UF I UNIVERSITY of
I Greenhouse Edition IFAS RIDA
Volume 17, Number 3
Production Times is brought to
Lelan Parker, M.S.
Office: (407) 254-9200
FAX: (407) 850-5125
This material is provided as one of the many
services relating to the educational programs
offered to you by this agency. Our statewide
network of specialists is prepared to provide
current information on agriculture, marketing,
family and consumer sciences, 4-H, marine
science, and related fields. We will be happy to
help you with additional information upon
Use of trade names in this newsletter does not
reflect endorsement of the product by the
University of Florida, Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, or the Florida Coopera-
tive Extension Service.
See the newsletter online at:
Learn about Chrysanthemum
White Rust on page 2
Mediterranean Fruit Fly!
Summarized by Lelan D. Parker
Ceratitis capitata, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) is considered one of the
world's most critical fruit flies that threaten our food supply. Medfly attacks
more than 250 different fruits, vegetables, flowers and nuts. The female Medfly
lays eggs in the fruit and maggots develop causing the fruit to rot. Females are
capable of producing hundred of eggs. Medflies breed continuously when host
fruits are present. In June of this year, the Medfly was found in Boca Raton, FL
during routine fruit fly monitoring by an FDACS/DPI inspector. Since the
initial find, over 2,000 additional fruit
fly traps have been set out and more
flies have been detected. The flies have
been found on traps in sour orange
trees, mango, and loquat. This is the
first major outbreak of Medfly since ''S
1997 and 1998. To address the current
outbreak additional traps are being
placed in a 81-square-mile area around
each positive find.
The Medfly completes its life cycle in 21-30 days under typical Florida summer
weather conditions. Adults are slightly smaller than a housefly. Adults die
within 4 days if they do not have any food. A female may deposit as many as
800 eggs during her lifetime.
Eggs are laid underneath the skin -- -
of fruit that is about to ripen.
Adults may survive up to a year
or more under favorable condi-
tions of food, water and cool tem- r '
peratures. -. --
For the 2010 infestation the following treatments are being used by the USDA
and FDACS-DPI: Foliar Spot Treatments (Spinosad), Soil Drenching, Fruit
Stripping and Sterile Fruit Fly Release.
For more info go to: http://www.fl-dpi.com/enpp/ento/medfly-facts.html
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Science (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and
institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin U S DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FLORIDA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA IFAS FLORIDA A & M UNIVERSITY COOPERATIVE EXTENSION PROGRAM AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING
L Chrysanthemum White Rust
By Lelan D. Parker
Chrysanthemum white rust (CWR) is a disease of chrysanthemum caused by the fungus Puccinia
horiana. CWR originated in eastern Asia in 1895 and is now established in Europe, Africa, Australia
Central America, South America and the Far East. CWR is not established in the United States and
Canada, it has been eradicated or is being eradicated and is a quarantined disease in these two coun-
tries. CWR begins as small white or yellow spots on the upper leaf surface that are about 4 mm
wide. After spots, pink pustules appear. Pustules are usually found on young leaves and flower
bracts but may appear on any part of the foliage, including flowers. As the pustules age they be-
come white and feel waxy to the touch.
CWR infects Mums through spores. Spores float through the air or are carried by humans or water
from an infected plant or flower to a new plant or flower. CWR has two kinds of spores, teliospores
and basidiospores. This is important because teliospores can live for 8 weeks on dried leaves.
Teliospores survive only 1 week if infected tissues is buried under soil. Since the survival rate is sig-
nificantly lessened in buried soil, it is beneficial to bury cull piles. Teliospores germinate to produce
basidiospores. Basidiospores are released from pustules and spread from plant to plant by
splashing water and human handling. The optimum temperature and time for basidiospores to
penetrate is 2 hours at 630F. Basidiospores can travel short distances during moist weather and sur-
vive only 5 minutes when relative humidity is 80% and less than 60 minutes when relative humidity
When symptomless infected cuttings are brought into a greenhouse new infections occur. Always
buy healthy cuttings from reliable sources and regularly scout for symptoms especially when the
weather becomes cooler and wetter. Imported flowers should not be handled in or near mum-
growing facilities because they may be infected and not show signs or symptoms. Furthermore, try
to maintain a low humidity and dry foliage.
For more information go to: http://www.syngentaflowersinc.com/pdf/cultural/CWR%
CWR on entire plant.
SRespirators for Pesticide Applications
Summarized by Lelan D. Parker
Pesticide applicators wear respirators to protect from breathing air that is contaminated with pesti-
cides. Different types of respirators are required based upon specific pesticide formulations. The
pesticide label provides specific instructions in addition to which type of respirator is to be worn.
The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the federal agency that is re-
sponsible for testing and certifying respirators that are used with pesticides.
One of the most common types of respirators is the air-purifying respirator.
Some air-purifying respirators cover the entire face. Moreover, there are less
expensive half masks that cover the nose and mouth. Air-purifying respira-
tors have chemical cartridges or mechanical filters that remove airborne con-
taminants. Each chemical cartridge is color coded to indicate it's use and
filled with activated carbon to absorb gases and vapors. Mechanical filters
trap particulate matter in porous filter material.
Air purifying respirator.
In order to provide protection and work properly, a respirator must fit
tightly. To select the right size respirator for the applicator the fit test method is used. An employer
must provide a medical evaluation determining an employee's ability to use a respirator before the
employee is fit tested to use the respirator in the workplace. Every time a respirator is put on a fit
check should be conducted. To perform a fit check, the respirator must be put on properly. There
should be a firm and comfortable fit/seal against the face at all points.
For more information go to: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/PI/PI11400.pdf
1 Handling Tissue-Cultured Microplants
1. Postharvest requirements for Tissue Culture (TC): TC containers do not immediately need sunlight or cold
temperatures to survive for several days up to a week.
2. Humidity Management: Transplanting line should be away from drafts and air movement such as fans.
Provide mist, spray or fog as soon as possible after the containers are opened.
3. Temperature management: Tropicals can be handled at 750F, while woody species should be held at 55-650F.
4. Quality Control: The ideal TC product has many root initials without elongated roots. Elongated roots
should be removed during transplant. If you are receiving many plants with elongated roots this should
5. Cleanliness: Molds growing in TC containers can be washed off, the mold isn't harmful to humans.
6. Light Management: The cuticle, leaf hairs and root hairs develop quickly once the plantlets are removed
from TC containers. Once the miniaturization characteristics are outgrown, i.e., leaves look normal, the
plant can be treated like a rooted cutting.
Phytophthora on Spathiphyllum
By Lelan D. Parker
Phytophthora parasitica is a common fungus that infects Spathiphyllum plants. This pathogen can gain
access to production facilities through contaminated soils mixes or if plants are set onto soil surfaces.
Infected Spathiphyllum plants may have leaf chlorosis, wilting, die-back and discoloration that looks
similar to Cylindrocladium. Phytophthora can spread to leaf surfaces by splashing water. When this
happens, black lesions appear on leave but do not have yellow halos.
Always place your Spathiphyllum plants on raised benches or
inverted saucers to avoid infestations. If there is an infesta-
tion, keep leaf surfaces dry. Severely infected plants should
be disposed and remaining plants may be treated with Ali-
ette@ or Subdue@. ...
For more information go to: http://mrec.ifas.ufl.edu/foliage/resrpts/rh 96 5.htm
31 Aug 1
Limited Pesticide License Certification Review and Exam. Sanford, FL at Seminole
County Extension Office. To register: Maggie Jarrell at 352-343-4101.
Small Farms Conference. Kissimmee, FL at Osceola Heritage Park.
For info: http://smallfarms.ifas.ufl.edu
Florida Green Industries Best Management Practices In Spanish. Orlando, FL at
Orange County Extension. To register: Yamira Donato at 407-254-9200.
Review and Exams for Restricted Use Ornamental and Turf or Private Applicator Pes-
ticide Licenses. Sanford, FL at Seminole County Extension Office. To register: Maggie
Jarrell at 352-343-4101.
Florida Green Industries Best Management Practices. Orlando, FL at Orange County
Extension. To register: Yamira Donato at 407-254-9200.
Certified Crop Advisor CEU Day. Via Videoconference. Tavares, FL at Lake County
Agricultural Center at 352-343-4101