Group Title: Press bulletin
Title: Feeding the dairy herd
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 Material Information
Title: Feeding the dairy herd
Series Title: Press bulletin
Physical Description: 2 leaves : ; 21 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Scott, John M ( John Marcus )
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1907
Subject: Dairy cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by John M. Scott.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "November 1, 1907."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090407
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 77741903

Full Text

PRESS BULLETIN No. 70. November 1, 1907.

florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

Before we begin to consider what we will feed, let us see what is the
composition of the animal body and its products. Experimenters and
investigators have found that the bodies of animals, as well as all
animal products, are made up of the following group of substances:-
Water, ash, protein (muscle and bone-producing material), and fat.
These substances occur in the animal body in somewhat varying pro-
portions, depending upon the age, condition, treatment, etc. We find
that science has brought to light the fact that plants are also composed
of water, ash, protein and fats, together with carbohydrates (or heat-
producing material).
WATER.-All food stuffs, no matter how dry they may seem,
contain a certain amount of water. In grain, hay, and other dry feeds
it ranges from 8 to 15 per cent. of the material. While water is
essential to animal life, and the water in the feed fulfils the same
function as that drunk by the animal, we do not of course value feed
materials for the water they contain.
ASH. When a feed stuff is burned until the organic matter is all
driven off, the residue is the ash. The ash of the feed material is the
source of the mineral matter found in the animal body. Ordinary
combinations of feeding stuff, however, contain an abundant supply of
mineral matter for the use of the animal.
PROTEIN.-The protein (muscle and bone-producing material) of
the feed, like that of the animal body, is characterized by containing
nitrogen. It is therefore frequently termed "nitrogenous matter,"
or muscle-producing material. The function of protein in the feed is
first of all, to build up and repair the working machinery of the body;
and then to supply protein for the production of milk, etc. No other
feed constituent can fulfil this function.
We know that feeding stuffs contain the same group of substances as
the animal body and all animal products. It is now an easy matter for us
to begin the solution of the feeding problem. All we have to do is to
supply the proper feed stuffs to' the animal in the correct proportion.
These feed stuffs must be supplied in a certain definite ratio to give the

amount of protein, carbohydrates and fats needed by the animal in per-
forming its functions. Any one feed as a rule does not contain these
nutrients in the proper ratio to form a balanced ration; hence, the
feeder must make the proper combination of feeds so as to furnish the
animal with all the nutrients in the proper amounts. For example: A
cow giving two .and a half gallons of milk per day requires approxi-
mately the following amounts, while 100 pounds of corn contain the
following quantities:
Protein-.................. 2.50 pounds....................... 7.9 pounds
Carbohydrates ... 13.00 ............ ...............66.7
Fats ....................... 50 ........................... 4.3 "
It is therefore easy to see that by feeding corn alone it is impossible to
furnish the right amounts of protein, carbohydrates and fats, so that a
cow would give her heaviest flow of milk. It would require about 30
pounds of corn per day to furnish sufficient protein, and this amount of
corn would give more than twice as much carbohydrates as would be re-
quired, and about three times as much fat. Feeding bran alone, it
would require about 14 pounds per day to furnish the necessary amount
of protein, and this amount of bran would only furnish half enough car-
bohydrates, though it would furnish about the proper proportion of fats
Feeding cotton-seed meal alone it would require about 6.5 pounds per
day to supply sufficient protein. This amount of cotton-seed meal
would only yield about one-eighth as much carbohydrates as would be
required, but the fats would be in nearly the correct ratio. On the
other hand, if we supply a combination of these feeds, we can easily fur-
nish the nutrients in the proper ratio. All feed nutrients supplied in
excess of the requirements of the animal body are a waste, or may even
prove injurious, as only a definite amount of each can be digested and
used by the animal in replacing waste material or producing a good flow
of milk.
The following is a good combination of feeds for the dairy cow:
Crabgrass Hay ............. 20 .........-..... 44 .............. 8.56............ 12
W heat Bran ........-..-....-.... 8 -.....-....- .1.28 ...............4.40 ...............32
Cotton Seed M eal.... 2.......... 2 -.......- .2............... .51.......... 19

Totals-....-......... ... 5.....2.4 ............ 13.47 .. .... 63
State papers please copy.

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