Press Bulletin No. 50.
Insect Pests to Live Stock.
[BY DR. CHARLES F. DAWSON, Station Veterinarian.]
At this season, the most injurious posts to live stock
are mosquitos, gnats, flies and ticks. They all cause
damage by worrying the animals and preventing proper
grazing, and also by the abstraction of blood. In some
cases they spread infectious diseases. Milch cows are
sometimes so worried by flies and gnats that. the milk
yield is reduced 50%. A contagious form of eye disease
in cattle is spread largely by our small gnat in its despe-
rate efforts to suck the moisture from the eyes of cattle
suffering with the disease.
Anthrax has been carried from an animal suffering
with it, to another animal, by the biting flies. Texas
fever is only carried, so far as we know at present, by the
cow tick. The buffalo gnat, which, fortunately, is rarely
seen in Florida, will actually kill animals under some
conditions. The hot fly lays its eggs upon the hair of
horses. These te~'- are licked off, and when swallowed by
the horse, hatch out into larve, which are commonly
June 1st, 1904.
known as bots. These live in the stomach for several
weeks, and may become so numerous as to cause trouble.
The ox-warble or grub, which appears under the skin of
cattle, is the larval stage of a fly, which causes great irri-
tation to cattle.
It is the purpose of this bulletin to make public the
formula for a substance which will make life easier for
live stock at this season. Such substance should, in the
writer's opinion, be of a consistency permitting its being
sprayed upon the animal. Furthermore, its effect must
persist for several days, It must not injure the skin bf
the aninmal. It must be chehp and non-irritating. A
formuhi which I have selected after actual trials, is as
follows: Fish oil 2 ,parts, oil of petroleum (crude) 1 part.
These .re mixed, and may be sprayed from a six-ounce
bottle by means of a mouth-spray. Where a large num-
ber are to be protected, it would be better to use one of
the larger sprays. My experiments show that the effect
lasts at least four days. The cost of the oils, wholesale, is
as follows: Petroleum oil. 20 cents per gallon ; fish oil, 55
cents per gallon. The mixture, therefore, costs, whole-
sale, about 88 cents per gallon. A gallon would suffice
for a whole season for several cows, probably. A very
good spray for individual cows can be bought for 50 cents,
or a larger one for $1, of the Worrell Manufacturing Co.,
Sedalia, Mo. When a spray is not obtainable, the mix-
ture may be applied with a brush.
The mixture will not only keep flies, mosquitos and
gnats off of animals, but will kill ticks, lice and mange.
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