AMMa,0e Waran m aMAgNg To 3IOMT Mafv
9r Abievemmnts of the Agricultiural periment Statim
of the aUnversity of Floarda
n tShe tiem of Agiertltal Iesearch, and Their lffee.s
on the State's Agriculture
July 1, 1931.
Arino9ltw a.l onom.is.............................. 1
Aricuiltral SEniton............................... 2
oagrnomasy............................................ 1, 6
aitaal H aary.......... ..... ....... .......... 1, 5
Allasigs ultt .................... ................. 11
Astrian Pe as....... ........................... 7
4 ooaCedo ............................................ 12
3S1k aShak ......................................... 7
2mandh Stations..................................... 1
aUtletts ................... ....................... 1, 5
CarlteadL 1bipents ................................... 4
tr ............................ ........ ...... 1, 2
LChtel Pox .................................... 6
Citrus Lild......................................... 20
ettrw frelhits..................................... 15
ILtraw S IUdlg 0osts................................ 15
wtwB St o 1...................................... 16
Oetten 9am .s.... ............................. 15
Dottea, auBl6xon Scale............................... 10
ever Ore .............................. ......... 14
Ortp................ 9................ .............. 9
D~lseLes of Live Stook ......................0. .... 6
Diseaues of Poultry..................................
aoeaos,,.y... ....................................... 1
satablibasawt of Station............................ 1
Fern mt.te ........................................... 11
7astillsers ...... ............... ... ........................ 14
*eld Zdboratories,................. ......... .... 1, 2
rOessing Investigations.. ...................... 1
amIptg ............... ......... ...............
fatIrrn le 8.pioe.. ................ ... ....... 6
Hoe Paralstes....................................... 5
]She 0m Noeaets,........,.. .........,.......... 2
erti, oJ ,U re ... .'.. . . .*. ... 2s It
Bi~bitJ6Ku*mro *******.*l***** ***I** ****I****c .* c! a 1Z
Iete s Abortn..... .......................
Inhaot roLtrol...................................... 10
iron. .... 0 ..... .. **********. . 5
Leelawg StattWe................................... 9
MWfOMMr (tllfto*0 a* at * # t*l 0 0 0 tlt. 0. 8 a 0. 0 .00
MEoO 2opdrate ........... ......................
Ptlaat A Pa th~oloo..4.. *..... ..... A. . .. *O.
~Lner of PS?.....rl... pein..eem-,.**~ C
ltob 9 ........... ...... .I.
Tobacco .*.ta..., .,*^ O P *0A4A.4.*! U ,
Por~k OPO.. 0.4 if*p *OD e e ...... o, *. a o
Tobajtca Diseases* &-**A *00 -00&0 A,-&*&** A. ~~-,M*AA##
W a~terelona Vl.......................,e a....eJa.
ItrukGeM Digeop ...... 4., .a. 10 0ly 0 0 ... &001
Tung 093.0*0 *,a *a& 0*.1*0 **** 9,, lr~r~.
votO16 ^0&0 0161910,040,04p 4.0 0 0 04 4-06_00 640 00 &A'O.S. 0
UTOrt~6 B~OB) cr ft 0 r rrh~
17,133. 19, 20, 21
- ti .
$$mes 14 @wpmiato 168, tits -4oImI m Cmtation of Us
mdvsvwt7 i at of tb orlabee krnowtlo aa Id n soaaeiwwi maj
foldA *2k. amowia vWoielve. f various frau uev ad spot ft q'uwashe
$wes IM of the I -avae of the waft of th Iaties to tbe
agriculture of ti* state way be satbored Am.i the figures givem be*
ldN, a* the egriculture of 7lrmda ezxteaif mad larissbse &talu both
SONi VN IA rnOW n U aMS u tb. WWW9 of r4P* *AM XWtYO
lireatlRy mppUd, these vdva* wIU zlolw~ 1a h 3%w to ~a Via
flwui S~eiment 8MIa %%ll be, an 1O I I Ih vfte loew In the
hoom'MP" of Us stato tgi$Oattrol *sWov'tuM the swam pus.
"Am~r asrt to place a Monstary Va*u as the "Wg.C Of the %op
tion Iboad to1Z1 Wla ft at of the actual wd20u9 VA the f*llw..
13%g flew.. "oviag a few reamut aWe uml ~b
Aftetr t**# 09 vOW~ owote44 loft" ve. amd 14"Mm 0000
wv4 bo $U OW*8A0*QO. Use Asmif ruVU*k OW %o *Mm"s baon
or mews of eeseml **q. as stt amom petwu eet 40v~ SoIs
pe~sart"a v~lve. In tbo soosA and third Awt~aoe the ftU ""a
*01 be we"Aolod roeeiam results es "Mmthe Uo Sgsip b 6#
tis ViMm Oft AMOal #Wt Of 04d ftarniag pfta m.
#A" WOM Pap 6
Iftswoo. of dA awa In 4ers of cattle
$a lerge Ute. O!OoRB itances are
O-3M1 AM'D "MS Peg. 13
fts #mW*nSIt of %be diffim~tles anato
ia opo pw4mtion in thebeIabe Is o
emewII im -1a1 0 Altheu the autmrt is mmeh
too suwl&) tbo si amliows for this sablim.
MonB9t Is**.., ....... 0....**500.Os.0S
I= M USU AMAMM- Page 10
Cestrol waW0s bave befs larxoy woarat out
b the statia., This worwsEs ,is m1th mwb.
ally i3*t ea thB .I, cb o..o#............. 5,OBBOOO.0
ThuE amq Is S"2 fmtSW tr and smea AmWly
of Agriaolltwae a* isWO bas
0AlWOs poit. o0t hew usur mullaft am
351.' t~o $FI54, fa p, tulhePS 4 tdia" t
65. ~A mompoeftle. sues t4 date winl
BSk~r~*,,114*..000*..gm*...1........0. ....,...0IM 1QS
. ii .-
PCAklS Page 12
The peoan industry of the state was virtually
started and has been supported by the Florida
3eapriment Station. It is worth annually at
pa~am PAZIsi a0e 7
eod pastures will add large amounts to no-
ridats agricultural wealth. The experiment
Station has developed plans for securing them.
PO Pe~aWTIe Page 5
Studies and eperiantst made in this fthld
show that on the bats of the number of pigs
now produced their value can be i~rasWed ....... 4O0 0, 00. 0
PounVfSr DISJaM Page 6
Diagnoses of Poultry Dieases and recoom.
eadations for ha ing in one yar.............. 97,5.00
(The annual income froe pOultry is $14,500,000)
AfBaRiZAAlf Page 13
The value of refrigeration investigations
to Florida fruit and other crops will be
tremendous. No other line of research pro.,
mstes more for florida horticulture.
SLa-sratK Page 5
The cause has been worked out and the eppli-
cation of the cure for this disease will in.
crease live stock values annually................ 5 ,000000, 00
sV~aMr Page 7
Variety Oasana 10 is now being used almost
exclusively by large commercial producers of
TOBA0300 DISar SS Page 7
The shade tobacco industry, worth annually
to the state......... ... .................... 2,125,000.00
is built on two varieties of tobacco ori-
ginated by the Florida Eperiment Station.
TRUCK DISSASS AND INSICTS Page 8
Studies of plant diseases and insects and
experiments on their control are worth to
the state aa~lally......................*...... .. ,000~,0.00
TUW60412 Page 12
Trees planted on the Experiment Station grounds
with investigations based on these and their
progeny have resulted in the planting of 9,500
acres valued at ................................ 9500000.00
VLvST low -Page 6
The velvet bean is directly a product of the
pari#me W tton.4 The crop is worth annually
to flerit *...................... ......... 2, 50,000.00
VITCO AND AJSW tdW PlWa Page 7
Thee two soil improving crops annually are
increasing corn yields....... 6........ ........ 60,000.00
1P8 Ir.0 SPSAAOE TiMI AIoCUwUl.,
S ievante sofbe Agri-cultii xprW station
of the esirity of Ftcj d
In Cthe 0Pe Agriutram l M chr, a abtr ffete
the State's ir tureo
fI i38 the TPlida Bperiment Station came into exiateasoe, tr
that tb dofte to this it hab been frfaishing growers and agrioatw i
workers of the state with help(fl tafoeatin. be can readily aer
stand that in the begiantag, the station atae little iapreossion a M .
ria'st aeri lture and gave little assistance. f"ose associate& with
the woaf of theb.tation in these earlier 4ma atose in a peauliar pes..
tion, wue as they staad in' large mn r ne totay, in that they wese aN
to gain little IsneowU e and little aistaame from outside souress, for
noeri4a i a state pe 4ar unto itself and knewled4g gained ese~sMre or
in other field ha very limited applioatesn here. But a the yae bhav
gce on the P~waie station has Cade strength saad khowted and mussa
to unttil aew it ast be reo ted as a real factor in the agrisitrwe of
the tatte aad in its tlure t evo~ g t.
It is hot possible within a limited space to cll attention to all
of the ways in whioh the Forida aperiment Station has been helpful to
the agrfultu al indtutrieb of the state. At best, nothing can be done
except to touah. qon a few of the more important and perhaps mere strtis.
Since its establishant JM.S 227S nUlletins and T3press bull A
tine toehig almost every phasm of the state's agricultural interests
have been publisabed. h infomatiea contained in these publications ka
become so mach a part of the daily work of growers and planters that the
original soree frost wbhih the i tnfmatieo eame or the research back of
all of it ha been entirely lest to seiht.
For many years te work of the spertment Station was oentralised at
one point, but now in addition to the main station at ainesville, there
is a branch station for citrus at l ate Alfred, a tobacco station at Qiatay,
a sub.-twrpie station at .amestead, and a station at )elle Glade for the
everglades all working with aa wader the close saperi4eon of the maa
station, nhere are field lboratores for the investing of problem
relating to special reps at Bradanton for tatomsee, Montioelle for peaasa
Plant City for strarbeweies, Oeoea for citrus disease i~avestgatiat-MN4t-
ings for petatoee, ee Xrbrg for waterselons, Pieravs for insects of eoaQ
mercial eraamentals and lest Srbn Bwah for i luiea ts of battle. '~h
work of the station io hatled thruge ee oral departments Agnay,
which has to do with field orep; Animal Rebmandry, whtih lUts a~er the
problems comeoted with the prod tioa of livesto*a; 1 heoistly, interested
in the problems of soil fertility and the wise use of fertilizers; anto.
moelo~, concerned with the control of insects attacking various crops;
Horticulture, dealing with the problems of fruit and vegetable growing;
Plant Pathology, which takes care of plant disease problems; Agricultural
Eomnemies, interested in marketing and in problems relating to farm pro-
fitst and Home looPnmics, which carries on investigativcs in the use of
foeds and the welfare of our rural populations. That the speriSeat Sta'
tio learns "through its research workers is carried to the farmers of the
state through the Agricultural Zxtension Service.
The financial and economic structure of Florida today rests in large
measure on agriculture in many of its numerous forms. From the very be.
ginning this has been so and it will always be so, for her future is in.
a#perably tied up with the wise and proper use of land. The Florida SI
perdment Station, through its various activities, hap had a large part in
the agricultural development of the state and the future development of
the state's agriculture will come about. largely through the activities of
the fpertment Station -
of esphasising the value of agriculture to the state, the fol-
lowing tabtare included. The figures in these tables are drawn from
Table No. 1
Quotations from "Crops and Markets, December, 1930," Published
by the United States Department of Agriculture
Figures for Flori4a-
Crop Year of 1929 Year of 1930
Sreage i Production : Value : Acreage ; Prodadtion : Value
Corn 625,000 8,438,000 bus. :$ 7,172,000 : 625000 7,500,000 bus. : 6,750,000
Tobacco 12,300 :11,070,000 lbs. : 3,454,000 12,300 :11,008,000 lbs. 2,81g,000
Cotton 94,o000 29,000 bales: 2,422,000 103,000 50,000 bales: 2,200,000
Irish Potatoes 23,000 2,714,000 bus. ,885,000 32,000 2,560,000 bus. : 4,480000
Strawberries 5,640 :12,408,000 qts. : 2,730,000 : 8,100 :14,175,000 qts. : 3,969,000
Tomatoes 8,700 3 3,06 00000 bus. 9,12000 : 1,260 : 271000 bs: 8976,000
TTatermelons 0,400 11 ,635,000 melon: 3,235,000 : 34700 : 9,473,000 melon: 2,368,000
Oranges (Total) 8,800,000 orts.: 26,840,000 :14,500,000 crts.: 27,550,000
Grapefruit (Total) 8,200,000 crts.: 22,960,000 :12,000,000 orts.: 21,600,000
Pecans : 400,000 lbs. t 116,000 :1,000,000 lbs. : 260,000
mm. pm -
sarly lhite Potatoes
Table No. 2
Florida ftrwk Orops
: Ramuinaiant farla2m
'~~ ~"~~- ~r~rmmr.
h eriWt e in ied 1W A io carloada per year mtted t; osio "
tIomal caaraA emiMttedo
Pron anuSaript of Professor Wa 's Bullettn (Onubisbihed).
I aa gl
. te It
essentially the Ftorida tsprptmnt Station is a research i stitution
but in addition to this it is a pvlic service orgaisatior,. Shis is wit.
nessed by the fact that in asom et 60000 bulletins are sent out yearly
and 60,000 letters covering growers' problems are answered. The handling
of this voltse of corespeadwee is in itself a job of gret sgatuide.
The diseassion of soe of the mere iprtant roesu~td .eo over a
period of years aen beot be indicated by deartmaate.
Eva Pd-su Swinaberd management, as worked out by the AItaml DE.m
t iM bandry Dqeartment, proves that pigs can be raised free
from intestinal paraites. Smnie 25% ore pigs la be
raised per litter, thereby adding 100,00-0 4pie yearl to
lorida fames. Pigs so handled ake rapid Vftam gai
and are worth fro $2,00 to $4.00 more per head.
The department has shonn that it is entirely practical
to raise two litters per year instead of eme.
Closely associated with this work is t1h prefdtion of
crop for bog feeding to finish the animals for mnaist in
September and again in asrch *et prices are highest.
This work carried to its logical concu1tion on the
farms of florida where begs are now raised will mea
$1, 00,000 increase in beg values.
Sat-stk Salt-.siek, an age-eld problem in Florida cattle prodm-
tiom, has been solved. It has engaged the attention of
the Florida S~periment Station since 1888. Its distribu.
tion over at leant 38 of Floridass 67 oounties has in-
volved an annual les in excess of $3,000,000. Its canse,
cure and prevention have all been worked out. It has bea
proved to be due to a deficiency in certain mineral esle
ments in soils and grasses. In large areas people hae
quit raising battle because of its roads. Now the Wa
is open to begin again with full knowledge that they oa
sueed. bhe use of copper and iron will prevent i a ad
if oases ae not too far advanced will twe it. Over
three hnkded head of affected cattle muder range coadi.
tions have reoovead *hen treated.
rnam 1888 to 1931 the Florida aperioent Station spent
approxiDately $50,000 trvestigating salt.iek*. he so#1.
ties of this problem is one of the outstanding ahtierow
ments of the station.
Ye v t 22M3M
Grasing toets have proved that profitable returns may
be secured by grsing steers on Iqproved pastures. F-.
periments show that 250 pounds of beef can be obtained
from good grasses even on poor seil. MaIny thousaads of
acres of Florida lands can prod&oe $5.00 to $C1W00 per as
are if Imroved pastures are stocked with Qattle. he
madaig of iaptclp pasture has been worked out by the
Tests for infectious abortion have been made
head of cattle with approximately 10 reacting.
1Ite of these tests to cattlemen was $37,kCOGO0.
Eemorrhagic septieema was diagnosed in five herds,
each valued at $5,000.00. Most of these cattle would un-
questionably have died if the disease had not been doe
finitely diagnosed by laboratory findings.
In 1930-31, three hundred fowls were received and diag-
nosed for various diseases. These 300 birds represented
200 farms with an average of 500 hone each. Bence 100,000
hens worth $100,000 were involved. These dintnoses vun-
doubtedly saved Florida poultry owners many thousands of
dollars in the protection of foundation stock and baby
In supervising sanitation and disease control at the
National Egg Laying Contest (Chipley), it is estimated:
that poultry to the value of $4,000 has been saved.
Advice and demonstration of chicken pox vaccination
have been given 100 poultry farm owners averaging 1,000
fowls per farm. Loss prevented (egg production and mor-
tality) estimated $50,000.00.
During the investigation of poultry diseases in Flo-
rida, contacts have been made with 500 poultry men owning
50,000 hens valued at $50,0000.00. Many thousands of asl
lars have been saved for these men.
The Agronomy Department of the Experiment Station in
cooperation with the Forage Crops Office, U. S. D. A.,
has introduced and disseminated in loeria: Velvet Beans,
Crotalaria, Austrian Peas, onantha Vetch, Centipede
Grass, Sahia grass, Dallia grass, Lespedess (Japan olo.
ver) Npier grass, Japanese and Cayana 10 sugarcane.
Velvet Beans are grown on 87,000 acres of Florida
lands and produce seed and forage worth for feed and fer-
tilizer combined, $2,250,000 annually. The value and se
of this crop were worked oat by the Florida Stati and
some of the important varieties were origiated by the
Station by crossing.
Orotalaria is now growing an 35,000 to 50,000 aore of
land. The fertilizing and soil ttprvovag vwin is easily
worth $500,000 to $750,000 an m ally and the amount is
boad to increase. Crotalaria seed (1930 crap) ad a
value of $37,500.00.
As a result of the work of the. *, eriAmt Station,
150,000 pounds of vetch and pea seed were planted on
6,000 acres of West lorida lands (1930) and iqnnved the
soil so that without adding fertilizer corn yields were
increased 60,000 bushels.
Oaeana 10 SaCrcane resists mosaic and rootknot and is
replacing old types of cane for syrup in est Florida. A
large number of other canes are vader test.
Hundreds of grasses and legumes have been tested for
mach needed permanent pastures. Carpet, B3aia, Blls,
Para, Bermuda, Cetipede and Lespedesa have been feo~
suited. During the season 1930.-31, 35,000 pounds of see
of improved pasture grasses were planted on 4,000 to
5,000 acres. The resulting pasturae will represat a
saving of $28,000 to $45,000 ow $7.00 to $9.00 per sawe.
These new crops will show an annual added agricultural
wealth in Florida of many millions of dollars within a
By 1921 serious diseases developed in the gbea tobac-
co areas of West Florida and threatened detrm tien of the
entire industry. The Zlpermtent Station datesa~tb that
the most serious trouble was due to a un A
dertook to overcome the difficulty by a(i re
sistant to the disease. Today two varieties of tobaoo,
NImbers 94 and 301, highly disease restetant, origatased
by the Florida )rperiment Station, are vanities garm
almost exolustiely. The growing of wropper toa;eco A
worth $2,000,000 to $2,250,000 annually to the stteA 4W
it not been for the work of the Station ths ag eW ltuAral
intautry would have been wiped eat. ~hA i a & strlUta
example of what may be done by ea rflly direted patas-
Tro Gp The investigation of truck crop diseases cover many
es years of Florida aperiment Station work and it ma be
truthfully stated that the work done by thb Station has
kept well in line with disease problems esneetered by
the growers. At the present time truck aropq predfoed
in the state represent a volume of approximately 0 ,000
carloads with a value of approximately 40,00000000 and it
is not too much to say that the plant disease work of the
Florida Station saves to the growers of truek crops aunt-
ally, from four to five million dollars.
It iv possible to call attention to only a few of the
more iapottant items connected with truck orep prodfc-
'Inftes Tho tomato has the largest anwnal value of any truck
crop grown in the state, averaging about $9,000,000 anz
nuallyb A few years ago this crop was threatened by a
disease known as Nail Head Rust which bid fair to be the
undoing of the entire tomato industry. The Vnited States
Department of Agriculture working fbr a tomato reststant
to wilt, introduced a variety known as MWasgobe." S he
Florida Exeriment Station working on the disease a Mste'
as Nail Head Rust determined that this same variety II(
resistant to this pernicious disease. The Margobe tmb.
to is now grown in all of the principal tomato geoWit
sections of Florida and wherever it is used, leagsMI b
Hail Head Rust have been eliminated. The work of t '
Florida Sbperiment Station in pointing out the Vb)a or
this variety has been the saving of the tomato JMta g
from this trouble.
rs~t lan The watermelon crop has an annual farm aft at g- e e
iaWtely $3,000,000. Measured in carloads it Je !o et(
the largest, if not the largest, of 7lerid eS
During the past few years it has becomf-- g f
growers to incur much attitional eemap MA 47l
of aew land to avoid losses front a mW L a-I
known as lusarti* ilt. bexe~rt WSlMIllAl rI
on the same piece of growd form a m A im
this disease almost certainly dM 4utO aI'l
beamed s profitable to wee tbh ag g m i t
more hm a single season or bto s "lit i f
ladt from year to year has U,- It i-Sm e u
new areas farther and farthx ft e -
points and because of the iu -dm- os0oe
clearing, haulage and *ietr b t to est at p ar talr
Watea alas continued to touont. In 1929 a Pathologist was ea
played to develop methods to control this disease. Siace
the parasitic ftugus causing it carries ever for a number
of years in the soil, the only means that probes satis-
factory control appears to be in the devetepase t of
strains of melons resistant to the disease and whtio will
grow in spite of its presence in the soil. Alrear eon*
siderable progress has been aAs and the iaticatioMe are
that this work will have a saocessful outote both in the
direction of resistance to the disease and in iaprWoing
the quality of the melon crop* tAs work is being pushed
vigorously by the tperinent Station through its field
laboratory at Leesburg.
otaOe For several years the 3perrimmt Station has ea tainted
at Bastings a field laboratory for the investigation of
Irish potato diseases. The potato crop of Florida is
valued at approximately $5,,00000 annually. Seveal di.
seass had from year to year taken heavy toll of the osp,
reduced the quality of the product and deewried the re-
turns to the growers. She work of the Station has defi-
nitely pointed out that theee dieseses can be controlled
by the use of seed free frit dlseaes and by spraylag
Since it was pointed out that florida's potato tre bles
are due in large measure to the u*e of diMeed seed, it
has beoee necessary for the producers of oed potatoes
in northern sections to give greater attention t to the pro.
duction of seed potato crops. In pointing out this par-
ticular difficulty, the lerida Station 1ha had a large
part, and the outomes has been that certified seed of
first class quality is now available for the use of Flo-
Through the efforts of the 3periment Station there is
no question but that at least $1,000,000 of value kee bee
added annually to the Plorida potato crop.
Strawberries: The strawberry crop is an important one to Pori4 ret
presenting as it did in the season of 199, $e,730,000 and
in the season of 1930, $3,969,000. One of thoe 'Ba seritos
troubles which has occurred in connection with thts ote
is one I~aon as strawberry .rira. Near Pleat City a fi4ld
laboratory was built and investigation of this aad other
strawberry diseases undertaken by the Station, A ft.
ti Plant Pethologist and an aietaaoot were asmisin
this wuork The result of tha undertatng has be tha
the cao e an rarstr for strawberry orip riu beea weora
out and the way made clear for strawberry gresere to pro.
- 10 -
dueo their crop without interference from thbt disease.
It has been determtaed that the disease is due to a neoa-
tode that is carried over from one season to another and
introduced into new plantings by diseased plants. Were
again the value of disease free steak has beas dteba in&e
and if the smbetr rry growers of the state will follow
the advice of their speriment Statioa, this seow~ea
should be reduced to a negqtgible factor in the ealtiva
tion of this very itortant crop. Just how far this 4di
sease might have gone in Injuring the crop it to diffl-
cult to say, but it was a major peat with ~aich the grw.
ers were uaable to oope without assitance.
In the work of insect control as related to Florida orops, the PFlo
rida Experiment Station, over a period of many years, has reidered iipor-
tant service to the agricultural industries of the state. B1d it not been
for this work it is safe to say that insects today would take a very ioh
larger toll of Florida's fruit and vegetables than they do at the present
time. Among the more important of the results secured by the Separtment of
entomology are the following:
This insect was accidentally introduced into Florida
many years ago and while it attacks many trees and shrubs,
the citrus industry partiouarly as confronted with a
formidable enemy. Sprays of various kinds were tried but
these had little or no effect against the insect. It had
been determined, however, that an Afstralian ladybug, com-
monly known as Vedalia or Australian ladybeetle, was ef-
fective in controlling this pest. The entomologist of the
Florida fperiment Station brought this cobtrolltag inset
to Florida and the menace of the cottony cushion seale was
eliminated. In recent years the Plant Board has been
sending out Vedalia to newly infested areas and the dan-
gerous cottony cushion sale has been checked or *liti-
nated at small cost to the rower. This service has been
worth many hundreds of thousands of dollars to the itrus
growers of the state.
The discovery in the spring of 1924 of the citrus a.
phid showed a new major pest of citrus tree had turned
up Florida, It was estimated that in the year 1994
this aphid caused damage to citrus trees and their crops
approimating $5,000,000 during the season. The lntme..
logical Department of the asperiment Station underteoc a
study of the habits of the insect to determine how it
might be controlled It was fond that dusting nwder pro-
per atmospheric conditions was very effective and cheap
and better dusts for handling the pest were developed. A
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hPOe Cri ckets
stiAy of its life history showed that destrqoing aiaal
over-wintering coltites and starting the trees nto viger.
ous growth in spring would largely take care of the trou.
ble. As a result of the work by the Expertint Station
this pest is no longer the mepace that it ce was aad
its effects during the past season have been greatly li-
mited, Over a period of some seven years the htAM.elgi-
cal Department has rendaed a service to the oitrvu greW.
era of the state in this connection that has been woeth
several millions of dollars.
The first organisation in the world to mane large or-
chard use of fwugi against insects was the floridas peri-
ment Station A quarter of a century ago whitefly was one
of the most serious pests of citrus and all are agreed
that control has been brought about largely by the abw
dance of the fungi which prey upon it, Methods for grow*.
ing fungous enemies of the whitefly were worked out by
the Florida ]proriment Station and for many years the
State Plant Board has grown and distributed large qunti-
ties of this material to be used for whitefly control.
Eere, again, the Florida Experiment Station and the State
Plant Board have rendered a service of tremendous value
to the citrus industry.
Syears ago the growing of asparagus feens in Flo-
rids was seriously threatened by a new pest known as the
California or two-spotted mite. The growing of asparagus
ferns is a Florida farm crop worth a million dollars a&-
nually to the state and this pest was a direct threat to
that industry. As the result of two years' experimental
work and-at a osut wa en- t 1-$ ..GOV. cheap and effective
means of control have been worked out.
One of the most annoying pests in truck gardening has
been the mole cricket and heretofore no entirely satisn
factory control method has been known, Within the past
year, the Experiment Station has discovered that substi"
tutitg egg mash for bran in the ordinary tgashoppe bait
results in a very effective pois6h. This discovery will
enable growers to use lands again which in same parts of
the state have been practical abandoned because of the
activities of this pest.
Mealy bugs have always caused mach loss to growere of
bulbs and in some years have caused great loss to citrus
growers, and its control by spraying has always been dif-
ficult. During the past year the Experiment Station has
secured and bred ladybeetles which feed upon it and by
field experiments have demonstrated the value of this me.
thod of control. It has been shown that this same lady-
beetle is also helpful in controlling the citrus aphid.
Ta-oil The present comercial plantings of tung-oil trees
extent of Indus- in Florida, now emoawtiag to about 9,$00 acres, are di-
try reotly traceable to the initial planting made at the Flo.
rids zperiment Station and the work done there. Sarly
tests indicated the trees' adaptability and later work
has included variety selection, fertilization, propaga.
tion, soil studies, cover crops, mnlching and cultiva-
tion. An oil expressing plant has been erected by pri-
vate capital and growers-now have a cash outlet for their
products. A new crop that does not compete in any way
with other products of Florida soil has came into exis-
tence through the efforts and encouragement of the Florida
Pecs Whe pecan investigations were first started by the
Florida Experiment Station about 1900, there were very
few budded or grafted orchards in the coeaercial pecan
belt. The information gained through investigations car-
ried out by the Florida Bxperiment Station has been large-
ly responsible for the development of the pecan industry
in northern and western Florida and in adjoining states.
There are now said to be 690,000 trees of improved varie-
ties of which 282,000 are of bearing age and 65,000 seed.
ling pocan trees in Florida. The production of nuts has
increased until it is now in excess of one million pounds
Value of Crop annually. The largest yield so far obtained in Florida
was the crop of 1928, two million pounds. The growth and
development of this industry has been very closely cor-
related with the pecan investigations of the Florida Ex-
Through cooperation with the world's largest manufac-
turer of orange marmalade, the suitability of Florida
sour oranges in place of Spanish sour oranges has been es-
tablished. This has brought a demand for bright Florida
sour oranges and several carloads were shipped this past
season* Larger amounts have been contracted for the next
year. This opens the way for the eMpansion of citrus
production along an entirely new line,
Work on the composition and maturity of avocados dur-
ing the last two years has furnished the first large amount
of reliable and complete information concerning the com-
position of Florida avoceads and has opened the way to the
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down of citrus
Value of copper
development of a workable maturity standard. The rela-
tion of composition to the maturity of the fruit has been
worked out for most of the standard varieties. The re-
lationship of storage temperature to the keeping of avo-
cados and the development of blackening in the pulp is be-
ing worked out and the cause of much of the difficulty in
the shipping of certain varieties has been determined
For a few months an experimental cold storage plant
has been in operation at the szperiment Station. Work
has been started to determine the best taeratures for
keeping citrus and other florida fruits, the effects of
environmental factors, type of wrappers, containers, and
methods of handling on keeping quality. It has been de-
monstrated that an internal breakdown is due to tight
packing of fruit. Relationships between tmperature and
storage pitting have been worked out. The great poten-
tial value of frozen tangerine juice has been demonstrated.
The Youngberry has been found to offer an extremely fine
frozen product and information on the value of various sy-
rup concentrations necessary for freezing both oungber-
ries and Florida strawberries has been worked out. This
line of work for which there is no appropriation is open-
ing up avenues of research that have great potential value
to the state at a time when every assistance must be given
to the profitable marketing of florida products.
heantry ad ils
Just as soon as the lands of the Everglades were drain.
ed, difficulties were encountered in producing crops on
many of them. The Zverglades Xzperiment Station was es-
tablished by an Act of the Legislature and investigations
undertaken as to why these soils were not productive and
how they might be made so.
It has been shown that through the use of mapnganse
and copper sulphate the drained soils become highly pro-
ductive. It is safe to say that practically every ton of
commercial fertilizer shipped for use in the Everglades
and adjacent areas carries in it the quantity of either
or both manganese and copper necessary for crop produc-
tion when applied to the soils. By the use of these ma-
terials, less than one hundred thiosand acres of produc-
tive soil can be increased to one million aeres or more
and the difficulties encountered in growing crops on them
overcome cheaply. It ti difficult to grasp the tremen.
dous value to the state of Florida of this work done by
the IEverglages Station.
!!ert ills or
In cooperation with the Federal Department of Agri-
culture,- experiments carried on in the Homestead seo-
tion have shown that the use of fifty pounds of ma baenae
will overcome poor yields and crop failures in a gteat
majority of cases. Since this discovery there has been
a tremendous increase in the acreage devoted to vegetable
crops with increased returns to the grower.
Studies on the use of and benefits to be derived from
cover crops in citrus groves have indicated new ways and
methods for handling them resulting in great savings to
the citrus grower through the cutting down of plowing and
harrowing costs. It is difficult to estimate the savings
in dollars and cents due to these studies, but they are
Fertilizer experiments along many different lines in
the cultivation of citrus and truck crops "re under way.
On account of the length of life of the plants involved,
it takes many years to demonstrate the effects of ditfr.-
ant fertilizer combinations on the growth of many plants
and crops produced. There is every indication, however,
that the results of these experiments may be far reaching
in their effect on Florida agriculture.
Agricultural ZoonID nic
Research work in agricultural economics became possi-
ble at the Florida Experiment Station just a few years a-
go through funds provided by the Federal government. The
aim of this work is to find ways and means that will im-
prove the net income of the farmers of the state. The
quickest Imown means of rendering this assistance to farm-
ers is by finding what the incomes of the farmers actual-
ly are and then analyzing them to find the principal fac-
tors which determine success or failure. This is done
through careful studies of the operations of a large num-
ber of farmers engaged in particular types of farming.
The information as to each farm is secr'ed from the owner
or operator and includes a complete study of all operations,
costs, capital invested, and farm income. Prom a copara-
tive analysis of many such studies the worker can deter-
mine what factors are most important in the profitable
operation of farms of a particular type and what factors
tend to unprofitable operations.
A number of studies have already been completed by
- 15 -
workers in this field and the results published in Sta,-
tion bulletinse The importance of those studies in help-
ing our farmers adjust their -ork and methods to improve
the net income from their operations can be judged from
one or two brief references:
from a number of studies with different types of Flori-
da farms, it eas found that if the size or volume of busi-
ness of all farms be increased to that of the 10% to 25
most efficient farma, the increased income per farm would
be $1105, on the basis of past values. This would mean
millions of dollars of increased income to our farmers and
it is a result that can be gradually brought about as our
farmers learn the results of these studies and appreciate
the value of conducting their operations on the basis doe
monstrated as most practical and profitable.
A study of the relation of grade and staple to the price
of cotton gro n in Florida indicated that local buyers
failed to pay farmers the premiums they should receive for
the better grades and staples; This action on the part
of the buyers is having the effect of retarding any ten-
dency the farmers might have to improve the grade and sta-
ple in this state. If corrected so that the farmers re-
ceived this premium, it would likely add to the cotton
income of the state about $2.00 pr bale, or $50,000.00
A study of the methods of harvesting potatoes in the
Hastings area indicated that the 25% of the farmers hav-
ing the lowest cost, not including barrels, harvested
them at approximately 30# per barrel, while it cost the
other 75 approximately 400 per barrel. With an average
production of potatoes for the state, this wduld amount
to approximately $70,000 per year if all the farmers should
lower their cost of harvesting to that of 30J per barrel.
A study of the cost of handling citrus fruit from the
tree to the car reveals that if 78 of the packing houses
were as efficient as the remaining 22%, a saving in hand.
ling of citrus fruit would cmouht to $1,370500 on a
25,000,000 box crop (Pforida Sta. rl. 202).
A study of citrus fruit freight rates shows that the
freight rate on Florida citrus fruit since 1914 has been
increased 9% more than the freight rate on California
citrus fruit, If the florida rate could be placed on a
par with the California rate it would mean a saving of
$2,125,000 per year on a 25,000,000 box crop. (Florida
Sta. Bl. 217).
As this work progresses it d7ill provide an ever in-
creasing fund of kaoledge relative to the business side
of farming which o=u farmers lill use in putting their
operations pon a more profitable and permanent basis.
- 17 -
At this time research is under way on more than 147 projects and there is
pressing ldemad for the investigation of many additional problems. Some idea
of the scope of the research work may be gained by reading the following list
taken from the qRport of the Florida Agricultural experiment Station for the
fiscal year ending une 30, 1930,
meaasimauis g Nam lt &RiAW
Agricultural 73 Agricultural Survey of Some 500 larm in the
Eooaomics General Farming Region of Northwest lorida
103 A Study of the Cost of Transportation of Florida
Fruits with Comparative Costs from Other States
and Foreign Countries
104 An Zoonoio Study of Dairy Farming in Florida
121 Cotton Grade and Staple Zstifates and Primary
Market Price Study
123 A Study of Florida Truc; Crop Conpetition
134 3eonomic Study of the Pecan Industry in Florida
154 Farmers' Cooperative Associations in Florida
Agronomy 16 Peanut and Corn Pertiliser Experiments
80 Plant Breeding Peanuts
27 Pasture 2xperimants
4. an and Golf Grass Studies
43 effect of eand-laster r Gpumpn on Ray and Seed
Production of Peanut Varieties
53 Winter Legume Studies
54 Summer Cover Crop Studies
55 Crop Rotation Studies with Corn, Velvet Beans,
Sweet Potatoes and Peanuts
56 Variety Test Work with anm Crops
97 Sources of Nitrogen and Bates of Aplication of
Nitrogen from the Different Sources as TVp
Dressing for Oats
98 Green Manure Studies
99 Growth behavior and Composition of Transplanted
Bahia Grass and Bahia Grass Under Pasture
100 Growth Behavior of Bahia Grass
105 Ilprovement of Corn Through Selection and
106. Effect of Time of Planting of Corn on Forae and
107 Crop Adaptation Tests
120 fertilisation of Pasture Grasses
138 The Effect of Potash on the Yield and Quality
153 Date of Seeding and Phosphate Requirements of
Winter Legumes and Their Effect Upon Subsequent
158 Lysiester Studies on Pasture Grasses
Na. f .A.oMAt
Batio of Organic to Inorganic Nitrogen in
Mixed ,ertilisers for Cotton
Corn fertilizer 3xperimnts
Kidney Worm of Swinm
Paralysis of the Dometie Fowl
The Cost of I~itering Steers Prepaoaory to
Summer Fatteing on Pasture
Deficiencies in Feeds Used in Cattle Rations
Sohbean Silage for airy Cows
Cooparisons of Various Grazing c rP 7itr.Bry Let
Feeding for Poiz Production
The Value of Grasing for Fattening Cattle in
Relation of Coenfrmation and Aatoemy of the
Dairy Cow to Ner Milk and Butterifat ProA-Ution
Anapss*oei8s in- Cattle
Fattening Fall Pigs for spring Mas*et
Dieback of Citrus
Determination of the Effect of Varying Awunts
of Potash on the Copoesition and Yield and
Quality of the Crop
Determination of the Fertilizer Reqireqmen*
of Satsuma Oranges
Determination of the ffect of VariowfP tash
Carriers on Growth, Yield and Composition of
Study of Fertilizsr Requirements of Citrus Trees
when Grown on Muck Soils
OosyetgRon of Crops as Influenced by Fertil-
ization and Soil Typeos-4ecans
To Determine the Cause of Poor Crep Gro4th Due
to LiTdng Sandy Soils
Effect of Varioas Fertiliser Formalas
Concentrated Fertilizer Studies
Determination of the Effect of Green Manures on
the Composition of the Soil
Effect of Varioou Fertiliser treatments and of
Soil Amendments on. Tomatee
Effect of Fertilizers and Soils on Coepostion
of Trunk Crops
Study of Iodine Content of Florida Grown Crope
A Study of the DeoMposition of Forest, eane
and Pasture Growth to Form Soil Organio Master
Variety Testing and Breeding
Field Tests with Cottonx-^pacing and Time of
Control of Cotton Insects
Cotton hyiology~-.otton Rust
Cotton Diseases-40eedling Diseases
Cotton Diseases-Cotton Wilt
- i8 .
Cotton Physiology--Nutrition and Growth
Studies in Inheritance of Cotton
- 19 -
Velvet Bean Insects-Life History Studies and
Control of the Velvet Bean Caterpillar
Florida Flower Thrips
Introduction and Study of Beneficial Insects
Larger Plant lugs on Citrus and Trudc Crops
Studies of the Bean Jassid
The Greon Citfus phid (Ap id a ca)
Control of Deciduous rdat and Nut Orop Insects
Life History Studies. of na .ri
L.,t the Roah Which is the Iemediate Hoasof
Green Spider (atnarafchus bacnatna ) on
Insects of Ornamentals
Insects and Other Animal Posts of Watermelons
Determination and Identification of Organisms
which Cause the Spoilage of Canned Vegetables in
Determination of whether Chlorophyll, Chlor1phyll
Alpha and Beta, the Petroleum Ether Extracts of
the Yellow Pigments of Alfalfa, can be Used as a
Source of Vitamin A in Animal Nutrition
A Study of Some of the Constituents of Citrus
Fruits, Loquats, Roselle, and Goava: Pectin,
Oils and Glucoeides
The Determination of the Nutritional Status of
Rural School Children in Five Ropresentative
Counties in Florida
The Relation of Growth to Phosphorus, Calci's
and Lipin Metabolism as Influenced by the Thyus
Field Studies of the Diseases Affecting the Peoan
Including Control Measures
Field Studies of the Insects Attacking the Peoan
Including Control Measures
Variety Responae of Pecans to Different Soil
Types, Localities, etc,
Cooperative Yertilisz T*ests in Pecan Orchards
Variety and Stqck Tests of Pean and Walnut Trees
Variety Tests of Grapes
Propagating Planting and Fertiliing Tests with
Observation and Testing of Various Citrus Hybrid
Testing of Native and Introduced Shrubs and
Ornamentals and MLethods of Their Propgation
Variety, Propagation and Planting Tests of Pear,
Avocado, Japanese Persim n, pig and Other Fruits
-0 *. -
Variety Tests of Berries ( As s.= )
Cooperative Cover Crop Tests in Pecan Orchards
Testa of Different Stocks as Bootstocks for
Phehological Studies on Trmak Crops in i1,rMta
Fundamental Phystology of Fruit Prodtictio
Avocado Uaturity Studies
Rejuvenation 3Vperiments with Neglected Pecan
Research in Pumigation and Sterilization Methods
iulch Paper Investigations
Gunming of Citrus
Uelanose and Stemkand Rot of Citrus
Investigation of Pecan Dieases-Peoan Scab
Dowrtilldew of Cucrbits
Citrus Scab and Its Control
Control of Donny Mildew of Cucurbits and Other
Citrus Blight, or Chronic fTTlt
Diseases of Citrus Aphids
Tailhead Spot of Tomatoes-Control
Corn Disease Investigations
Nailhead Spot of Toiatoesu*-0aese
Investigations Relative .to Certain Diseases of
Strawberries of Importance to Floida
Investigation upon the Anthracnose Disease of
Investigation upon the French Bud, Criaps, or
Briar Bud Disease of Strawberries
Investigations of Diseases of lhite Potatoes
Control of Late Blight of Irish Potatoes
Rhisoctonosis, Scurf and Little Potato
Investigation of Brown Rot of Potatoes and Related
Plants Caused by BMcteri solancarAm PFS
Investigation of and Control of a Fungous Disease
of Tomatoes Caused by StIEmfli
Investigation and Control of a Disease of Corn
Caused by PZWaftderm a sene-jOar
Investigation of Seedling, Stalk and Ear Ret
Diseases of Corn Caused by Dialodta PPe
Investigation of Seedling, Stalk and Sar Rot
Diseases of Corn Caused by Sarism
Investigations of Diseases of erna and Ornamental
Pusari~m Milt of Watermelons
Diseases of Watermelons