Group Title: Historic St. Augustine: Block 7 - Lot 1, Gallegos
Title: Outline for Gallegos House [with notations]
Full Citation
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 Material Information
Title: Outline for Gallegos House with notations
Series Title: Historic St. Augustine: Block 7 - Lot 1, Gallegos
Physical Description: Interpretive outline
Language: English
Creator: Ganong, Overton G.
Publication Date: 1977
Subject: Saint Augustine (Fla.)
21 Saint George Street (Saint Augustine, Fla.)
Gallegos House (Saint Augustine, Fla.)
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida -- Saint Johns -- Saint Augustine -- 21 Saint George Street
Coordinates: 29.897052 x -81.313361
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090505
Volume ID: VID00024
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution.
Resource Identifier: B7-L1

Full Text

Outline for Gallegos House

I. Interpretive objective.
A. In Gallegos House we will inform the visitor about t-I-

L. The life style of a common soldier's family of the late
First Spanish Period. ,. i -'. e-. -?

2-.' typical culinary practices of the same period.

B. Ittem-2--aove will be supplemented whenever possible by cooking demonstrations
on the masonry stove.

II. The Building

A. Is a reconstruction, built in early 1963.

B. Occupies the site of a tabby house belonging in 1763 to Juan Garcia
and Martin Martinez Gallegos.

C. Was reconstructed of tabby (or, at least, a modern simulation of it)
using 18th-century techniques. Forms were constructed. The tabby was
poured into them and allowed to set; then the forms were raised and
another layer of tabby poured, and so on until the walls reached the
desired height.

D. Is built according to the common two-cell plan, with a porch along
the south side.

E. Is plastered inside and out, according to the usual practice.

F. Possesses many of the same architectural features as the Ribera House.
(For more details, see the interpretive outline for Ribera)

G. Has a built-in masonry stove of a type widely used in Spain "~ I Z9/a- A/ Fer-

H. Features a reconstructed barrel well in the yard. This type of well
was very common in St. Augustine. Many have been discovered by archeologists.

III. History of the Site

A. On the Puente map of 1764 a tabby house was shown on the site. The owner
was listed as Juan Garcia Martinez Gallegos. Research has shown that the
name must refer to two people, a Juan Garcia and a Martinez Gallegos.

1. Martin Martinez Gallegos

a. Was from the town of Totana, near Murcia in southeastern Spain.
b. Came to St. Augustine sometime prior to 1743.
c. Was an artilleryman in the garrison.
d. Had at least two wives in St. Augustine
1.) Victoria Escalona
a.) Was a native of St. Augustine
b.) Married Martinez Gallegos in July, 1743.
c.) Died in 1750. ?


2.) Isabel Serrano
a) Was identified in the parish registers as a
native of Germany. (How she got to St. Augustine
or acquired a Spanish surname is unknown.)
b) Married Martinez Gallegos between 1756 and 17??
(Marriage records for whites are missing from
7 1756 to 1763.)
e. Had at least 5 children by Victoria Escalona (two of which died
in infancy) and 1 by Isabel Serrano.

f. Went to Cuba with his family in 1763.

2. Juan Garcia

a. Is a more obscure figure than Martinez Gallegos, and there
is some doubt as to his identification.

b. Was an infantryman but by 1752 was no longer on active service,
he being 69 years old and gouty.

c. Was listed as a native of San Martin de Havana

d. Had been married to Antonia Espinosa, probably a mestiza, who
died in 1747. (No information on children is presently

B. The most likely explanation for the apparent dual ownership of the house
is that Juan Garcia, a widower, granted Martinez Gallegos part ownership
in return for the privilege of living in his household. That way he
could be cared for by Gallegos's family.

CC. The original Gallegos House was destroyed some time during the British
Period. In 1784, at the beginning of the second Spanish administration,
the lot was in the possession of a Minorcan named Juan Frias, who had
planted it in fruit trees. When Lucia Escalona, sister of Gallegos's first
wife arrived in that same year with power of attorney from the Gallegos
children, she evicted Frias and built a wooden house on the lot. This
house appears on the Rocque map of 1788.

IV. Life Style of a Soldier's Family.

A. In St. Augustine during the late First Spanish Period, c. 1750, most families
lived in surroundings similar to Gallegos House. The simplicity of the
house and its furnishings reflects the poverty of the isolated garrison

B. Common soldiers were not well paid.

1. Salaries

a. Infantrymen earned only 11 pesos a month, or 132 per year.
b. Artillerymen like Martinez Gallegos received 14 pesos per month or .*
168 per year.


c. Cavalrymen received 22 pesos per month or 264 per year, but from
that amount they had to purchase and maintain their own horses.

". Living Expenses

a. Annual deductions from salary

1. 22 pesos, 6 reales for uniform
2. 1 peso for hospital care
3. 3 pesos for medical care.and weapons repair
4. 6 reales for medicine
5. 2 reales to support the Chapel of Nuestro Senora de la Leche
6. Total -- 27 pesos, 6 reales. (There were 8 reales to a peso)

b. Cost of living

1. Each soldier received a daily ration allowance of
2 reales to pay for regular monthly issues of flour,
corn, beef, pork, and salt. The ration allowance, 91
pesos, also 2 reales was subtracted from the soldier's
pay. Total deductions thus came to 119 pesos, real.
The difference between the base pay and the deductions
was supposed to be paid to the soldiers in cash.

2. In practice, however, the soldier often received no cash.
Prices of food and clothing from Mexico and Havana were
so high that the soldier usually had to exceed his ration
allowance to feed his family, with the result that deductions
were greater than pay. Most of the soldiers were, therefore,
constantly in debt to the crown or to local merchants.

c. Common soldiers' duties

1. The soldier customarily spent their days pulling guard
duty at one of the various posts in and around the city.
In 1759 they were:

a. Castillo 33 officers and men.
b. Santo Domingo redoubt (Cubo line) 7 men
c. Cubo redoubt 7 men
d. Rosario redoubt (Rosario Line) 5 men
e. Santo Christo redoubt (Rosario Line) 5 men
f. San Francisco redoubt (Rosario Line) 8 men
g. Guardhouse (plaza) 21 men (including Governor's guard)
h. City Gate 5 men
i. Palica (between Maria Sanchez Creek and San Sebastian
River) 13 men
j. La Leche 5 men
(All of the above were relieved daily.)
k. Fort Mose 8 men, relieved monthly
1. Anastasia Island 7 men, relieved monthly /
m. Fort Matanzas 7 men, relieved monthly
n. Picolata (on St. Johns River) 8 men, relieved every
2 weeks
o. San Marcos de Apalachee (south of present-day Tallahassee)-
48 men, relieved annually.
(During military emergencies, of course, guards would be
strengthened and units sent out into the field.)


2. While on duty, the soldiers

a. Kept watch over the defense works, approaches to the town,
and the inhabitants.
b. Maintained the defense works and equipment.
c. Underwent training exercises. For example, they
performed the manual of arms twice a week, went
through firing drills with unloaded weapons twice
a month, and fired their muskets with ball once
a month.

3. While off duty, the soldiers
a. Helped sustain their families by fishing or farming.
(The fishing equipment and garden tools in Gallegos call
attention to these important activities.)

b. Helped with household tasks such as repairing the house,
outbuildings, and fences, and chopping wood.
c. Spent a great deal of time with other men drinking,
gambling, and telling ribald stories. This they did
away from home. Taverns were popular gathering places.

d. (Some soldiers) helped support theirfamilies with
second occupations. They were craftsmen, merchants,
tavernkeepers, and so forth.

d. Women's Activities: Over half the soldiers in St. Augustine were
married. Gallegos House represents one of these domestic situations.

1. Cooking

a. Occupied a major portion of a housewife's day (a family
of Gallego's status probably would not have owned a
slave to do the cooking.)
b. Is treated below as a separate subject.

2. Care of clothing

a. Washing
b. Repairing
c. Manufacture (many families cut and sewed their
own clothes. Some women also may have sewed
for money or payment in kind,but there is no
direct evidence for this.)
3. Housecleaning and whitewashing walls.

4. Tending the garden and caring for the stock (chiefly poultry).

5. Caring for children. (Older children would have helped
with all the above activities.)

6. Gossping with neighbors.

VII. Foods Permissible in Cooking Demonstrations

A. Grains
1. Wheat flour (usually white)
2. Corn
3. Rice

B. Meats, Poultry, and Fish
1. Beef
2. Pork
3. Ham (in limited amounts)
4. Chicken
5. Oysters
6. Clams
7. Mullet
8. Sea bass (redfish)
9. Flounder
10. Drum

C. Vegetables
1. Pumpkin
2. Peas (black-eyed, chick)
3. Beans (kidney, lima, black)
4. Cabbage
5. Sweet potatoes
6. Onions
7. Lettuce (romaine)
8. Red pepper
9. Garlic
10. Radishes
11. Pot herbs
a. Anise
b. Basil
c. Borage
d. Coriander
e. Dill
f. Sweet Fennel
g. Garlic
h. Marjoram
i. Oregano (wild marjoram)
j. Parsley, plain and curled
k. Rosemary
1. Sage
m. Savory
n. Thyme

D. Fruits (any listed in section II, B,3,c. (add Prickly pear.)
E. Dairy products
1. Cheese
2. Butter not common

F. Condiments
1. Olive oil
2. Lard
3. Vinegar
4. Sugar (not common)
G. Beverages
1. Water 3. Wine 5. Chocolate
2. Rum 4. Cassina tea


PART III. Daily Life Suggested by Contents of House

A. Lattice and reja in window: To give protection and privacy, especially to
1. Young women were closely guarded within the family and rarely
allowed to walk the streets unsupervised. The reja allowed
them to remain concealed while observing what took place outside.

2. Married women enjoyed more freedom of movement,but still remained closely tied
to the home.

B. The pallets on the floor
1. John bartram observed that the Spaniards "lay chiefly on Matresses."
Evidently beds were uncommon and were probably owned mainly by people
of higher status.

2. The matresses shown here are made of coarse linen and filled with straw.
They could be rolled up during the day to create more floor space.

C. The sleeping cycle: was determined by the natural cycle of light and darkness.

1. People got up about daybreak and went to bed not long after dark.
(Men may have stayed out in taverns, but it would have been
unusual for people to stay up very late.)

2. There is no direct evidence of the siesta, but people probably
napped briefly after their mid-day meal.

D. Fishing Equipment: identified a common means of supplementing the
diet. The equipment is

E. Religious Image

1. The Roman Catholic faith shaped the world view of 18th Century Spaniards.
2. Most homes contained religious images, which served both a devotional
and a decorative purpose. The images were of favorite saints.
3. The image here is of Santiago, (Saint James)patron saint of Spain.
4. People also commonly wore religious medallions. Many have been found by
5. For more information on Hispanic religious life, see the outline entitled
"Hispanic Culture," prepared for the 1974 training course.

F. Chests and stools were the most typical items of furniture. Chests could
be used for both storage and seating.

G. Hanging shelf to keep vermin `bf the food.


H. The Stove

1. Is a typical Mediterranean design, still widely used in that
part of the world.
2. Is based on a description in John Bartram's Journal: "ye fireplace
is raised with stone 2 foot high to 3 broad & ye length of ye breadth
of ye room & above the floor is open to ye . roof: There is 1
or 2 openings A hands breadth wide & 2 foot long in the back to let out
some smoak. . .upon ye hearth.'. they had several pots fixed with
holes under each to bail thair different soupes. I dislike this
method above any belonging to thair houses as they are all as
smoaky as an Indian cabin ... ."

I. ramics: are a combination of Spanish, Indian, and British types.

1. Spanish Ia es impo ed rom Mic and ub via tte private ra e.
2. dian pott y c sister hiefly o S Mare re, Guae (?)
In lan potter produced b Chrisitia Indian mmuniti n the f *nges
of t wn.
3. English-wars r ched t. Au sting throw trad 'mu o it Llicit,
/with the English oit America c lonies.

I. Eating utensils iron or steel knives and pewter or wooden spoons were
the most common flatware. Plates and bowls were both ceramic and wooden (treenware).

J. Cookware cooking wad done in both ceramic and metal vessels.
1. Ceramic pots most common were of San Marcos pottery (see below).
This was the typical cookware.
2. Iron.pots were also used,but not as frequently as ceramic cookware.

K. Ceramics: are a combination of Spanish, Indian, and British types.
1. Spanish wares imported from Mexico and Cuba via the private trade.
2. Indian pottery consisted chiefly of San Marcos ware, a Guale (?)
Indian pottery produced by Christian Indian communities on
the fringes of town.
3. English-wares reached ST. Augustine through trade, much of it illicit,
with the English North American colonies.

L. Mortar and pestle for grinding corn into meal. Corn meal was most likely
eaten in the form of tortillas, or flat cakes cooked on a griddle.

M. Barrel Well the Spaniards drank well water. Although it had a strong sulphur- c
taste, it was safe to drink. (We would not recommend that anyone drink water
from the Gallegos well, however.) t

N. Canoe

1. Is a dugout made in the Everglades by Seminole Indians
2. Similar (although larger and deeper) canoes were used by both
Spaniards and Indians in the estuarine waters around St. Augustine.

O. Wasttdisposal

4 People usually relieved themselves in metal or ceramic urinals and
jars. Outhouses existed but were not the rule
Wastes were either buried, used to fertilize the kitchen garden, or
collected for use on the fields.


2. Kitchen garbage was either
a. Buried in trash pits (usually dug about 3 feet deep)or
b. Scattered randomly about the yard and garden.
(There is archaeological evidence for both practices.)
3. Oyster shells, an abundant form of waste, were probably piled at the
back of the yard and periodically disposed of. (It is quite likely that
the oyster shell used in the construction of tabby houses was accumulated
in this manner.)
(From the above information one may imagine the mingling of odors in a typical house
and yard. People of the time were accustomed to a more pungent environment than
today's people are used to.

P. Personal hygiene

1. Bathing

a. Was done infrequently, probably no more than once a month,
if that often.
b. Meant a lot of hard work, drawing water and heating it.
c. Was considered to be potentially hazardous to health.
People were afraid of chills, believing they caused disease.
2. Oral hygiene: was poor
a. Excavated skeletal remains almost uniformly exhibit numerous
missing teeth, bone damage from abcesses, etc.


b. By the age of forty the average person would have lost most of his

c. Shaving: men of the 18th century went clean shave, although
they did not necessarily shave every day. The typical shaving
instrument was the straight razor.

.O.G. Ganong
July 1977

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