Title: Bivalve bulletin
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Title: Bivalve bulletin
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Florida Shellfish Aquaculture Extension, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Florida Shellfish Aquaculture Extension, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Cedar Key, Fla.
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Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


= Shellfish Aquaculture

Vol. VI No. II

A Newsletter for the Shellfish Aquaculture Industry in Florida

July 2002
2001 Florida Aquaculture Survey:
Clam Sales Down Slightly
Results from the aquaculture survey conducted by the
Florida Agricultural Statistics Service (FASS) over the past
few months have just been released. Here are highlights of
the 2001 production year which may be of interest to the
Florida shellfish aquaculture industry:

Total Florida aquaculture sales were valued at over $99

Clams ranked third in the state for aquaculture sales
with $15.0 million (dockside or farm gate) reported,
Compared to $15.9 million in 1999.

At an average reportedprice of 10.6 cents per market
size clam, an estimated 142 million clams were
produced and sold in 2001.

336 active growers reported selling clams in 2001.

SSurvival rate to harvest was reported to average 54%
in 2001, the same as in 1999.

(J Planting in 2002 is uncertain with preliminary
intentions estimated at around 390 million, compared
to 350 million in 2001 and 290 million in 2000.

An additional $3.3 million was associated with clam
seed sales. 478 million seed were sold by 30 producers.

-' Fourteen years of clam culture in Florida
The FASS aquaculture survey has been sponsored by the
FL Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
(DACS) since 1987. Inthat year, 13 growers reported around
2.4 million clams produced in the Indian River area (Brevard
and Indian River Counties) with a sales value of $0.4
million. Average price per clam sold was 18.3 cents. Clam
farming began to take off in 1993 with the number of
growers increasing to 173. Many were recent graduates of
job retraining programs in the Cedar Key area (Levy and
Dixie Counties). The average price per clam dropped to a 14-
year low of 9.6 cents that year. Since then, clam farming has

expanded to other
counties (Charlotte,
Lee, and Voluisa).
During 1995 through
1999, number of
growers, sales, and
production continued
to rise significantly;
whereas, average
dockside prices
dropped from 12.8 to
11.4 cents per clam

Florida Clam Sales

1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001
Florida Clam Production

The results of the 142
150 - -142
2001 survey reflect 150 134
the trying times this 120------ -
new industry has 90- -
recently experienced.
Based on growers 38.1
responses, many did 30 - - -
not sell clams last o02.4 5 8
ear. Of the 450 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001
year. Of the 450
growers certified
through DACS, about 75% reported sales. Demand for
luxury seafood items, such as clams, has been negatively
affected by the nation's economic recession and aftermath of
September 11. Further, clam production has increased in
other states as well adding to overall product supply. Warmer
weather experienced in the northeast over the past few
winters has allowed for increased natural sets in those states
as well as extended harvest seasons. On a regional basis, red
tide closures in southwest Florida limited growers to a
harvest period of less than 7 months last year. Nonetheless,
clams produced and sold in 2001 did increase by 6% over
1999 results with sales value declining by 5%.
The 2001 aquaculture survey is available from the Florida
Agricultural Statistics Service by calling (800) 344-6277 or
electronically by visiting their web site located at


2 July 2002

$100,000 Appropriated for
Marketing Farm-Raised Clams
Results of the 2001 Aquaculture Survey indicate the most
challenging issues affecting the sustainability of the clam
culture industry is market development and product
promotion. When the industry began growing rapidly
during the mid-1990s, these were the same issues of
concern. An appropriation from the state legislature in
1998 resulted in $50,000 being directed towards marketing
efforts. The Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services (DACS) created an Open Up to Florida Farm-
raised Clams campaign to introduce Florida consumers to
the new
product being
grown in the
state. Results
of their
activities are
reflected in an
impact study
published by
Florida Sea a
Grant (see the
February 2002 issue of the Shellfish Aquaculture
Newsletter), in which shellfish wholesalers indicated that
of the clams sold in 1999 about half, or 70 million, were to
destinations within Florida.
Last month the Governor approved the 2002-3 state
budget in which $100,000 was designated for marketing
farm-raised clams. A workshop was held by the DACS
Division of Marketing and Development in Orlando late
June. This allowed industry members to provide guidance
to the Division regarding a new marketing campaign.
About 28 clam farmers and wholesalers attended and
evaluated the industry's strengths, weaknesses, and threats.
A marketing business plan will be developed by the
Division this month for industry to review.

Recipe Brochure and Handling Poster Reprinted
Some of the "point of purchase" materials developed by
DACS in 1998 have recently been reprinted thanks to the
Division of Aquaculture. The clam recipe brochure and
handling poster are available by
SI I/ contacting the Bureau of Seafood
F- r h and Aquaculture Marketing at

F1i da 0) 488-0163.

Shellfish Aquaculture

Clam Growers Associations Update
When individuals identify areas of common concern,
reaching solutions are more likely if people work together
rather than singularly. For this reason, many clam growers
have come together over the years to address certain
industry problems. More recently, growers in south west
Florida are working on developing a regional association.
Here's an update on several shellfish growers associations
in the state and nation.
Cedar Key Aquaculture Association, Inc.
P.O. Box 315, Cedar Key, FL 32625
Contact: Mike Hodges, Chairman (352) 543-5583
or) Sue Colson, Projects Chair (352) 543-6648
Incorporated in 2000, this association recently reorganized
and focused on a membership drive. The results are over
170 industry members have joined. A meeting with their
state legislative delegation in April assisted in the efforts of
procuring marketing funds for the clam industry. There is
strength in numbers! Other pursuits include local awareness
of the importance of this industry, promotional efforts, and
water quality issues.
Hidden Coast Shellfish Producers Association, Inc.
P.O. Box 1148, Cross City, FL 32628
Contact: David Capo, President (352) 498-5320
or) Jerry Fulford, Secretary (352) 498-5892
This association formed in 1999 to focus on
reclassification of shellfish harvesting waters in Dixie
County. Their efforts resulted in a seasonal management
plan. The association also oversees the community nursery
in Horseshoe Beach. With grant funding from the North
Central Florida Regional Planning Council, the nursery has
been renovated this year and a seed loan program is
available for members. Contact the officers above if you are
interested in participating.
East Coast Shellfish Growers Association
Contact: Gel Flimlin, Rutgers University
Cooperative Extension flimlinkiaesop .ruters.edu
or) Robert Rheault, Moonstone Oysters ovstersk(ids.net
A movement to establish an eastern U.S. association
continues to gain momentum as organizers recently met at a
national forum in April. About 70 people came together to
discuss the future direction for a national association. The
group established an Internet listserve and enlisted
representatives from almost every state along the eastern
seaboard to serve on a steering committee. Bill Thompson
(561/589-8841) and Leslie Sturmer (352/543-5057) represent
Florida. At this stage, the committee is focusing on
incorporation, bylaws, dues structure and mission statement.
To join the discussion, subscribe to the ECSGA electronic
mailing list by contacting the organizers above.

3 July 2002 Shellfish Aquaculture

Chinese Aquaculture:
The Sleeping Dragon Awakens
^ a mn China, the home of aquaculture, welcomed the World Aquaculture Society at its
2002 Conference and Exposition held in Beijing this past April. China's long
history of aquaculture, species diversity, records levels of production and research interests attracted
over 2,000 people representing 90 countries at this international event. During the opening addresses, attendees were introduced
to Chinese aquaculture which dates back to as early as 1100 B.C. Fan Li's Fish Culture classic, the earliest documented book
of fish culture in the world, was written over 2,400 years ago. During the half century since the founding of the People's
Republic of China, its fisheries has entered a new stage. When China adopted reform and the open-up policy, the government
initiated an aquaculture-based fisheries development policy. China's fisheries, particularly aquaculture, has since developed
rapidly. The output of aquatic products in 2001 reached 27.3 million tons, an increase of 16 times over that of 1978. This
staggering amount represents about two thirds of the world's total aquaculture production. Over the past 20 years, China's inland
waters, shallow seas and beach land suitable for fish culture have been exploited and utilized. Striving for diversity and high
value, culture species are evolving from the traditional such as carp and tilapia. Many species have been introduced to China
from every continent. Chinese producers are rapidly upgrading their technology for species such as abalone, shrimp, sea bass,
scallops, snapper, sea bream, red drum, crab, clams, catfish, flounder, mussels and more. With a population of 1.2 billion people,
aquaculture is playing an important part in ensuring China's food security. Entry into the World Trade Organization last year
provides a challenge for China to further develop aquaculture exports.
During the conference, an enlightening overview on world mollusc (bivalve) production and trade was given by the Food
and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. Fifteen million tons were reported in 2000, of which 11 million tons
were cultured. China produced 70% of the global total that year, 82% of which was cultured. China was also the main exporter
of molluscs both in value and product form. Clams were the largest group of molluscs exported. Japan was the leading importing
country, accounting for 30%, 61% of which was live clams. The U.S. followed as the next largest importer of molluscs. In terms
of clams, the total world production was 3.4 million tons in 2000, of which 2.6 million were cultured. Again, China was the main
producer with species including the Malaysian clam, razor clam, blood cockle, and carpet shell. The U.S. lead the capture
fisheries of clams (800,000 tons) with species including the Atlantic surf clam and ocean quahog. The leading importer of clams
in terms of volume and value was Japan with Asian countries, particularly Korea, the main suppliers. Additional statistics on
other molluscan groups can be found at FAO's web site, www.fao.org.
Other papers given at this conference that were of interest follow. Introduction of the bay scallop to China was reviewed by
researchers from the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Wild broodstock was brought from
the Atlantic coast of U.S. in 1982. Only 26 survivors were spawned and produced seed
[ m .----.--L undei controlled conditions. Techniques for rearing seed on a commercial scale and
S .ri\\o out methods were established by 1985. Five years later, total production was about
S. .- lthousallnd tons. Once the demand of the domestic market was met, the frozen adductor
S. 111 music le processed from scallops was exported to markets in the U.S. and Western Europe.
.." .-' The success of bay scallop introduction gave impetus to the development of the
.* ,. mariculture industry in China, such as rotating scallop raft culture with kelp,
.. polyculture of shrimps and scallops, and advancement of hatchery
iechnlolo,_\ "- for other molluscs. Today, over 640 thousand tons are produced.
Reseaicheirs at the Dalian Fisheries University reported on their recent work with the
had clam ... This is the same species cultured here in Florida as well as along the eastern
seabloard o' the U.S. The parent clams were introduced to China around 2000. Seed
pIodldIcLI'In 1 is being developed with the total yield around 1.1 million of 1 mm size.
Seed c-lam.I -- -"' were cultured in both indoor ponds and shrimp ponds along the coast of the
Yelklo Seai in 2001. These researchers are evaluating this species for the potential of
c uI 1t u r n g along vast intertidal areas in the southern provinces.
In summary, current development strategies in China are to continue to
accelerate aquaculture and to take vigorous measures to promote fish processing and trade. However, the problems now facing
China are serious fish diseases, deterioration of water quality, and few efforts have been made in the management of waste
waters. In expanding its trade, China will need to consider the regulations of importing counties and, more importantly, the
attitudes of the consuming public. China, a country built on the past, is now taking its place as a country of the future.
Aquaculture is also their future.

3 July 2002

Shellfish Aquaculture

4 July 2002 Shellfish Aquaculture

Enhancing Clam Seed Availability Through
Application of Remote Setting Techniques
Leslie Sturmer, UF Cooperative Extension Service
Chuck Adams, UF Food and Resource Economics Department FZri ]
John Supan, Louisiana State University, Sea Grant Development
Adequate seed availability has been a major concern to the Florida hard clam aquaculture industry
with critical shortages experienced by growers in the recent past. A 2-year study was funded by the Florida Sea Grant Program
to determine the economic feasibility oftransferring remote setting technology from the Pacific Northwest molluscan shellfish
industry to the clam culture industry. Remote setting methods in Washington, Oregon, and British Columbia involve high
volume production of shellfish larvae in the hatchery. Pacific oyster "eyed" larvae and manila clam pediveliger larvae are then
refrigerated and shipped chilled to growers at "remote" locations for setting and nursing.
Technical procedures were developed and demonstrated during 2000-1 at
participating land-based nursery operations in New Smyrna Beach (NSB) and
Cedar Key (CK). These facilities were modified to include the following
components: 1) 250-gallon weller tanks, 2) sand and bag filters for mechanical
filtration of water supply, and 3) downwellers ranging in mesh size from 120 to
710 microns. Competent pediveliger larvae obtained from commercial hatcheries
(2 in-state and 1 out-of-state) were placed on shipping material (moist coffee
filters), refrigerated for 2-3 hours, packaged in shipping boxes with gel packs,
shipped overnight, and delivered to remote set locations for evaluation of
technique, site, and season. Management regimes evaluated over 4 rearing trials
included: 1) supplemental feeding with a commercial algal paste or cultured algae
versus none, and 2) duration of shipping times. Procedures used at the test sites
included: 1) stocking 3 million pediveligers per tank, 2) water flow of 2-5 gpm, 3) daily cleaning of seed and tanks, 4) cleaning
filters 1-2 times daily, 5) changing dwellers 2 times weekly, and 6) sieving seed on a weekly basis. Water temperature, salinity,
and chlorophyll were measured routinely. Biological features documented included survival and time to reach a 1 mm seed,
the minimum size typically reared at nurseries.
Results from rearing trials provide for operational guidelines for Management 1 mm Seed
remote setting of hard clam seed. Production of 1 mm seed during Site Ship Feed Days Production
spring 2001 (see Table 1) ranged from 15 to 54% over a 7 to 10- (hrs) (%)
week period. No differences were detected in duration of shipping
times (2 versus 20 hours) but production doubled when algal paste NSB Algal Paste 1
was used versus no supplemental feeding. The higher salinities 20 49 15
(average of 38 ppt) encountered at New Smyrna Beach may have Algal Paste 72 54
influenced the overall lower production at that site. Production of 1 None 72 25
mm seed during fall 2001 (see Table 2) ranged from 13 to 41%
Table 1. Spring 2001 Remote Set Rearing Trial Results
over a 5 to 8-week period. Supplemental feeding with cultured
"live" algae verus an algal paste increased production by 70% at the Management 1 mm Seed
New Smyrna Beach site; whereas production in Cedar Key using the Site Ship Feed Days Production
algal paste was 3 times that obtained at the east coast nursery. In (hrs)
summary, hard clam pediveliger larvae can be refrigerated and
shipped up to 20 hours without detrimental effects. Setting success NSB 20 Algal Paste 37 13
was not fully determined in this study, but production to a 1 mm Live Algae 37 22
seed size averaged 27% in the 2001 field trials. Variability of results CK2 20 Algal Paste 56 41
was due to seed source, site location, and season. Addition of food
is necessary to achieve adequate survival to a 1 mm seed Table 2. Fall 2001 Remote Set Rearing Trial Results
size. In conclusion, remote setting of hard clams may not be beyond the capabilities of most land-based nursery operators.
The economic characteristics associated with remote ,.. i,,i were also described in this study. A cost budget and potential cost
savings will be detailed in the next issue of the Shellfish Aquaculture Newsletter. A final report is being prepared by the., i ',,.lr. %. for
Florida Sea Grant and will be made available upon request to interested hatchery and nursery operators.

4 July 2002

Shellfish Aquaculture

5 July 2002 Shellfish Aquaculture

Eastern U.S. Shellfish Seed
Transport Workshop: SUMMARY
A workshop was held this past February in South
Carolina to provide an exchange of information concerning
the need to protect state resource interests, reduce risks
associated with shellfish seed importation and facilitate
interstate commerce of aquaculture products. Florida was
represented by 2 Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Service staff, the shellfish aquaculture extension agent, and
4 seed suppliers.
During breakout sessions, equal numbers of regulators,
pathologists, researchers and industry members met to
address the following workshop objectives: 1) Develop a
standardized set of tests for the pathogens of interest to the
states for each bivalve species. 2) Design the best, cost
effective, scientifically relevant shellfish pathogen testing
and test interpretation system. The three sessions reached
similar conclusions.
Among the session groups, there was unanimous support
forthe following positions: 1) Vibrio testing is unnecessary
for seed transport since the bacteria are ubiquitous in the
marine environment. Consequently, it is a human health
issue and testing should be confined to the organisms
entering the human food chain. 2) Development of health
management guidelines is a priority and should be
supported by appropriate funding opportunities. 3) Base
level monitoring forms the basis for any shellfish disease
A summary of the workshop is now available. This
provides a report of the breakout sessions, identification of
research needs, development of a spreadsheet containing
all 14 east coast state regulations and points of contacts
within each state, and recommendations for developing a
uniform set of criteria for shipment of bivalves between
jurisdictions. To obtain a copy of the workshop summary,
contact the shellfish aquaculture extension agent at (352)

Upcoming Aquaculture Meetings

"Hands-On" Clam Farming
August, TBA
FSU Marine Lab at Turkey Point

These workshops will provide "hand-on" experiences
for new clam farmers in Alligator Harbor Aquaculture Use
Area, Franklin County. Activities include sieving nursery
seed, estimation of seed using subsampling techniques,
determination of stocking rates, construction of clam belts,
and planting nursery and growout bags. Each session will
be limited to 8 people. For more information, contact Bill
Mahan, County Extension Director, at (850) 653-9337.

CLAMMRS Workshops
Tuesday, July 23 6:30 PM
Park Community Center, Matlacha
Wednesday, July 24 6:30 PM
Tringali Center, Englewood

As part of the CLAMMRS, Clam Lease Assessment,
Monitoring and Management Project, water quality
monitoring stations have recently been installed at lease
areas in Charlotte and Lee Counties. These stations are
measuring key physical, chemical and biological
parameters affecting clam health and production. At these
workshops, clam growers in southwest Florida will be
introduced to equipment, stations, and web site; informed
of how to access and interpret the data; and, acquainted
with the other CLAMMRS components. For more
information, contact Rich Novak, Charlotte County Sea
Grant agent, at (941) 764-4340 or Bob Wasno, Lee County
Sea Grant agent, at (941) 461-7518.

Seafood HACCP / SCP Training
September 10-11 (HACCP)
September 12 (SCP)
UF Aquatic Food Products Lab

This training assists both the seafood and aquaculture
industries in developing and maintaining Hazard Analysis
& Critical Control Point programs for product safety and
compliance with FDA regulation. In addition, a course in
Sanitation Control Procedures will be offered to expand on
the key sanitation areas. Participants that attend this
standard training will receive an "AFDO Certificate for
Course Completion." To obtain information on fees and
register, contact Zina Williams, Aquatic Food Products
Lab, at (352) 392-4221.

5 July 2002

Shellfish Aquaculture

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