| Material Information
||Beef from velvet beans and cassava
||Press bulletin 14 ; Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
||4 p. : ; 21 cm.
||Stockbridge, Horace E ( Horace Edward ), 1857-1930
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
||Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
||Place of Publication:
||December 15, 1901
||Cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida ( lcsh )
Forage plants -- Florida ( lcsh )
Cassava as feed -- Florida ( lcsh )
Velvet-bean -- Florida ( lcsh )
||government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
||Statement of Responsibility:
||by H.E. Stockbridge.
||"December 15, 1901."
| Record Information
||University of Florida
||University of Florida
||All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
||oclc - 83559091
Press Bulletin No. 14.
December 15, 1901.
Beef from Velvet Beans and Cassava.
[BY H. E. STOCKBRIDGE.]
That cassava and velvet beans are both good cattle
foods, no farmer in Florida need be told. That each pos-
sesses its own characteristics and adaptations is equally
well recognized. That each supplements the other and
that the best results and greatest economy in feeding are
secured from a combination of the two foods are facts
recognized by all who have given the subject of rational
stock feeding any thought.
Thousands of acres of these two crops have been pro-
duced during the past season and are now covered with
the product in sufficient quantity to fatten thousands of
cattle. The question now troubling the owner is, how
can the fattening constituents of the cassava be best com-
hined with the muscle-making constituents of the velvet
beans so as to form the most effective and economical ra-
tion? That such a combination is desirable is not doubt-
ed. The proportion and form in which the carbohydrate
food should be combined with the protein ration is still
the subject of inquiry.
At the recent State Fair, the Experiment Station had
on exhibition two steers which had been fed for 60 days
exclusively on rations containing these two crops for the
sole purpose of answering by actual trial these queries.
Incidentally the feeding of these steers was a practical
demonstration of the possibilities of these typical Florida
The results of this experiment are here presented as a
guide to farmers with these two crops which they
wish to utilize to greatest advantage. They at the same
time serve as a further illustration of the possibilities of
Florida for the development of a great beef-making in-
dustry. The animals fed consisted of one typical native
Florida steer and one grade shorthorn steer. The two
therefore, furnished a comparison between the native and
a cross of the same with recognized beef blood.
FoODS USED.-The feeding began on September 11.
The beans were therefore used as green feed, the beans be-
ing just formed at the beginning of the period and mature
at the end. Pasturing would probably have been the
cheapest way to feed a large herd, but for our small num-
her, and that the material might be weighed and an accu-
rate account kept, soiling was practiced, the material be-
ing cut fresh morning and evening. Cassava and cotton
seed meal were used with the green feed, the meal being
needed as a concentrate to balance the ration. Later in
the season the use of ground velvet beans would have ob-
viated this necessity and cheapened the ration.
QUANTITY AND COST OF RATION PER DAY:
VELVET BEAN COTTON SEED
Native t .3t 8 lbs ----- 16 tibs- 4 lbs .-. P7.6f
Grade -------62 lbs ------.24 s ------ 6 flbs .--. 11.5
The cost of the ration is based on the following val-
ues per ton: Forage 80f, cassava $3, cotton seed
The cassava was run through a root-cutter and then
mixed with the meal. The forage was fed fresh and was
intended-to be before the steers all the time, they receiv-
ing all they would eat up clean
COST OF GAINS MADE:
ORIGINAL FINAL GAIN COST OF COST OF TOTAL PER OT
WEIGHT WEIGHT PDS STEER FOOD COST PROFIT PROFIT
Native, 7321b 8621b 130 813 0 $'56 322.86 $7.31 32.0
Grade, 11901b 14041 i 214H $41.65 $6.90 $48.55 $7.61 15.6
The purchase price of the native steer was 2- cents
per pound; the selling price was 8-1 cents. The purchase
price of the grade steer was 83 cents and the selling price
was 4 cents. The percentage gain of the two animals
during the 60 day period was: Native 17.6%, grade 18%.
The smaller comparative profit from the grade steer
was due to the fact that he was in relatively better condi-
tion when purchased and cost more per pound, while the
average local market of Florida is at present not educat-
ed to a full appreciation of the difference in quality of
beef so that the selling price was lower than the superior
quality would have secured in larger markets. In both
cases, hower, the increased value of fattened beef over the
range animal was demonstrated. The native steer sold
for 1 cent and the grade for cent per pound above origi-
nal purchase price.
This increased value of the entire carcass as a result
of feeding is the chief source of the profit since the feed-
er not only secures the increased weight resulting from
the feeding, but also the increased value of the original
weight as a result of improvement through the fattening
AREA AND FEEDING CAPACITY.-The, amount of land
required for fattening steers by use of cassava and velvet
beans is a most important consideration. The native
steer used in this test was one of a pair running above the
average size for range animals. Adopting 500 pounds as
the average live weight of the Florida steer and feeding
him at the same rate in proportion to his weight the
quantity of velvet bean-forage consumed per day would:
be about 26 pounds and of cassava 11 pounds.
The yield of forage with the crop fed was over 12 tons
per acre and the cassava yield about 7 tons. At the rate
of feeding mentioned the quantity required for a 60 day
period would be velvet bean forage 1560 pounds and of
cassava 660 pounds. Feeding velvet beans and cassava in
the form used in this experiment and in the proportions
used with the native steer, one acre of velvet beans ap-
proximately balances two-thirds of an acre of cassava.
Fed in this way this area will feed fifteen average Florida
steers for market as fat beef if no time is wasted in teach-
ing the range animal to consume fed rations.