Title: Bivalve bulletin
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00090511/00004
 Material Information
Title: Bivalve bulletin
Series Title: Bivalve bulletin
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Florida Shellfish Aquaculture Extension, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Florida Shellfish Aquaculture Extension, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Cedar Key, Fla.
Publication Date: May 2003
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090511
Volume ID: VID00004
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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May 2003
Volume VII No.2


Consumer Responsibility 1

2002-3 Clam Marketing Campaign

An exciting promotional campaign for Florida farm-
raised clams is being conducted by the Bureau of

Seafood and Aquaculture Marketing in the Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services (DACS). Components of this campaign include trade
advertising, point-of-purchase materials, in-store samplings, exhibits at national
seafood shows, and much more. Turn to page 2 for campaign highlights!

With the national economy still in a slump,
the clam aquaculture industry continues to
face declining sales values and increasing
market competition not only in-state but with
other clam-producing states as well. In order
to increase market share, the industry must
begin looking at national and global trends,
address strategic problems that affect both the
seafood and aquaculture industries, and start
developing new options.
So what is occurring on the national and
global levels? Foremost, demand for seafood
has only increased from 12.5 pounds per
capital (per person) to 14.8 pounds over the
past 20 years. This "mature" demand is
coupled with expanding supply which is
predominately driven by aquaculture. With
world fishery landings flat at around 80 to 90
million metric tons, aquaculture production
has grown from 10 to 40 million metric tons
during 1984 to 1998. Global supply has been
the real growth, with China's aquaculture
exports increasing from 4 to 27 million metric
tons over the same time period (see the July
2002 issue of the Shellfish Aquaculture
Newsletter for more information.) Other
countries in Southeast Asia, in particular
Vietnam, and South America are also
dominating the marketplace just take a look
at the advertisements in SeaFood Business, a
national trade magazine for wholesalers and
What does all this mean? The bottom line -
prices for seafood have fallen. For example, in
the past 10 years the price of farm-raised
salmon has dropped from $3.50 to $1.70 per
pound. The same has occurred for farm-raised


catfish, shrimp, and other seafood items.
Declining prices indicate that profits must
also be down. In some cases, prices are below
the U.S. cost of production. So the clam
aquaculture industry is NOT alone! Further,
this pattern exists across all commodities.
What are the generic options for solution?
The first option, and certainly the easiest, is to
become the low cost producer and compete
on price. As clam production rose
exponentially during the 1990s, this strategy
allowed Florida clams to rapidly enter the
national marketplace. Another option is to
become the most consumer responsive
producer/wholesaler and compete on benefits
delivered. The third option is to take a non-
business action, such as engaging in
protectionism or government subsidies. For
example, the January 2003 issue of The
Bivalve Bulletin reviewed the plight of the
U.S. catfish industry. At that time, catfish
producers were seeking tariffs on imported
catfish from Vietnam. By next month, the
U.S. Department of Commerce is scheduled
to make a decision on an antidumping
petition filed by The Catfish Farmers of
America. However, many industry observers
caution that while trade laws may slow down
the competition, the realities of the global
marketplace cannot be escaped.
So what is consumer responsive? First,
consumer value must be defined as a
relationship between the perceived benefits of
a product and the product price. To create
consumer value, by means other than
lowering price, the focus must be on the
benefits derived from quality, functionality,
form, place, time, or ease of possession. A
product is a BUNDLE of benefits! Value is
added when benefits are increased through
either physical change, perceptual change, or
associated service change. Consumer
responsive is creating customer value and
competing against others based on increasing
the bundle of benefits rather than decreasing
the price. Some keys to success include

Clam Marketing

Aquaculture Budget

Remote Setting Seed


SW FL Clam Meeting

Clam Lease Signs

Upcoming Meetings




Consumer Responsibility (continued]
uniqueness of product offering, profits from high margin and
premium price, extensive knowledge of the customer, and
proper signaling of the added value. Since value-added can
also become "commoditized," continual innovation in the
product's bundle of benefits is necessary.
So what is driving consumer use of seafood and aquaculture
products? In terms of percent consumption, seafood falls
below poultry and beef, but is above pork. In terms of national
consumer attitudes, seafood is generally considered to be
healthier than other meat options and more appropriate for a
dinner out than something to cook at home. The most common
response in consumer surveys is "I would eat more seafood if I
knew how to buy or cook it." The good news strategically for
seafood is the perception of good health by consumers,
especially with aging "baby boomers." The image of seafood
is of quality and taste, making it an excellent fresh product and
"restaurant" food. Also, aquaculture should create stability of
price and supply for the consumer, as well as provide for
product traceability. The bad news strategically for seafood is
that consumers do not know how to use it at home. Traditional
frozen, such as "fish sticks," and fast food products are not
perceived as healthy. Also, seafood continues to be perceived
as a high price protein alternative. Lastly, supermarkets
control the distribution of seafood in the national marketplace.
So what are the consumer responsive options for
aquaculture? As marketers step up efforts to make consumers
more knowledgeable about cooking seafood and offer more
convenient products that take the guesswork out of
preparation, it is expected that the market should continue at

Clam Marketing Campaign on the Move

Since the industry brainstorming session with the DA( S DI\ i-ion of
Marketing in Orlando last July, the Bureau of Seafood lld A.qiuacilluiI
Marketing has been busy incorporating and impki.cilnlii' idi.as
discussed at that meeting. The 2002-3 marketing campaiw'n is a icsuhill of
funding from last year's state legislative session to help inciiease al.e of
Florida farm-raised clams. A liaison committee, chosen to icplcsc.iil
industry from different parts of the state's growing aicas. luh diicccd
the Bureau on various campaign initiatives ldunrI t qulciNlli
teleconference meetings. Following is an update on those iiuwunm es.
Trade Advertising A full-page advertisement, shared with the
alligator industry, was placed in the March issue of the SeaFood
Business Magazine to coincide with the 21st International Boston
Seafood Show. The clam industry participated in the Fresh From
Florida exhibition booth. Another ad is in this month's issue of the
Nation's Restaurant News. This coincides with the National Restaurant
Association's 84t Annual Show being held during May in Chicago,
which attracts over 75,000 attendees. The clam liaison committee
confirmed funding a generic booth at this show. Bureau personnel will
be staffing the booth and Florida clam supplier lists will be distributed.
Retail Display New ice picks for farm-raised clams have been

its present rate of growth through 2010. Total retail sales are
projected to increase from $17.7 to $22.2 billion over the next 5
years. That's an annual growth rate of just over 5%. By
segment, annual growth is projected to be highest in
frozen/refrigerated products, as opposed to fresh. Negligible
growth is foreseen for canned products. Many industry
observers only offer cautious optimism about demand. Strategic
options for aquaculture certainly include targeting niche
markets, for example, ethnic, all-natural, or high-end
restaurants. Another option would be to create generic
advertising a la pork or beef. (By the way, this is a strategy
being considered by the recently established East Coast
Shellfish Growers Association as an effective and unifying
marketing tactic.) Other options include moving producers into
processing, either by individual and group action, or by
alliances with others at home and in the world. Finally, become
a "preferred" supplier in someone's supply chain.
In summary, the seafood and aquaculture industries, even
clam culture, face the classic commodity problem "global"
supply and price, and "mature" demand at home. Consumer
responsive options do exist. These include focus on creating
consumer benefits; promoting health, taste, convenience, and
safety; and, being the wholesaler or retailer's "best" supplier.
Sources: "Options for Being Consumer Responsive in Aquaculture,"
2003, Dr. Chris Peterson, Nowlin Chair of Consumer Responsive
Agriculture, Michigan State University; SeaFood Business Magazine,
May 2003.

designed and 5,000 are being printed. These can be used in seafood retail display cases. An additional 60,000 clam recipe (Open
Up to Florida Farm-Raised Clams) brochures are being reprinted for point-of-sales information and promotions. The flyer,
developed during the 1998-9 clam marketing campaign, will now include the verbiage "Product of USA."


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Page 2 May 2003


Clam Marketing (continued]

Handling Flyer A colorful informational sheet has been developed and is being
printed on 5" by 7" waterproof paper. The flyer is to be used by wholesalers to insert
into master cartons shipped to the retail customers. The purpose is to aid in the
storage and handling of live product and to be a reference guide for personnel in those
locations. Distribution of these flyers is via a request form, which was sent to 80
certified shellfish shippers in the state.
In-store Samplings During March, clams were served at four Publix locations in
the Tallahassee area. The demonstration company, Chefs USA, served clam linguine
with wine sauce. Gallo featured Redwood Creek Sauvignon Blanc with the clams and
offered a 'hang-tag' coupon for $2 off a seafood purchase combined with a wine
purchase. Tabasco Brand and Cabot Butter also had coupon offerings. The clam
recipe included each of these brand products. Recipes were handed out during the
samplings and a 'streaming' video showed the preparation of the recipe.
Upcoming Samplings This month, clam samplings are planned at Sutton Place
Gourmet, an upscale food market with 10 locations in Maryland. Their newspaper ad
was displayed in the Washington Post Food Section with Florida clams a feature item.
Additional samplings will occur during June at other major regional grocery chains in
New York and Ohio locations.

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Other initiatives that have occurred which were not charged to the clam campaign legislative funding include:
Farm-raised clam brochures were handed out at the Fresh From Florida Pavilion at Disney's Epcot International Food &
Wine Festival during November. Over 1.3 million guests were present.
A booth displaying Florida farm-raised clams was part of the Bureau's presence at the International Restaurant &
Hotel/Motel show in New York during November. Attendees exceeded 60,000. Trade leads generated are available.
Over 18,000 clam brochures were sent to 75 Florida Chambers of Commerce and Welcome Centers upon their requests.
Questions, comments, or requests for additional information concerning this campaign can be directed to John Easley, with the
Bureau of Seafood and Aquaculture Marketing, at (850) 488-0163 or easlevi@doacs.state.fl.us.

Update on Division of Aquaculture Budget
The Florida aquaculture industry received a rude awakening in January when Governor Jeb Bush released
qhis proposed budget for the 2003 state legislative session. In it the governor drastically reduced staff and
rn f funding to the Division of Aquaculture within the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
",k (DACS). Initially, the Governor's office indicated the state's interest would best be served if the Division's
-.--- --- operations were privatized. Later, there was speculation about redistributing core programs and services
among several agencies. The only clarification obtained from the Governor's office was that 1) aquaculture would remain
agriculture, 2) FDA requirements for the shellfish industry would have to be met, 3) the aquaculture certification program should
continue, and 4) the BMP program and inspections should continue. This blow was even more disturbing given the monumental
strides and progress the aquaculture industry has achieved over the last decade, as well as support received from the Legislature to
create the Division. In part, these efforts were accomplished through the successes of shellfish aquaculture retraining programs,
which provided rural economic development and placed hundreds of people into small businesses.
Over the past two months, individual clam growers as well as local growers associations have reacted by joining other segments
of the aquaculture industry. Legislators have become reeducated on the importance of this industry and have confirmed their
cooperation. Letters of support and resolutions have been obtained from citizens, chambers of commerce, and local governments.
Industry members from all parts of the state have given testimony at agriculture appropriation committee meetings in Tallahassee.
Further, the industry received a large amount of publicity from the press. The result is that both the House and Senate passed
budgets which include full restoration of funding to the Division. Unfortunately, the outcome is now contingent upon results of a
special session that runs through May, along with final approval of the 2003-4 fiscal year operating budget by the Governor.
Several things have been reinforced through this budgetary crisis. First, growers and associations need to stay active and in touch
with their legislators. Second, industry representatives must continue to look after their own interests. It has been quite rewarding
to witness the response of the relatively new clam aquaculture industry. Members have risen to the occasion verifying it
sometimes takes a common problem to bring people together.
Note on Aquaculture Certificate Renewals Many funding issues are still being discussed in the legislative special session,
including increasing the amount of the annual certification fee. Thus, renewal notices for 2003-4 have not yet been mailed to
aquaculture producers. Letters from the Division stating this have recently been mailed to all certificate holders. If you have any
further questions, contact Kal Knickerbocker with the Division of Aquaculture at (850) 488-4033 or knickek@idoacs.state.fl.us.

Page 3 May 2003


RESEARCH UPDATE: Report Available on Remote Setting of Clam Seed
During a 2-year study, funded by Florida Sea Grant, technical procedures
were developed and demonstrated to determine the economic feasibility of
applying remote setting technology used by the Pacific Northwest shellfish Fr3 -.r W F.FFfn 'IAII.nnLrr
industry to the hard clam culture industry in Florida. Remote setting methods
in Washington, for example, involve high volume production of either Pacific ALMLPAIE iLTfINU ILI~lNILuIULS
oyster or Manila clam larvae in the hatchery. Just prior to setting, the shellfish
larvae are then refrigerated and shipped chilled to growers at "remote"
locations for settling and nursing. Biological characteristics associated with
remote setting of hard clam larvae, as well as results from rearing trials
conducted in 2000-1 with participating land-based nursery operations, were
summarized in the July 2002 issue of the Shellfish Aquaculture Newsletter.
The costs to the nursery operation of producing 1-mm clam seed using
remote setting techniques as opposed to purchasing 1-mm seed from a
commercial hatchery are compared in this study. The economic analysis
provides nursery operators with the basic information to assess the financial
merit of adopting remote setting techniques. In the analysis, the financial
characteristics of the remote setting facility are described. The initial
investment required to construct a pilot-scale system, consisting of one tank, is
estimated at $3,000. The operational costs, such as supplies, variable, and overhead expenses, are also determined.
These costs are then combined into a total cost estimate expressed on a per unit of production basis. The production
unit assumed in this analysis is based on 1,000 1-mm seed clams, an industry standard by which post-set seed clams
are purchased. The estimated per unit production cost can then be compared to the current unit market price. These
Cost budget for one-tank remote setting system expenses are computed on the basis of one and
I[I I I Runs Der Year two runs per year when employed at a modest

Item Units/Run $/Unit One Two
Larvae 3 million $125/million $375 $750
Supplies $214 $428
Labor 104 hours $5.15/hr $536 $1,072
Elec. Utilities 403 KwH $0.085/KwH $34 $68
Annual depreciation on initial investment $938 $938
TOTAL COST $2,097 $3,256
1-mm seed produced 1.11 2.22
(37% survival used based on rearing trials) million million
Cost/1000 seed (with labor) $1.88 $1.47
Cost/1000 seed (without labor) $1.41 $0.97

scale for example, a one-tank remote setting
system stocked with 3 million clam pediveliger
larvae per run.
The financial analysis suggests that the remote
setting technology generates a seed cost savings
compared to purchasing 1-mm seed clams from a
commercial hatchery. When operating the system
for two runs, the system produces 2.22 million 1-
mm seed clams at a cost of $1.47 per 1,000. This
represents a cost savings of $1.53 per 1,000 seed
when compared to a market price of $3.00 per

1,000 1-mm clam seed. (When this study was conducted, $3/1,000 represented the current market price.) In addition,
the initial cost is recovered from these cost savings during the first year of operation. The survival rate in the remote
setting system would have to fall from the assumed level of 37% to below 18% for the system to not be able to
provide cost savings. However, a risk does exist in that no commercial source of clam pediveliger larvae is currently
available on a consistent basis. The analysis assumes that 1 million pediveliger larvae would be available from a
commercial hatchery at a cost of $125. This price may change if this market were to develop. However, the price per
1 million pediveliger larvae would have to increase to over $692 for the operator to be indifferent to using the remote
setting technology versus buying the 1-mm clam seed. For more info on the economic analysis, contact Chuck Adams
with the UF Food and Resource Economics Department at (352) 392-1826 ext. 223.
A final report, published by Florida Sea Grant as Technical Paper 125, is now available to interested hatchery and
nursery operators. Although availability of clam seed is more than adequate today with prices at an all-time low,
some of the management techniques evaluated in this study may be of benefit in rearing 1-mm seed to a field planting
size. For example, mechanical filtration of the incoming water supply may improve seed survival if the saltwater
source is high in suspended solids. Further, supplemental feeding with a commercially available algal paste may be a
cost-effective method to increase growth when food is limited, particularly during early spring start-up of the land-
based nursery system. To acquire a copy of the report, either contact the Shellfish Aquaculture Extension Office or
Kim Wagner with Florida Sea Grant at (352) 392-2801.

Page 4 May 2003


RESEARCH UPDATE: Impact of Tempering on Clams during Summer Harvest

The survival of hard clams in refrigerated temperatures below 450F decreases significantly as harvest water temperatures
increase through the summer months. Detailed acclimation studies conducted during 1996-8 with interim refrigeration
temperatures (dry tempering) clearly demonstrated the value of alternative Iiri ContentofClams Summer2002
handling methods to maintain clam survival during problematic warmnn months.
Verification studies on the microbial consequences of the dry tempering 25
method were conducted both in the laboratory during 1997 and in commercial -
processing plants during 2000. In response to continuing requests from the 1
Florida shellfish regulatory authorities as prompted by the regional U.S. Food
and Drug Administration (FDA), additional verification trials were conducted o
last year by Dr. Anita Wright, with the UF Department of Food Sciences and
Human Nutrition, to determine the consequences of potential Vibrio vulnificus 0 10 16 24
on tempered clams versus non-tempered clams. This project was funded by the Hours
U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) through a special research grant. 0 Temper 0 Chill
The trials were based on cultured clams harvested from approved waters in
Cedar Key during July, August, and September 2002. Clam samples were collected during harvesting, or 0 hours. After 6 hours
at ambient conditions, one set of clams was placed in a 680F environment to temper for 10 hours prior to placement in a cooler
at a temperature of 450F. Another set of clams from the same lot was held for 10 hours at ambient conditions (the maximum
allowed under the time/temperature matrix for summer months) prior to direct placement in refrigerated storage. No significant
differences in levels of fecal coliform and Vibrio vulnificus were detected in clams from these temperature treatments at 0, 10,
16, or 24 hours. Bacterial levels were notably low and a magnitude (100 times) below those typically obtained from oysters.
These results can be used by industry to verify that tempered clam product is as safe as non-tempered product and does not
pose a human health risk. A status report, entitled Utilization of Tempering for Hard Clams, was compiled by Dr. Steve Otwell
with the UF Aquatic Food Products Lab and is available upon request by contacting him at (352) 392-1991 or the Shellfish
Aquaculture Extension Office.

South West Florida Clam Meeting Summary
In March, members of
Southwvt Florida the clam aquaculture
Clam Aquaculture Meeingy. industry in Southwest
SUMMARY Florida met with
M nv.bIl representatives of
Pun ('rndw
various agencies,
Imlrug 'lir.Irp institutions, and
... universities who have
.rc interests in or are
conducting research
0 tI" rev and/or monitoring
, J. I JCu f programs within the
inshore coastal waters of
MOTE ~ Charlotte and Lee
Counties. The intent of
O H this meeting was to open
up a dialogue between
these groups, to find out
what information is available to clam growers, and discuss what
clam growers may need to assist them in their business
operations. A summary of the meeting was recently compiled
and distributed to participants of the meeting. Information is
provided on whom to contact, what activities are being
conducted, and how to access additional information via web
sites. It is anticipated that cooperation between clam growers,
researchers, and resource managers will continue in an effort to
address the clam aquaculture industry's needs in this area. If
you would like to receive a copy of the meeting summary,
please contact the Shellfish Aquaculture Extension Office.

Clam Lease Signs for Franklin County
Clam growers in the Florida Panhandle will soon
receive signs that will provide information to boaters about
aquaculture leases. Produced by Florida Sea Grant and the
Shellfish Aquaculture Extension Office with funding from
a USDA special research grant, the 18" by 18", weather-
resistant signs will be posted in Franklin County. The
"attention-getting" signs are a result of workshops with
new growers in this county last year in which growers
expressed concerns over the number of recreational boaters
who were not aware of the location of leases in Alligator
Harbor. In addition, growers use SCUBA gear to work the
deeper lease sites. These signs will provide appropriate
warnings to the
public regarding clam I -
lease activities. This
summer, growers will
attach signs to pilings
marking the corners maENl E MS
and boundaries of the M ui i
aquaculture use area. galpll l lmbt
Sea Grant agents will aiIaglr t ULg
post signs at marinas
and public boat MI i l
ramps. To acquire the m ibwL
bright red and yellow
warning signs, W m I
contact Bill Mahan in 1 W
Franklin County at l liTi
(850) 653-9337. 1

Page 5 May 2003


Page 6 May 2003



How to Handle and Harvest Clams Training in C.L.A.M Software
Thursday, June 5 Monday, June 23 7:00 PM
3:00 PM and 7:00 PM Tuesday, June 24 3:00 PM
FSU Marine Lab at Turkey Point Wednesday, June 25 7:00 PM
Carrabelle FWCC Marine Field Station
Cedar Key
New clam growers in Franklin County will be introduced to These training sessions will introduce clam growers in
the "rules of the road" that must be followed in handling and Levy and Dixie Counties to a user-friendly software program
harvesting their product. Information on the aquaculture based on Microsoft Excel for IBM-compatible PC systems.
certification requirements, the shellfish harvesting classification The Computer Logbook And Management software package
and management plan for Alligator Harbor, boat and vehicle was developed as a business tool to enhance record keeping
requirements, and other state and federal rules and inventory management of a commercial
pertaining to molluscan shellfish will be clam culture operation. A FREE copy of the
provided. Although this workshop focuses on software program and a companion User's
what a grower needs to harvest, certified Guide will be provided at these sessions.
shellfish wholesalers in the county are Additional training sessions are planned this
encouraged to attend. Another workshop is 0 summer for other counties. Participation in
planned to address what is required in 0 i" these sessions will be LIMITED, so contact
processing and marketing clams. Contact Bill Leslie Sturmer, Shellfish Aquaculture
Mahan, Franklin County Extension at (850) Extension Agent, at (352) 543-5057 to sign-
653-9337 for further information. up or for more information.

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