UF VE Production Time
UFFLORIDA Production Times,
Volume 17, Number 1
This palm is not suffering from
some new fatal disease of palms,
but an old enemy, the Palmetto
Weevil, Rhynchophorus cruentatus.
They can fly as high as tall Washingto-
nias, so don't be fooled. See more on
Can this plant clean up your dirty
water? Find out on page 4.
Find out how to control this with-
out chemicals on page 4.
Upcoming Educa onal Programs
For more information and links to most programs and agendas go to:
http://cfextension.ifas.ufl.edu or the UF Extension Calendar at htt//
Agritunity. Jan. 22-23, 2010. Sumter County Extension Office, Bush-
Eco-Nomic Living. Feb. 6, 2010. 9 am-1 pm. Orange County Ex-
tension Office, Orlando. Contact (407) 254-9200.
Lake County Farm Tour Day. Mar. 4,2010. Lake County Ex-
tension Office, Tavares. Contact Maggie Jarrell at (352) 343-4101.
Palm School. Mar. 2-3, 2010. Leu Gardens, Orlando. Contact Dr.
Monica Elliott, email@example.com or (954) 577-6315. http://
Integrated Pest Management Update. Mar. 9, 2010, MREC,
Apopka. Contact Maggie Jarrell at (352) 343-4101.
IFAS CEU Day-all about Herbicides. Mar. 30, 2010,
MREC, Apopka. Contact Maggie Jarrell at (352) 343-4101. 6CEUs, $20.
Pesticide Applicator Training
Limited Certification Licenses Review and Exam. Jan. 27,
2010. Orange County Extension Office, Orlando. Contact Celeste White at
Private Applicator/Ornamental and Turf. Feb. 17, 2010. Lake
County Extension Office, Tavares. Contact Maggie Jarrell (352) 343-4101
or go to http://cfextension.ifas.ufl.edu/documents/PrivateApplicatorOT2-
Limited Certification Licenses Review and Exam. Mar. 24,
2010. Lake County Extension Office, Orlando. Contact Maggie Jarrell
(352) 343-4101. http://cfextension.ifas.ufl.edu/documents/
Plant Clinic at MREC
The plant clinic is not closed, only
changed! Because disease samples
now must be sent to Gainesville for
analysis ($30), we have the plant
clinic on Tuesday afternoons from
1-4 pm. This gives us time to send
the samples before the weekend for
analysis. You can still drop off your
samples as before, but an agent will
only be there on Tuesdays. Insect
identification and information, me-
dia electrical conductivity and pH,
and advice are all still free. After
consultation, we can tell you if we
think it will be beneficial to send
the sample to Gainesville and send
it for you. Please use this free ser-
vice so we can continue to provide
it for you.
The palmetto weevil is the largest in North America and is native to Flor-
ida. It used to be considered only a minor pest that attacked severely
wounded and dying trees, but is now becoming more of a problem on
stressed nursery and transplanted palms. They especially like sabal palms,
saw palmetto, Canary Island date palm, date palm, Washingtonia and
Adults vary in color from solid black to red with a variable black pattern.
The larvae or grubs are large and bore holes through the leaf bases and
crown of the palm. Eggs are laid in the bases of leaves or wounds in a dy-
ing host palm. As they grow, they eat in towards the bud of the plant and
then migrate out to the leaf stems to make a cocoon from palm fibers be-
fore pupating. The cocoon looks like shredded wheat (see bottom photo).
The entire life cycle takes about 84 days. Adults are active flyers and can
be found throughout the year in Florida. Adult activity is usually the great-
est in the late spring and early summer months. They are attracted to odors
from dying or stressed palms and to pheromones they release to tell others
to join the party.
Insecticidal treatment of infested palms is futile, however protective sys-
temic insecticide applications to the crowns of recently transplanted palms
may help prevent infestations. An integrated program is best-manage the
palms to avoid stress from nutrition, irrigation, wounding, and pruning.
Remove and destroy infested palms to reduce the population.
For more information, go to http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/
iM~~fir n vo
Production Times is brought to you by:
Juanita Popenoe, Ph.D.
Commercial Horticulture, Lake County Extension
1951 Woodlea Rd.
Tavares, FL 32778
This material is provided as one of the many services relating to the educational programs offered
to you by this agency Our statewide network of specialists is prepared to provide current infor-
mation on agriculture, marketing, family and consumer sciences, 4-H, marine science, and related
fields We will be happy to help you with additional information upon request
Use of trade names in this newsletter does not reflect endorsement of the product by the Univer-
sity of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, or the Florida Cooperative Extension
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Science (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity
Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to
individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or
national origin US DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FLORIDA COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, IFAS, FLORIDA A & M
UNIVERSITY COOPERATIVE EXTENSION PROGRAM, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY
For more information on sources, contact Juanita Popenoe
Your Disease Headache may be next
Kudzu may have met its match in a naturally occur-
ring fungus that Agricultural Research Service
(ARS) scientists have formulated as a biologically
based herbicide. ARS plant pathologist Doug
Boyette and his team are testing a fungus
(Myrothecium verrucaria). The fungus works so
quickly that kudzu plants sprayed with it in the
morning start showing signs of damage by mid-
afternoon. In greenhouse experiments, spray formu-
lations killed 100 percent of kudzu seedlings and 90
to 100 percent of older plants in outdoor trials. Host-
range tests in 2005 showed that Myrothecium caused
little or no injury to many woody plants including
oak, cedar, pine, hickory, pecan, sassafras and black-
berry. Besides kudzu, 1yi ,,thel ini1t also showed
potential as a pre-emergence bioherbicide, control-
ling purslane and spurge in transplanted tomatoes.
Irrigation Frequency Posttransplant
UF researchers compared the growth after transplant-
ing of wild coffee, copperleaf and orange jasmine
irrigated for 28 weeks every 1 day, 2 days, 4 days or
8 days. Each irrigation event provided the same
amount of water (3 liters). Plant growth was meas-
ured at 28, 52 and 104 weeks after planting. In a
separate experiment sweet viburnum was tested with
irrigation every 2, 4 or 8 days.
1. Irrigating wild coffee or orange jasmine every 8
days during the first 28 weeks after transplanting
limited canopy gi i th/ but not root development.
After 52 weeks, rainfall was sufficient to elimi-
nate any differences.
2. Wild coffee, orange jasmine and copperleaf from
3 gal containers can be successfully established
in the landscape when irrigated iith 3 liters of
water every 4 days for the first 28 weeks.
3. Sweet viburnum grew the li ge\t ith irrigation
every 2 days, but survived and grew after plant-
ing under natural rainfall conditions ifprovided
i iih 3 liters of water every 8 days during estab-
lishment (until roots reached the canopy edge).
Extra irrigation was needed only when there was
no measurable rainfall for 30 consecutive days.
Calcium deficiency in stargazer lily.
Calcium and Boron Deficiency in
Plugs has Lasting Effect
Researchers grew pansy, petunia and gerbera plugs
without calcium or boron to determine symptoms.
Then they grew these plants during a normal produc-
tion cycle, removing these elements for a 7 day pe-
riod at the beginning, middle or end of the cycle.
1. Calcium deficiency was seen first on the young-
est leaves which were discolored, upward rolling
and eventually dead.
2. Boron deficiency was also seen first on the
youngest leaves which were )yell,, ing. upward
curling, and thickened. The meristems were dis-
torted and the new leaves strap-like.
3. Regardless of when the plants were deprived of
calcium or boron, the deficiency symptoms were
visible at the end of the production cycle.
(Continuedfrom page 3)
Pythium Root Rot Responds to Bene-
Organic and conventional fertilization of geraniums
was compared for tolerance to root disease. The or-
ganic fertilizer was from hen manure. Plants were in-
oculated with a suspension ofPseudomonaputida,
Trichoderma atroviride, a mixture of both or with
Trichoderma harzianum and Rootshield, 1 and 4
weeks after planting.
1. Pythium was significantly lower for organically
grown plants for all treatments compared to the
inoculated conventional plants.
2. For both organically and conventionally grown
plants, the coinoculation i/ ith both P. putida and
T. atroviride resulted in the least infection by Py-
thium and increased root gi i ith regardless of the
3. All microorganism treatments in conventionally
grown plants increased the fresh and dry weight
of the shoot.
Biological Control of Fusarium Aided
Trichoderma harzianum was applied to melon plants
in nursery conditions either as a liquid suspension of
the conidia or in a solid bentonite-vermiculite formu-
lation, and the level of colonization measured after 8
1. The solidformulation maintained the T har-
zianum inoculation levels after 8 weeks whereas
the liquidform reduced levels by 2X.
2. Plants treated i itli the bentonite-vermiculite for-
mulation had a higher shoot weight and higher
resistance to Fusarium wilt disease.
Adding Clay to Peat Media
Powdered clay was added to decomposed peat and
fresh peat at a ratio of 10:90 (by volume) and then
tested for physical characteristics..
Clay improved the wettability of both peat mixtures
as well as improving the water holding capacity.
Plants to Clean Up Stormwater
Researchers compared canna, iris, calla lily, dwarf
papyrus, arum, pickerelweed and bulltongue arrow-
head plants for their ability to remove nitrogen and
phosphorus from water to see which would be best
for stormwater remediation.
Canna is the most promisingfor removing nutrients
from the water, and harvesting the aboveground bio-
mass effectively removes nitrogen and phosphorus
from the system.
Vertical Spray Booms for Hanging
Belgium researchers compared spray deposition on
hanging ivy plants using a vertical boom sprayer and
the more common spray gun.
Vertical boom sprayers gave better coverage ii i/l
less volume than spray guns, saving chemical and
giving better pest control.
Stem vs Foliar Nutrient Uptake in
Petunia cuttings were tested for nutrient uptake from
unrooted cuttings to root formation with nutrients ap-
plied to the stem end or the leaves.
1. Stem applied fertilizer resulted in increased root
length and root number.
2. Foliar application ofN-P-K maintained tissue
nutrient concentration at higher levels before
3. Measurable N-P-K uptake occurred during root
development from the foliar and stem portions of