Group Title: Press bulletin
Title: Glanders
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: Glanders
Series Title: Press bulletin
Physical Description: 5 p. : ; 21 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Dawson, Charles F ( Charles Francis ), 1860-1928
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1903
Subject: Glanders -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Horses -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by Charles F. Dawson.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "October 1st, 1903."
General Note: At head of title: Department of Veterinary Science.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090433
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 82969771

Full Text

Press Bulletin No. 40 and 41.

Experiment Station.



Gilatiers is an infectious disease of horses, mules,
jennets, field-mice. guinea-pigs, cats, lions, tigers, dogs,
goats, rabbits and sheep, the comparative susceptibility
being in the order named. Cattle, pigs, house-mice,
white rats, pigeons and chickens are immune. Horses
vary greatly in their individual susceptibility to the dis-
ease. Some take it readily, while others kept in the same
stable with a glandered horse fail, for some reason, to
take it. This is, of course, true of most diseases. If it
weie not, it is obvious there would be very few animals.
There are, however, certain conditions to which an ani-
mal may be exposed, which predispose to its development,
the chief of these being: Over-work, underfeeding, cold,
dalp, draughty stables, poo: ventilation, chill antd debil-

October 1st, 1903.

ita"ting disea-ses. The, disease spreads fastest in times of
war. It occurs in all countries, regardless of climate.
It is said, that okving tothe strict sanitary regulations in
Australia the disease lils not gained a, foot-hold there.
Although glanders is by no means as common as former-
ly, it is still considered the most dangerous horse disease.
Man sometimes takes the disease, and it is regarded as
uniformly fatal nmlady. In one outbreak on the Polish-
Russian frontier, twenty cases in man were reported.
Equine glanders is, naturally, most prevalent in those
countries having the densest horse population. In Aus-
tria during the years 1',77-87, there re re 3,317 cases re-
ported., In Hungary in the years 1891-2, 1,600 horses
were glandered. France a d Germany each h:d reported
5,6,23 cases in four yeA i'r. Great Britain had 8,000 cases
in the same period. Lon 'don, alone, had nearly 800 cases
in 1890. As there is no Federal law in the United States
requiring a report of cases, no exact statement can be
made as to the number which occur. Glanders was very
common here just after the Civil War; but owing to the
great increase in the number of professional veterinarians,
and the adoption of veterinary sanitary laws by various
states, there can be little doubt the disease is on the de-
crease. Glanders may be transmitted directly from an
infected animal, or it may he transmitted indirectly by
infected food, feeding and drinking-troughs, harness,
clothing, stable utensils, bedding and attendants, when
any of these become contaminated with the discharges
from the ulcers on the skin or in the nostrils. The vast
majority of horses become infected by the microbes en-
tering the respiratory tract. The microbe or virus of
glanders will remain alive unier natural conditions of

the stable for four months; hein-e a stable in which a
glandered animal Ihas discharged virus will retain its in-
fectiousness for four months after the glandered animal
has been removed, provided it has not been disinfected.
In disinfecting the ordinary stable, it is useless to resort
to a'iy of the various methods of fumigation. The only
thing to do is to thoroughly saturate the floor, sides of
the stalls, feed-boxes and hay racks with a liquid disin-
fect.nt. For this nothing can be better for all-round
work than a one-tenth per cent. solution of corrosive
sublimate. After this has been done, the litter should
be removed in a few hours and burned. \here the feed-
boxes and other wood-work is old and roughened by crib-
bing, it would be economy to tear them out and burn
them alrso. After this, the whole interior, including feed
boxes and partitions should be white-washed. All buck-
ets amind stable tools, as well as the harness, should be
thoroughly scrubbed with the disinfectant. Old, torn
collars amd pads are best burned. The shafts or tongues
of the carts or wagons should also be scrubbed with the
corrosive sublimate solution. It is, of course, useless to
do anything in the way of disinfecting until the glan-
dered animal has been killed and buried deeply or entire-
ly burned. In order to prevent dissemination of the
virus, the animal should be led to the side of its grave
and killed. All horses and mules which have in any
way come in contact with the diseased animal, and this
means, at least, all animals which have been under the
san.e roof, or in the some enclosure, or have worked with
the affected animal, should be subjected to the Mallein
test by a veterinarian. Those which react to the test are
required by law to be destroyed and disposed of ini the

same manner as the origi nal case. Those found unaf-
fected should not be returned to the stable until it has
beenldisinfected. The Mallein test is only necessary in
occult cases, and Io titnne should .be lost before destroy-
ing a visibly-affected aniinal.
The disease occurs in two forms: acute and chronic,
the latter being the most cominmon, and the former exist-
ing oftenest in donkeys and their, hybrids. In the horse,
the acute form occurs in about 10 per cent. of tile cases
primarily, or it may develop from the chronic form, as-
suming an acute type. Acute glanders progresses rapid-
ly, causing gangrene of the lining of the breathing appa-
ratus and ulcers in the lungs, skini and (other or, Mti]s. It
begins with chlll, fever, which may reach 104 degrees,
:and a watery, stick, bloody discharge from the nose,
followed in two or thr l, days by the formation of ulcers
on the lining of the nostrils. The breathing is difficult
and noisy. There 1ar sweOllings and ulceration of the
skin, also of the glands, especially those between the jaw
bones. The appetite is poor and swallowing is difficult.
There is diarrhoea and rapid enmaciation. When the
skin is ulcerated the disease is then called farcy and the
ulcers are known as farcy buds. Death occurs in the. first
or second week.
In the chronic form, the early stages escape notice.
This form may run a course of several months or even
years, and is, on this account, the more dangerously in-
fective. As symptoms, there is generally a discharge :>f
dirty, white mucus from one nostril, which may cease for
a time. Later it becomes gray or greenish.yollow, sticky,
and sometimes bloody according to the size of the blood-
vessel which has been eaten through by the disease. Nod-

rules and ulcers, with raised, thickened borders, form on the
nasal partition. When the ulcers heal, star-shaped or radiat-
ing sears may be seen. With these symptoms, we find swell-
ing of the glands between the jawbones, which are at first
doughy and painful, but which later become nodular, hard,
painless. adherent to the skin and, in a few cases, ulcera'ed.
The anmmal is in bad condition, easily fatigued; the hair is dry
and rough. Sometimes there is cough and difficult breathing,
as in broken wind. When at work there may be fever, bleed-
ing at the nose, which ceases when at rest. Later, there are
doughy swellings on the chest, abdomen, limbs and joints.
Ulanders of the skin, or farcy, occurs oftenest in the acute
tornm. The furcy buds are formed generally on the limbs,
shoulders, breast and abdomen, and vary in size from a pea to
a walnut. While they sometimes go away, they generally ul-
cerate and discharge a sticky, bloody, infectious matter. The
animal is often lame, and a limb may become badly swollen,
the skin feeling hard and knotty. The progress of chronic
glanders is very slow, and it may exist in an occult form for
years, especially when the lung form only exists. Nodules
may form in the lungs a few days after exposure to the virus,
and it is in these cases that the Mallein test is valuable. An
animal with chronic glanders sometimes apparently recovers
under good treatment, but the disease is liable to break out
again, at any time, from overwork, bad treatment, or other
debilitating disease. At one time, suspects were treated in
this way.


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