PAGE 1

1 Production Times Upcoming Educational & Industry Events Fall 2011 Volume 18, Number 3 The following YouTube link was sent to me by a colleague. I found the inform ation very interesting and thought it might be helpful to many of you. Ken Gronbach is a consultant for direct marketing and management. He specializes in demographics (i.e. the age, gender, in come, occupation, etc) of your customers. This is important information in order to have a marketing plan for the present and the future. What works today won’t work in 10 years. By monitoring the change in generational demographics, you can be bett er prepared to change your marketing strategy to meet the needs of the new consumers. For more information follow then the link below and watch the YouTube presentation. The Age Curve, by Ken Gronbach, Consultant for Direct Marketing and Management. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=oy7zT6ogCJI&feature=related August 12, 20118:30 am—3:00 pm Workshop fo r Ornamental Greenhouse & Nursery Owners, Growers, and Staff— Mid Florida Research and Education Center Auditorium Registration deadline is Friday, July 29, 2011. RSVP to Dr. Joyce Merritt at joycem@ufl.edu or 352 273 4647 Sept. 29-Oct. 1, 2011 — FNATS—The Landscape Show —Orange County Convention Center More details available at: http ://www.fngla.org/thelandscapeshow/ Oct. 23-26, 2011—International Plant Propagators’ Society Southeast Region Annual Meeting Rainwater Conference Center—Valdosta, GA More details available at: h ttp://www.ipps-srna.org/meeting.htm CEUs November 3, 2011 CEU Day Seminole County Extension Office Contact Matthew Lollar at 407-665-5551. More details available at ht tp://seminole.ifas.ufl.edu/comm_hort.shtml Coming Soon – Review of Dr. Richard Beeson’s Tree Gr owth and Water Requirements research. Watch emails for details. For more information and links to other progr ams go to: http://cfextension.ifas.ufl.edu or the UF Extension Calendar at http:/ /calendar.ifas.ufl.edu/calendar/index.htm Helping Your Business Navigate the Economy by Liz Felter

PAGE 2

2 When the body is unable to cool itself by sweating, several heat-induced illnesses such as heat stress or heat exhaustion and the more severe heat stroke can occur, and can result in death. Factors Leading to Heat Stress High temperature and humidity Direct sun or heat Limited air movement Physical exertion Poor physical condition Some medicines Inadequate tolerance for hot workplaces Symptoms of Heat Exhaustion Headaches, dizziness, li ghtheadedness or fainting Weakness and moist skin Mood changes such as irritability or confusion Upset stomach or vomiting Symptoms of Heat Stroke Dry, hot skin with no sweating. Mental confusion or losing consciousness Seizures or convulsions Preventing Heat Stress Know signs/symptoms of heat-related illnesses; monitor yourself and coworkers Block out direct sun or other heat sources Use cooling fans/air-conditioning; rest regularly Drink lots of water; about 1 cup every 15 minutes Wear lightweight, light colored, loose-fitting clothes Avoid alcohol, caffeinated drinks, or heavy meals What to Do for Heat-Related Illness Call 911 (or local emergency number) at once While waiting for help to arrive: Move the worker to a cool, shaded area Loosen or remove heavy clothing Provide cool drinking water Fan and mist the person with water Protect Yourself from Heat Stress By Liz Felter Photos by Dr. Shad Ali, Plant Pathologist at UF/IFAS, MREC Saprophytic White Fungus Saprophytes live on dead organic tissue. This white fungus appeared on the pothos, totem, and soil. Fungus growth is supported by lo w light, excess water, and the green-wood totem. News from the Diagnostic Plant Clinic By Liz Felter

PAGE 3

3 Improving Greenhouse Substrates By Matt Lollar Online CEU Sources Researchers at North Carolina State University are conducting research on the frequently studied topic of improving the efficiency of substrates for greenhouse production. Their goals are: To explore the use of wood as an organic aggregate in greenhouse mixes. To enhance root growth in greenhouse crops. To increase the nutrient retention of substrates. To improve the overall biology of greenhouse substrates. To meet these objectives, the approach being used at NC State is to develop new, sustainable components for greenhouse substrates with an emphasis on substrate component manufacturing. New components for greenhouse substrates must be highly consistent, lightweight, readil y available, and reasonably priced. NC State researchers are searching for new components that are as sustainable, natural, economical, and organic as possible. Over the years, several hundred potential materials have been tested; however, most greenhouse mixes are still made from the familiar components: peat moss, pine bark, perlite, vermiculite, and/or coconut fiber. Other components have not been able to provide the precise control needed in modern greenhouse production. Organic Aggregate One component being researched is a sustainable aggregate to improve aeration and drainage. Most perlite comes from ore that is mined in Greece, shipped across the Atlantic, and expanded at very high temperatures into perlite. This process produces a cost to the grower of more than $2 per cubic foot. One solution is using ground wood from whole trees. This is far from a new concept, but the researchers from NC State took on a new approach. They were able to show that many processing factors affect the size, shape, and performance of finished wood substrate materials: the initial processing of trees (shredded or chipped), the brand/style of m achine, the moisture content of the tree, the tree species, type of hammermill, screen size, etc. Variation in any one of these factors can produce very different results. Enhanced Root Growth An unexpected, but consistent result in using wood-based materials in mixes is an improvement in the root mass of greenhouse crops. Growers who have tried these new materials have observed more roots, larger roots, and faster root growth. The hypothesis is that the wood materials provide greater aeration, which stimulates root production. Little data is available to support these claims, but researchers are investigating this possibility. Biochar The use of charcoal (biocha r) to improve nutrient poor soils is well documented. Charcoal is produced through a process called, pyrolysis, a slow-burning process under reduced oxygen. Once an orga nic material has been pyrolyzed, it is lighter in wei ght, increases in cation exchange capacity (CEC), and lasts for many years without degradation. Unfortunately, not all biochar is created equal. Most biochar is produced on farms in the field with various lowcost/low-tech methods. Differences in oxygen content, feed stocks, and processing create variations in the desired properties listed above. That being said, the biochar that might work for acres of nutrient-poor soils farmers will not be consistent enough for greenhouse substrates. A much more precisely and consisten tly controlled biochar product can be produced from a continuous line process that precisely controls time, temperature, and heat exposure. The potential benefits of biochar to substrates are tremendous. The high surface area and pore structure of biochar provides a habitat that favors natural microbe populations. Microbial populations are being monitored in substrates and variations of biochar will be tested for improving soil biology. The achievement of these goals is not certain and anyone of a dozen outside factors could prevent these efforts form coming to fruition. However, NC State researchers are optimistic that they can help in providing new substrate component choices. Need just a few CEUs? Go to: http://hillsborough.extension.ufl.edu/Ag /AgOrnProd/OnlinePesticideCEUs.html Or http://growingproduce.com/floridagrower/ http://kgioeli.ifas.ufl.edu http://www.bobkesslerceu.com http://www.ceuweb.com http://www.flaes.org http://pests.ifas.ufl.edu/

PAGE 4

4 Those vegetables you had for dinner may have once been protected by an immune system akin to the one that helps you fight disease. Scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and the Netherland’s Wageningen University found that plants rely on a complex community of soil microbes to defend themselves against pathogens, much the way mammals harbor a raft of microbe s to avoid infections. Previous research on the phenomenon of diseasesuppressive soil had identif ied one or two pathogenfighting microbes at work. But the current team found a complex microbial ne twork. After analyzing soil from a sugar beet field that had become resistant to a pathogen ( Rhizoctonia solani ) that causes root fungus, the scientists found 17 soil microbes fighting to suppress the pathogen. They also determined that all of the microbes work t ogether to reduce the incidence of fungal infection. The sugar beets’ health followed the typical arc of plants in diseasesuppressive soil: they enjoyed a few good years, then they succumbed to disease, followed by healthy beets again as pathogen-fighting microbes were activated and the soil became hostile to R. solani To return the favor, the sugar beets funnel about a fifth of their photosynthetically captured carbon through their roots into the soil to fuel the microbes. To characterize all the micr obes, the scientists used the PhyloChip, which is a cr edit-card sized chip that can detect the presence of 59,000 species of bacteria and archaea in samples of ai r, water, and soil without the need of culturing. It was developed at Berkeley Lab to rapidly identify not only the most common and abundant organisms in an environmental sample, but also very rare types that are present in extremely small numbers. It does this by comparing DNA sequences unique to each bacterial species with over one million reference DNA targets on the chip. Soil samples from the sugar beet field were modified to exhibit six levels of dise ase suppression. Bacterial DNA was isolated from the samples and the PhyloChip detected more than 33,000 bacterial and archaeal species in the sample s, with all six having more or less the same types of bacteria. But when the scientists looked at the a bundance of bacteria in each sample, they found that each had a unique fingerprint. All of the samples in which disease was suppressed had a greater abunda nce of 17 unique types of bacteria. These include d well-known fungal fighters such as Psuedomonas, Burkholderia, Xanthomonas and Actinobacteria. In add ition, other types of bacteria that have no demonstrat ed ability to fight pathogens on their own were found to act synergistically to suppress plant disease. Based on this, the scientists believe that an increase in several bacterial types is a more important indicator of disease suppression than the presence of one or two b acteria that are especially good at killing pathogens. (Lawrence Berkeley Labs release, 5/5/11). Microbes Computed http://pested.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2011-05/microbes.html This material is provided as one of the many services relating to the educational programs offered to you by this agency. Our statewide network of specialists is prepared to provide current informatio n on agriculture, marketing, family and consumer sciences, 4-H, marine science, and related fields. We will be happy to help you with additional information upon request. Use of trade names in this newsletter does not reflect endorsement of the product by the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, or the Florida Cooperative Extension Service. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Science (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handi cap or national origin. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FLORIDA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, IFAS, FLORIDA A. & M. UNIVERSITY COOPERATIVE EXTENSION PROGR AM, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING. Production Times is brought to you by: Juanita Popenoe, Ph.D. Commercial Horticulture, Lake County Extension Liz Felter, M.S Production Horticulture & Exploration Gardens, Orange County Extension Matt Lollar, M.S. Commercial Horticulture, Seminole County Extension


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UF FLoRsITD Production Times
IFAS Extension
Fall 2011
Volume 18, Number 3

SUpcoming Educational & Industry Events


August 12, 2011- 8:30 am-3:00 pm Workshop for Ornamental Greenhouse & Nursery
Owners, Growers, and Staff-Mid-Florida Research and Education Center Auditorium
Registration deadline is Friday, July 29, 2011. RSVP to Dr. Joyce Merritt atjoycem@ufl.edu
or 352-273-4647

Sept. 29-Oct. 1, 2011-FNATS-The Landscape Show -Orange County Convention Center
More details available at: http://www.fngla.org/thelandscapeshow/

Oct. 23-26, 2011-International Plant Propagators' Society Southeast Region Annual Meeting
Rainwater Conference Center-Valdosta, GA
More details available at: http://www.ipps-srna.org/meeting.htm

CEUs
November 3, 2011 CEU Day Seminole County Extension Office. Contact Matthew Lollar at
407-665-5551. More details available at http://seminole.ifas.ufl.edu/comm hort.shtml

Coming Soon Review of Dr. Richard Beeson's Tree Growth and Water Requirements research.
Watch emails for details.

For more information and links to other programs go to: http://cfextension.ifas.ufl.edu
or the UF Extension Calendar at http://calendar.ifas.ufl.edu/calendar/index.htm


Helping Your Business Navigate the Economy
by Liz Felter


The following YouTube link was sent to me by a
colleague. I found the information very interesting
and thought it might be helpful to many of you.
Ken Gronbach is a consultant for direct marketing
and management. He specializes in demographics
(i.e. the age, gender, income, occupation, etc) of
your customers. This is important information in
order to have a marketing plan for the present and
the future. What works today won't work in 10
years. By monitoring the change in generational
demographics, you can be better prepared to change
your marketing strategy to meet the needs of the


new consumers. For more information follow then
the link below and watch the YouTube presenta-
tion.

The Age Curve, by Ken Gronbach, Consultant for
Direct Marketing and Management.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=oy7zT6ogCJI&feature=related








SProtect Yourself from Heat Stress
By Liz Felter


40 When the body is unable to cool itself
10 i3 by sweating, several heat-induced
B 11 illnesses such as heat stress or heat
St" 20 exhaustion and the more severe heat
60- -
S 10 stroke can occur, and can result in death.

Factors Leading to Heat Stress
* High temperature and humidity
* Direct sun or heat
* Limited air movement
* Physical exertion
* Poor physical condition
* Some medicines
* Inadequate tolerance for hot workplaces

Symptoms of Heat Exhaustion
* Headaches, dizziness, lightheadedness or fainting
* Weakness and moist skin
* Mood changes such as irritability or confusion
* Upset stomach or vomiting


Symptoms of Heat Stroke
* Dry, hot skin with no sweating.
* Mental confusion or losing consciousness
* Seizures or convulsions

Preventing Heat Stress
* Know signs/symptoms of heat-related illnesses;
monitor yourself and coworkers
* Block out direct sun or other heat sources
* Use cooling fans/air-conditioning; rest regularly
* Drink lots of water; about 1 cup every 15 minutes
* Wear lightweight, light colored, loose-fitting clothes
* Avoid alcohol, caffeinated drinks, or heavy meals

What to Do for Heat-Related Illness
* Call 911 (or local emergency number) at once

While waiting for help to arrive:
* Move the worker to a cool, shaded area
* Loosen or remove heavy clothing
* Provide cool drinking water
* Fan and mist the person with water


SNews from the Diagnostic Plant Clinic
By Liz Felter


Saprophytic White Fungus
Saprophytes live on dead organic tissue. This white fungus appeared on the pothos, totem, and
soil. Fungus growth is supported by low light, excess water, and the green-wood totem.


Photos by Dr. Shad Ali, Plant Pathologist at UF/IFAS, MREC








M Improving Greenhouse Substrates
By Matt Lollar


Researchers at North Carolina State University are con-
ducting research on the frequently studied topic of improv-
ing the efficiency of substrates for greenhouse production.
Their goals are:
*To explore the use of wood as an organic aggregate in
greenhouse mixes.
*To enhance root growth in greenhouse crops.
*To increase the nutrient retention of substrates.
*To improve the overall biology of greenhouse substrates.

To meet these objectives, the approach being used at NC
State is to develop new, sustainable components for green-
house substrates with an emphasis on substrate component
manufacturing.

New components for greenhouse substrates must be highly
consistent, lightweight, readily available, and reasonably
priced. NC State researchers are searching for new com-
ponents that are as sustainable, natural, economical, and
organic as possible. Over the years, several hundred po-
tential materials have been tested; however, most green-
house mixes are still made from the familiar components:
peat moss, pine bark, perlite, vermiculite, and/or coconut
fiber. Other components have not been able to provide the
precise control needed in modem greenhouse production.

Organic Aggregate
One component being researched is a sustainable aggre-
gate to improve aeration and drainage. Most perlite comes
from ore that is mined in Greece, shipped across the Atlan-
tic, and expanded at very high temperatures into perlite.
This process produces a cost to the grower of more than $2
per cubic foot. One solution is using ground wood from
whole trees. This is far from a new concept, but the re-
searchers from NC State took on a new approach. They
were able to show that many processing factors affect the
size, shape, and performance of finished wood substrate
materials: the initial processing of trees (shredded or
chipped), the brand/style of machine, the moisture content
of the tree, the tree species, type of hammermill, screen
size, etc. Variation in any one of these factors can produce
very different results.


Enhanced Root Growth
An unexpected, but consistent result in using wood-based
materials in mixes is an improvement in the root mass of
greenhouse crops. Growers who have tried these new ma-
terials have observed more roots, larger roots, and faster
root growth. The hypothesis is that the wood materials
provide greater aeration, which stimulates root production.
Little data is available to support these claims, but re-
searchers are investigating this possibility.

Biochar
The use of charcoal (biochar) to improve nutrient poor
soils is well documented. Charcoal is produced through a
process called, pyrolysis, a slow-burning process under
reduced oxygen. Once an organic material has been pyro-
lyzed, it is lighter in weight, increases in cation exchange
capacity (CEC), and lasts for many years without degrada-
tion. Unfortunately, not all biochar is created equal. Most
biochar is produced on farms in the field with various low-
cost/low-tech methods. Differences in oxygen content,
feed stocks, and processing create variations in the desired
properties listed above. That being said, the biochar that
might work for acres of nutrient-poor soils farmers will not
be consistent enough for greenhouse substrates. A much
more precisely and consistently controlled biochar product
can be produced from a continuous line process that pre-
cisely controls time, temperature, and heat exposure.

The potential benefits of biochar to substrates are tremen-
dous. The high surface area and pore structure of biochar
provides a habitat that favors natural microbe populations.
Microbial populations are being monitored in substrates
and variations of biochar will be tested for improving soil
biology.

The achievement of these goals is not certain and anyone
of a dozen outside factors could prevent these efforts form
coming to fruition. However, NC State researchers are
optimistic that they can help in providing new substrate
component choices.


SOnline CEU Sources

http://kgioeli.ifas.ufl.edu Need just a few CEUs?
http://www.bobkesslerceu.com Go to:
http://www.ceuweb.com http://hillsborough.extension.ufl.edu/Ag/AgOmProd/OnlinePesticideCEUs.html
http://www.flaes.org Or
http://pests.ifas.ufl.edu/ http://growingproduce.com/floridagrower/








SMicrobes Computed
http ://pested.ifas.ufl.edu/newsletters/2011-05/microbes.html


Those vegetables you had for dinner may have once
been protected by an immune system akin to the one
that helps you fight disease. Scientists from the U.S.
Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National
Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and the Netherland's
Wageningen University found that plants rely on a
complex community of soil microbes to defend them-
selves against pathogens, much the way mammals
harbor a raft of microbes to avoid infections.

Previous research on the phenomenon of disease-
suppressive soil had identified one or two pathogen-
fighting microbes at work. But the current team
found a complex microbial network. After analyzing
soil from a sugar beet field that had become resistant
to a pathogen (Rhizoctonia solani) that causes root
fungus, the scientists found 17 soil microbes fighting
to suppress the pathogen. They also determined that
all of the microbes work together to reduce the inci-
dence of fungal infection. The sugar beets' health
followed the typical arc of plants in disease-
suppressive soil: they enjoyed a few good years, then
they succumbed to disease, followed by healthy beets
again as pathogen-fighting microbes were activated
and the soil became hostile to R. solani. To return the
favor, the sugar beets funnel about a fifth of their pho-
tosynthetically captured carbon through their roots
into the soil to fuel the microbes.

To characterize all the microbes, the scientists used
the PhyloChip, which is a credit-card sized chip that
can detect the presence of 59,000 species of bacteria


and archaea in samples of air, water, and soil without
the need of culturing. It was developed at Berkeley
Lab to rapidly identify not only the most common and
abundant organisms in an environmental sample, but
also very rare types that are present in extremely
small numbers. It does this by comparing DNA se-
quences unique to each bacterial species with over
one million reference DNA targets on the chip. Soil
samples from the sugar beet field were modified to
exhibit six levels of disease suppression. Bacterial
DNA was isolated from the samples and the Phy-
loChip detected more than 33,000 bacterial and ar-
chaeal species in the samples, with all six having
more or less the same types of bacteria. But when the
scientists looked at the abundance of bacteria in each
sample, they found that each had a unique finger-
print. All of the samples in which disease was sup-
pressed had a greater abundance of 17 unique types of
bacteria. These included well-known fungal fighters
such as Psuedomonas, Burkholderia, Xanthomonas
and Actinobacteria. In addition, other types of bacte-
ria that have no demonstrated ability to fight patho-
gens on their own were found to act synergistically to
suppress plant disease. Based on this, the scientists
believe that an increase in several bacterial types is a
more important indicator of disease suppression than
the presence of one or two bacteria that are especially
good at killing pathogens. (Lawrence Berkeley Labs
release, 5/5/11).


I! _ __ _ __ _ __ _ _ _ _


Production Times is brought to you by:
Juanita Popenoe, Ph.D.
Commercial Horticulture, Lake County Extension
Liz Felter, M.S.
Production Horticulture & Exploration Gardens,
Orange County Extension
Matt Lollar, M.S.
Commercial Horticulture, Seminole County Extension


This material is provided as one of the many services relating to the educational
programs offered to you by this agency Our statewide network of specialists is
prepared to provide current information on agriculture, marketing, family and
consumer sciences, 4-H, marine science, and related fields We will be happy to
help you with additional information upon request
Use of trade names in this newsletter does not reflect endorsement of the product
by the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, or the
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Science (IFAS) is an Equal Employment
Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information
and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without
regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin U S DEPARTMENT
OF AGRICULTURE, FLORIDA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE,
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, IFAS, FLORIDA A & M UNIVERSITY
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION PROGRAM, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY
COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING




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