Group Title: North Florida Station mimeo report
Title: Summer cooling of cattle in the feed lot
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00090258/00001
 Material Information
Title: Summer cooling of cattle in the feed lot
Series Title: North Florida Station mimeo report - North Florida Experiment Station ; 64-3
Physical Description: 2, 4 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Baker, F. S ( Frank Sloan ), 1921-
Holmes, Elwyn S
Publisher: North Florida Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Quincy, Fla.
Publication Date: September 3, 1963
Copyright Date: 1963
 Subjects
Subject: Cattle -- Climatic factors -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by F.S. Baker, Jr. and E.S. Holmes.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "September 3, 1963."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090258
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 251503351

Full Text
/ C) c)


NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Quincy, Florida

September 3, 1963

NORTH FLORIDA STATION MIMEO REPORT NFS64-3


SUMI:ER COOLING OF CATTLE IN THE FEED LOT

By F. S. Baker, Jr. and E. S. Holmes


Use of a fan when air temperature exceeded 750F with yearling steers on a fattening
ration in a well-ventilated barn did not affect gains in three previous trials.1 Carcasses
of cattle with the fan graded slightly but not significantly higher than control cattle
without a fan. In one of three trials, steers with the fan consumed more feed, and in the
only trial in which water intake was measured, cattle without the fan drank considerably
more,

PROCEDURE

Sixteen purebred Angus and Hereford yearling heifers from the Station herd were
divided as equally as possible into t:o groups. One group was placed in a lot in an open-
side, pole-type, aluminum-roof cattle feeding barn with a fan which operated when air
temperature exceeded 750F. The other group was in a similar pen in the same barn but had
no fan.

Following wka the ration fed:

Ground snapped corn full-fed according to appetite.
Citrus molasses 5.0 pounds per head daily.
41% cottonseed meal 2.5 pounds per head daily.
Coastal Dermzuda hay self-fed.
Salt and steamed bcnc-.eal free choice.

After starting on feed, the heifers wcre fed once daily all of the concentrates
they would clean-up in 24 hou-rs. Gound snapped corn and cottonseed meal were mixed each
day and fed in sufficient quantity to give the heifers all they would consume without day
to day accumulaticn. Citrus m olasses was p::-?ed on top of the grain mixture. Hay was
available at all times, and salt and steamed bonemeal were supplied free choice in a
two compartment box. No hormones or other additives were used.

The heifers were removed from Station pasture on June 29. They were individually
tagged and weighed on two consecutive days. Five percent shrink was deducted from the
off-pasture weights to place them on a market weight basis. Past experience has indicated
that cattle off Staticn pasture will shrink approximately 5 percent from pasture to local
market weight (2 percent actual shrink plus 3 percent calculated shrink deducted at market).
Final weights were taken at the Quincy packing plant and were shrunk 3 percent. Final
shrunk weights were used in calculating gains, carcass yields, and sales returns.

Carcasses were ribbed before grading and assigned to one-third grades by a U. S.
grader and packing plant and Experimcnt Station personnel. Degree of marbling was recorded.


Baker, F. S., Jr. and E. S. Holmes. NFES Mimeo. Rpts. 58-2 (1958) and 59-3 (1959).
North Fla. Exp. Sta. Prog. Rpt. 1931.








-2-


Carcass weights were hot weights less 2 1/2 percent. Sale prices were actual prices
received for carcasses, and Table 5 shows prices of the different grades of carcasses.

Table 4 gives the costs of the various feeds used.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 1 shows the average performance, carcass characteristics, and financial
results of the two groups of heifers; table 2 gives individual weight and carcass data.

Heifers with the fan gained considerably faster, yielded heavier carcasses, and
had a higher net return than heifers without the fan. The fan group consumed more feed
and gained more efficiently. Carcass grade and degree of marbling did not differ for
the two groups.

Neither mean monthly temperatures, average temperatures for the entire trial,
nor number of days with temperatures higher than 900F reveal any reason for the gain
response to the use of a fan in 1962, in contrast to preceding trials (Table 3). Number
of hours above 800 to 900 were not recorded and possibly were greater in 1962, resulting
in more response to use of the fan. Although there undoubtedly is no sex difference in
response to the fan, it should be noted that heifers were used in 1962, while steers were
used in previous trials.

SUMMARY

In contrast to results of three previous steer fattening trials, yearling heifers
in a pole-type cattle barn with a fan which operated when the temperature exceeded 750F
gained 0.46 pound per head daily faster, with an improvement of 10 percent in feed
efficiency, as compared with similar heifers in the same barn without a fan. Cost per
100 pounds gain was $1.62 lower for the heifers with the fan. There was no difference
between the two groups in carcass grade or yield. Net return was $5.11 per head higher
for the fan group.

Temperature records do not reveal the reason for the greater gain response to
the fan in this trial as compared to the previous steer trials.










Table 1-1067.- Heifers Fattened on Fan Test, 1962.


Lot 1


Treatment


Fan


Number head
Number days
Ave. initial weight
Ave. final weight
Ave. gain
Ave. daily gain
Average Daily Ration:
Ground snapped corn
Citrus molasses
41% C. S. Meal
Coastal Bermuda hay
Feed Per 100 Pounds Gain:
Concentrates
Roughage
Mineral
Cost
Carcass and Financial Data
Ave. slaughter weight
Ave. carcass weight
Ave. carcass yield
Ave. carcass grade
Ave. price cwt. carcass
Ave. price cwt. on foot
Ave. cost cwt. feeders
Ave. cost head feeders
Ave. feed cost
Ave. cost cattle and feed
Sale price per head
Return above cost feed
Other costs ($0.10 day)
Net return


8
112
619
894
275
2.45

19.29
4.55
2.40
1.40

1071(835)*
57(293)*
1.9
$ 23.48**

894
539
60.29
Low choice
$ 45.55
27.46
24.00
148.59
64.45**
213.04
245.39
32.35
11.20
21.15


8
112
619
842
223
1.99

16.42
4.55
2.40
1.50

1174 (927)*
76 (323)*
1.9
$ 25.10

842
515
61.13
Low choice
$ 45.03
27.53
24.00
148.56
56.01
204.57
231.81
27.24
11.20
16.04


* Numbers in parentheses are on shelled corn basis
roughage.
** Includes cost of operating fan.


- cob and shuck included in


Lot 3


Control


-


--









Table 2-1067.- Individual Data Heifers on Project 1067, 1962.


Lot 1.- Fan
Breed and Initial Final 112-dav Carcass Carcass Degree* Carcass~
Chain number weight weight gain weight yield marbling grade

Angus 31 701 1018 317 633 62.18 7 12
Angus 40 689 980 291 603 61.53 7 12
Angus 5 679 926 247 553 59.72 8 11
Angus 44 655 888 233 535 60.25 6 13
Angus 33 644 917 273 554 60.41 6 13
Angus 35 559 815 256 478 58.65 6 13
Hereford 20 551 873 322 531 60.82 7 12
Hereford 19 475 732 257 423 57.79 9 9
Totals 4953 7149 2196 4310 ---- 56 95
Averages 619.1 893.6 274.5 538.8 60.29 7.0 11.9
AoD.G. 2.45




Lot 3.- Control

Angus 13 689 917 228 576 62.81 8 11
Angus 25 689 921 232 586 63.62 6 13
Angus 19 660 936 276 569 60.79 6 13
Angus 97 655 815 160 497 60.98 6 13
Angus 16 608 791 183 476 60.18 8 12
Hereford 17 560 805 245 477 59.25 9 9
Hereford 22 546 786 240 487 61.96 8 11
Totals 4952 6737 1785 4118 ---- 58.0 93
Averages 619.0 842.1 223.1 514.8 61.13 7.3 11.6
A.D.G. 1.99


* Degrees marbling -


1. Extremely abundant, 2. very abundant, 3. abundant,
4. moderately abundant, 5. slightly abundant, 6. moderate,
7. modest, 8. small amount, 9. slight amount, 10. traces,
11. practically devoid, 12. devoid.


"* Carcass grades Choice, 14, 13, 12; Good, 11, 10, 9; Standard, 8, 7, 6.




Table 3-1067.- Mean Air Temperatures at North Florida Exneriment Station, Ouincy, During Months Fan Coolinp Triald
With Fattening Steers Vere in Progress.


Month JUNE JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBEP AVERAGE
Days Days Days Days Days
Over Over Over Over Over
Year High Low Ave. 900F High Low Ave. 900F High Low Ave. 900F iph Low Ave. 900F High Low Ave. 900F

1957 89.5 69.2 79.4 14 92.9 70.9 81.9 25 92.7 69.7 81.2 27 86.8 68.1 77.5 13 90.5 69.5 80.0 79


1958 89.7 69.9 79.8 5 90.2 70.2 80.2 17 91.0 70.1 80.6 23 90.2 67.8 79.0 11 90.3 69.5 79.9 56


1960 Trial started July 91.3 71.1 81.2 14 90.6 69.7 80.2 24 87.0 68.4 77.7 9 89.6 69.7 79.7 47


1962 90.2 68.4 79.3 1 92.7 71.3 82.0 28 92.3 69.9 81.1 25 86.9 67.5 77.2 13 90.5 69.3 79.9 67


Ave. 89.8 69,2 79.5 7. 91.8 10.9 81.3 21 91.7 69.9 80.8 25 97.7 68.0 77.9 12 90.2 69.5 79.9 62










Table 4-1067.- Feed Prices.


Feed


Price ton


Ground snapped corn
Citrus molasses
41% cottonseed meal
Coastal Bermuda hay
Salt
Steamed bonemeal
Cost operating fan (including depreciation)


Table 5-1067.- Prices Received for Carcasses.


Grade

Choice
Good


Price cwt.


$ 46.00
44.00


* Cost operating Fan


3817 meter reading
3222 meter reading
T5' KWH used last


10-19-62
8-22-62
56 days


595 x 2 = 1190 estimated KWH 112 days


1190 KWH x 0.036 =
+ 11%
Cost electricity
Depreciation on fan
Total cost


$ 42.84
4.71
$47.55
20.00
67.55


Fan would have cooled 32 cattle

$67.55 = $16.89 cost pen of 8
4

6.8 = $ 2.11 cost per head


FSB
9/3/63
200 CC


$ 40.00
28.00
75.00
22.50
35.00
90.00
2.11


per head&




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