Title: Organic production and marketing newsletter
ALL VOLUMES CITATION PDF VIEWER THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00090282/00015
 Material Information
Title: Organic production and marketing newsletter
Series Title: Organic production and marketing newsletter
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: January 2005
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090282
Volume ID: VID00015
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

Jan ( PDF )


Full Text

Organic
Production
and
Marketing
Newsletter
J. J. Ferguson,
Editor
Professor and
Extension
Horticulturist
UF/IFAS -
Horticultural
SSciences Dept.
PO Box 110690/
Gainesville FL
32611-0690
jjfn _ifas.ufl.edu
The purpose of this newsletter is to provide production/marketing information about organic and related sustainable
farming practices.
Contributions are welcome.
January 2005

Organic Express
Organizing Country Stores
Low-Carb Potato
Super Size Me
Show Me the Data!
First Virus to Infect Red Imported Fire Ants Discovered
Business Updates
Uncle Matt's Organics
Sunny Valley Organics
Status and Preliminary Research on Organic Herbicides
Upcoming Meetings







Organic Production and Marketing Newsletter


Organic Express

You've heard of Community Supported Agriculture with consumers fronting cash to a local farmer at the
beginning of the production season in exchange a for weekly pickup of fresh sometimes even organically
grown produce. The next step in tailored produce marketing, developed by Paul Johnson, founder of
Organic Express, features home delivery of boxed organic produce averaging $25-$35/box but ranging up
to $100/box, ordered via an internet account and paid by credit card.

The full produce inventory lists 50-70 items and customers can order a la carte or take the standard
seasonal mix based on seasonality and availability of produce. Based in San Francisco but now
expanding to Los Angeles with a total of 5,000 customers in both cities, Organic Express has successfully
exploited a market niche, using internet/credit card ordering systems, the growing interest in organic food,
and the kind of personalized delivery service reminiscent of big city grocers in the first half of the twentieth
century. But who's at home to accept deliveries?

Home Organizing Country Stores.htm Low-Carb Potato.htm
Supersize Me.htm Show Me the Data.htm First Virus to Infect.htm Uncle Matt Organics.htm
Sun Valley Organics.htm Status and Prelim Research.htm Upcoming Meetings.htm

[ Archives ] [ University of Florida ] [ UF/IFAS ] [ Horticultural Sciences Department ]
[ UF/IFAS Publications ]







Organic Production and Marketing Newsletter


Organizing Country Stores

If you own a small, economically challenged country store built before 1927, do I have a deal for you. In a
New York Times article (11/28/04) on "Vermont's Country Stores Organize to Face Threats," 55
independent store owners have joined the Vermont Alliance of Independent Country Stores. Started
several years ago with state grants and sustained by annual $50. member fees, the Alliance, along with
the Vermont Grocers Association, serves as a support network, a sounding board and a marketing tool.
Members can market themselves on the Alliance web site (http://www.vaics.org) and purchase inventory,
even when they only want to order a few gallons of milk at a time instead of the large supply ordered by
supermarket chain stores, big box stores and even convenience stores. Plus you might even get to walk to
the store, pet the dogs, walk the creaky wood floors, and have coffee on the front steps. Good example of
organizing to maintain businesses in a rural atmosphere.

Another survival strategy I've heard about concerns a fruit tree nursery that used to sell a large portion of
its inventory to chain stores. Once the chain store asked the nursery to maintain and take back unsold
stock and to accept payment only after the trees were sold, the nursery closed out its fruit tree inventory to
produce only woody ornamentals that could be marketed more easily elsewhere.

Home Organic Express.htm Low-Carb Potato.htm
Supersize Me.htm Show Me the Data.htm First Virus to Infect.htm Uncle Matt Organics.htm
Sun Valley Organics.htm Status and Prelim Research.htm Upcoming Meetings.htm

[ Archives ] [ University of Florida ] [ UF/IFAS ] [ Horticultural Sciences Department 1
[ UF/IFAS Publications ]







Organic Production and Marketing Newsletter


Low-Carb Potato

With 1/3 fewer carbohydrates that a conventional russet potato, the new SunLite spud may be available
February, 2005. Developed jointly by the University of Florida, Florida potato growers and the Dutch seed
company HZPC Holland BV, 2,000 to 2,500 acres will be planted in 2005, with more acreage to be planted
when the seed supply increases. The potato is round to oval, has cream-colored skin and light yellow
flesh. It can be grown from Florida City to Jacksonville from January through June and can go from the
field to supermarket shelves in two to five days, making it fresher than potatoes stored in coolers for
months. The low-carb potato has 13.93 carbohydrates per 100 grams, or 30 percent less than the 19.87
grams in the industry's standard, the Russet. A half-cup serving has 10.9 grams of carbohydrates,
compared with 15.5 carbohydrate grams for a cooked Russet potato.

I have not been able to obtain a published description of the breeding process but newspaper accounts
indicate that this potato was developed using traditional breeding methods.

Home Organic Express.htm Organizing Country Stores.htm
Supersize Me.htm Show Me the Data.htm First Virus to Infect.htm Uncle Matt Organics.htm
Sun Valley Organics.htm Status and Prelim Research.htm Upcoming Meetings.htm

[ Archives ] [ University of Florida ] [ UF/IFAS ] [ Horticultural Sciences Department 1
[ UF/IFAS Publications ]







Organic Production and Marketing Newsletter


Super Size Me

Morgan Spurlock, best know for dining three squares a day on MacDonalds cuisine in his movie,
"SuperSize Me," will deliver the keynote speech at The Organic Trade Association's 2005 Chicago Trade
Meeting, "All Things Organic". According to The Organic Trade Association Spurlock's presence will "help
put a spotlight on the general trend of overconsumption and unhealthy eating patterns in our country and
will offer a challenge to the food industry on how to responsibly market its products particularly to
children".

Home Organic Express.htm Organizing Country Stores.htm Low-Carb Potato.htm
Show Me the Data.htm First Virus to Infect.htm Uncle Matt Organics.htm
Sun Valley Organics.htm Status and Prelim Research.htm Upcoming Meetings.htm

[ Archives ] [ University of Florida ] [ UF/IFAS ] [ Horticultural Sciences Department ]
[ UF/IFAS Publications ]







Organic Production and Marketing Newsletter


Show Me the Data!

In the movie "Jerry Maguire" Cuba Gooding, playing a football player wanting more media coverage
from his agent, Tom Cruise, demands "Show me the money!" Presented with claims that organically
grown food is more nutritious or more healthful, agricultural scientists have asked "Show me the data."

In reply, The Organic Trade Association developed an affiliate organization in 2002, The Organic
Center for Education and Promotion. Its mission is to "communicate credible, science-based organic
benefits to the public, resulting in greater awareness and use of organic products, the conversion of
agriculture to organic methods, and improved health for the Earth and its inhabitants".. (http://www.ota.
com/about/organiccenter.html) The Center has funded the below three studies, due in 2005, focusing
on the impact of organic farming methods and food processing technologies on the antioxidant and
polyphenol content of food:

1) A Comparison of Lycopene and Other Phytochemicals in Tomatoes Grown under Conventional vs
Organic Management Systems conducted by the World Vegetable Center in Taiwan

2) A Comparison of Strawberry Fruit Quality from Organic and Conventional Farms by Washington
State University

3) New Approaches to Measure the Impact of Farming Systems and Technology on Food Quality at
Tufts University

Home Organic Express.htm Organizing Country Stores.htm Low-Carb Potato.htm
Supersize Me.htm First Virus to Infect.htm Uncle Matt Organics.htm
Sun Valley Organics.htm Status and Prelim Research.htm Upcoming Meetings.htm

[ Archives ] [ University of Florida ] [ UF/IFAS ] [ Horticultural Sciences Department 1
[ UF/IFAS Publications ]







Organic Production and Marketing Newsletter


First Virus to Infect Red Imported Fire Ants Discovered

The first known virus to infect the destructive and costly red imported fire ant (RIFA) was recently
discovered by Agricultural Research Service scientists. RIFA, Solenopsis invicta, currently infests
about 300 million acres in the United States. Although RIFA is native to South America, it thrives here
because of a lack of natural enemies. Fire ants cost Americans hundreds of millions of dollars
annually. The ants occasionally kill young, unprotected livestock and wildlife, and they inflict a painful
sting that is sometimes deadly to humans.

Steven M. Valles, an entomologist with the ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary
Entomology (CMAVE) in Gainesville, Fla., and colleagues at CMAVE and the Agriculture Research
Service (ARS) Horticulture and Breeding Research Laboratory in Fort Pierce, Fla., have identified a
new natural enemy of RIFA.

A survey in Florida locations found that approximately 23 percent of RIFA nests examined were
infected with SINV-1. The virus infects all fire ant castes and stages of development, and Valles was
able to successfully transmit the viral infection to uninfected fire ant nests.

Brood in infected colonies died within three months during laboratory studies, but the effect of the virus
on field populations is still being evaluated, according to Valles, who is in CMAVE's Imported Fire Ant
and Household Insects Research Unit.

Home Organic Express.htm Organizing Country Stores.htm Low-Carb Potato.htm
Supersize Me.htm Show Me the Data.htm Uncle Matt Organics.htm
Sun Valley Organics.htm Status and Prelim Research.htm Upcoming Meetings.htm




[ Archives ] [University of Florida ] [ UF/IFAS ] [ Horticultural Sciences Department 1
[ UF/IFAS Publications ]







Organic Production and Marketing Newsletter


Business Updates (The Packer 11/23/04)

Uncle Matt's Organics Reporting its sixth year of business with continued growth well above the
industry average of 20%, Uncle Matt's farms more than 400 acres of organic citrus in Florida. The
company offers fruit juice in bilingual labels for the Candadian market and miniwatermelons also grown in
Florida. (http://www.unclematts.com/healthyplanet.html)

Home Organic Express.htm Organizing Country Stores.htm Low-Carb Potato.htm
Supersize Me.htm Show Me the Data.htm First Virus to Infect.htm
Sun Valley Organics.htm Status and Prelim Research.htm Upcoming Meetings.htm

[ Archives ] [ University of Florida ] [ UF/IFAS ] [ Horticultural Sciences Department 1
[ UF/IFAS Publications ]







Organic Production and Marketing Newsletter


Business Updates (The Packer 11/23/04)

Sunny Valley Organics Producing organic tomatoes, cucumbers and bell peppers in Nogales, Arizona
in 100 greenhouse acres, Sunny Valley Organics is preparing its first shipment of honeydews, watermelos,
and cantaloupe, grown in the Mexican state of Sonora.

Home Organic Express.htm Organizing Country Stores.htm Low-Carb Potato.htm
Supersize Me.htm Show Me the Data.htm First Virus to Infect.htm Uncle Matt Organics.htm
Status and Prelim Research.htm Upcoming Meetings.htm

[ Archives ] [ University of Florida ] [ UF/IFAS ] [ Horticultural Sciences Department 1
[ UF/IFAS Publications ]






Organic Production and Marketing Newsletter


Status and Preliminary Research on Non-Synthetic Herbicides for Organic Production

Organic growers have consistently ranked weed management as one of their most important production problems and
have used a variety of methods including flaming, hot water treatments, solarization, cultivation, mowing, mulching, and
cover crops to control weeds. Non-synthetic herbicides may also be used in organic production. However, these
non-synthetic herbicides are restricted (must be approved by the grower's organic certifying agency), suggesting that
other cultural practices like cover crops and mowing be used first.

Procedures for identifying and registering non-synthetic herbicides for possible use in organic production are
complex, involving federal and state laws and regulations as well as national and local organic certifying agencies.
Our purpose is to explain this process and to review preliminary research on several non-synthetic herbicides.

The Organic Materials Review Institute

The National Organic Program establishes general standards for certification procedures and inputs that are used in
organic farming and processing but does not maintain a list of trade name products. The Organic Materials Review
Institute (OMRI), a non-profit organization, fulfills this function, charging certifierss, growers, manufacturers, and suppliers
for an independent review of products intended for use in certified organic production, handling, and processing under
the USDA National Organic Program standards." OMRI approval is an ongoing process. That is, products may be added
or deleted, depending on continual product evaluation.

Note also that OMRI reviews products in terms of their ingredients but not in terms of their effectiveness or federal and
state registration. Furthermore, products listed by OMRI, like herbicides, must also be approved by the local organic
certifying agency if such products are restricted. Another option for pesticide manufacturers to market their products
to organic growers is to ensure that the ingredients of their products conform to national organic standards, without
going through the OMRI, fee-based approval process.

Minimum Risk Pesticides

All pesticides (including herbicides), be they conventional pesticides or those listed by the Organic Materials Review
Institute for use in organic farming, must either be registered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or be
exempted from registration. The federal law governing pesticide registration is The Federal Insecticide and Rodenticide
Act (FIFRA). Under section 25 (b) of FIFRA, "minimum risk" pesticides are exempted from EPA registration because
such pesticides contain compounds that are classified as Generally Regarded as Safe (GRAS) and can be used on
food crops without the pesticide label listing all possible crop uses.

Another important distinction for pesticide registration or exemption is made between "active" and "inert"
pesticide ingredients. An active ingredient is intended to kill, poison, or repel a pest whereas an inert ingredient,
listed separately, is not intended to affect a target pest. Active ingredients must be listed by name and percentage
(by weight). All other (inert) ingredients must be listed by name but not necessarily listed separately by percentage
weight. Tables 1 and 2, respectively, contain the current list of allowed active and inert ingredients of minimum risk
pesticides under Section 25 (b) of FIFRA.

For example, the product label for Matran 2, an herbicide listed by OMRI, contains the statement: "This product has not
been registered by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Biorganic represents that this product qualifies for
exemption from registration under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act." The active ingredient for
Matran 2 is Clove Oil (45.8%), found in Table 1 with "Other Ingredients" or inerts listed as "Water, Lecithin: 54.4%," found
in Table 2.

Another more controversial example is acetic acid or vinegar. Acetic acid has been used by researchers at relatively
high concentrations (about 20%) to control weeds and could presumably be used to manage weeds in organic
farming systems. But the classification of acetic acid as an inert or secondary ingredient (Table 2), rather than as an active
or primary ingredient, in herbicides (Table 1) has prevented its registration as an herbicide in some states like Florida. If
a company developed an herbicide with acetic acid as an active ingredient, tolerances for food crops for this
compound would have to be established a costly process. Two acetic acid herbicide formulations are registered in
Florida: Natures Glory Weed and Grass Killer a 6.25% ready-to-use concentration and a 25% concentration
requiring dilution. Both formulations are registered in Florida for use on ornamental plants and turf, farm yards, rights of
way, etc. for a range of grass and broadleaf weeds but not for food crops, because as mentioned above, tolerances have
not been established. However, inert ingredients can be included in minimum risk herbicides at high enough
concentrations to have an herbicidal effect. This is exactly what has happened, with some manufacturers directly or
indirectly claiming herbicidal properties for materials containing an undefined concentration of acetic acid.





State Regulation of Minimum Risk Herbicides


A product fulfilling FIFRA requirements as a minimum risk herbicide and listed by OMRI may not be exempt from
state registration or other regulatory requirements. The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
(FDACS), Division of Agricultural Environmental Services, and the Bureau of Pesticides (http://www.flpesticide.us/)
maintain an on-line Florida Registration Tracking System that lists pesticides registered in Florida as a minimum
risk pesticide according to section 25 (b) of FIFRA. For example, non-synthetic herbicides like Matran 2 and Xpress are
listed by OMRI (http://www.omri.org/crops generic.pdf) and are found in the FDACS Registration Tracking System but
other non-synthetic herbicides may not be so listed.

OMRI had listed Alldown, Matran 2, and Xpress as all contact or burn down herbicides. However, as of 10/25/04,
only Matran 2 and Xpress were listed on the OMRI product web site (http://www.omri.org/crops alpha.pd (Table 3).
Alldown is mentioned here because it was OMRI approved when the research described below was conducted. The
active ingredients of Matran 2 and Xpress are essential oils (the oil obtained after extracting highly aromatic cells from a
plant by distillation), with Matran 2 containing clove oil and Xpress containing both clove and thyme oil plus acetic acid
and other ingredients. Both clove oil and thyme oil contain phytotoxic compounds and have been reported to
kill johnsongrass, common lambsquarters, and other grasses and broad leaf weeds. Xpress contains acetic acid but as
an inert ingredient at an undefined concentration (Table 3. Alldown, another non-synthetic herbicide, also contains
acetic acid. However, acetic acid is not listed as an active ingredient allowed in minimum risk herbicides (Table 1).
Therefore acetic acid cannot be registered as an herbicide and cannot be recommended for weed control for food crops
by Extension faculty. Such recommendations are based on several years of field research, usually funded by the
pesticide manufacturer. Unfortunately, many small companies producing pesticides and other materials for possible use
in organic production do not have the financial resources to fund such research.

Alldown, Matran 2, and Xpress have been applied to grasses and broadleaf weeds in Kentucky and Florida (Table
4). Alldown applied at high rates (40 to 70 gallons per acre) killed from 82 to 100% of Kentucky bluegrass turf in that
state within 24 hours but within five weeks all the turf recovered, compared with 7% recovery of turf treated with
Roundup. More variable results were reported from Florida, with Alldown, at 40 gallons per acre providing
inconsistent control of grasses and broadleaf weeds in one trial but in another experiment (rate per acre not
specified) providing 70% control within one week, declining to 60% in three weeks. Both tests were conducted on
former pasture land as a weed control trial with no host crop. Note also that Alldown was applied at full product
concentration. Further testing is being conducted this year.

In Florida, Matran 2 provided 70% control in one case, declining to less than 60% within three weeks. However, when
weeds were tilled before herbicide application, Matran 2 provided up to 75% control within five weeks. In both Florida
trials Xpress did not provide uniform weed control.

USDA researchers have also used acetic acid to control weeds but at higher concentrations (up to 20%) than are found
in food-use acetic acid or vinegar (3-5%). When acetic acid was applied at about 6 to 13% concentrations as a directed
spray or broadcast at different times, broadleaf weeds were suppressed during the potato growing season in West
Virginia but nutsedge and other grasses were only temporarily controlled. In sweet pepper fields, higher concentrations
of acetic acid (18%) provided better control but only for about a month. Using 5 to 20% acetic acid concentrations as
basal and foliar sprays on corn and soybeans, early-season sprays afforded greater control of younger weeds than
later, seasonal sprays but at the cost of some crop damage (Table 4).

USDA researchers also advise that due to the corrosive nature of acetic acid, spray equipment should be taken apart
and individual components such as O rings should be rinsed well after using herbicides containing acetic acid. Note also
that acetic acid concentrations over 11% can cause burns upon skin contact.

Summary

Active and inert ingredients allowed in minimum risk herbicides are clearly defined under federal laws but the
percent composition of inert ingredients is not clearly defined, allowing for inclusion of compounds with some
herbicidal effect. Two non-synthetic herbicides listed by OMRI are also registered for use in Florida but preliminary
research has indicated varying efficacy. Acetic acid has been used as an herbicide in experimental trials but is not
now registered as the active ingredient in an herbicide because of lack of data on tolerances in food crops.



Table 1. Active Ingredients Which May Be in Minimum Risk Pesticide Products Exempted under section 25(b) of
FIFRA. Appendix A PR Notice 2000-6

1. Castor Oil (U.S.P. or equivalent) 17. Linseed Oil

2. Cedar Oil 18. Malic Acid*






4. Citric Acid* 20. Peppermint* and Peppermint Oil*

5. Citronella and Citronella Oil 21. 2-Phenethyl Propionate (2-phenylethyl propionate)

6. Cloves* and Clove Oil* 22. Potassium Sorbate

7. Corn Gluten Meal* 23. Putrescent Whole Egg Solids (See 180.1071)

8. Corn Oil* 24. Rosemary and Rosemary Oil*

9. Cottonseed Oil* 25. Sesame* (includes ground Sesame plant stalks) (See 180.1087) and
Sesame Oil*

10. Dried Blood 26. Sodium Chloride (common salt)*

11. Eugenol 27. Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

12. Garlic* and Garlic Oil* 28. Soybean Oil

13. Geraniol 29. Thyme* and Thyme Oil*

14. Geranium Oil 30. White Pepper*

15. Lauryl Sulfate 31. Zinc Metal Strips (consisting solely of zinc metal and impurities)

16. Lemon grass Oil*

* These active ingredients are exempt for use on all food commodities from the requirement of a tolerance on all
raw agricultural commodities at 40 CFR 180.1164(d).


Table 2. Appendix B PR Notice 2000-6. LIST 4A Minimal Risk Inerts. Parentheses indicate exemption from tolerance as
inerts if all the conditions set forth in the text and tables shown for the particular substance at 40 CFR 180.1001(c), (d) and/
or (e) are met.

Acetic acid (c, d, e) Carrots

Agar Casein (c)

Alfalfa Cheese

Alfalfa meal hlorophyll

Almond hulls Cinnamon (d)

Almond shells (c) Citric acid (c, e)

Alpha cellulose (c) Citrus meal (c)

Apple pomace (c) Citrus pectin

Attapulgite-type clay (c, e) Citrus pulp

Beef fat Clam shells

Beeswax (c) Cloves (d)

Beet powder Cocoa

Bentonite (c) Cocoa shells (c)

Bicarbonate (c) Cocoa shell flour

Bone Meal Cod liver oil (c)

Bran coffee grounds (c)

Bread crumbs Cookies

Calcareous shale (c) Cork

Carbon dioxide Corn (d)


3. Cinnamon* and Cinnamon Oil *


19. Mint* and Mint Oil*






Calciumcarbonate (c,e) Corn flour

Canary seed Corn meal (c)

Cane syrup Corn oil (c)

Cardboard Cornstarch (c)

Carrageenan (c, d, e) Hears of corn flour

Corn syrup (c, e) Hydrogenated vegetable oils

Cotton Honey

Cottonseed meal nvert sugar (c)

Cottonseed oil (c) nvert syrup (c)

Cracked oats Kaolinite-type clay (c, e)

Cracked wheat Lactose (c)

Dextrin (c, e) Lanolin (d)

Dextrose (c, e) Lard (c)

Dolomite (c) Latex

Douglas-fir bark, ground (d) Lecithin (c)

Egg Shells Lime

Eggs Limestone

Edible fish meal (c) Linseed oil

Edible fish oil (c) Valt flavor

Flour (wheat, d) Veat meal

Fuller's earth Veal scraps

Gelatin Vedicated feed

Glue, as depolymerized animal collagen Vica (c)

Glycerin (glycerol; c, d, e) Vilk

Granite (c) Villet seed

Graphite (c, d, e) Vineral oil, U.S.P. (c, e)

Ground oats Volasses (c)

Guar gum (c) Vontmorillonite-type clay (c, e)

Gum arabic (c) Nitrogen

Gum tragacanth Sawdust

Gypsum (c) Seaweed

Nutria meat Shale

Nylon Soapstone (c, e)

Oatmeal (c) Sodium (c)

Oats (c) Sodium chloride (c)

Olive oil Sorbitol (c, e)

Onions Soybean hulls

Orange pulp (as pomace c) Soybean meal

Oyster shells Soybean oil (c, e)

Paper (fiber; d) Soy flour (c)


Calcite (c)


3orn cobs (c)






Paraffin wax Sucrose (c, e)

Peanut butter Sugarbeet meal

Peanut oil Sunflower seeds

Peanuts Fallow

Peanut shells (c) Vanillin (d)

Peat moss Vermiculite

Pecan shell flour Vitamin C

Pectin Vitamin E

Polyethylene film (c) Walnut flour

Polyethylene pellets, edible Walnut shells (c)

Potatoes Water

Pumice Wheat (d)

Raisins Wheat germ oil

Red cedar chips Whey

Red dog flour Wintergreen oil (c)

Rice Wool

Rice hulls Xanthan gum (c, e)

Rubber Yeast

Rye Flour

Safflower oil

180.1001 (c) = exempt for both growing crops & crops after harvest
(d) = exempt for growing crops only
(e) = exempt for animal applications only
Please Note: List 4A, "Minimal Risk Inerts" (Appendix B of this notice) is updated on a continuing basis.
Current versions are available on the Pesticides Web site at http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/inerts/inerts list4.pdf




Table 3. Herbicides approved by Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI).
Herbicide Manufacturer
Active ingredients Estimated cost/gallon
(%) ($)

Matran-2 Clove oil: 45.6 79.60 Encore
Other (lecithin, water): 54.4 Technologies, Minnesota

Xpress Thyme oil: 10.4 84.00 BiohumaNetics, Arizona
love oil: 10.1
Inert ingredients: 79.5
(acetic acid, molasses, water)


Table 4. Weed control with OMRI-approved herbicides (Matran 2 and Xpress) Alldown and acetic acid.

Location Crops Treatments Results Authors
(Date) __III__


pasture


Three nonsynthetic, postemergence,
contact herbicides (Alldown, Matran
2 and Xpress) and corn gluten meal
applied preemergence and flaming,


With no pretreatment or with mowing as a pretreatment, flaming provided 97% weed
control after 1 week, declining to 79% after 3 weeks. Alldown (undiluted) and Matran 2
(20%) provided 70% control within 1 week, but control declined to less than 60% by 3
weeks. With tillage as a pretreatment, corn gluten meal, Matran 2 (20%), and flaming


Chase, C.A., J.M. Scholberg, and G.E. MacDonald. 2004.
preliminaryy evaluation of nonsynthetic herbicides for weed
management in organic orange production. Proc. Fla. State
-lort Soc. In press.


Florida
(2004)


Paprika


Soy protein (c, e)




applied after a mowing or tillage
pretreatment or with no
pretreatment


provided 68-75% control within 5 weeks. Xpress gave inconsistent results.


Florida pasture Three nonsynthetic, postemergence, Alldown (100% concentration at 40 gallons per acre), Matran 2 (10% at 5 gallons per Ferguson, J.J. 2004. Evaluation of organic herbicides.
(2004) contact herbicides plus an adjuvant acre), Xpress (7.5-15%) at 7.5-15 gallons per acre provided inconsistent weed control HortScience. 39: 876. Abstract.
(Alldown, Matran 2 and Xpress) compared with glyphosate (5% Roundup Pro).
compared with glyphosate (Roundup
Pro).

Iowa Kentucky bluegrass Alldown at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 10 to 40 gallons per acre killed from 13 to 73% of turf within 24 hours but within one Bingaman, B.R. M.J. Howieson, and N.E. Christians. 1999.
(1999) 70 gallons per acre compared with week, from 93 to 57% turf had recovered, respectively. Alldown natural herbicide study. http://turfqrass.hort.iastate.
Roundup (label rate) and an edu/pubs/
untreated control. 40 to 70 gallons per acre killed from 82 to 100 % of turfwithin 24 hours but within 5 urfrt/2000/alldown.html
weeks 100% of turf recovered compared with 7% treated with Roundup.

West Virginia Potatoes Vinegar (Acetic Acid: 6.25 or 12.5%) Broadleaf plaintain and yellow wood sorrel counts lower in vinegar-treated plots than in USDA: Chandran, R.S., M. Stenger, and M. Mandal.
(2003) as directed spray or broadcast early, nontreated plots during the growing season. Yellow nutsedge and orchardgrass were Abstract. Effect of vinegar on potato weed control.
ate, or early + late. suppressed for two to three weeks but regrew later. Northeastern Weed Science Society.

West Virginia Sweet peppers Vinegar (acetic acid: 4.5, 9.0, and Directed application of vinegar (4.5, 9.0, and 18%) provided >90% control of Chandran, R.S. Evaluation of vinegar and corn gluten for
(2002) 18%); corn gluten (20, 40, and 80 carpetweed, Canada thistle, yellow wood sorrel, common purslane, common weed control in field-grown sweet pepper. Northeastern
bs/1000ft2) lambsquarters, smooth pigweed, and velvet leaf and 50% control of yellow nutsedge Weed Science Society.
when applied at 18% concentration. However, 1 month after treatment, only 20 to 30%
weed control was obtained compared with untreated plots.

orn gluten applied at 80 lbs/1000 ft2 reduced weed counts 78% three weeks after
treatment and 32% 2 months after treatment
Corn, soybeans Vinegar (acetic acid at 10 and 20%) 5-35% corn injury. Radhakrishnan, J., J.R. Teasdale, and C.B. Coffman.
sprayed (early treatment) to base of iAgricultural applications of vinegar. Northeastern Weed
sprayed (early treatment) to base of ScienceSciety.
Science Society.
corn planted in rows (40 days old) iant foxtail control ranged from 100 (early spray) to 55% with late spray. Pigweed
and soybeans (55, 61, and 80 days control ranged from ranged from 99% (early spray) to 55% (late spray).
old) 5 to 45% soybean damage, especially on younger plants.

vinegar (acetic acid at 10 and 20%) More corn damage with foliar spray at 20% concentration
sprayed (late treatment) to base of
corn (55 days old) and soybeans (68,
S55 day and soybeans (68 0% acetic acid at 90 gallons per acre did not control weeds > 50 days old
74, and 93 days old)

Vinegar (acetic acid at 10 and 20%)
foliar and basal spray in replicated
plots

Vinegar (acetic acid at 10 and 20%)
sprayed at 30, 60, and 90 gallons/
acre
2001 .0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, and 20.0% and 10.0 % concentrations more effective on younger weeds but 15 and 20% more RadhakrishnaK. J., J. R. Teasdale, and C. B. Coffman.
vinegar sprayed on common effective on older weeds. 15 and 20% concentrations killed 90-100 % of all weeds. 5% Vinegar as a potential herbicide for organic agriculture.
ambsquarters, giant foxtail, concentration provided 100% top kill of Canada thistle with some root regrowth Northeastern Weed Science Society
,elvetleaf, and smooth pigweed (22,
29, and 35 day-old plants) and
Canada thistle (30, 40, and 50 days
old)

Weed foliage in greenhouse
experiments

Matran 2 and Xpress are listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI). Alldown was listed as of 10/25/04 (http//
www.omri.org/crops alpha.pdf).


Home Organic Express.htm Organizing Country Stores.htm Low-Carb Potato.htm
Supersize Me.htm Show Me the Data.htm First Virus to Infect.htm
Uncle Matt Organics.htm Sun Valley Organics.htm Upcoming Meetings.htm


[ Archives ] [ University of Florida ] [ UF/IFAS ] [ Horticultural Sciences Department ] [ UF/IFAS Publications ]






Organic Production and Marketing Newsletter


Upcoming Meetings

January 21-23, 2005: Practical Tools and Solutions for Sustaining Family Farms

Hilton New Orleans Airport Hotel

Sponsored by the Southern Sustainable Agriculture Working Group "Innovative Production, marketing,
and organizing strategies for those committed to sustainable food systems in the South"

Registration before Dec. 20: $115.00

Room Rates :$72.00 (double) http://www.ssawq.org/conference-exhibits.html

Questions: Toni McLaughlin at ssawqconf(bellsouth.net or call (225) 654-2017

Home Organic Express.htm Organizing Country Stores.htm Low-Carb Potato.htm
Supersize Me.htm Show Me the Data.htm First Virus to Infect.htm Uncle Matt Organics.htm
Sun Valley Organics.htm Status and Prelim Research.htm

[ Archives ] [ University of Florida ] [ UF/IFAS ] [ Horticultural Sciences Department ]
[ UF/IFAS Publications I




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs