects


$350,000 in 2002 to the City of St. Petersburg
to help restore 1926 Mediterranean Revival
style building for use as children's science
museum, restaurant and administrative offices
for Sunken Gardens tourist attraction.


$600,000 in 2 grants, in 2001-02, to
rehabilitate the famous Bok Tower's
masonry and steel work.


$350,000 grant to Brevard County to
rehabilitate historic house as a museum.


$320,000 grant to the City of Archer
to rehabilitate a historic WPA-era
g\,mn3-ium 3s community center.


$842,000 in -1 g,3nt -: .nce 1998, to restore
1924 school and audt.:.oum for use as a
performing arts center.


$300,000 grant to rehabilitate the 1917
building as a museum.

Even more significant are the
grants-in-aid awarded by the Florida
Division of Historical Resources.
Florida has one of the nation's largest
and most successful grant programs,
having awarded some $81 million
support over 780 preservation projects
since 2001. There are two types of his-
toric preservation grants funded by
the Division of Historical Resources:
1) Acquisition and Development
Activities; and 2) Survey and Planning
Activities. The former category
includes such activities as restoration
and rehabilitation of historic struc-
tures and the excavation of archaeo-
logical sites. Survey and Planning
grants-in-aid include recording of his-
toric and archaeological sites, and
community education and relations
projects which promote historic and
archaeological preservation. In
addition, so-called Special Category
grants are major Acquisition and
Development grants for projects of
exceptional importance, including

public buildings such as courthouses,
churches and theaters.
Some communities provide their
own grants and low-interest loans to
promote historic preservation. For
example, Tampa's program is funded
by the sale of historic residential
properties rehabilitated in a joint
effort by the City and the federal gov-
ernment as part of the mitigation
associated with expansion of
Interstate Highway I-4 through a his-


toric district in Ybor City. Miami-
Dade County's new Building Better
Communities program will be funded
by a bond program approved by
voters in November 2004.
Smaller communities are also
able to provide grant and loan
incentives. In Kissimmee, the
Community Redevelopment Agency
(CRA) and Main Street Program use
the tax increment financing from the
CRA to fund grants to improve
historic facades and restore historic
structures within the CRA.6
Kissimmee's CRA has awarded over
$570,000 in matching grants to
businesses and homeowners within
the district since 1998.7

Florida Main Street Program
The Main Street Program was
established by the National Trust for
Historic Preservation in 1980 to
help revitalize historic downtown,
especially in smaller communities.
Since its founding, some 2,000 com-
munities in forty-one states have
benefited from the techni-
cal assistance provided by
the Main Street Program
which focuses on four key
elements of revitalization:
1) Design; 2) Organization lii
and consensus building; 3)
Promotion and marketing of the
Main Street; and 4) Economic
Florida has had an active Main
Street Program since 1985, working
in over 80 Florida communities to
date. During that period, Florida
Main Street has generated some
$1.37 billion in public and private
investment in both rehabilitation
and new construction, witnessing
the start of over 3,700 new business-
es and over 11,600 new jobs.8
Examples of Main Street


* Milton (Santa Rosa County) -
Streetscaping and restoration of
the historic Imogene Theater,
damaged by Hurricane Dennis in
* Melbourne (Brevard County) -
Master plan for old down-
Stown, adopted together with
city and chamber of
Vilano Beach (St. Johns
TC': County) New town cen-
ter and beach pavilions.
The Waterfronts Florida
Partnership, administered by the
Department of Community Affairs,
offers similar support to smaller
waterfront towns, focusing on small
grants, planning and technical
assistance to help maintain water-
dependent uses and traditional
waterfronts. Though not primarily a
historic preservation program, sev-
eral partner communities, including
towns like Cortez, St. Andrews and
Crystal River, have used Waterfronts
Florida support to address historical
and cultural resources.

1. These tax exemptions are authorized by
FLA. STAT. 196.1961.
2. These tax exemptions are authorized by
FLA. STAT. 196.1997.
3. These tax exemptions are authorized by
FLA. STAT. 196.1998.
(May 2006).
5. Florida awards under Save America's Treasures
since 1999 total $4,741,318. See National Park
Service, Save America's Treasures, Funded Projects,
available online at: http://grants.cr.nps.gov/
6. Tax increment financing (TIF) makes use of
increases in property tax revenues in designated
geographic area to fund certain activities. Once a
tax increment district is established, it sets a base
year in which the aggregate tax value of the dis-
trict is set. As property tax revenues increase over
the established aggregate value, the amount of
excess is the tax increment. A CRA or other entity
entitled to receive the tax increment may then use
them for designated purposes. See Sam Casella,
What is TIF in Tax Increment Financing 9 (Planning
Advisory Svc. Rep. No. 389, APA
1984). In Florida, TIF under the Community
Redevelopment Act has provided a mechanism
for successfully funding downtown revitahzation,
including historic preservation activities.
See FLA. STAT. ch. 163, pt. III.
7. Information about Kissimmee's CRA and
Main Street program is available at:
8. See "Florida Main Street Communities Quarterly
Report Data Base," information supplied by
Angela Tomlmson, Florida Main Street Program
Assistant, Florid Department of State (June 19,
Further information about Florida Main Street is
available online at:
ture/mamstreet/, and information about the
National Trust Main Street Center is available at:

This chapter was prepared by Timothy McLendon, Staff Attorney, Center for Governmental Responsibility,
University of Florida Levin C .. fLaw.



-j ~=I r
- -

v 4 PA


2t _




p __




Heritage Tourism

"Heritage tourism affords a solid foundation that sustains

the resource as well as offering a social and economic

impact. Cheryl Hargrove, First Director of the National Trust's Heritage Tourism Program

Historic preservation, at the local
level, involves more than rehabilitat-
ing historic structures and sites that
are significant to the architecturally-
oriented preservationist. It also can
encompass the events that take place
in and around these structures, the
traditions associated with an area and
its structures, the perpetuation of arts
and crafts that reflect a threatened
way of life within an area, or the festi-
vals celebrating the history of the
people and the distinctive aspects of
the locale. This broader concept of
historic preservation creates the com-
ponent parts of heritage tourism.
Heritage tourism is an increasingly
important part of Florida's tourism
industry The nearly 80 million tourists
Florida hosted in 2004 brought more
than $57 billion to the Florida econo-
my (VISIT FLORIDA, 2005). Some
9.2% of these visitors identified visit-
ing historic sites and museums as the
primary purpose for their visit, with
another 3% identifying cultural events
and festivals as their major activities
(VISIT FLORIDA, 2005). Floridians
also increasingly enjoy the historic
sites and heritage festivals in their
state. Over 80% of Floridians note that
they take visiting friends or relatives to
nearby natural, historic or cultural
sites or events. Heritage tourism thus
has a significant impact on Florida's
economy, contributing over 100,000
jobs and adding $3.7 billion to the
Florida economy in 2000 (VISIT
FLORIDA, 2005).

The information cited above
assigns value to her-

itage tourism in an
economic way, but
assigning value in a
qualitative manner is
more difficult. In an
effort to determine the
quality of heritage
tourism within a coun-
ty, this study proposes
that the percentage of
annual tourism-related
tax revenues ("bed
tax") allocated for his-
toric preservation-
related activities is one
indicator of a county's


investment in the qual-
ity of heritage tourism and of heritage
tourism's contribution to funding
those investments. Bed tax revenues
suggest there is a return of investment
of tax dollars allocated to historic
As of November 30, 2004, fifty-
three Florida counties levied a lodg-
ing tax, according to the 2005
Report on Florida's Tourist-Related
Taxes. Based on the report, each
county's tourist-related tax revenue
expenditures were examined, and
comparisons were made of alloca-
tions that include historic preserva-
tion-related activities among the
expenditures. The second part of the
study involved an opened-ended
survey of the 53 Florida counties
reporting collection of tourist-relat-

ed taxes in 2003-2004. The partici-
pants in the survey were county
representatives of either the conven-
tion and visitor bureau or the tourist
development council.

+ Many survey respon-
OUTE dents were: 1) unclear
IDA about which expendi-
tures included items
that could be classified
as historic preservation/
heritage tourism, and
2) unaware that these
lodging tax revenues
S could be used for pur-
poses related to historic
S- preservation.
A majority of the
S--- 53 Florida counties
that collect this tax sup-
port historic preserva-
tion-related activities
using bed tax revenue.

Top Florida Counties in
Percentage of Bed Tax Revenue
Allocated for Historic
Preservation-Related Activities1

Suwannee 60.00
Monroe 31.70
Hendry 30.00
Highlands 29.00
Alachua 28.00
Indian River 26.00
Taylor 24.00
Martin 15.00
Putnam 10.00
Washington 8.60
1. Based on open-ended survey of convention
and visitor bureau or tourist development
council representatives.


+ Capitalizing on their assets, rural
counties allocate a higher percent-
age of bed tax revenue to historic
preservation-related activities than
do urban counties. Eight of the top
ten counties for percentage of bed
tax revenue allocation are consid-
ered rural by the State of Florida:
Suwannee, Monroe, Putnam,
Highlands, Hendry, Taylor, and
* Historic preservation is viewed as
an investment in the community.
Where history and nature are an
area's main attractions, historic
preservation can generate bed tax
** Many counties indirectly support
historic preservation-related activi-
ties through secondary spending.
While their expenditure categories
are not exclusively identified as
historic preservation, many include
components that contribute to his-
toric preservation. For example:
1. Profits realized from the Creekside
Festival in Flagler County are
directed to the actual preservation
of Princess Place Preserve.


Suwannee County Historical Museum is
housed in Old Train Depot. Recipient of
multiple preservation grants from the State
of Florida, this museum receives lodging tax
revenue funding from the Suwannee County
Tourist Development Council.

2. In Fort Myers, the Edison-Ford
Estates benefits from Lee County's
bed tax-funded marketing efforts
that increase tourism.
3. Hillsborough County uses a
historic building for a visitor infor-
mation center. The county has
used bed tax dollars to rehabilitate
the building.

"Historically-oriented events are
putting heads in beds, so the Tourist
Development Council is willing to
give more grants. The Tourist
Development Council, [a nine mem-
ber council appointed by the County
Commission to oversee tourism], is
very interested in historic preserva-
tion," according to Greg D'Angio,
Marketing Director, Suwannee
County Tourist Development
Council. A perfect example of the way
this county attempts to capitalize on
heritage, cultural and historic events
is through the planning of cultural
events, such as festivals.
Suwannee County, with a 2% bed
tax, or $77,161, reported allocating
60%, or $46,297, of its short-term
lodging revenue to tourism promo-
tion. The decision to count the 60%
as involving historic preservation
Sunder our broad definition was based
Supon the corresponding specific proj-
ects for this revenue, which included
historic museum, concerts, renais-
, sance festivals, a Cinco de Mayo festi-
val, and other community events.
This 60% allocation of revenue for
tourist promotion has remained rela-
tively constant since 1995. One item
of note for Suwannee County is that

an additional 30% of tourist-related
tax revenue is earmarked for tourism
development and promotion of spe-
cific projects such as annual cultural
events, community events, festivals,
and concerts. Many of these events
fall under the umbrella of "artifacts
and activities that authentically repre-
sent stories and people of the past",
thus suggesting that all but 10% of
Suwannee County's 2003-2004
tourism-related tax revenue goes to
historic preservation and heritage-
related activities.

The Key West Heritage House Museum and
Robert Frost Cottage, home of the Annual
Robert Frost Poetry Festival, funded by the
Monroe County TDC, promotes cultural her-
itage and historic architectural preservation.

Monroe County, in southern
Florida, had a 4% bed tax in 2003-
2004 generating $13,840,916 in rev-
enues. The county allocated 31.70%,
or $4,387,570, toward historic preser-
vation based upon the Bricks and
Mortar revenue specifically ear-
marked for museum preservation and
maintenance. Based on allocation of
the funds, policy makers admit that
the total 31.70% cannot all be consid-
ered related to heritage tourism. Since
1995, Monroe County has allocated
between 7% and 31.8% to the Bricks
and Mortar category, and, according
to Monroe County Tourism and
Development Director, Harold
Wheeler, "every year we fund a muse-
um preservation and maintenance
project." The revenue disbursement
for these capital projects can be
through direct allocations or on a
request for proposal basis, and may be
used for historic preservation or cul-
tural projects. Wheeler states that for


Satellite Visitor Information Center housed
in the last Spanish-owned structure in St.
Augustine, is partially funded by the St.
Johns County TDC using lodging tax revenue.
this county, cultural projects
can include environment, architec-
ture, archaeology, arts, and natural

St. Johns County, home of
Florida's premier heritage tourism
destination, St. Augustine, allocated
15% ($662,360) of its total 2003-
2004 3% tourism-related tax revenues
of $4,415,735, for arts and cultural
events. St. Augustine receives more
than three million visitors annually,
and collects $100,000 in lodging tax
revenues, using these for Visitor

Information services housed in
historic properties. The Tourist
Development Council also uses
lodging tax revenue to fund grants for
arts and cultural events.
In 2002-2003, the same percent-
age was allocated for arts and culture.
For the past three years, funds were
allocated from capital projects to fund
the National African-American
Museum and Archives. The St. Johns
County Tourist Development Council
was also the premier sponsor of the
2006 Annual Conference of
the Florida Trust for Historic
Preservation, held in St. Augustine in
May 2006.

* Hargrove, C. M. (2002). Heritage Tourism. Cultural
Resource Management (25), 1. Retrieved March 22,
2006, from http://crm.cr.nps.gov/archive/25-01/25-
* Interview with Harold Wheeler, Marketing
Developer, Monroe County Tourist Development
Council (January 9, 2006)
* Interview with Greg D'Anglo, Marketing Director,
Suwannee County Tourist Development Council
(November 30, 2005)
* FLA. STAr. 381.0406. Rural means an area with a
population density of less than 100 individuals per
square mile or an area defined by the most recent
United States census as rural.

This summary was prepared by Lori Pennington-Gray, Ph.D. and John Confer, Ph.D., of the Centerfor Tourism
Research and Development, University of F. .. ... f Health & Human Performance.

Use of Revenue

by Category

Suwannee County
$84,126 Annual Revenue

Tourist Promotion
Tourist Development

Monroe County
$13,840,916 Annual Revenue




[ Tourism, Advertising & Promotion
Bricks & Mortar

St. Johns County
$4,415,725 Annual Revenue


15% 55%


Advertising, Sales & Promotion
Administration/Indirect Fees
Arts & Cultural Events
Capital Project
Beach Renourishment
Collection & Audit



History Museums

Two hundred and fifty-eight institutions identify

themselves as "history museums" in the state of

Florida. They are as diverse as the state itself.

History museums may cele-
brate local, regional, or national
places and events; or they may
range in focus from the display of a
collective past to the representation
of a single episode. Some museums
contain primarily objects of historic
interest and importance, while oth-
ers also preserve books, papers, and
ephemera relating to Florida's past.
Many, but certainly not all, history
museums are housed in historically
significant buildings. Despite these
and many other differences, the one
thing shared by state history muse-
ums is a dedication to serve
Florida's citizens and to enrich the
quality of their lives.

History museums make their
communities better places to live in
a variety of ways. Many, like the
Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Museum on the
Seminole Tribe's Big Cypress
Reservation or the Fort Christmas
Historic Park in Orange County,
organize special cultural events and
family festivals for local residents.
Others work with local government
to increase public awareness of

issues such as preservation and
conservation. They often initiate
special hours, staying
open at night, so that
the museum is avail-
able to all segments of
the regional popula-
tion. Many museums
are free or make only
nominal charges to
offset expenses. Books,
photographs, and '
papers relevant to
regional and local WINTER I
history are preserved OF 1
by museums such
as the St. Augustine
Lighthouse and Museum or the
John Riley House in Tallahassee.
These materials are preserved for
the public and made available at the
museum or historical society.
Many history museums have
focused their attention on local and
regional identity. To that end,
museums like the Indian River
Citrus and Heritage Museum train
high school students to do oral
interviews. Other institutions, such
as the Fort Christmas Historical
Park, sponsor individuals who

demonstrate local crafts, story-
telling, industries, and agriculture.
These efforts preserve historical
memory and traditions and pass
them along to a new generation.
Recently the state has witnessed the
growth of museums that have
emerged to address previously
8] : Holocaust muse-
ums and museums
devoted to African-
American or immi-
grant experience,
for example, con-
tribute to our
understanding of
the rich diversity of
'GROUND Florida's cultural
no1 history.
Florida citizens
demonstrate their
support for museums, and the cen-
tral role museums play in their
lives, in a variety of ways. They join
membership groups and museum
friends' groups, donate objects to
enhance museum collections, and
volunteer countless hours. Citizens
also serve on museum boards.
Almost all museum boards in the
state are composed of a majority of
members from the local and region-
al communities. These individuals
offer their services and raise funds
to maintain the museums and, at


the same time, assure that the
museum adheres to its mission and
represents the interests of the com-
munity. Without the support and
assistance of the citizens in their
communities, history museums
would not be able to play such a
vital role in our communities. The
effects of museums take a variety of
forms. In response to the depriva-
tion of citizens after a hurricane,
the La Belle Heritage Museum in
Hendry County produced a "storm
gourmet" cookbook of recipes that
did not require cooking or heating.
The Baker Block Museum in Baker,
a small agricultural community in
Okaloosa County, provides travel-
ing exhibitions to daycare centers,
nursing homes, and adult educa-
tion centers.

The most obvious impact of
history museums on the citizens of
Florida, however, is the effect they
have on the education of the state's
children. History museums and the
collections they so carefully pre-
serve, make the history studied from
the flat pages of a book pop into
three-dimensional reality. Seeing a
place, standing in a location, view-
ing an object, or performing a task
- students see and feel the local
and state history that surrounds
them. Over half of Florida's history
museums provide special program-
ming tied to the Sunshine State
Standards. Most supply program-
ming for teachers who are charged
with teaching Florida history to
fourth grade students. This effort,

however, is just the tip of the iceberg
of educational outreach. Museums
like the Eustis History Museum in
Lake County host essay contests
that are used to prepare students for
the writing portion of the Florida
Comprehensive Assessment Test,
known as the FCAT. The St.
Petersburg Holocaust Museum
offers free training for local teachers
and invites visiting classes to deco-
rate a tile that is exhibited on the
third floor of the museum. Almost
20% of history museums have mate-
rials from their collections that they
bring directly into the classroom for
those students who cannot visit the
museum. For those who are fortu-
nate enough to be able to make the
trip, museums offer hands-on work-
shops where students can experi-
ence the thrill of an archaeological
dig or the pleasure of learning a tra-
ditional handicraft. Museums like
the Morikami Museum and Japanese
Garden in Delray Beach, Palm Beach
County, work with at-risk children
and young adults, reconnecting
them to the community. For those
students who are interested, muse-
ums provide internships that pre-
pare future leaders of the museum

History museums also con-
tribute to the economies of their
communities. Most obviously, they
bring in tourist dollars by offering
special events and festivals. They
advertise widely and build elaborate
websites that give directions to and
highlight the museum and the cities
and towns in which they are located.
People visit museums for a variety of
reasons. Some come to see a particu-
lar exhibition. For others, the histor-
ical importance of archival holdings


F iP'; ...... ... _.. *

-; ,.

of history museums supports
genealogical research. Research has
shown that museums are a stimulus
to the economic activity of the imme-
diate area. Especially in urban areas,
restaurants, historic preservation dis-
tricts, and gift shops surround muse-
um locations. Museums affect the
economic health of the region by par-
ticipating in local civic organizations
such as the Better Business Bureau or
the Chamber of Commerce, by form-

ing strategic partnerships with local
businesses, and by allowing commu-
nity groups to use their facilities for
meetings and/or social gatherings.
For example, the Historical
Smallwood Store Museum in
Chokoloskee, Collier County, part-
ners with local businesses for adver-
tising and packages tourist services
such as trolley and airboat rides.

Businesses recognize museums as a
critical element in the social fabric
and show their support by partnering
with museums to offer discounts to
museum visitors, sponsoring exhibi-
tions and special events, and joining
museum friends groups.
1. The Florida Association of Museums allows
member institutions to self define their focus.
Categories of museums are: history, science, art,
and natural history.

This summary was prepared by Glenn Willumson, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Art History, Director of the
Graduate Program in Museum Studies, University of Florida.


I 4 I
- "i I
I lii.'j.

Historic and

Affordable Housing

Florida's historic residential neighborhoods offer a

range of housing types, configurations, and features

to accommodate the state's diverse populations

based on income, stage of life, and household size.

Further, as sustainable develop-
ment becomes an increasingly sig-
nificant strategy to address growth
pressures, the proximity of historic
neighborhoods to the central busi-
ness district and other amenities
conveys additional benefits. Such
housing may also be among the last
units affordable to lower- and mod-
erate-income working families,
especially in the hot housing mar-
kets of Florida where the gap
between median income and medi-
an home value is rapidly increas-
ing. Traditional tools, such as tax
credits, and innovative approaches,
such as community land trusts, are
offering creative solutions to safe-
guard affordability, to accommo-
date the state's increasingly diverse
population, and to realize sustain-
ability goals.
Among the benefits associated
with preserving older and historic
neighborhoods are the higher per-
centage of affordable units as com-
pared to new developments and the
proximity to work, school, shop-
ping, and public transit.' Yet his-
toric preservation in older working

class neighborhoods can be a sign
of gentrification, a
process resulting in
increased property
values and the dis-
placement of lower .
income households
with ones of much
higher income. With
a livable community
as a central goal, his-
toric preservation can
safeguard these fea-
tures while address-
ing affordable hous-
ing needs. Recently
the Census Bureau
found that almost 80% of those
sampled living in central cities
rated their neighborhoods as 6 or
better on a scale from 1 to 10
where 1 represented the worst con-
ditions.2 While not all of these
units were historic (50 years old or
older), generally, central city
neighborhoods contain a higher
percentage of historic structures as
compared to the overall metropoli-
tan area. Given the number of his-
toric housing units that provide

shelter for lower income persons,
affordable housing should be a
central consideration in historic
preservation policies and pro-
The Florida State Plan specifically
identifies historic preservation as a
significant revitalization tool. Further,
the state proposes to increase the
supply of affordable
housing in part
by "recycling older
Houses and redevel-
oping residential
FLA. STAT. 187.
201(4)(b)3. Florida's
lower income house-
holds have a demon-
strated housing need
and the state's growth
management legisla-
tion outlines how
local governments
can integrate historic preservation
and affordable housing goals.
What tools are available to
meet these goals, specifically to
attract the private sector to under-
take such rehabilitation projects?
Among them are building codes
that accommodate rehabilitation,
neighborhood conservation dis-
tricts to complement local historic
districts, community land trusts,
expansion of existing revitalization
programs such as Front Porch


Conservation Districts

h;le a relatively new
t.:..:. in Florida, conser-
%ation districts offer a
means for local govern-
ments to address historic fabric flexi-
bly in order to encourage protection,
rehabilitation, and revitalization that is
sensitive to a neighborhood's distinc-
tive culture and character. The cities
of Tampa and Sarasota currently use
this approach.
In Tampa, the Old Seminole
He.ght;- Neighborhood Association
advocated establishment of a
Neighborhood Conservation District
(NCD) to cc.nplcn.ent the two his-
toric districts the Seminole Heights
Historic District and the Hampton
Terrace Historic District by ensuring
compatible residential infill design
consistent with the "historic charac-
ter" in these adjacent neighbor-
hoods. Adopted in 2001, the
Seminole Heights Residential Overlay
District Development Standards
apply only to residential properties.
Similarly, the City of Sarasota recent-
ly adopted conservation districts to com-

plement its historic districts.1 As defined
in the Historic Preservation Chapter of
the city plan, 50% of the structures must
be 40 years old or older. Further, the area
is qualified to be a conservation district
when it has "a distinctive cultural, his-
toric, architectural or archaeological
identity, but does not have the cultural,
historic, architectural or archaeological
significance to meet the criteria for des-
ignation . .."2 Zephyrhills likewise has
recently adopted an ordinance permit-
ting designation of urban conservation
districts as an economic revitalization
tool and to encourage rehabilitation.

1. City of Sarasota. (2002) Sarasota City Plan, The
Historic Preservation Chapter. Adopted March 18,
2002, Objective 3, Action Strategy 3.2.
2. Ibid. Support Document, pg. HP-66.

Florida, the historic rehabilitation tax
credit combined with the low-income
housing tax credit, preservation ease-
ments, revolving loan funds, property tax
relief to address increased property val-
ues due to historic designation, and coor-
dinated planning to proactively address
potential challenges such as gentrifica-
tion. Two of these tools, conservation dis-
tricts and community land trusts, are dis-
cussed in greater detail below. For a more
in-depth discussion of all of these tools,
see the Technical Report.

Neighborhood conservation districts
as local regulatory tools
When local historic districts are cre-
ated, typically a conventional zoning dis-
trict or an overlay district is adopted to
establish specific regulations associated
with the historic designation. Overlay
districts function in concert with the
underlying zoning. Requirements and
incentives can be tailored to address land
uses and development characteristics dis-
tinctive to an area such as historic
urban fabric. Typically historic overlay
districts require conformance with design
guidelines and can alter the underlying
setback, height, and use requirements,
not just for additions or changes to exist-
ing structures but also for new infill
Neighborhoods might contain historic
homes that are not eligible for historic des-
ignation due to lack of integrity or signifi-
cance, or they may lack a sufficient con-
centration of these homes to constitute a
historic district. Other neighborhoods may
have homes nearing the 50-year mark that
do not yet qualify for historic designation.
Neighborhood conservation districts
(NCD) assist in safeguarding neighbor-
hood character, particularly in areas proxi-
mate to high growth centers. Residents and
local officials are turning to this regulatory
tool to complement historic overlay dis-
tricts. NCD requirements tend to be less
extensive, focusing more on character and


less on detailed design guidelines to
protect historic fabric. Like historic
overlay districts, NCD's can be tai-
lored to address the unique character-
istics of the community. As this
approach becomes increasingly popu-
lar, questions arise concerning how
NCD's really differ from local historic
districts and, more critically, whether
it is appropriate to "designate a resi-
dential neighborhood as a conserva-
tion district when it meets the criteria
for designation as a historic district."3

Community land trusts
Community land trusts (CLT's)
offer a means for non-profits to create
opportunities for longer-term afford-
ability, particularly in lower valued
areas when housing prices begin to
increase. This long term affordability
is secured by the non-profits owner-
ship of the land in trust with the
household purchasing the home with
certain constraints on its resale value.
Originally begun in the Northeast -
Burlington, Vermont has one of the
largest inventories of such properties
- this strategy to ensure long-term
affordability has just recently been
adopted in Florida. In addition to
maintaining housing affordability,
community land trusts can also safe-
guard historic structures by retaining
them in the housing inventory and
assisting in their rehabilitation. The
Bahama Conch Community Land
Trust in Key West, the first such non-
profit in Florida, is the only commu-
nity land trust in the state that specif-
ically addresses the twin goals of
affordability and historic preserva-
tion. In addition to addressing gentri-
fication, a key goal in forming the
non-profit was the preservation of the
historic African-American communi-
ty. As such, the community land
trust offers a means to maintain the
cultural and historical qualities that

contribute to Florida neighborhoods
while also meeting affordable hous-
ing goals.

Neighborhood Revitalization -
A Caution
Neighborhood revitalization
through safeguarding and enhanc-
ing existing historic and cultural
resources is a central goal of many
local historic preservation programs.
In addition, aesthetics, culture, and
history are often essential factors in
creating an economic development
strategy. A city will be better able to
address any resulting gentrification
if the city drafts "a unified vision
and plan" based on an understand-
ing of the context, controls property
to better direct redevelopment, and
communicates with and empowers
the residents and property owners to
ensure social equity, and all mem-
bers of the community benefit from

Indicators to Assist in Targeting
Combined Historic Preservation
and Affordable Housing Goals
Affordability and historic preser-
vation can reinforce each other, con-
tributing to the quality of life in
Florida. Clearly, Florida's growth

management legislation, with the
embedded commitment to consis-
tency and concurrency, creates a
structure for coordinated compre-
hensive planning. In addition, tools
such as conservation districts, com-
munity land trusts, coordinated tax
credit projects, and the Front Porch
program offer means to creatively
engage the private sector while safe-
guarding significant resources and
expanding affordability options.
Employing these indicators as a
means to establish, monitor, and
adjust integrated plans and strate-
gies will result in a greater connec-
tion between historic resources and
the availability of housing for lower
income persons. Indicators that
assess historic preservation in com-
bination with affordable housing
* Distressed historic neighbor-
hoods: The presence of such
neighborhoods signal a potential
resource that, given the appropri-
ate public sector programs, can
contribute to historic preserva-
tion opportunities that increase
the supply of decent, affordable
+ Neighborhood conservation dis-
tricts: NCD's offer a means for


* ill Ii

Community Land Trusts


n the hot housing market of
Key West, the Bahama Conch
Community Land Trust seeks to
prevent the gradual loss of the
neighborhood to gentrification and
the physical deterioration of the hous-
ing stock by purchasing historic prop-
erties, renovating and rehabilitating
them as needed, and then selling or
leasing the homes to income-qualified
individuals. The goal of the land trust,
as N.J. Sawyer-Atanda, executive
director of the BCCLT says, is to help
"the community become the benefici-
ary of change, rather than the victim."
To date, the BCCLT has managed to
preserve seven hit.:o,.: homes for sin-
gle-family use and two additional
multi-family buildings, located in the
Key West Old Town Historic District.
These homes, all constructed prior to
1950, house 31 low- to moderate-
income residents, combining the
sometimes competing goals of historic
preservation and affordable housing.

BCCLT also assists potential buyers in
securing financing for properties. The
organization has been able to foster a
sense of community by becoming
deeply involved in local activities and
affordable housing efforts, the
African-American cultural community,
the environmental community and the
historic preservation community.

local governments to introduce some
controls to protect such areas without
requiring the age, integrity, or concen-
tration of significant structures requi-
site for a locally or nationally recog-
nized historic district.
* Historic Rehabilitation Tax Credits
(HRTC's) and Low Income Housing
Tax Credits (LIHTC's): Combined use
of these credits is a popular approach
to rehabilitating income-producing
residential properties. Using LIHTC's
competitive application process to
privilege, rather than punish, devel-
opers who do so ensures that these
projects are more likely to be finan-
cially viable. Further, adjusting the
rehabilitation guidelines to more flex-
ibly respond to the significance of the
historic structure can accommodate
greater responsiveness to afford-abili-
ty concerns without compromising
historic fabric.
4*Assessed property value trends:
Evaluating these data offers a means
to gauge whether a neighborhood is
distressed and thus a candidate for
certain interventions.
* Historic district/property reinvest-
ment: Community reinvestment deci-
sions that integrate historic preserva-
tion and affordability goals through
coordinated efforts, such as layering
relevant programs, are preferable to
those that simply support historic
preservation reinvestment.
* Historic preservation element/plan
integration: An integrated approach
results in better allocation of scarce
resources. Design guidelines, preser-
vation ordinances, and disaster prepa-
ration and response that implement
such plans will reflect a greater sensi-
tivity to lower income households
while maintaining historic preserva-
tion goals.
* Participation in other state/federal
programs and other incentive pro-
grams: Participation in programs such


SE.111 I
D| Ji]:


ii ry

.6" ,L^

as Front Porch or community
land trusts offers opportunities
to integrate historic preservation
in tandem with affordable hous-
ing strategies and represents a
positive indicator for evaluating
approaches that enhance the
quality of life in Florida.
*+ Historic preservation non-prof-
its: Non-profits, such as CLT's
that address both affordability
and preservation goals, should
be weighted as a stronger quali-
ty of life indicator.
+* Neighborhood participation:
Neighborhood participation in
recognizing and fostering dis-
tinctive cultural and historical
characteristics is particularly dif-
ficult in lower income communi-
ties where such goals are consid-
ered secondary to more pressing
economic needs. Yet this partici-
pation is essential to an integrat-
ed strategy of revitalizing and
sustaining such places.

** Tax exemptions: Tax exemptions
are available to all owners of eli-
gible historic properties in
Florida communities that have
officially adopted this strategy.
They contribute to housing
affordability by making the tax
on improvements a relatively less
expensive proposition for as long
as ten years.
+ Housing affordability: When the
indicators listed above are active-
ly employed, this indicator will
reflect "the community's commit-
ment to providing affordable
housing while at the same
time enhancing its historic
By using indicators to identify
opportunities and challenges and
by adopting tools that safeguard
these resources while encouraging
private sector participation, revital-

This summary was prepared by Kristin Larsen, Ph.D.
Regional Planning, University of Florida

ization of working class homes and
neighborhoods is possible. As pop-
ulation pressures continue to
mount and housing prices continue
to escalate, realizing historic
preservation and affordability goals
will ensure an enhanced quality of
life in the state.

1. Rypkema, D. (2002). Historic Preservation and
Affordable Housing The Missed Connection.
Washington, DC: National Trust for Historic
Preservation. Accessed on October 24, 2005, from
Missed Connection.pdf.
2. U.S. Census Bureau. (2004). American Housing
Survey for the United States: 2003. Current
Housing Reports, Series H150/03. Washington,
DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
3. Miller, J. (2004). Protectmg Older Neighborhoods
Through Conservation District Programs. Forum
News, 11(2), 1-2, 6, pg. 6.
4. Kennedy, M. & Leonard, P (2001). Dealing with
Neighborhood Change: A Primer on Gentrification
and Policy Choices, Working Paper. Washington,
DC: The Brookmgs Institute.
5. Hayden, D. (1995). The Power of Place: Urban
Landscapes as Public History. Cambridge, MA:
The MIT Press.
6. Phillips, R. (2003). Community Indicators.
Chicago, IL: American Planning Association.

AICP Assistant Professor Department of Urban and






I I t,

_ _....._....._1

N-j r



State Disclaimer
This publication has been financed in part
with historic preservation grant assistance
provided by the Bureau of Historic
Preservation, Division of Historical
Resources, Florida Department of State,
assisted by the Florida Historical
Commission. However, the contents and
opinions do not necessarily reflect the views
and opinions of the Florida Department of
State, nor does the mention of trade names
or commercial products constitute endorse-
ment or recommendation by the Florida
Department of State.

All photos are courtesy of:
Bureau of Historic Preservation, Division
of Historical Resources, Florida Department
of State; Florida Main Street; Florida
Photographic Collection, Florida State
Archives; Smathers Libraries, PK. Yonge
Library of Florida History, University of
Florida; City of St. Petersburg; Andrew Ham,
Urban Trust LLC, Jacksonville; Elaine Illes,
IPI Consultants;Jo-Anne Peck, Preservation
Resource, Inc.; Peter Prugh;JoAnn Klein;
Kristin Larsen; Timothy McLendon; and
Glenn Willumson.

Project staff thanks their colleagues at the
University of Florida, who assisted in the
preparation of this report, including:

Center for Governmental
Responsibility, Levin College of Law:
Jon Carroll andJim Robertson, Legal
Research Assistants; Laura Coates, Office
Manager; Lenny Kennedy, Senior Secretary;
Barbara Sieger, Secretary; Linda Baldwin,
External Relations.

Department of Urban and Regional
Planning, College of Design,
Construction & Planning:
Dr. Paul D. Zwick, Chair, Department
of Urban and Regional Planning; Associate
Dean, College of Design, Construction and
Planning; Emily Bergeron and Teresa Russin,
Masters Candidates.

Graduate Program in Museum Studies,
College of Fine Arts:
Oaklianna Brown, Graduate Assistant.
Preliminary research was completed by the

members of the graduate seminar in
museum studies in fall, 2005. Students
completing museum research and reports
included: Caroline Bradford, Leslie
Campbell, Catherine Culver, Amber
Eddington, Laura Ferries, Deborah
Johnson-Simon, Nate Lambaugh, Barbara
Matusik, Kelly O'Neill, Mandy Streeter,
Jeremy Underwood, Maury Wiseman.

Department of Tourism, Recreation,
and Sports Management, College of
Health & Human Performance:
Catherine Culver, Masters Candidate,
Fall 2006, Marketing and Events
Coordinator, Department of Heritage
Tourism, City of St. Augustine.

Florida Trust for Historic Preservation:
Carolyn Tharpe Weiss,
Executive Director
Kathleen Kaufmann, former
Executive Director

University of Florida, Bureau of
Economic and Business Research,
Survey Research Center:
Chris McCarty, Director
Alicia Turner
Mark Girson

University of Florida,
Levin College of Law:
E.L. Roy Hunt,
Professor Emeritus

University of Florida, Smathers
Libraries, P.K. Yonge Library of
Florida History:
James Cusick, Curator
Mil Willis

Project staff also thanks the many state and
local government officials, business owners,
and community leaders, who provided assis-
tance and research for this report, including:

Florida Department of State Division of
Historical Resources:
Frederick Gaske, Director

Florida Department of State
Division of Historical Resources
Bureau of Historic Preservation:
David Gregory, Grants Manager,
Grants and Education Section
Alissa Slade, Historic Preservation
Supervisor, Grants and Education Section
Susanne Hunt, Planner, Folklife,
Publications and Markers Section
Joan Jefferson, Coordinator, Florida Main
Street Program
Angela Tomlinson, Florida Main Street
Philip Wisley Architect, Architectural
Preservation Services Section
Dave Ferro, Architect Supervisor,
Architectural Preservation Services Section
Laura Kammerer, Supervisor,
Compliance Review Section
Lauren Van Lierop, Communications Office,
Mission San Luis


.. r h- A'r -i F -, FI-

Florida Association of Museums:
Malinda Horton, Executive Director

Florida Department of Community
Affairs, Waterfronts Florida
Jennifer Carver

Florida Department of Transportation:
John McShaffrey

Florida Association of
Convention & Visitor Bureaus:
Rob Skrob

Alachua County:
Susan Swires, Office of the
Alachua County Property Appraiser
John Pricher, Alachua/Gainesville
Convention & Visitors Bureau

Baker County:
Amy Griffith, Baker County Tourist
Development Council

Bay County:
Robert Warren, Panama City Beach
Convention & Visitors Bureau

Bradford County:
Ron Lilly, North Florida Regional
Chamber of Commerce
Tom Bartosek, Florida's Space Coast
Office of Tourism

Broward County:
Chris Eck, Broward County Historical
Commission Kenneth Gibbs, Office
of the Broward County Property Appraiser
Francine Mason, Greater Fort Lauderdale
Convention & Visitors Bureau

Charlotte County:
Becky Borrell, Charlotte Harbor
& The Gulf Islands Visitors Bureau

Citrus County:
Mary B. Craven, Citrus County
Convention & Visitors Bureau

Clay County:
Eve Szymanski, Clay County
Tourist Development Council

Collier County:
Jack Wert, Greater Naples, Marco Island
& the Everglades Convention &
Visitors Bureau

Columbia County:
Harvey Campbell, Columbia County
Tourist Development Council

Coral Gables:
Simone Chin, City of Coral Gables

Duval County:
Jim Overton, Office of the Duval County
Property Appraiser

Escambia County:
Ed Schroeder, Pensacola Bay Area
Convention & Visitors Bureau
Information Center

Fernandina Beach:
Catherine Hartley, City of Fernandina Beach

Flagler County:
Christina Laundrie, Flagler County Palm
Coast Chamber of Commerce

Ft. Christmas Museum:
Trudy Trask, Historic Site Supervisor
Joseph Adams, Educational Coordinator
Vickie Prewett, Collections Curator

Gadsden County:
StuartJohnson, Gadsden County Tourist
Development Council

Darlene Henrichs, City of Gainesville

Gulf County:
Paul Ramsey Pickett, Gulf County Tourist
Development Council

Hamilton County:
Nancy Oliver, Hamilton County Tourist
Development Council

Hendry County:
Jeff Barwick, Hendry County Tourist
Development Council

Hernando County:
Susan Rupe, Hemando County Tourist
Development Council

Highlands County:
Jim Brantley, Convention & Visitors Bureau
of Highlands County

Hillsborough County:
Steve Hayes, Tampa Bay Convention &
Visitors Bureau

Indian River County:
Lori Burns, Indian River Chamber of
Commerce Tourism Division

Jackson County:
Art Kimbrough, Jackson County Tourist
Development Council

Joel McEachin, City of Jacksonville
Lisa Sheppard, City ofJacksonville
John Reyes,Jacksonville & The Beaches
Convention & Visitors Bureau
Jerry Spinks, Jacksonville Historical Society
Ben Warner, Jacksonville Community
Council, Inc.
Herschel Shepard, FAIA,
Preservation Architect

Key West:
NormaJean Sawyer-Atanda, Executive
Director, Bahama Conch Community Land
Trust of Key West, FL Inc.

Jessica Newman, Kissimmee Main Street

Lake County:
Greg Mihalic, Lake County Dept. of
Economic Development & Tourism

Lee County:
Nancy Hamilton, Lee County
Convention & Visitors Bureau

Leon County:
Kay Strong-Hogan, Leon County Tourist
Development Council

Levy County:
Michael Jones, Levy County Tourist
Development Council

Madison County:
Paul Arnold, Madison County Tourist
Development Council

Manatee County:
Monica Luff, Bradenton Area
Convention & Visitors Bureau

Martin County:
Cheryl Bass, Martin County
Tourist Development Council


Laird Gann, Melbourne Main Street

Miami-Dade County:
Thomas Logue, Miami-Dade County
Attorney's Office
Rick Ferrer, Miami-Dade County
Historic Preservation Board
Ivan Rodriguez, Miami-Dade County
Historic Preservation Board
David Rooney, Office of the
Miami-Dade County Property Appraiser
Bill Anderson, Greater Miami
Convention & Visitors Bureau

Vernon Compton, Milton Main Street

Monroe County:
Harold Wheeler, Monroe County
Tourist Development Council

Nassau County:
Carolyn Haney, Amelia Island
Tourist Development Council
Tammy Stiles, Office of the
Nassau County Property Appraiser

Okaloosa County:
Darrel C. Jones, Emerald Coast
Convention & Visitors Bureau

Okeechobee County:
Kathy Scott, Okeechobee County Tourist
Development Council

Orange County:
William C. Peeper, Orlando/Orange County
Convention & Visitors Bureau, Inc.

Osceola County:
Tim Hemphill, Kissimmee/St. Cloud
Convention & Visitors Bureau

Palm Beach County:
WE. McLaughlin, Palm Beach County
Convention & Visitors Bureau

Pasco County:
Diane Jones, Pasco County
Tourist Development Council

Pinellas County:
Lee Daniel, St. Petersburg/Clearwater Area
Convention & Visitors Bureau

Polk County:
MarkJohnson, Central Florida
Visitors & Convention Bureau

Putnam County:
WD. Larson, III, Putnam County
Chamber of Commerce

Riley House Museum:
Althamese Bares, Founder and
Executive Director
Geraldine Johnson-Johnson, former Educator
Anthony Dixon, Archivist

St. Augustine Lighthouse and Museum:
Kathy A. Fleming, Executive Director
Paul Wenglowsky, Director of
Maritime Education
Kathleen McCormick, Museum Conservator
Debe Thompson, Volunteer Coordinator
Mollie Malloy, Director of Museum

St. Johns County:
Dena Masters, St. Augustine, Ponte Vedra &
The Beaches Visitors & Convention Bureau
Georgia Katz, St. Johns County Planning Dept.

St. Lucie County:
Larry Daum, St. Lucie Tourist
Development Council

St. Petersburg:
Kimberly Hinder, City of St. Petersburg
Bob Jeffrey, City of St. Petersburg

Santa Rosa County:
Kathy Newby, Santa Rosa County Tourist
Development Council

Sarasota County:
Virginia Haley, Sarasota Convention &
Visitors Bureau

Seminole County:
Suzan Bunn, Seminole County Suzan Bunn,
Seminole County Convention & Visitors

Suwannee County:
Greg D'Angio, Suwannee County Tourist
Development Council

Del Acosta, City of Tampa
Andrew Ham, Urban Trust LLC, Jacksonville
Elaine Illes, IPI Consultants
Jo-Anne Peck, Preservation Resource, Inc.

Taylor County:
Dawn Taylor, Taylor County
Tourist Development Council

Volusia County:
Art Heinz, Office of the Volusia County
Tax Collector

Wakulla County:
Greg James, Office of the Wakulla County
Clerk of Court

Walton County:
Erin LaGrosse, Beaches of South Walton
Convention & Visitors Bureau

Washington County:
Ted Everett, Washington County Tourist
Development Council

West Palm Beach:
Friederike Mittner,
City of West Palm Beach

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