Group Title: Historic St. Augustine: Block 7 - Lot 2
Title: [List of cooking terms]
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: List of cooking terms
Series Title: Historic St. Augustine: Block 7 - Lot 2
Physical Description: Interpretive outline
Language: English
Subject: Saint Augustine (Fla.)
27 Saint George Street (Saint Augustine, Fla.)
Gomez House (Saint Augustine, Fla.)
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida -- Saint Johns -- Saint Augustine -- 27 Saint George Street
Coordinates: 29.896934 x -81.313342
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090506
Volume ID: VID00008
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution.
Resource Identifier: B7-L2

Full Text

To Dye The Scarlet mufcle found near
Scarlet. Bofton hath a purple Vein,
which being prickt with a Needle yieldeth
a perfect fcarlet Juice, dying Linnen fo
that no wafhing will wear it out, but keeps
its Luftre for many Years. Handker-
chiefs and Shirts are marked with it.

To Die Let the Twift or Yarn be
Cotton boiled in pure Water to cleanfe
a Fine it; then wring it, and run it
S through a diluted Solution of

iron Liquor: wring and run through lime
water to raife it; wring it again, and run
through a Solution of Starch and Water;
then wring it once more and dry, wind,
warp, and weave for ufe.
214 Dreffing

Dreffing Tie Handsfuls of flax at both
Flax to Ends to prevent its tangling, but
Refem- spread out the middle as much as
ble Silk. poffible, place in a Kettle, the
Bottom of which has been covered with
Straw; cover Flax
with Cloth, then
continue, covering
each Layer of Flax
with Cloth, until
the Kettlebe nearly
full. Pour over a
clear Lie of one
part Lime and two
parts wood Afhes, with due proportion of
Water. After boiling fome hours take
out and throw into cold Water. The
Flax muft be then dried, hackled, beaten
and rubbed Fine; and dreffed firft
through a large comb, then through a
fine one. By this procefs the Flax ac-
quires a bright and foft Thread.

(In the city, I believe, it is bet-
ter to exchange Afhes and Greafe for
Soap; but in the Country, I am certain,
215 it

it is good Economy to make one's own
Soap. If you burn Wood, you can make
your own Lye; but the afhes of Coal is
not worth much. Bore fmall Holes in
the Bottom of a Barrel, place four Bricks
around, and fill the Barrel with Afhes.
Wet the Afhes well, but not enough to
drop ; let it foak thus three or four Days ;
then pour a gallon of Water in every
hour or two, for a Day or more, and let
Siit drop into a Pail or
Tub beneath. Keep
it dripping till the
color of the Lye fhows the strength is
exhausted. If your Lye is not ftrong
enough, you muft fill your Barrel with
frefh Afhes and let the Lye run through
it. Some people take a Barrel without
any bottom, and lay flicks and ftraws
acrofs to prevent the Afhes from falling
through. To make a Barrel of Soap, it
will require about five or fix Bufhels of
Afhes, with at leaft four quarts of un-
flacked Stone Lime; if flacked double
the quantity. When you draw off a part
of the Lye, put the Lime (whether flack
216 or

or not) into two or three Pails of boil-
ing Water, and add it to the Afhes, and
let it drain through. Three pounds of
Greafe, should be put into a pail-
ful of Lye. The great Diffi-
culty in making Soap 'come,'
originates in want of Judgment
/ about the Strength of the Lye.
One Rule may be fafely trusted:
If your Lye will bear up an Egg,
or a Potato, so you can fee a piece of the
Surface as big as ninepence, it is juft
strong enough. If it finks below the top
of the Lye, it is too weak, and will never
make foap; if it is buoyed up half-way,
the Lye is too strong, and that is juft as
bad. A bit of quick-lime, thrown in
while the Soap is boiling is of service.
When the Soap becomes ropy, carry it
down cellar in Pails and empty it into
a barrel. It takes about twenty-four
pounds of Greafe for a Barrel of Soap.


From Margaret Huntington Hooker, Early
American Cookery, or Ye Gentlewoman's
Housewifery (Scotia, N.Y.: Americana Review,







0 )

kcQ l
6r k
0 (L
^ ^
FI- s-

carding, cheese-making, hatcheling, pleating,
ironing, spooling, milking, spinning and dyeing
thread, broom-making and scouring the pewter.
She tells also of washing, cooking, knitting,
weeding the garden, picking geese, etc., and of
many visits to her friends. She dipped candles in
the spring and made oa in the autumn. This
latter was a trying and burdensome domestic duty,
but the soft soap was important for home use.
In preparation for making soft soap all the
refuse grease from cooking, butchering, etc., was
stored through the winter, as well as woodashes
from the great fireplaces. The first operation was
to make the lye, to "set the leach." Many families
owned a strongly made leach barrel; others made
a sort of barrel from a section of bark of the white
birch. This barrel was placed on bricks or set at a
slight angle on a circular groove in a wood or
stone base, then filled with ashes; water was
poured in till the lye trickled or leached out
through an outlet cut in the groove into a small
wooden tub or bucket. The water and ashes were
frequently replenished as they wasted, and the
lye accumulated in a large tub or kettle. If the lye
was not strong enough, it was poured over fresh
The grease and lye were then boiled together
in a great pot over a fire out of doors. It took
about six bushels of ashes and twenty-four pounds
of grease to make a barrel of soap. The soft soap
made by this process seemed like a clean jelly, and
showed no trace of the repulsive grease that

helped to form it. A hard soap also was made with
the callow of the bayberry and was deemed espe-
cially desirable for toilet use. But little hard soap
was purchased, even in city homes.
The soap was always carefully stirred one way.
The Pennsylvania Dutch used a sassafras stick to
stir it. A good smart worker could make a barrel
of soap in a day and have time to sit and rest in
the afternoon and talk her luck over, before get-
ting supper.
This soft soap was used in the great monthly
washings which, for a century after the settlement
of the colonies, seem to have been the custom.
The household wash was allowed to accumulate,
and the washing was done once a month, or in
some households once in three months.
Another duty of the women of the old-time
household was the picking of domestic geese.
Geese were raised for their feathers more than as
food. In some towns every family had a flock,
and their clanking was heard all day and some-
times all night. In midwinter they were kept in
barnyards, but the rest of the year they spent the
night in the street.
Goose-picking was cruel work. Three or four
times a year the feathers were stripped from the
live birds. A stocking was pulled over the bird's
head to keep it from biting. Sometimes the head
,was thrust into a goose basket. The pickers had
to wear old clothes and tie covers over the hair, as
the down flew everywhere. Goose quills were used
Sfor pens. Among the Dutch, geese were raised

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs