Group Title: NFES mimeo report
Title: Phytotoxicity of certain insecticides, fungicides and a diluent to shade tobacco seedlings in the plant bed
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00090260/00001
 Material Information
Title: Phytotoxicity of certain insecticides, fungicides and a diluent to shade tobacco seedlings in the plant bed
Series Title: North Florida Station mimeo report - North Florida Experiment Station ; 59-4
Physical Description: 2, 2 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Tappan, William B., 1928-
Publisher: North Florida Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Quincy, Fla.
Publication Date: June 18, 1959
Copyright Date: 1959
 Subjects
Subject: Entomology -- Research   ( lcsh )
Tobacco -- Effect of pesticides on   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by William B. Tappan.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "June 18, 1959."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090260
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 251506868

Full Text
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station

JULY 2 0 1959 LIBRARYY
NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Quincy, Florida

June 18, 1959

FES Mimeo Report 59-4

PHYTOTOXICITY OF CERTAIN INSECTICIDES, FUNGICIDES AND A DILUENT
TO SHADE TOBACCO SEEDLINGS IN THE PLANT BED

by William B. Tappan
Assistant Entomologist


This study was undertaken in cooperation with the United States Department of
Agriculture and State Plant Board of Florida2 to determine the phytotoxic effect
of certain insecticides, fungicides and a diluent when applied on shade tobacco
seedlings in the plant bed.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The study was made in two parts. Plots, 36 x 52 inches, in Part I were sown
with Dixie Shade tobacco seeds and were located in the "bug" plant bed. The bed
was enclosed with a cheese cloth covering, which provided some degree of protection
and shade for the young seedlings. Seven dust treatments and an untreated check
were replicated three times in randomized blocks. (See Table 1.) Three treatment
a plications were made at one-week intervals beginning March 9, 1959. To simulate
commercial plant bed dusting program, the rate of application was increased
Ta dually each week. The first week, 15 pounds per acre; the second week, 30
Junds per acre, and the third week, 45 pounds per acre of each treatment were
applied to the plots. All applications were made with a Model 415 Lowell plunger-
ype hand duster after the plants had reached a height of approximately 2 inches.
cloth dusting hood, 3 x 5 feet, was used to contain the dust on each plot during
application.

The amounts of test materials used at the various rates of application were
; follows:

Rate of Application Amount Used Per Plot

15 Ibs. per acre 2029 mg.
30 lbs. per acre 4058 mg.
45 Ibs. per acre 6087 mg.

Visual phytotoxicity readings were made at 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 7-day intervals
Ilowing applications. All readings were based on the rating system below:

0 No injury or stunting
1 Slight injury or slight stunting
2 Moderate injury or moderate stunting
3 Heavy injury or heavy stunting
4 Severe injury or severe stunting

S. Chamberlin, Entomologist and L. M. May, Biological Aid, United States
departmentt of Agriculture, Truck Crop Insect Laboratory, Quincy, Florida


. Foster, Inspector, State Plant Board of Florida, Quincy, Florida







-2-


Plots, 36 x 62 inches, in Part II were located in the "variety" plant bed.
The bed was sown with Dixie Shade tobacco seeds and was situated underneath a
cheese cloth covering. One granular formulation treatment at two rates and two
conditions of application and an untreated check were replicated three times in
randomized blocks. (See Table 1.) One treatment application was broadcast by hand
at rates of 20 (3.23 g. per plot) and 40 (4.46 g. per plot) pounds per acre on both
dry and wet plants. The plants in all plots were watered immediately prior to
application (April 29, 1959) to insure uniform wetness. Plots that were to be
treated wet were then treated. The other plots were allowed to dry before being
treated.

Phytotoxicity readings were made at 3- and 9-day intervals after application.
The readings were based on the same system as mentioned previously.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

There were no phytotoxic symptoms observed on any plot from dust treatments
in Part I of this study.

In Part II, the results showed that 5% Heptachlor granules caused slight
symptoms of chlorosis as early as three days after application. There was no
indication of phytotoxicity when the same material was applied to dry plants.
(See Table 2.) Observations showed that the granules did not adhere readily to
the dry tobacco seedlings, which was dependent somewhat upon distribution and
position of the leaves on the plants. However, wet plants readily retained the
granules wherever droplets of water were located on the upper surface of the
leaves. The granules almost immediately disintegrated in the droplets and spread
over the areas of the leaves covered by the droplets. It was on those portions of
of the leaves that phytotoxicity occurred. Under similar conditions in the tobacco
shades slight phytotoxicity apparently would result from applications of 5%
Heptachlor granules.

















WBT
6/18/59
100 cc










Table 1. Insecticides, fungicides and a


NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Quincy, Florida

diluent applied to shade tobacco seedlings for phytotoxicity studies.


Formulation : Formulator Diluent
:*


Dusts
1% Parathion 10% Sevin

1% Parathicn-- 1C% Sevin 3.5% Maneb

1% Parathion 2% Endrin 6.5% Zineb

0.5% Parathion 5% Thiodan-3.5% Maneb

5% Thiodan

1% Dimethoatea

Shade tobacco diluent

Granules
5% Heptachlor


Fla. Agricultural Supply Company

U. S. D. A.

Taylor Chemical Company

U. S. D. A.

U. S. D. A.

N. F. E. S.

Atlas Chemical Company


Thomas-Hayward Chemical Company


Fasco

Sterilized tobacco dust

Sterilized tobacco dust

Sterilized tobacco dust

Sterilized tobacco dust

Sterilized tobacco dust

Atlas


Attaclay


a Plots treated with 1% Dimethoate received only one application at 45 pounds per acre.







NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
QUINCY, FLORIDA

Table 2. Phytotoxicity of Heptachlor granules to shade tobacco seedlings in the plant bed.


: : Condition Phytoxicity Raing (Avg. 3 replicates
Treatment ; Rate of Application : ofPhytotoxicity Rating (Avg. 3 replicates)
: (Pounds per Acre) : Plants : 3 days :9 days

5% Heptachlor 20 Dry 0 0

20 Wet 1 1

40 Dry 0 0

40 Wet 1 1

Check Untreated Wet-Dry 0 0


a See under Materials and Methods.




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