Group Title: Press bulletin
Title: Hog cholera and swine plague
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00090457/00001
 Material Information
Title: Hog cholera and swine plague
Series Title: Press bulletin
Physical Description: 4 p. : ; 21 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Dawson, Charles F ( Charles Francis ), 1860-1928
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1902
 Subjects
Subject: Classical swine fever -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Swine -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Chas. F. Dawson.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "March 15th, 1902."
General Note: At head of title: Department of Veterinary Science.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090457
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 82472935

Full Text


Press Bulletin No. 20.


FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL

Experiment Station.

DEPARTMENT OF


VETERINARY SCIENCE.


Hog Cholera and Swine Plague.
[BY DR. OHAs. F. DAWSON, STATION VETERINARIAN.]
Hog cholera and swine plague are by far the most im-
portant swine diseases. The former primarily attacks
the intestines and secondarily the lungs; while the latter
attacks the lungs first, and may secondarily effect the
digestive tract. Each disease has its specific causative
micro-organism, these germs being carried from sick to
healthy hogs by vermin, birds, dogs, winds, streams, and
upon the feet of man. The germ of hog colera can live
for months in the soil, regardless of the character of the
climate. Swine plague, on the other hand, rapidly
perishes in the soil and retains its vitality by getting into
the mouths and throats of healthy animals. In most
outbreaks of so-called hog cholera, we find both diseases
coexisting.
Although the annual losses aggregate millions of
dollars, some breeders and speculators take a roseate view
of the matter, claiming it is the losses due to hog cholera


March 15th, 1902.







which keeps the market from becoming glutted with
cheap meat. The more numerous consumer is, then,
the most affected. The hog is one of the most prolific
and profitable of farm animals, and there seems no good
reason why our Florida markets should be supplied so
largely with hog products from the Chicago packing
'houses.
Hog cholera may occur anywhere. Some localities and
even some individuals rarely or. never are troubled with
the disease. Such places and persons are extremely for-
tunate. It is true in cases where the hog is well-
cared for, meaning clean dry pens and plenty of nutritious
and easily assimilated food, that losses from diseases of
all kinds are reduced to a minimum. Again,
that have no regular sleepoi g places, would b)e more
exempt from hog cholera than those restricted to small
fields and to a regular sleeping place.
Hog cholera may be of two kiedg. It may run ,in
acute course, or be of a hemorrhagic nature, destroying a
large .percentage of a, herd in a few days', or it may become*
chronic and last for months.) In the acute type there
will be no ulceration of the intestines, the blood being
the main organ affected.
In the chronic type the losses are not so severe; the
-Yipll."ine are more pronounced, and it is probably this
form which is best known to breeders. As symptoms
there will be dullness, shivering, loss of appetite, thirst,
fever and redness of skin inside the thigh and along the
belly. In a few days this redness assumes a purple or
violet color. A rash appears, accompanied by spots of a
dark red or black color reaching an inch in diameter. The
tongue is covered with brownish fur. The animal is sore
to the touch, grunts and -screams when handled. It







moves feebly, is unsteady in gait and has a plaintive cry.
Frequently a cough which is hard and barking lasts
throughout the disease. Vomiting may be present. Con-
stipation is sometimes present, and when this persists,
the outbreak is unusually fatal. Generally the bowels
loosen by the third day and the diarrhoea is profuse', black
in color and foul smelling. The pulse now becomes quite
feeble, the cough frequent, painful and exhausting. The
breathing is hurried and weakness increases till the animal
gets down and is unable to rise on its hind legs. Just
before death there may be muscular jerkings, or sudden
attempts to rise, accompanied by screams. In some cases
swellings appear, and great lameness is a feature. The
ears may drop off as may also the end of the snout, and
the toes.
The losses in hog cholera frequently reach 80 or 90 per
cent. The economic importance of this disease is such
that scientists have for years endeavored to produce a
substance, which, when injected into the hog would either
render the animal insusceptible or cure it when affected.
These efforts have not met with the success they have
deserved. It is possible, however, that a preventive
and curative serum, made by the same methods as are
employed in the production of the preventive and cura-
tive serum for diptheria in man, will be discovered.
Dozens of so-called "cures" for hog cholera are upon
the market t pres~ent. Some of them have advocates
who make ridiculous claims as to their efficacy. Breeders
fall into the trap, forgetting or being ignorant of the fact
that, in many outbreaks of hog cholera, like any other
diseases the losses are frequently very light. It is in these
outbreaks that the "cure" man appears, and by cleaning
up the pens, or building fresh ones, and using soft, bland









feed, along with his "condition powders" succeeds in
bringing the most of them through the attack; something
the owner could have done just as well.
Some'years ago the Bureau of Animal industry made
field testswith various medicines, looking for a combina-
tion which could be easily administered, and the follow-
ing powder compound was the result. It has been given
sufficient trial to warrant its being recommended as the
best treatment known today for hog cholera and swine
plague. It is cheap and can be bought in fifty-pound
lots from Messrs. Eimer & Amend, 205 Third Avenue,
New York, -or from any wholesale druggist, at about ten
cents per pound. The formula is as follows: Wood
charcoal, 1 pound; sulfur, 1 pound; salt, 2 pounds;
bicarbonate of sodium, 2 pounds; sulfate of sodium, 1
pound; hyposulfite of sodium, 2 pounds; sulfide of an-
timony, 1 ponnd. Mix these thoroughly, and give one
tablespoonful to each 200 pounds of weight of hog once a
day mixed with soft feed. Where the animal wont eat,
dissolve the proper dose in water and pour slowly, with
frequent pauses, small quantities into the mouth between
the cheek and teeth.

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