Group Title: Press bulletin
Title: How to feed a horse
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: How to feed a horse
Series Title: Press bulletin
Physical Description: 4 p. : ; 21 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Dawson, Charles F ( Charles Francis ), 1860-1928
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1903
Subject: Horses -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by Chas. F. Dawson.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "December 1st, 1903."
General Note: At head of title: Department of Veterinary Science.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090428
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 79301260

Full Text

Press Bulletin Nos. 43.

Experiment Station.



There .are persons who apparently believe the lower
animals may be fed almost any kind of feed, and that
they will in some mysterious way digest and assimilate
it. Lot us inquire why this belief is errorous when ap-
plied to the horse. Take the matter of water. How
many there are who pay little or no attention to its puri-
ty. Many horses die from drinking water, which causes
diarrhoea, dysentery, and other digestive derangements.
We frequently see the well surrcrsnded by stagnant i;ools
into which drain the liquid filth from a near-by stable or
manure pile. Horses and mules kept in such enclosures
frequently acquire a taste for such filthy water and refuse
the pure article. Such animals, in time, become un-
thrifty, an complaint is made by the owner that his ani-
mals seem to be "out of condition," although they are
given the best hay and oats that money can buy. In
such cases the remedy is plain. Clean up the yard, drain
it, and furnish pure water. See also that the drinking
trough is kept free of slime and filth. It should be
scrubbed out at least once a week. The horse requires

December 1st, 1903.

under ordinary conditions about. eight gallons of water
daily. He will not drink to excess if the water is always
accessible, and needs less when upon green food than
when upon dry grain and hay, and more when at work
than when doing nothing. In the latter case he needs
water three times a day, and in the former, oftener and
in small quanttities. A horse just in from hard work
may be allowed ten swallows of water. He should then
be stabled, given a couple pounds of hay and allowed to
rest for at least an hour before the regular feed is given.
If allowed to drink all he will, when heated, he will
drink to excess. Horses should not be allowed access to
ice-cold water. This can be obviated by so placing the
trough so that the sun will shine upon it. Spring-water,
deep-well water and upland surface water are wholesome.
Stored rain-water and water from cultivated land are sus-
picious. River or lake water to which sewage gains ac-
cess, and shallow-well water, are dangerous. Pure water
is clear, tasteless and odorless. Digestion in the horse
takes place principally in the intestines. The stomach is
relatively very small and begins to empty itself very soon
after feeding has begun; rapidly at first, and then slowly
for several hours. The time required for the different
kinds of food to become digested by the stomach varies
with the different foods. Hay and straw pass out of the
stoinach more rapidly than oats, hence, if oats are fed
first and these are followed by hay, the oats will be swept
out of the stomach by the hay undigested, and the result
may be an attack of colic. For the same reason, a horse
should never be allowed water just after feeding upon
hay or grain. Give the water before feeding. Another
common error in management is the feeding of horses too
soon after a hard day's work. Give the jaded animal a
few swallows of water, or diluted whiskey would be better,
allow him a pound or two of hay, and after two hours
give him more water if he wants it, and follow with the
grain. If the horse has fasted for a long time, apply the.
same rule as for the jaded horse. Feed the horse three
times a day. The food should not be concentrated, but
bulky, as this favors digestion. If time must be saved.

use chopped hay and crushed grains. Do not change the
diet suddenly from oats to corn or from corn to oats;
neither must the quantity of either be suddenly changed.
Any change of this nature must be brought about slowly;
and is to be governed largely by the amount of work re-
quired of the animal. If a horse is to have a day or two
of idleness, cut down the feed. Observe this rule Satur-
day night and Sunday, and there will be less trouble with
colic and big-leg on Monday. Idleness is productive of
constipation, hence the feed at these times should be of a
laxative nature. Give an occasional bran-mash. Musty
or mouldy feed is unfit for any animal, or even for bed-
ding. It may produce bronchitis, "heaves," colic,
enteritis, staggers, disordered kidneys, etc. The best hay
for the horse is timothy, and the best grain is oats.
Good timothy hay is one year old, greenish in color and
has a sweet, pleasant aroma. New hay is hard to digest,
causes slobbering, looseness, and skin irritation. It may
be mixed with older hay. .Very old hay is hard, dry and
indigestible. Good oats are one year old. The grains
are plump, short, hard, clean,.bright and sweet. New.
oats are dangerous. The average horse requires ten to
twelve pounds of hay, and from ten to twelve quarts of
oats a day, divided into three rations. An idle horse, or
one at. very light work, will require both'grain and hay,
but the quantity may be diminished. Hay alone will not .
suffice, as it does not contain the food principles in
proper proportion. Feeding upon hay alone soon pro-
duces pot-belly and emaciation. The same applies to
The various straws contain very little nutriment,,
and should be mixed with concentrated food, when they
act largely by their bulk.' Oat, wheat and rye chaff are
not to be used, as they cause irritation and obstruction
of the bowels. Wheat and rye grains are not to be used
exclusively, but should be mixed with other grains or
hay, when fed alone they produce digestive disturbances.
They should constitute about one fourth the grain allow-
ance and arfe to be ground or crushed. Bran is composed
mostly of cellulose with a slight adherence of gluten or
flour. It is laxative, and therefore, useful occasionally,

made into a mash. Sour bran il dangerous, therefore, do
l.ot allow the mash to remain in the feed box uneaten.
A mash is made by scalding the bran and adding salt.
Use only enough water to moisten the bran. Horses do
not like sloppy feed. Corn grains are composed mainly
of starch and oil with a cellulose covering. The proteid
matter is not present in sufficient quantity, hence it must
be supplied by the addition of oats. The grains of corn
and oats are so unlike that, a horse is liable to masticate
one or the other insufficiently; hence they are best given
ground or crushed. If it is desired to change the feed
from oats to corn, do so gradually, or the horse will very
likely be sickened. Very old corn, on the cob, should
first be soaked in water for several hours before feeding
it. Frequently horses swallow grains without masticat-
ing. This may mean they are gluttons, or that the teeth
are at fault. In the first case, scatter the grains over a
long trough, and in the latter, have the teeth or sore
mouth attended to. Potatoes, when fed raw, produce in-
digestion. If fed at all, they should be boiled. Carrots,
when fed in small quantities, are excellent for the horse,
especially in sickness. -They improve the appetite, in-
crease the actiofi of the bowels, kidneys and skin. The
horse is very fond of them. They are only to be used as
an adjunct to other feed. Grass, consisting of a great
variety of plants each having its own food value, is the
natural food for the horse. When brought under domes-
tication, this natural food must be supplemented; hence
we find it necessary to supply the deficiency with grain, as
no grass is sufficient to keep the horse in a condition for
work. Grass acts as an alterative on the working horse,
and he would be greatly benefited if turned out to graze
for a month each year. Some diseases, such as fevers,
chronic cough, wounds are greatly benefited by turning
the animal out -to pasture. Doubtless, the pure air
incidentally obtained, is also a factor in the general im-
4i State.papers please copy or notice.

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