Group Title: NFES mimeo rpt.
Title: Steer fattening experiment at the North Florida Experiment Station
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00090261/00001
 Material Information
Title: Steer fattening experiment at the North Florida Experiment Station
Series Title: North Florida Station mimeo report - North Florida Experiment Station ; 59-3
Physical Description: 11 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Baker, F. S. ( Frank Sloan ), 1921-
Holmes, Elwyn S.
Publisher: North Florida Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Quincy, Fla.
Publication Date: February 24, 1959
Copyright Date: 1959
 Subjects
Subject: Cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by F.S. Baker, Jr. and Elwyn Holmes.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "February 24, 1959."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090261
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 251509273

Full Text



NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION /9 '1
Quincy, Florida \
February 24, 1959 \9.

NFES Mimeo Rpt. 59-3

STEER FATTENING EXPERIMENT AT THE NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
by F. S. Baker, Jr. and Elwyn Holmes

SUMMARY

For the second summer, fattening steers under a fan in a well-ventilated barn
yielded slightly heavier carcasses and had a slightly greater ($3.77) net return
than control steers without a fan. Cattle under the fan drank less water. Because
of the small difference in performance of the two groups, more work is needed before
the use of a fan can be recommended.

In contrast to previous results, steers implanted with 36 mg. stilbestrol
gained faster than those with 1000 mg. progesterone-20 mg. estradiol (Synovex) im-
plants.

Steers fed 2.5 mg. hydroxyzine (Tran Q) per head daily gained about the same
as the control cattle, but steers fed 5.0 mg. hydroxyzine per head daily gained
slightly less than either those fed 2.5 mg. or the controls.

Feeding 1.5 grams Dynafac per head daily did not improve feedlot performance
or carcasses of steers.

In the first test at this Station, steers fed Tapazole (methimazole) at the
rate of 600 mg. per head daily gained faster and more economically, yielded heavier
carcasses, and had a higher net return than control cattle without Tapazole. Both
groups were implanted with 36 mg. stilbestrol.

In the first trial at the North Florida Station, steers fed soybean oil meal
gained faster and more economically, yielded heavier carcasses, graded higher, and
had a higher net return than comparable cattle fed cottonseed meal as the protein
supplement.



INTRODUCTION

In a summer fattening trial in 1957, feeding steers in a well-ventilated barn
under a fan gave only slightly better results than feeding in the same barn without
a fan1.

Three tests comparing stilbestrol and progesterone-estradiol (Synovex) implants
for fattening steers in dry lot have indicated that the Synovex is just as effective
and possibly slightly superior to stilbestrol2.

Adding 2.5 mg. hydroxyzine (Tran Q) per head daily to a fattening ration gave
promising but inconclusive results in the first trial at the North Florida Experi-
ment Station At Purdue a response to hydroxyzine was obtained when stilbestrol
was implanted and terramycin was fed3 but no benefit without the stilbestrol and
terramycin. Oklahoma work and research by industry (Pfizer) indicate that stil-


1 Baker, F. S. Jr. and E. Holmes. 1957. NFES Mimeo Rpt. 58-2.
2 Baker, F. S. Jr. 1958. NFES Mimeo Rpt. 59-1.
3 Beeson W. M., et al. 1958. Purdue Mimeo A. H. 229.





*NFES Mimeo Rpt. 59-3 continued.


bestrol but not terramycin is needed to get a response to hydroxyzine4. The Pfizer
experiments have failed to show a close relationship between response and dosage
level of hydroxyzine. In the Purdue and the North Florida trials, however, the 2.5
mg. level of hydroxyzine gave better results than 5.0 mg. per head daily.

Adding tetra alkylammonium stearate (Dynafac) to fattening rations hal re-
sulted in little or no improvement in results in two trials at this Station' ,
although work elsewhere has shown a definite benefit of this additive with fatten-
ing cattle7.

Methimazole or Tapazole, a compound which lowers thyroid activity, has re-
cently received attention as a possible additive to fattening rations. Work at
Iowa State with levels of 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg. per head daily of Tapazole
resulted in increased gain, lower feed cost, greater profit, and no change in car-
cass quality Furthermore the benefits of Tapazole and stilbestrol appeared to
be additive. The greatest response was obtained the first month, and the 600 mg.
level gave better results than 300 mg.

Morrison9 in summarizing the results of 20 fattening experiments concluded
that soybean oil meal was worth 28 percent more per ton than cottonseed meal. In
contrast a recent Illinois test indicated little clear evidence of superiority for
any one oil meall0. Because the soybean meal is becoming more competitive in price
to cottonseed meal in the Southeast, it seemed timely to compare the two as sources
of protein in the type of fattening ration fed locally.

PROCEDURE

Sixty-four medium to good quality yearling steers were selected from a past-
ure in Leon County and divided into eight groups as equally as possible. The steers
were predominantly of British breeding, although a few head of the plainer cattle
showed evidence of a small amount of dairy blood.

Following were the treatments of the various groups:

Lot 1. Artificial air from fan when temperature exceeded 750 F in barn.
Lot 2. Control.
Lot 3. 1000 mg. progesterone-20 mg. estradiol (Synovex) implant.
Lot 4. 2.5 mg. hydroxyzine (Tran Q) per head daily in feed.
Lot 5. 5.0 mg. hydroxyzine (Tran Q) per head daily in feed.
Lot 6. 1.5 grams tetra alkylammonium stearate (Dynafac) per head
daily in feed.
Lot 7. 600 mg. methimazole (Tapazole) per head daily in feed.
Lot 8. 41% cottonseed meal as the protein supplement.

All steers with the exception of those in Lot 3 received a 36 mg. stilbestrol
ear implant at the beginning of the trial. As shown, the Lot 3 cattle were im-
planted with Synovex.

The cattle were fed a ration composed of ground snapped corn (full-fed accord-
ing to appetite); 3.0 pounds citrus molasses; 2.5 pounds 44% soybean oil meal (with


4 Hale, W. H. 1958. Proc. 6th. An. Pfizer Res. Conf.
5 See footnote 1, page 1.
6 See footnote 2, page 1.
7 Dyer, I. A. and J. McGregor. 1957. J. An. Sci. 16:1034.
Armour's Analysis, March, 1957.
8 Burroughs, Wise, et al. 1958. Ia. Apr. Exp. Sta. A. H. Lflt. 229.
9 Morrison, F. B. 1956. Feeds and Feeding. 22nd. ed.: 470.
10 Webb, R. J. et al. 1958. Ill. Cattle Feeders Day Report.


-2-





NFES Mimeo Rpt. 59-3 continued.


exception of Lot 8); Coastal Bermudagrass hay, self-fed; and salt and steamed bone-
meal, free choice. Lot 8 was given 41% cottonseed meal as the protein supplement.

All lots were confined to dry lot in a well-ventilated barn.

The steers were individually numbered and weighed. Actual weights at the
feedlot without shrink were used as initial weights. Final weights were taken after
trucking 3 miles to Quincy and actual weights were shrunk three percent. Final
shrunk weights were used in calculating gains, carcass yields, and sales returns.

All cattle were slaughtered the same day and a few hours after removal from
the feedlot. To avoid any bias in grading, the carcasses could not be assigned to
the original experimental groups until traced back through serial numbers, as the
carcasses were not sorted into experimental groups on the rail. Composite grades
by Experiment Station and packing house personnel and a U. S. grader are reported.
The cattle were ribbed and notes on marbling were considered in determining grades.
Carcass weights are warm weights less 2.5 percent. Sale prices are actual prices
received for carcasses.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Air Movement by Fan.- Table 1-580 gives the results of this test. As in the
preceding triali-, the cattle under the fan made about the same gain as the control
group without the fan. A slightly higher carcass yield by the fan steers (Lot 1)
resulted in $3M77 more net return per head which was similar to the first years'
results. Although the cost of operating the fan was deducted in calculating the
net return, the difference in favor of the fan steers was so small that more work
is needed before the use of a fan can be recommended in steer feeding barns in this
area.

As shown in Table 9-580, steers under the fan drank less water than those
without the fan. The mean air temperature for the period was approximately 800 F.

Hormone Implants.- Results of the comparison of 36 mg. stilbestrol and 1000
mg. progesterone-20 mg. estradiol (Synovex) implants are shown in Table 2-580. Un-
like results in previous trials 12, steers with stilbestrol implants made larger
and cheaper gains than Synovex implanted cattle. It should be noted, however, that
the Synovex group (Lot 3) yielded higher and as a result there was not as much dif-
ference in carcass weights of Lots 2 and 3 as there was in final on-foot weights of
the two lots. Moreover, because of the higher sale value per cwt., the Synovex
steers had a net return of only $3.54 per head less than the stilbestrol (Lot 2)
cattle. It should also be pointed out that all steers in Lot 2 made satisfactory
gains while three cattle in the Synovex group gained somewhat below average, there-
by contributing to the relatively low gain made by Lot 3.

Tranauilizer (hydroxvzine or Tran Q) in Fattening Ration.- In Contrast to pre-
vious results", hydroxyzine (Tran Q) did not improve performance of fattening
steers (Table 3-580). As in the preceding trial, 2.5 mg. per head daily of hydroxy-
zine gave slightly better results than the 5.0 mg. level of the tranquilizing agent.

Dynafac tetraa alkylammonium stearate) in the Ration.- As shown in Table
4-580, steers fed Dynafac (Lot 6) did not gain as well as the controls (Lot 2).
Two low-gaining individuals rather than lower gains by all steers contributed to
the lower average gain made by Lot 6 as compared with that of Lot 2.


11 See footnote 1, page 1.
12 See footnote 2, page 1.


-3-









Table 1-580.


Air Movement by Fan for


Fattening Steers


Lot 1
Fan Ventilation


Number head
Number days
Average initial weight
Average final weight
Average gain
Average daily gain

Average daily ration:


Ground snapped corn
Citrus molasses
44% soybean oil meal
Coastal Bermudagrass hay


Feed per 100 pounds gain:


Concentrates
Hay
Minerals (salt & bonemeal)
*Cost


Carcass and financial data:


Average sale weight
Average carcass weight
Average carcass yield (percent)
Carcass grades


915
544
59.49

1 high good
2 ave. good
5 low good


909
535
58.80

1 high good
4 ave. good
2 low good
1 high std.


Market value per cwt. carcasses
Market value per cwt. on foot
Average cost cwt. feeder steer
Average cost per head feeder steer
*Average feed cost
Average cost cattle and feed
Gross return per steer
Average net return above cattle & feed

* Includes cost of operating fan.


-4-


8
92
681
915
234
2.55


Lot 2
Control

8
92
681
909
228
2.48


18.67
2.98
2.49
1.77


18.61
2.98
2.49
1.80


948
69
2.6
$ 21.49


972
73
2.0
$ 21.37


$ 43.00
25.58
23.00
156.63
50.39
207.02
234.06
27.04


$ 42.77
25.15
23.00
156.63
48.71
205.34
228.61
23.27


Air Movement bv Fan for;








-5-
Table 2-580. Stilbestrol versus Progesterone-Estradiol (Synovex) Implant for
Fattening Steers.
Lot 2 Lot 3
36 mg. stilbestrol Synovex

Number head 8 8
Number days 92 92
Average initial weight 681 682
Average final weight 909 869
Average gain 228 188
Average daily gain 2.48 2.04

Average daily ration:

Ground snapped corn 18.61 17.48
Citrus molasses 2.98 2.98
44% soybean oil meal 2.49 2.49
Coastal Bermudagrass hay 1.80 2.00

Feed per 100 pounds gain:

Concentrates 972 1126
Hay 73 98
Minerals (salt & bonemeal) 2.0 2.9
Cost $ 21.37 $ 25.85

Carcass and financial data:

Average sale weight 909 869
Average carcass weight 535 524
Average carcass yield (percent) 58.80 60.27
Carcass grades --- 1 low choice
1 high good 2 high good
4 ave. good
2 low good 4 low good
1 high std.
1 ave. std.

Market value per cwt. carcasses $ 42.77 $ 42.97
Market value per cwt. on foot 25.15 25.90
Average cost cwt. feeder steer 23.00 23.00
Average cost per head feeder steer 156.63 156.86
Average feed cost 48.71 48.48
Average cost cattle and feed 205.34 205.34
Gross return per steer 228.61 225.07
Average net return above cattle & feed 23.27 19.73










Table 3-580.


Tranquilizer (hydroxyzine) in a Fattening Ration.


Number head
Number days
Average initial weight
Average final weight
Average gain
Average daily gain

Average daily ration:

Ground snapped corn
Citrus molasses
44% soybean oil meal
Coastal Bermudagrass hay

Feed per 100 pounds gain:

Concentrates
Hay
Minerals (salt & bonemeal)
Cost

Carcass and financial data:

Average sale weight
Average carcass weight
Average carcass yield (percent)
Carcass grades


Lot. 2
Control


8
92
681
909
228
2.48


18.61
2.98
2.49
1.80


972
73
2.0
$ 21.37


909
535
58.80
1 high good
4 ave. good
2 low good
1 high std.


Lot 4
2.5 mg.
hydroxyzine


8
92
683
909
227
2.46


19.59
2.98 -
2.49
1.80


1017
73
2.0
$ 22.34


909
543
59.67


6 low good
2 high std.


Lot 5
5.0 mg.
hydroxytine


8
92
679
894
216
2.34


17.69
2.98
2.49
1.74


989
74
1.7
$ 21.97


894
527
58.97
1 high good
1 ave. good
3 low good
3 high std.


Market value cwt. carcasses
Market value cwt. on foot
Average cost cwt. feeder steer
Average cost head feeder steer
Average feed cost
Ave. cost cattle and feed
Gross return per steer
Ave. net return above cattle &


$ 42.77
25.15
23.00
156.63
48.71
205.34
228.61
feed 23.27


-6-


$ 42.47
25.34
23.00
157.09
50.66
207.75
230.34
22.59


$ 42.30
24.95
23.00
156.17
47.31
203.48
223.05
19.57







Dynafac in a Fattening Ration.


Number head
Number days
Average initial weight
Average final weight
Average gain
Average daily gain

Average daily ration:


Lot 2
Control

8
92
681
909
228
2.48


Lot 6
1.5 gm. Dynafac

8
92
680
882
201
2.19


Ground snapped corn
Citrus molasses
44% soybean oil meal
Coastal Bermudagrass hay

Feed per 100 pounds gain:

Concentrates
Hay
Minerals (salt & bonemeal)
Cost

Carcass and financial data:

Average sale weight
Average carcass weight
Average carcass yield (percent)
Carcass grades


18.61
2.98
2.49
1.80


972
73
2.0
$ 21.37


909
535
58.80
1 high good
4 ave. good
2 low good
1 high std.


17.15
2.98
2.49
2.46


1033
112
2.7
$ 23.37


882
518
58.75
1 high good
1 ave. good
5 low good
1 high std.


Market value cwt. carcasses
Market value cwt. on foot
Average cost cwt. feeder steer
Average cost head feeder steer
Average feed cost
Average cost cattle and feed
Gross return per steer
Average net return above cattle and feed


$ 42.77
25.15
23.00
156.63
48.71
205.34
228.61
23.27


$ 42.94
25.23
23.00
156.40
47.10
203.50
222.53
19.03


Table 4-580:









NFES Mimeo Rpt. 59-3 continued.


Tapazole for Fattening Steers.- Feeding 600 mg. Tapazole per head daily re-
sulted in increased gain, cheaper ($3.42 cwt.) gain, a heavier carcass, and higher
($11.44) net return per steer as compared with control steers not fed Tapazole
(Table 5-580). It should be noted that both groups had 36 mg. stilbestrol implants
at the beginning of the fattening period.

Results of this trial closely agree with those from an Iowa State test13. As
in the Iowa experiment, the Tapazole-fed steers gradually declined in feed consump-
tion during the feeding period. The Tapazole steers (Table 5-580) ate an average
of 1.5 pounds per head daily less corn than the control cattle, but toward the end
of the 92-day period, the Tapazole cattle were eating about 4 pounds per day less.
Tapazole apparently did not affect carcass grade, which also agrees with Iowa re-
sults for a relatively short (92-day) feeding period. The Tapazole cattle did
appear somewhat fatter on foot prior to slaughter, however.

Comparison of Soybean Oil Meal and Cottonseed Meal as a Protein Supplement.-
As shown in Table 6-580, cattle fed soybean oil meal as the protein supplement
gained faster with about the same feed intake and graded slightly higher than steers
fed cottonseed meal. The difference in net return was $10.63 per head in favor of
the steers on soybean meal which lends support to the statement by Morrison14 that
soybean oil meal is worth considerably more per ton than cottonseed meal. It should
be emphasized, however, that this is the first comparison made at this Station with
the type ration being fed in this area. More work is needed before recommendations
can be made.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Mr. James M6 Alford, Tallahassee, furnished the cattle for this experiment.

The following firms supplied products used in the feeding trial:

The Squibb Institute of Medical Research, New Brunswick, New Jersey.
Chas. Pfizer and Co., Terre Haute, Ind.
Eli Lilly & Co., Greenfield, Ind.
McKesson & Robbins, Inc., New York, N. Y.
Armour & Co., Chicago, Ill.



13 See footnote 8, page 2.
14 See footnote 9, page 2.



FSB
2/24/59
400 cc









Table 5-580: Tapazole for Fattening Steers,




Number head
Number days
Average initial weight
Average final weight
Average gain
Average daily gain

Average daily ration:

Ground snapped corn
Citrus molasses
44% soybean oil meal
Coastal Bermudagrass hay

Feed per 100 pounds gain:

Concentrates
Hay
Minerals (salt & bonemeal)
*Cost

Carcass and financial data:

Average sale weight
Average carcass weight
Average carcass yield (percent)
Carcass grades


Lot 2
Control

8
92
681
909
228
2.48


18.61
2.98
2.49
1.80


972
73
2.0
$ 21.37


909
535
58.80
1 high good
4 ave. good
2 low good
1-high std.


Lot 7
600 mg. Tapazole

8
92
681
942
261
2.83


17.09
2.98
2.49
2.77


796
98
1.6
$ 17.95


942
559
59.41
2 high good

4 low good
1 high std.

1 low std.


Market value per cwt. carcasses
Market value per cwt. on foot
Average cost cwt. feeder steer
Average cost per head feeder steer
*Average feed cost
Average cost cattle and feed
Gross return per steer
Average net return above cattle and feed


* Excluding cost of Tapazole, for which no price has been set.


$ 42.77
25.15
23.00
156.63
48.71
205.34
228.61
23.27


$ 42.54
25.28
23.00
156.63
46.80
203.43
238.14
34.71









Table 6-580:


Soybean Oil Meal


versus Cottonseed Meal as a
Fattening Steers.


Lot 2
44% Soybean Oil Meal


-10-
Protein Supplement for


Lot 8
41% Cottonseed Meal


Number head
Number days
Average initial weight
Average final weight
Average gain
Average daily gain

Average daily ration:


Ground snapped corn
Citrus molasses
Protein supplement
Coastal Bermudagrass hay


Feed per 100 pounds gain:


Concentrates
Hay
Minerals (salt & bonemeal)
Cost


Carcass and financial data:


Average sale weight
Average carcass weight
Average carcass yield (percent)
Carcass grades


909
535
58.80
1 high good
4 ave. good
2 low good
1 high std.


889
519
58.42
1 high good

3 low good
4 high std.


Market value per cwt. carcasses $ 42.77
Market value per cwt. on foot 25.15
Average cost cwt. feeder steer 23.00
Average cost per head feeder steer 156.63
Average feed cost 48.71
Average cost cattle and feed 205.34
Gross return per steer 228.61
Average net return above cattle & feed 23.27


8
92
681
909
228
2.48


8
92
678
889
211
2.29


18.61
2.98
2.49
1.80


18.82
2.98
2.49
2.85


972
73
2.0
$ 21.37


1060
124
1.9
$ 23.73


$ 42.09
24.59
23.00
155.94
50.03
205.97
218.61
12.64









able 7-580. Feed Prices


Ground snapped corn
Citrus molasses
44% soybean oil meal
41% cottonseed meal
Coastal Bermudagrass hay
Salt
Steamed bonemeal
Stilbestrol implants
Synovex implants
Dynafac
Tran Q
Tapazole
Fan Cost


-11-
Used (including implants, additives, and cost of fan).


Per Ton

$ 40.00
28.00
76.00
76.00
20.00
36.00
100.00


0.10/36 mg.
1.75/each
1.45/lb.
0.80/gram
Not established
1.52/steer


able A-580. Prices Received for Carcasses.
Price per Cwt.
U. S. Choice $ 44.50
U. S. Good 43.00
I U. S. Standard 41.00


9-580. Water Consumption of Steers in Dry Lot, 1958.

: Water per Head per Day
DATES : Lot 1 Lot 2
From To : Artificial Air :Control
: Gal. Lbs. Gal. Lbs.
8-25 8-26 8.75 72.9 10.00 83.3
8-27 2-28 11.88 98.9 13.13 109.4
8-28 8-29 12.81 106.7 16.56 137.9
9-1 9-2 13.44 112.0 13.44 112.0
9-3 9-4 13.75 114.5 14.69 122.4
9-4 9-5 12.81 106.7 14.38 119.9
9-8 9=9 10.31 85.9 ----- --
9-9 9-10 11.56 96.3 15.94 132.8
9-10 9-11 -- --- 16.25 135.4
9-11 9-12 11.56 96.3 15.63 130.2

Averages 11.88 98.9 14.44 120.3




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