Group Title: Press bulletin
Title: Stem-end rot and scale insects
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00090329/00001
 Material Information
Title: Stem-end rot and scale insects
Series Title: Press bulletin
Physical Description: 2 leaves : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Stevens, H. E ( Harold Edwin ), b. 1880
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1912
 Subjects
Subject: Citrus -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Fungal diseases of plants -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Scale insects -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by H.E. Stevens.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "August 3, 1912."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090329
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 80982969

Full Text







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA



AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION







STEM-END ROT AND SCALE INSECTS.
By H. E. Stevens.
The season is approaching in which the Stem-End Rot fungus is likely
to be most active, and certain precautions can now be taken which may
to a large extent prevent the disease. The weather conditions this year
have been unusually favorable for the development of fungus'diseases, and
one may expect considerable trouble from Stem-End Rot in groves where
it has occurred during the past year or two. Trees badly infested with
scale insects and containing much dead wood are especially liable to have
their fruit attacked by Stem-End Rot. Both scales and dead stems should
be cleaned out as quickly and thoroughly as possible, as they are factors
in spreading the disease.
Spraying for Scale Insects.
It is known that the presence of scale insects favors the develop-
ment of Stem-End Rot, though scale may be present in abundance without
any development of the disease. Stem-End Rot cannot occur, except where
a certain fungus, known as Phomopsis citri, is present. The scale insects
themselves are not the cause of the rot, but they induce a condition whereby
the rot may develop if the spores of this fungus are present.
SThe disease seems to develop more freely on fruits having a number
of scale insects clustered about the stem end or under the calyx. They
weaken the fruit and form openings through which the fungi may enter.
Later the fruit will drop and decay set in. If infection takes place late in
the season, decay may not set in until after the fruit has been picked and
shipped.
A close watch should be kept over the groves for scale insects, and if
they are very abundant, spraying should be done at once, using some good
contact insecticide. It is of the highest importance to kill the scale insects


PRESS BULLETIN 195


August 3, 1912









at the stem-end of the fruit. This treatment may have to be repeated once
or twice, according to the amount of scale present. The object should be
to keep the fruits as free as possible from scale until the picking season.
Pruning Out Dead Wood.
The presence of dead wood in trees is also a condition favoring Stem-
End Rot. The fungus lives over in this dead wood, and so is at hand to
infect the fruit when favorable conditions arise. This dead wood should
be removed. At this season pruning may be done to advantage. All dead
branches and twigs should be removed from the tree and burned. This
will destroy many of the fungus spores and greatly lessen the chances of
the disease spreading. When pruning out the dead wood, cut well back into
the healthy wood. Make clean, smooth cuts, and do not leave projecting
stubs. Paint the larger cut surfaces with carbolineum (one-half strength),
pine tar, or liquid grafting wax.


State papers please copy.




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