PAGE 1

1 For more information and links to most programs and agendas go to: http://cfextension.ifas.ufl.edu or the UF Extension Calendar at http:// calendar.ifas.ufl.edu/calendar/index.htm Seminole County Farm Tour. Apr. 5 2011. Self-guided tour. LaFleur Nurseries, Meriwether Farms, C.O.D. Trees U-Pick Blackberries, The Yarborough Ranch, Pappy’s Patch UPick Strawberries, and South Seminole Farm and Nursery. Ca ll (407) 665-5560 for registration/ information. Lake County Farm Tour. Apr. 8 2011. Self-guided tour. Wilson Training Center, Uncle Matt’s Organic Peaches and Citrus, Silver Spring Citrus Processing Plant and Ch erry Lake Tree Farm. http:// lake.ifas.ufl.edu/ for more information. Ag Literacy Day. Apr. 26 2011. Your local elementary school. Promote agriculture by reading to the students. http:// www.flagintheclassroom.com/agliteracyday.html Southeast Pest Management Conference. May 4, 2011. Gainesville. http://entnemdept.ifas .ufl.edu/sepmc/registration_pop_1a.htm Lake County Listening Session. May 10 & 12, 2011. Your input is needed for long range pla nning. http://lake.ifas.ufl.edu/ Orange County Listening Session. April 1, 2011. Your input is needed for long range planning. http://orange.ifas.ufl.edu/ Seminole County Listening Session. May 21, 2011. Your input is needed for long range pla nning. http://www.seminolecountyfl.gov/ coopext/ Expanding Your Plant Palette. May 11, 2011. Leu Gardens, Orlando. Edible Landscaping—Bringing Your Back Yard to the Front. Contact Maggie Jarrell (352) 343-4101. Flyer at Central FL web under Calendar of events or by credit card at: http://2011expandingyourplantp altette.eventbrite.com/ (Continued on page 2) Production Times If you missed the FNGLA Nursery Tours, they are documented on YouTube at the extension district site: http:// www.youtube.com/IFASCDistrict Or you can get to them individually on the links below: Batson’s Location 2 Batson’s Greenhouses Connor Farms, Inc. NGM Productions Salmon Foliage Reinholt’s Greenhouses Upcoming Educational Programs Summer 2011 Volume 18, Number 2

PAGE 2

2 This material is provided as one of the many services relating to the educational programs offered to you by this agency. Our statewide network of specialists is prepared to provide current information on agriculture, marketing, family and consum er sciences, 4-H, marine science, and related fields. We will be happy to help you with additional information upon request. Use of trade names in this newsletter does not reflect endorsement of the product by the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, or the Florida Cooperative Extension Service. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Science (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and ins titutions that functio n without regard to race, co lor, sex, age, handicap or national origin. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FLORIDA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, IFAS, FLORIDA A. & M. UNIVERSITY COOPERATIVE EXTENSI ON PROGRAM, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING. Production Times is brought to you by: Juanita Popenoe, Ph.D. Commercial Horticulture, Lake County Extension Liz Felter, M.S Production Horticulture & Exploration Gardens, Orange County Extension Matt Lollar, M.S. Commercial Horticulture, Seminole County Extension The National Poinsettia Trial Program is a coop erative program with Jim Barrett at the University of Florida and researchers from NC State that evaluates new poinsettia cultivars each year. The program allows breeders, suppliers, growers, and consumers to evaluate the cultivars in two open houses each year. The results are in and this year 18 new cultivars were introduced that should be available in 2011 – however, not all new cultivars are listed in the breeder company catalogs. If you see a cultivar you want to try but isn’t listed yet, please contact your supplier. It comes as no surprise that most of the new culti vars are red, considering the movement of the consumer market back towards red in the last few years. Most of the non red cultivars are major improvements of older cultivars and two are sig nificantly new. Below is a selection of some of the cultivars that tested better in Florida. You can see them for yourself in a virtual field day at: http://virtualfieldday.ifas.ufl.edu/poinsettias/ new_poinsettia_varieties.shtml Red Cultivars ‘Christmas Beauty’ (Selecta/Ball). Bracts were rounded with smooth edges and medium red in color. Plants flowered midseason and had strong, thick stems and habit with a nice uniform shape. Performed well in UF post production trials and has the potential to work well in small to medium sized con Poinsettia Trials Florida State Horticulture Society Annual Meeting. June 5-7, 2011. Vinoy Renaisance Resort, St. Petersburg. http://fshs.org/ Pesticide Applicator Training Limited Certification Licenses Review and Exam. Mar. 23 2011. Lake County Extension Office, Tavares. Contact Maggie Jarrell at ( 352) 343-4101 or register on-line at http://lakelimited.eventbrite.com Private Applicator/Ornamental and Turf May 19, 2011 Osceola County Extension Office, Kissimmee. Contact Jennifer Welshans at (321) 697-3000 or register on-line at http://osceola.i fas.ufl.edu/pdfs/ Commercial%20Horticulture/Private% 20Applicator%20LO%20Kiss%20May%202011.pdf CEUs CEU Day June 9, 2011 Osceola County Extension Office, Ki ssimmee. Contact Jennifer Welshans at (321) 697-3000. More details will be at ht tp://osceola.ifas.ufl.edu/comm_hort.shtml

PAGE 3

3 tainer sizes with very little PGR needed. ‘Christmas Day’ (Selecta/Ball). Nice upright growth with strong stems. Rounded bracts were medium red and lay flat. Young bracts were dark red. The medium vigor plants flowered midseason and would work well in a wide range of container sizes. ‘Christmas Season Fire’ (Dmmen). Medium sized bracts with a nice bright red, slightly or ange, color. Uniform plants were moderately upright and flowered early to midseason. Foli age was dark green. Plants should work well in most container sizes. ‘Encore’ (Dmmen). Long pointed bracts were held flat to slightly upright and were bright red with dark red young bracts. Good branch strength with a slightly spread ing plant habit. Plants had me dium vigor and flowered mid season. ‘Jubilee Red’ (Ecke). Performed well in the warmest production areas as a replacement for ‘Freedom Red’ because it has stronger stems and does not stretch as much. Bracts were medium red in color. Younger bracts tended to lay flat while the older bracts hung down, producing the ball of red effect. Pink Cultivars ‘Infinity Pink’ (Dmmen). The medium pink bracts turned more salmon color as they aged. The bract veins were dark pink and there was some ruffling. Plants should work best in medium to large containers. Novelty Cultivars ‘Premium Ice Crystal’ (Dmmen). The rosy red bracts had pale pink to apricot centers spotted in red. Plants were medium to low in vigor producing the classic ball of color. Plants flowered mid season and are low in vigor. The plants showed sensitivity to PGRs. ‘Premium Ice Crystal’ was released two years ago, but this was the first year it was entered in the National Poinsettia Trial Program. (Continued from page 2) Research Updates Summarized by Juanita Popenoe RFID Imbedded in Plants? Researchers tested imbedding radiofrequency identification microchips in the stems of high value roses to track nursery inventory informa tion. They were trying to determine how small the stem diameter could be and still be success ful. Knowledge Gained: They found that the wound would heal over the microchip when larger diameter stems (>1/3 inch) were used. Smaller diameter stemmed plants were killed by the process. This would only be worthwhile in high value crops. (Continued on page 4)

PAGE 4

4 Do Mulches Affect More Than Weeds? Researchers evaluated the effectiveness of biode gradable mulches for weed control in container grown giant arborvitae and measured the effects of mulches on evaporation and substrate tem perature. They tested chemical control (oxadiazon), non mulched/non treated, natural fiber disc (coconut, agave and jute fiber mixed with natural latex), and textile industry waste materials (90% vegetal, 10% synthetic fibers). They also tested two levels of irrigation (daily to container capacity and daily to 30% container ca pacity), and hand weeding three times during the season compared to no weeding. Knowledge Gained: Mulches limited weed growth the same as chemical control. Mulched plants had higher shoot dry weight than non treated and non mulched in one year, but no differences in next. The black color of the 3 L pots was probably the main factor in substrate temperature – mulching had no effect. Container water content was unaffected by mulching materials. Hot Water Dips for Cuttings Submerging terminal leafy cuttings of Azalea cul tivars in 1220F water for 21 min was previously shown to eliminate Rhizoctonia that causes azalea web blight. To better understand rooting response and tissue sensitivity of evergreen azalea, terminal cuttings of azalea cultivars were collected and submerged or not submerged in 1220F water for 20, 40, 60 and 80 min with various amounts of leaf removal. Knowledge Gained: 60 and 80 minute dips caused varying amounts of leaf damage by cultivar. 75% or greater removal of leaf area did not affect rooting, but damaging leaves with 122oF water did reduce rooting. Smooth Pots or “Air” Pots? Little leaf linden and elm bare root seedlings were grown in three different pot types over two years. Pots were Superoots Air Cell™ (similar to the air root pots available in the US), square deep pots with interior ridges to guide roots down, and square deep pots with smooth sides. Plants were first potted in one quart pots and af ter one year transplanted to the same type of pot in 3 L size. At the end of each growing season, some plants were harvested to examine the root systems. Knowledge Gained: For both species at the end of the first grow ing season, the worst root architectures were seen in the smooth sided pots while the other two pot types reduced the number of de formed roots. At the end of the second season, both species in Air Cell pots still had good root structure, but the pot with the interior ridges only helped the linden to have a good root struc ture. Planting Depth From the Beginning Oak and Linden liners were planted in 13 gal containers with the first main root at soil level or 4 or 8 inches below soil level. Trees were grown in the pots for 2 years and then in a simulated landscape for 3 more years. At transplanting, the plants were set with the same treatments or “remediated” by removing some of the soil and roots to get to the top structural root and plant ing it at the soil level. Knowledge Gained: In species that form adventitious roots (oak), these roots may assume the role of structural roots and diminish the effect of circling root systems formed during container production. For plants that do not form adventitious roots (linden), remediation is necessary even if it slows growth at first, to avoid future problems.


Production times
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UNIVERSITY of

UFE"sioA Production Times
IFAS Extension


Summer 2011
Volume 18, Number 2


If you missed the FNGLA Nurs-
ery Tours, they are documented
on YouTube at the extension dis-
trict site: http://
www.youtube.com/IFASCDistrict
Or you can get to them individu-
ally on the links below:


Ii ., Batson's Location 2

0


SBatson's Greenhouses




Connor Farms, Inc.


NGM Productions


Salmon Foliage




Rcinlioll s GC.CIn-
Ihouses


Upcoming Educational Programs

For more information and links to most programs and agendas go to:
http://cfextension.ifas.ufl.edu or the UF Extension Calendar at http://
calendar.ifas.ufl.edu/calendar/index.htm


Seminole County Farm Tour. Apr. 5, 2011. Self-guided tour.
LaFleur Nurseries, Meriwether Farms, C.O.D. Trees U-Pick Blackberries,
The Yarborough Ranch, Pappy's Patch U-Pick Strawberries, and South
Seminole Farm and Nursery. Call (407) 665-5560 for registration/
information.
Lake County Farm Tour. Apr. 8, 2011. Self-guided tour. Wilson
Training Center, Uncle Matt's Organic Peaches and Citrus, Silver Spring
Citrus Processing Plant and Cherry Lake Tree Farm. http:/
lake.ifas.ufl.edu/ for more information.
Ag Literacy Day. Apr. 26, 2011. Your local elementary school. Pro-
mote agriculture by reading to the students. http://
www.flagintheclassroom.com/agliteracyday.html
Southeast Pest Management Conference. May 4, 2011.
Gainesville. http://entnemdept.ifas.ufl.edu/sepmc/registration pop la.htm

Lake County Listening Session. May 10 & 12, 2011. Your input
is needed for long range planning. http://lake.ifas.ufl.edu/

Orange County Listening Session. April 1, 2011. Your input is
needed for long range planning. http://orange.ifas.ufl.edu/

Seminole County Listening Session. May 21, 2011. Your input
is needed for long range planning. http://www.seminolecountvfl.gov/
coopext/

Expanding Your Plant Palette. May 11, 2011. Leu Gardens, Or-
lando. Edible Landscaping-Bringing Your Back Yard to the Front. Con-
tact Maggie Jarrell (352) 343-4101. Flyer at Central FL web under Calen-
dar of events or by credit card at:
http://2011 expandingyourplantpaltette.eventbrite.com/


(Continued on page 2)


-------- I


M







Florida State Horticulture Society Annual Meeting. June 5-7, 2011. Vinoy Renaisance Re-
sort, St. Petersburg. http://fshs.org/


Pesticide Applicator Training
Limited Certification Licenses Review and Exam. Mar. 23, 2011. Lake County Extension Office,
Tavares. Contact Maggie Jarrell at (352) 343-4101 or register on-line at http://lakelimited.eventbrite.com

Private Applicator/Ornamental and Turf. May 19, 2011. Osceola County Extension Office, Kis-
simmee. Contact Jennifer Welshans at (321) 697-3000 or register on-line at http://osceola.ifas.ufl.edu/pdfs/
Commercial%20Horticulture/Private%20Applicator%20LO%20Kiss%20Mav%202011 .pdf


CEUs
CEU Day. June 9, 2011. Osceola County Extension Office, Kissimmee. Contact Jennifer Welshans at
(321) 697-3000. More details will be at http://osceola.ifas.ufl.edu/comm hort.shtml


Poinsettia Trials


The National Poinsettia Trial Program is a coop-
erative program with Jim Barrett at the University
of Florida and researchers from NC State that
evaluates new poinsettia cultivars each year. The
program allows breeders, suppliers, growers, and
consumers to evaluate the cultivars in two open
houses each year. The results are in and this year
18 new cultivars were introduced that should be
available in 2011 however, not all new cultivars
are listed in the breeder company catalogs. If you
see a cultivar you want to try but isn't listed yet,
please contact your supplier.
It comes as no surprise that most of the new culti-
vars are red, considering the movement of the
consumer market back towards red in the last few
years. Most of the non-red cultivars are major


improvements of older cultivars and two are sig-
nificantly new. Below is a selection of some of
the cultivars that tested better in Florida. You can
see them for yourself in a virtual field day at:
http://virtualfieldday.ifas.ufl.edu/poinsettias/
new poinsettia varieties.shtml

Red Cultivars
'Christmas Beauty' (Selecta/Ball). Bracts were
rounded with smooth edges and medium-red in
color. Plants flowered midseason and had strong,
thick stems and habit with a nice
uniform shape. Performed well
in UF post-production trials and
has the potential to work well in
small to medium-sized con-


Production Times is brought to you by:
Juanita Popenoe, Ph.D.
Commercial Horticulture, Lake County Extension
Liz Felter, M.S.
Production Horticulture & Exploration Gardens,
Orange County Extension
Matt Lollar, M.S.
Commercial Horticulture, Seminole County Extension


This material is provided as one of the many services relating to the educational programs offered
to you by this agency Our statewide network of specialists is prepared to provide current infor-
mation on agriculture, marketing, family and consumer sciences, 4-H, marine science, and related
fields We will be happy to help you with additional information upon request
Use of trade names in this newsletter does not reflect endorsement of the product by the Univer-
sity of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, or the Florida Cooperative Extension
Service
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Science (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity
Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to
individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or
national origin US DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FLORIDA COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, IFAS, FLORIDA A & M
UNIVERSITY COOPERATIVE EXTENSION PROGRAM, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY
COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING


EM
2Z]






(Continued from page 2)
trainer sizes with very little PGR needed.

'Christmas Day' (Selecta/Ball). Nice upright
growth with strong stems. Rounded bracts were
medium-red and lay flat. Young bracts were
dark red. The medium vigor plants flowered
midseason and would work well in a wide range
of container sizes.

'Christmas Season Fire' (Diimmen). Medium-
sized bracts with a nice bright red, slightly or-
ange, color. Uniform plants were moderately
upright and flowered early to midseason. Foli-
age was dark green. Plants should work well in
most container sizes.

'Encore' (Diimmen). Long pointed bracts were
held flat to slightly upright and
were bright-red with dark-red
young bracts. Good branch
strength with a slightly spread-
ing plant habit. Plants had me-
dium vigor and flowered mid-
season.


'Jubilee Red' (Ecke). Performed
well in the warmest production
areas as a replacement for
'Freedom Red' because it has


stronger stems and does not stretch as much.
Bracts were medium-red in color. Younger
bracts tended to lay flat while the older bracts
hung down, producing the ball of red effect.

Pink Cultivars
'Infinity Pink' (Diimmen). The medium-pink
bracts turned more salmon
color as they aged. The bract
veins were dark pink and there
was some ruffling. Plants
should work best in medium to
large containers.


Novelty Cultivars
'Premium Ice Crystal' (Diimmen). The rosy red
bracts had pale pink to
apricot centers spotted in
red. Plants were medium
to low in vigor producing
the classic ball of color.
Plants flowered mid-
season and are low in
vigor. The plants showed sensitivity to PGRs.
'Premium Ice Crystal' was released two years
ago, but this was the first year it was entered in
the National Poinsettia Trial Program.


Research Updates
Summarized by Juanita Popenoe


RFID Imbedded in Plants? Knowledge Gained:
Researchers tested imbedding radiofrequency They found that the wound would heal over
identification microchips in the stems of high the microchip when larger diameter stems
value roses to track nursery inventory informa- (>1/3 inch) were used. Smaller diameter
tion. They were trying to determine how small stemmed plants were killed by the process.
the stem diameter could be and still be success- This would only be worthwhile in high value
ful. crops.
(Continued on page 4)


M







Do Mulches Affect More Than Weeds? Smooth Pots or "Air" Pots?


Researchers evaluated the effectiveness of biode-
gradable mulches for weed control in container-
grown giant arborvitae and measured the effects
of mulches on evaporation and substrate tem-
perature. They tested chemical control
(oxadiazon), non-mulched/non-treated, natural
fiber disc (coconut, agave and jute fiber mixed
with natural latex), and textile industry waste
materials (90% vegetal, 10% synthetic fibers).
They also tested two levels of irrigation (daily to
container capacity and daily to 30% container ca-
pacity), and hand weeding three times during the
season compared to no weeding.
Knowledge Gained:
* Mulches limited weed growth the same as
chemical control.
* Mulched plants had higher shoot dry weight
than non-treated and non-mulched in one
year, but no differences in next.
* The black color of the 3 L pots was probably
the main factor in substrate temperature -
mulching had no effect.
* Container water content was unaffected by
mulching materials.

Hot Water Dips for Cuttings
Submerging terminal leafy cuttings of Azalea cul-
tivars in 1220F water for 21 min was previously
shown to eliminate Rhizoctonia that causes
azalea web blight. To better understand rooting
response and tissue sensitivity of evergreen
azalea, terminal cuttings of azalea cultivars were
collected and submerged or not submerged in
1220F water for 20, 40, 60 and 80 min with various
amounts of leaf removal.
Knowledge Gained:
* 60 and 80 minute dips caused varying
amounts of leaf damage by cultivar.
* 75% or greater removal of leaf area did not
affect rooting, but damaging leaves with
122F water did reduce rooting.


Little leaf linden and elm bare root seedlings
were grown in three different pot types over two
years. Pots were Superoots Air-CellTM (similar
to the air-root pots available in the US), square
deep pots with interior ridges to guide roots
down, and square deep pots with smooth sides.
Plants were first potted in one quart pots and af-
ter one year transplanted to the same type of pot
in 3-L size. At the end of each growing season,
some plants were harvested to examine the root
systems.
Knowledge Gained:
* For both species at the end of the first grow-
ing season, the worst root architectures were
seen in the smooth sided pots while the other
two pot types reduced the number of de-
formed roots.
* At the end of the second season, both species
in Air-Cell pots still had good root structure,
but the pot with the interior ridges only
helped the linden to have a good root struc-
ture.

Planting Depth From the Beginning
Oak and Linden liners were planted in 13 gal
containers with the first main root at soil level or
4 or 8 inches below soil level. Trees were grown
in the pots for 2 years and then in a simulated
landscape for 3 more years. At transplanting, the
plants were set with the same treatments or
"remediated" by removing some of the soil and
roots to get to the top structural root and plant-
ing it at the soil level.
Knowledge Gained:
* In species that form adventitious roots (oak),
these roots may assume the role of structural
roots and diminish the effect of circling root
systems formed during container production.
* For plants that do not form adventitious roots
(linden), remediation is necessary even if it
slows growth at first, to avoid future problems.




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