Table of Contents
 List of Figures
 The number and distribution of...
 Migration and redistribution
 Differential racial migration
 Nativity relationships
 Age characteristics
 Fertility relationships
 Educational problems
 Some effects of population changes...

Group Title: changing population of Florida
Title: The changing population of Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00090247/00001
 Material Information
Title: The changing population of Florida population changes in Florida based upon federal and state census data
Physical Description: 46 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Alleger, Daniel E.
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Dept. of Agricultural Economics
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: November, 1946
Copyright Date: 1946
Subject: Population -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel E. Alleger.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "November, 1946."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090247
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 12305281

Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    List of Figures
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    The number and distribution of inhabitants
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Migration and redistribution
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Differential racial migration
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Nativity relationships
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Age characteristics
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Fertility relationships
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Educational problems
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Some effects of population changes on rural communities
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
Full Text

November, 1946

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Department of Agricultural Economics, Gainesville, Florida



Daniel E. Alleger
Associate Agricultural Economist

Population changes in Florida based upon Federal
and State Census data.



Summary . . . . . . .

Introduction . . . . . .

The Number and Distribution of Inhabitants

Migration and Redistribution . . .

Differential Racial Migration . . . .

Nativity Relationships . . . .

Age Characteristics . . . . . .

Fertility Relationships . . ..

Educational Problems . . .

Some Effects of Population Changes on Rural

Conclusions .. .. . . .. . . ..

Appendix . . . . . . .

. . .


. . . . *


. .


1. Population Growth in Florida, 1830-1945 . . . . . . . 2

2. Index of Rural-Urban Yigration for the Population of Florida,
1850 to 1945 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

3. Distribution of Florida Population by Counties, 1945 . . . .. 11

4. Percentage Population Losses by Counties in Florida, 1940 to 1945 13

5. Percentage Population Gains by Counties in Florida, 1940-45 . 14

6. States Contributing to the Native White Population of Florida, 1945 15

7. States Contributing Over 1,000 Negro Residents to the State of
Florida, 1945 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

8. Distribution of Native White Population from Alabama and Georgia,
1945 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

9. Distribution of the Native White Population Immigrating from States
Contributing 20,000 or More Inhabitants to the State of Florida,
1945 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 19

10. Distribution of Native Negro In-Migrants to Florida, 1945, from
Alabama and Georgia . . . . . . . . ... ..... 24

11. Residence Locations in Florida of Negroes Born in Alabama, Georgia,
and South Carolina .................. .. .. 25

12. From Some Florida Counties the Negroes Have Migrated More Rapidly
than the Whites. Jefferson County, Flgrida, is an Example . 27

13. Sex Ratio of the White Population by Age, Florida, 1880 and
1940 Compared . . . . . . . . . ..... 31

14. Sex Ratio of the Non-Thite Population by AFe, Florida, 1880 and
1940 Compared . . . . . . . . .. . . 32

15. Residential Distribution by Age Groups and Race, Florida, 1940 . 34

16. Rate of Natural Increase for all Races in Florida, by Counties, 1941 36

17. Effective Per Capita Buying Income, 1942 . . . . . . . 37

18. Contributions in Educational and Community Wealth Lost to Rural
Communities between 1935 and 1945 through Net Rural-Urban and Out-
County Migration of Persons Over 15 Years of Age . . . . . 40



Daniel ". Alleger,
Associate Agricultursl Sconsmist,
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


1. If the 1915-45 rate of population growth in Florida is maintained until 1975

the population at that time will be approximately double the 2,250,000 inhabi-

tants enumerated in 1945.

2. Great differences were noted in the rates of population growth from 1830 to

1945 between the white and Negro races in Florida. The white race increased

from 18,385 to 1,695,301 permanent residents and the Negro race from 16,345

to 554,760.

3. very state in the United States has contributed to the native white population

of Florida. In-migrant Negroes came largely from 8 contiguous Southern states

and New York state.

4. The recorded out-county migrations of the Negroes from many Florida counties

between 1935 and 1945 were, in general, at proportionally higher rates than for

recorded out-county migrations of whites for the same period.

5. Florida was wholly rural in 1850, but by 1945 only 36 percent of the population

was rural. /

6. The percentage of Florida born residents, as a proportion of the total population,

was generally greater in those counties from which the out-movement of the

population was the most rapid. High birth rates and low per capital purchasing

power were also usually directly associated with out-county migration.

1/ The Seventh Census of the State of Florida, 145.


7. The age composition of the Florida population as a whole, and for both the white

and Negro races separately, has changed during the past few decades. These

changes have included an increase in the proportions of a7ed persons, and an

increase in the proportions of.persons in the economically productive groups.

Changes in the white race toward increased proportions of persons in the older

ages usually preceded similar changes in the Negro race. However, for both

native whites and Negroes the proportion of the total population in the younger

age groups was greatest among the rural-farm population, and smallest in the

urban groups.

8. The fertility rate in 1940 for Florida as a whole was not sufficient for popu-

lation replacement. However, the reverse was true in rural areas, particularly

for the Negro race.

9. There was clear evidence of regional inequality in the ratio between the number

of children in school and the supporting adult groups of voting age.

10. In spite of heavy out-migration in counties of low economic opportunity, the

populations remaining were among the least favorably situated in relation to

per capital effective buying income.

11. The loss in rural community wealth due to rural-urban and out-county migration

appeared to be serious in many parts of Florida.


The population of Florida for the past generation has been undergoing marked

changes. Natural increase and accession of migrants both were important causes of

population growth from 1915 to 1945. If the same rate of growth (Fig. 1) recorded

for this 30-year interval is maintained until 1975, the 1945 population of approxi-

mately 2,250,000 persons will have doubled by 1975.

Rapid changes in total numbers of persons in a given region frequently result

from increased economic opportunity. Opportunity is often greatest when natural



1830 1945
Total 34,730 2,250,061




0 0 0 0 0
o o o o o00
pA e4 p4

Fig. 1,--Population Growth in

Source, The Seventh
DEA/mos 10/2/1.
Ag. Eo., 'xp. Sta, 85

0 0 0 0 O 0
S 4 r-4 r-

Florida, 1830-1945.

Census of the State of Florida, 1945.

resources are being rapidly expanded and trade and service opportunities promoted.

Large changes in numbers of inhabitants are readily apparent. Other population

changes which are no less important may escape the notice of the average person,

partly because of the nature of the changes. Changes in the characteristics of

the Florida population are noted in an increase in the average age of the population,

a decrease in the fertility rate, and rural-urban migration, among others. Any one

of such population traits taken alone over a long period of time may profoundly alter

the population structure in such a way as to affect human thought and action. Some

social implications of this aspect will be reviewed in greater detail under specific


In spite of heivy in-migration to Florida within the last few years, the average

age of the population continued to increase. Under normal conditions a state which

has been increasing rapidly will have a far lerger proportion of the total population

in the older ages two or three decades after this increase slackens. If the popu-

lation of Florida should become stationary, such upward changes in the age composi-

tion would be accompanied by a more rapid decline in an already decreasing birth
rate, and would lower the rate of natural increase. A population authority- has

pointed out that we are rapidly approaching the time when only the more rural areas

will have any true natural increase, or excess of births over deaths.

In 1945 proportionally fewer Florida residents were under 21 years of age than

in 1880. A continued increase in the number of aged persons may progressively

affect family life, housing, education, recreation and labor opportunities, among

others. Age changes in a population, however, need not be disruptive to cultural

advancement if attention is directed to the solution of the problems created by

them, and are anticipated and planned for in advance.

1/' Warren S. Thompson, Population Problems, "cGqraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.,
New York, 1935, p, 246.

In 1940 the reproduction rate" for the state was so low as to indicate growth of

population in the state would gradually cease, except for the accession of migrants

from other states. This was true for both the white and the Negro races. The

numerical increase of the Pegro population since the first census in Florida in

1830 until 1945 has not kept pace with that of the white race. Differences in the

rates of fertility and migratory patterns between the white and Negro races appear

to have been significant.

Distinct intra-state patterns of migration were exhibited during recent years

by the shifts in the populations of the two major races from rural areas to urban

centers. In North and West Florida surplus Negro populations have migrated at a

more rapid rate than the white populations.

The farm tenure patterns also have altered considerably concurrently with

population changes between 1940 and 1945. Farm tenancy decreased in most areas

of Florida between 1940 and 1945. Croppers and share-cash tenants have shown a

tremendous proportional decrease in several areas of the state. Changes from 1940

to 1945 ranged from 50 to 82 percent decrease for croppers, and from 82 to 92 per-
cent for share-cash tenants.-

In this review of the current outlook and characteristics of the present popu-

lation of Florida, attention will be directed to several population characteristics

that are of the utmost importance today. In many rural areas of Florida, problems

of population related to land resources and land use are pressing. Due to high

birth rates migration has failed to sufficiently force redundant populations from

the soil. In certain other areas seasonal needs for agricultural workers are in

excess of the local labor supplies. Frequently Federal assistance is required to

meet the labor shortage.

1/ Three hundred and eighty-three children under 5 per 1,000 women 20-44 years of
age. Refer to Table 5.

2/ U. S. Census of Agriculture, 1945. Taken from a sample of 26 of the 67 counties.
Figures are subject to correction when summaries for all counties are available.



-na nge I Urban
100 1850
1860 5,708
s0 1870 15,275
1880 26,947
1890 77,358
0 Urban 1900 107,031
60 p 1910 219,080
S1 1920 353,515
40 1930 759,778
1940 1,045,791
1945 1,440,103
0 __ S .il-!-Ji, 1850 87,445
lo. -- ----- :.1860 134,716
'-- ~1870 172,473
.20 -'.;. ; 1880 242,546
r 1890 314,064
A .".7. 1900 421,511

40 t .. .... . 1910 533,539
i =. 1920 614,955
60 3 1930 708,433
*60 -* ";: ", 1940 851,623
.. !: ; .. ""^ 1945 809,958
T Rural
Year 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1945
Fig. 2 --Index of the Rursl-Urban migration n for the Populetion of Florida, 1850 to 1,945.
Sources: U. S. Census 'inorts end the Seventh Census of the Stabe of Florida, 1945.

The Number and Distribution of Inhabitants

In 1830, 53 white persons were enumerated for every 47 Negroes. In 1945

there were only 25 Negroes for every 75 whites. From 1830 to 1945 the white popu-

lation increased from 18,385 to 1,695,301 and the Ne'ro population from 16,345

to 554,760.

In 1850 two towns were reported, Jacksonville and Pensacola. Py 1880, 25,105

persons were enumerated in four Florida cities, which was less than 10 percent of

the state population. However, in 1890, 102,702 residents were enumerated from

52 urban centers-. The rural population declined to 80.2 percent of the total

(Fig. 2). Three cities had attained a population of 10,000 persons or over. They

Table l.--Population of Florida Cities
with 20,000 or More Inhabitants, 1945.
: County
City Population County population
S : : Population

Jacksonville 206,442 : Duval 273,843
"'iami :192,122 : Dade 315,138
Tampa 124,476 : Hillsborough 207,844
St. Petersburg 85,184 : Pinellas 130,268
Orlando : 50,105 : Orange : 86,782
Pensacola 43,304 : Escambia : 105,262
West Palm Beach : 40,599 : "alm Beach 112,311
Miami Beach : 32,256 : Dade*
Lakeland 31,461 : olk : 112,429
Ft. Lauderdale 26,185 : Proward 50,442
Daytona Beach : 25,311 :Volusia : 58,492
Panama City 23,914 : ay 43,188

Totals 881,359 :: 1,495,999

Percent of state:
total 39.2 :66.5

Source: The Seventh Census of the State of Florida, 1945.

*See Yiami.


The 1940 T. 3. Census classified all incorporated places with 2,500

or more inhabitants and all unincorporated towns and places with a population
of 10,000 or more and with a population density by more than 1,000 per square
mile as urban.

- - - ~ --


Indian River


Palm Beach
Santa losa
St. Johns
St. Lucie


Under 5,00

5,001 15,000

~i~i.-;~: 15 001

30,001 -



75,001 150,000

Over 150,000

Fig. 3S--Distributior of Florida Population by Counties, 1945.

Sources The Seventh Census of the State of Florida, 1945.



were: Key West with 18,080, Jacksonville 17,201, and Pensacola with 11,750. Tampa

developed rapidly after 1890, Miami from 1910 to 1915, and Daytona Beach subsequent

to 1925. In 1945 populations in excess of 10,000 were reported from 23 cities with

slightly more than 1,000,000 inhabitants, or 45.8 percent of the state total. Also,

approximately two-thirds of the population of the state resided in the 11 counties

with the 12 largest cities, Table 1.

In 1945 nearly 1,000,000 of the 2,250,061 persons enumerated (Fig. 3) lived

in counties facing the Atlantic Ocean.

migrationn and Redistribution

The search for economic opportunity has been one of the most significant
forces affecting population redistribution.- Recent developments in industrial,

trade and service opportunities in certain areas of Florida have attracted migrants

from other less favored Florida communities (Figs. 4 and 5) and from many other

states (Figs. 6 and 7).

The diversity of the climate of Florida has offered a wide range in agri-

cultural, industrial, and trade and service opportunities, including winter resorts

and recreational centers, particularly in the mild and sub-tropical central and

southern counties. In the rural north and northwest areas of the state, among the

more important industries are farming, production of naval stores products and

Every state in the Union has contributed to the native white" population of

Florida. The state population census of 1945 indicated white in-migrants to Florida

came largely from the Mississippi Valley and from states to the east of the

Valley (Fig. 6).

I/ Goodrich and others, Migration and Economic Opportunity, 1936.

2/ Native born: A person born in one of the several states of the United States.

Losses in Percent

I 1
!il !

- 0.1 to 5

- 5.1 to 10

-10.1 to 20

-20.1 to 30

All counties with gains
(See Fig. 5 )

Fig. 4.--Percentage Population Losses by Counties in
Florida 1940 to 1945.

Source: The Seventh Census of the State of Florida, 1945.

DEA/s 10/36.46
Ag. Ec., Exp. Sta. 85

Gains in Percent

0.1 to 5.0

5.1 to 10.0

10.1 to 20.0

20.1 to 30.0

... ... .

1 71

30.1 to 50.0

50.1 end Over

All other Counties with losses
(See Fig. 4.)

Fig. 5.--Percentage Population Gains by Counties in Florida, L940-45.

Source: The Seventh Census of the State of Florida, 1945.


an 1000
and less


to 30000

m__ to 50000

^ 50001
and over

Born in Florida 762,929
Born in other states 859,852

Fig. 6.--States Contributing to the Native White Population
of Florida, 1945.

Source: The Seventh Census of the State of Florida, 1945.

."o'c' l 010 to
..'- .. to 20000

. r: : :3:.-:!

.: ? : ,. ..i

to 2500

to 5000

to 10000


_____1 0

1, 001



.' 24,773

. 128,790


Born in Florida 340,402
Born in other
states 201,266
Born elsewhere 13,092

Fig. 7.--States Contributing Over 1,000 Negro Residents to the State
of Floridn, 1945.

Source: The Seventh Census of the State of Florida, 1945.

White in-migrants from Alabama predominated in the Florida counties immedi-

ately south of that state. However, the Georgia born Florida residents were dis-

tributed in numerous scattered Florida counties (Pig. 8). Residents of both states

concentrated in urban centers in Florida. The white in-mifrants from other states

each contributing 20,000 or more residents to Florida centered primarily in a very

limited number of urbanized and industrialized counties (Fig. 9). Considerable

numbers of native whites born in Georgia and Alabama locating in Florida were agri-

cultural settlers. Based on observations of the distribution of white in-migrants,

it appears very possible that Georgia and Alabama have contributed more .farmers to

Florida than all the other states combined.

In Table 2, changes in urban and rural nopulations in Florida from 1935 to

1945 are summarized by a frequency distribution of counties with like losses or

gains in population from 1940 to 1945. It will be noted that in counties with

decreasing populations the movement away from the counties was most largely from

rural areas. An intra-county rural-urban migration was indicated in all counties

except for the group of counties where total county losses ranged from 10.1 to 20.0

percent. Even here movement from rural to urban locations was probable.

Natural increase, intra-state migration, and inter-state migration largely

accounted for heavy rural and urban increases in certain counties. The development

of the rich agricultural lands of the Everglades has attracted thousands of rural

in-migrants. Within these same southern counties concurrent city growth was largely

in the resort areas facing the Atlantic Ocean.

As has been pointed out, the hope for economic betterment may have influenced

migration more than any other single cause, with the possible exception of movements

of large masses of people in countries in time of war. Under normal peacetime

conditions excessive migrations of people may indicate imbalance between the popu-
lations and natural resources. Farm youth are pulled away from overpopulated-

1/ Overpopulation is a relative conception. See Appendik, page 1 (B).


1,000 or Yore Inhabitants Per County
By State of Nativity


\\ \ Georgia and Alabama
'* ^ ^ '

I u I

Less than 1,000

Fig. 8.--Distribution of Native whitee Population from Alabama
and Georgia, 1945
Source: The Seventh Census of the State of Florida, 1945.


Pensacola -:

States of Nativity

New York
Torth Carolina
South Cprolina
New Jersey




Number of States Contributing*
1,000 or more Inhabitants to
Each of Several Florida Counties

' ^ll ^lllle' il 'i~ l l



St. Petersburg -


Daytona Beach

.. Orlando


Miami Beach

Fig. 9.--Distributior of the Native ;ihhite Population Immigrating from States Contributing
20,000 or More Inhabitants to the State of Florida, 1945.
Source: The Seventh Census of the State of Florida, 1945.
*Excludes Alabama and Geo'rin

Table 2.--Percentage Changes in Urban and Rural Populations
of Florida, 1935-45, from Fatural Increase and Accession of T'irents*
by Residence Groups.

: Number : Percent of Percent of
Residence Groups : of : population 1945 : Change 1935-45
:Counties: Urban : ural : rban Rural

Counties with losses,
1940-45: :
20.1 to 30.0 percent : 2 39.2 60.8 7.8 :- 32.8
10.1 to 20.0 percent 8 : 35.6 : 64.4 3.4 :- 18.8
5.1 to 10.0 percent 7 26.9 73.1 : 35.2 15.2
0.1 to 5.0 percent : 12 : 41.5 58.5 18..4 4.2

Counties with gains,
0.1 to 5.0 percent : 11 : 44.2 : 55.8 : 20.3 0.7
5.1 to 10.0 percent : 4 : 64,8 : 35.2 26.9 6.2
10.1 to 20.0 percent : 8 : 71.0 : 29.0 : 43.8 : 53.5
20.1 to 30.0 percent : 4 : 63.8 36.2 : 48.7 : 28.8
30.1 to 50.0 percent : 7 72.4 : 27.6 55.6 : 156.4
Over 50 percent 4 : 70.4 29.6 104.3 115.4

The state** 67 : 64.0 36.0 : 45.5 : 31.9

Source: The Seventh Census of the State of Florida, 1945.
*Refer to Figs. 4 and 5.
**Accession of migrants greatly contributed to the population growth of
Florida between 1935-45.

areas by high wages in urban centers, and pushed out of their home communities by
low farm incomes.- Such situations are aggravated when the known opportunities and

recognized possibilities for employment do not seem sufficient to maintain the

majority of a population at a level of living adequate to meet the fundamental

requirements for life and other basic material wants.

High birth rates and low per capital incomes are often directly associated.

For the state of Florida 19.5 births per 1,000 total population were reported in
1941, and a $529 per capital effective buying income.-- Dixie and Levy counties

1/ excess of farm receipts remaining after substracting all farm expenses.

2/ Statistical Abstract of Florida Counties, Florida State Chamber of Commerce,
Jacksonville, 1944. Used by permission. "Effective Buying Income" is a
copyrighted phrase of Sales Management Magazine. This is the only source
of income by cities end counties since 1940 and is used for that reason.

experienced the largest proportional population losses from 1935 to 1945. In

Dixie County in 1941 the birth rate for all classes was 28.8 per 1,000 total popu-

lation. It was 31.6 percent for the white race and 25.2 percent for the Negro

race. In Levy County the birth rate in 1941 was 19.7, white 20.1, and the Negro

19,0. The effective buying income per capital in 1942 for Dixie County was $324

and for Levy County $320. In the urbanized counties of Dade and Duval the 1941

birth rate for all classes was 17.3 and 21.4, respectively. The effective per

capital buying power was $985 for Dade County and $734 for Duval County. Thus it

can be seen that high birth rates and low per capital wealth are associated. If

like comparisons could be made between cities and rural areas instead of between

units of county size, the contrast would be even more pronounced. However, cash

incomes alone are but limited measures of levels of living between rural and

urban areas.

In areas of chronic rural poverty the low oer capital incomes may be reflected

in farming practices, resulting in soil mining and neglect of farm buildings.

Failure to adequately maintain public buildings because of limited resources may

also follow. If many buildings are abandoned and others are seriously neglected

the psychological effect upon a community may become pronounced. The visible

evidences of community decay may be sufficient to endanger the success of any

progressive proposal for civic betterment. Carried to the furthest extreme, whole

populations under such circumstances may consider satisfied personal achievement

and community accomplishment impossible of attainment.

Throughout the decade from 1935 to 1945 population losses in certain counties

of Florida were so large as to indicate the reality of a serious imbalance between

populations and economic opportunity. If losses are a measure of economic imbalance

then serious thought should be directed to the solution of the specific causes

creating them. Not only should such remedial measures be taken that would

ameliorate maladjustments within economically disadvantaged areas but which would

also be of the best interest to the public welfare of the state as a whole.-

Differential raciall "'igration

In Table 3 it can be seen that the differential migration between the two

major races from 1935 to 1945 was notable. The Negro race migrated with a pro-

portional greater rapidity from counties with population losses than did the white

race except from eight counties where total population losses ranged from 10.1 to

20.0 percent. In these eight counties, however, approximately 25 percent of the

total population was Tegro. But in each of four of the eight counties, fewer than

700 Negroes were enumerated in 1945. One may question whether the Negroes residing

in this group of counties had as much cause to migrate as from other more heavily

populated, low per capital income areas.

It has been noted that the Negro migrates north and south rather than east

and west./ Even in countyward movement this pattern was noted (Fig. 10). The

Negro also preferred urban locations (Fig. 11). movementt into Florida was chiefly

from states immediately to the north or adjacent to Florida (Fig. 7).

The heaviest concentrations of the Negroes closely paralleled that of the

white in-migrants. This associated pattern may have been related to increased

domestic and service opportunities for Negroes in areas of the greatest white

population density. The !egro population growth in some counties was larger than

normal natural increase and recorded in-migration from other states. This would

indicate many Florida born Negroes had transferred residence within the state

between 1935 and 1945.

1/ The need for maintenance of farm families on farm land simply because farming
is a recognized way of life is a much debated issue. See Appendix, page 1 (C).

2/ The Problems of a Changing Population. National Resources Committee,
Washington, D. C.,-1938, p. 84.

3/ At the time of the 1930 U. S. Census, 82.5 percent of the Florida born Negroes
had remained in the Stats. In-migrants provided a net gain of 104,870 Negro

Table 3.--Percentage Changes in 1hita and Negro Populations
of Florida, 1935-45, from Natural Increase and Accession
of grantst, by Residence Groups.

Residence Groups

Counties with losses,
20.1 to 30,0 percent
10.1 to 20.0 percent
5.1 to 10.0 percent
0.1 to 5.0 percent

Counties with gains,
0.1 to 5.0 percent
5.1 to 10.0 percent
10.1 to 20.0 percent
20.1 to 30.0 percent
30,1 to 50.0 percent
Over 50 percent

The state

Source: The Seventh Ce
*Table 9, p.60, for Nee

Percent of Percent Change
: Population 1945 1935-45
: White : Negro : White : Negro

S66.0 34.0 14.5 : -31.5
S74.9 :25.1 :- 15.5 S.1
S71.1 :28.9 : 0.4 :-18.2
S65.3 :34.7 12.0 : 8.0

S71.4 :28.6 : 12.8 : 3.4
S74.2 :25.8 24.4 : 5.2
: 78.4 :21.6 : 54.8 : 22.7
S78.4 21.6 : 40.7 : 40.7
S75.0 :25.0 : 86.5 : 47.8
S78.9 21.1 : 126.8 : 58.5

S75.3 24.7 : 48.8 19.8*

insus of the State of Florida, 1945.

;roes, 1935,

in the Seventh Census of the

State of Florida, 1945, a numerical discrepancy in the total
number of Negroes appears. If the figure of 456,367 ab given
in Table 9 is used, the percent change from 1935 to 1945 would
be 21.6. See Appendix, p. 1 (A).

A distinct change in Negro migration in the Southeast is now evident. Either

many out-of-state Negroes formerly residing in Florida have left the state, or the

rate of emigration from most of the other states to Florida has declined. For

example, in 1935 Negroes residing in Florida and born in North Carolina numbered

6,722 and from Virginia 1,725, but by 1945 these numbers had dropped to 6,059 and

1,571, respectively.

The increase in the number of T'egroes from 1935-45 born in other states and

living in Florida was 37,669 persons, but the increase in number from Alabama and

Georgia alone was enumerated at 41,857 persons for this decade. The loss to all

other states, therefore, was over 4,000 Negroes. Should Negro in-migration from


5-)0 or 1.o'" In-mifrrsnts
by States of Nativity.



Alabama and Georgia

50O or Less In-minrans by
Leading States of Nativity.



Fig. 10.--Distribution of Native Negro In-Migrants Florida, 1945,
from Alabama end Georgia.

Source: The Seventh Census of the State of Florida, 1945.

I--- --

,\I.7, d,




2,500 and Under

2,501 to 5,000

5,001 to 10,000

10,001 to 20,000

Over 20,000




South Carolina

Fig. 11.--Residence Locations in Florida of Negroes Born in Alabama,
Georgia, and South Carolina.

Source: The Seventh Census of the State of Florida, 1945.

DEA/s 1'0/2/46
Ag. Ec., "xp. Sta. ?5




Alabama and Georgia cease, the Negro population in Florida may decrease numerically,

particularly if the rates of interchange of populations between Florida and the other

states remain unchanged.

Intra-state movements of the white population between 1935 and 1945 were

rural-urban and farm-to-farm movements chiefly from one county to another. The

rural population of Palm Beach County alone grew from 5,012 persons in 1935 to

34,980 by 1945, while rural populations in many north and west Florida counties

declined rapidly during this decade (Fig. 12). The United States Census of 1950

may reveal how much of this movement was of a temporary, war-created nature.

Nativity Relationships

In 1945 less than 50 percent of the white r-sidents of Florida were born in

the state (Table 4). That the development of the resources of the state and the

introduction of new economic enterprises have not been initiated and financed solely

from within the state may be assumed by this fact. However, as was illustrated in

Fig. 9, page 19, immigrants have not widely scattered throughout the state but have

tended to concentrate in limited areas. It is not mere coincidence, therefore, that

in the areas of heavy copulation growth proportionally fewer native born Floridians

were enumerated in 1945. Also a higher effective per capital buying power was re-

ported for these groups in 1942 than for persons in counties where losses from 1940

to 1945 have been recorded.

Tables 2, 3 and 4 present clear evidence that a high ratio of nativity is

closely associated with the ratio of out-migration. The relationship held for both

races but appeared somewhat more pronounced for the white race. This again may

reflect the high rate of natural increase in regions of limited economic opportunity,

and the movement away from these counties by persons seeking to improve their status.

Authorities interested in rural problems have found that in many instances

for those people who fail to migrate from isolated communities problems of economic

and personal betterment are not absent, but the need for improvement may go



white e
12000 rn
: ;:::: : Kegro

10000 :
8ooo --- ::-::

6000 : : o

4000 a 1
e iOOO ..: :. i.

Jefferson County, Florida, is an Example.
190s000 S 1 1940 19

Sources: T. S. Census reports; The .Seventh Census of the Stateof Florida, 194'5.

Table 4.--Distribution of Native Porn Floridians
in Florida in 1945 by Residence Grouos.

S Florida Born Residents, 1945
Residence Groups : 7hite : Ngroes
: Number : Percent Number : Percent

Counties with losses,
20.1 to 30.0 percent : 8,129 : 83.0 3,663 72.8
10.1 to 20.0 percent : 22,940 : 73.2 7,278 : 69.3
5.1 to 10.0 percent : 30,532 : 70.0 :14,408 : 81.4
0,1 to 5.0 percent : 73,613 : 67.3 :45,772 :78.9

Counties with gains,
0.1 to 5.0 percent : 75,535 : 60.3 :39,290 : 78.4
5.1 to 10.0 percent : 34,985 : 42.8 17,005 :60.0
10.1 to 20.0 percent : 195,009 : 37.6 :88,288 :61.9
20.1 to 30.0 percent : 78,746 : 44.4 28,716 58.7
30.1 to 50.0 percent : 208,750 : 41.4 82,517 :49.0
Over 50 percent 34,690 : 36.7 13,465 : 53.2

The state -Native born : 762,929 :. 45.0 : 340,402*: 61.4

Source: The Seventh Census of the State of Florida, 1945.
#In Table 24, p. 117, the Seventh Census of the State of Florida,

this number is given as 340,342.

unrecognized due to ignorance and through adherence to cultural tradition. Ig-

norance occurs when facts and knowledge are inaccessible to the people. Tradition

is most effectively perpetuated when knowledge is limited. Therefore, in certain

more disadvantaged areas of the state it would be natural if farmers were slow to

accept changes in farming practices and technological improvements which would

better their economic position.

It should not be assumed, however, that all remote rural areas are backward.

The quality of the soils may be a limiting factor in farming success, even sur-

passing isolation. Today with improved transportation facilities and radio and

telephone communications, no community can long remain completely isolated. As

further improvements in rural education are made more enlightened community groups

will emerge. The Florida population of twenty or thirty years hence may then be

sufficiently educated to attain a favorable measure of economic adjustment with

available resources.

Age Characteristics
Problems created by a changing age- composition of a population embody a

wide range of cultural and economic relationships. Differences in age composition

are often more pronounced between political sub-divisions within a state than

between states. In Florida in 1940, 64.2 percent of the people were 21 years of

age, or over, but in several large cities the percentage of such persons exceeded

70, and for the rural-farm population only 53.8.

Urban populations are often relatively young and their appearances of youth-

ful vigor stem largely from the in-migration of persons at the ages of industrial

employment. In 1940 the age group of 15 to 54 years represented 63,8 percent of

the Florida urban population and only 52.7 of the rural-farm population. In rural
districts and long settled country villages children and aged persons- are

relatively numerous. Approximately 40 percent of the rural-farm population and

28 percent of the urban population were composed of these two age groups in

Florida in 1940

Not only are differences in age composition noted in various segments of the

population between residential groups, but changes in the age composition in the

1/ "The change in age distribution is a function of two different factors that
are not necessarily related. Improvement in conditions affecting health is
causing an increase in the proportion of those born olive who reach maturity
and survive to more advanced ages. At the same time we are passing out of the
period when infants entered the scene in larger numbers each year, while the
mature population was made up of survivors of a much smaller number of infants.
For both reasons, the percentage of children in the total population is de-
creasing, while the percentage of aged persons is growing." The Problems of
a Changing Dopulation, p. 25, Natural Resources Committee, 1938.

2/ Children: Birth to age 14.
Aged persons: 65 years of age and over.

same residential groups occur from one census period to the next. An increasingly

larger proportion of the total population in the productive age classes, 20-64

years, is noted today over the time of our grandparents (Firs. 13 and 14). Moreover,

increasingly larger proportions of this productive age Troup will become older.

Also, an increase in numbers of persons past 65 years can be expected.

In 1940 approximately 71,000 persons 65 years of age or older resided in
Florida. By 1980-, even with a stationary population, this number may reach or

exceed 213,000 if the rate of increase equals that expected for the nation as a

whole. Today if each of the 71,000 aged persons received $30 per month in old age

benefits the cost to each of the 821,700 men and women of Florida in the productive

age groups would exceed $30 annually. Hence, the need for thought directed toward

the security of the aged concerns everyone in the country. So long as our security

programs are nationalized the age changes taking place in the total population

within any state are the concern of all persons in every state.

However, economic aspects are but part of the problems arising from changes

in age composition. Homes for the needy and mentally infirm will have to be pro-

vided. More small residential homes may be required than at present.

Per capital food consumption and eating habits may change as larger pro-

portions of the total population become older. Also in education there will be

regional problems arising from decreasing school enrollments due to changes in

the age composition.

Some more immediate effects upon the age composition of rural populations

occur in areas where considerable out-migration has taken place. A contemporary

authority recently pointed out that because of emigration there is an upset in the

age distribution by drawing off the productive middle aged groups, and leaving

1/ About 7,500,000 persons over 65 were estimated for the United States in 1935.
The number of this ag- class may reach 22,000,000 by 1960. The Problems of a
Changing Population, p. 32.

Percent of



am Increase

5-14 15-24 25-44 45-64 65 and

-- 1940



Under 5-14 15-24 25-44 45-64 65 and
5 Years Over

of the White populationn by Age, Florida, 1880 and 1940

Fig. 13,--Sex Rptio

Source: U. S. Census Reports.

DEA/a 10/25/46
Ag. Ecc. Ex,, Sta. 85


5 Years

Percent of







Range of
Children Eertility

Active Femall



^ged- 18
it^. 1, 1880

0 I II -- I
Under 5-14 15-24 25-44 45-64 65 and
5 Years Over



SMature Males of Actie 1940
Children Youth Working Age Aged
I Men 1880
i I ,-----7 r--

5 Years





65 and.

Fig. 14.--Sex Ratio of the Non-white Population by Age, Florida,
1880 and 1940 Compared.

Source: U. S. Census Reports.

DEA/s 10/25/,'
Ag. Ec., Exp. Sta. 85

Mature Females
Sof Working Age \\



10 -

behind the young and the old.- He also asserts that migration further exerts a
selective drag on the talent on the areas affected. Another writer- previously

held this same contention. Gee emphasizes that there appears to be a qualitative

selection in cityward migration, seriously affecting community leadership. It has

been estimated that the loss of the most talented 10 percent will cut down 50 per-

cent of the effective community support. Furthermore, conservatism is characteris-

tic of advanced age. In communities where increasing proportions of the people

move into older age groups conservatism may increase and extend into community

affairs and political thought. Also with age there appears to be a definite slowing

down of action, both physically and mentally. Attitudes of rural people under such

circumstances may develop into strong sentiments against change, even to the point

of open opposition to proposed programs for educational improvement.

Age composition changes of a population, therefore, affect not only the

economic and social life of a people, but also man's thought and attitudes. Be-

cause of the broad implications that age changes have on economic activity, natural

resources, and social institutions, the subject needs to be more thoroughly under-


Fertility Relationships

The American born white and Negro races were approximately 96 percent of the

total population of Florida in 1945. The Negro adhered to institutions that were

typically Anglo-Saxon. Even in fertility and age changes there were marked re-

semblances (Figs. 13 and 14 and 15). In 1940 differences in fertility ratios were

more distinct between rural and urban centers (Table 5) than between races.

Generally birth rates among Negroes have been higher than among the white race,

but frequently deaths also have been greater.

1/ Odum: Southern Regions of the United States, University of !Torth Carolina,
Chapel Hill, 1936, p. 472.

2/ Gee : The Social Economics of Agriculture, pp. 319-323.

Percent of


Native fWhites

Under 5-14 15-24 25-44 45-64 65 and
5 Years Over



! Rural-Nonfarm

u ral-Farm

Under 5-14 15-24 25-44 45-64 65 and
5 Years Over

FiF, 15.--Residential Distribution by
Source: 'U. ;, Census, 1940.
DEA/s 10/28 a.6
Ag. Ec., 7xp. Sta. 85

Age Groups and Racr Florida, 1940.

Table 5.--Differences in Fertility Between
Native Whites and Negroes for Florida, 1940.

: Fertilitvy*
Residence Groups Fertility*
Residence Groups : All Classes Native White :Negro

State 383 : 405 :365

Total rural 545 561 : 531
Rural non-farm 496 519 465
Rural farm 657 652 : 689

Total urban 280 299 270
Jacksonville 278 : 302 : 251
Miami 242 263 : 229

Sources 'T. S. Census, 1940.
*Essed on number of children under 5 per 1,000 women 20-44
years of age. Theoretical replacement quota, 444. In
Florida in 1870 there were 923 children under 5 Der 1,000
women 20-44, 707 children in 1910, and 479 in 1930.

In 1940 the Negro rural farm population in Florida (Table 5) was providing
a proportionally larger share of the population replacement than any other group.-

In areas of low opportunity and more extreme isolation the rates of natural

increase appeared highest (Fig. 16). In one Florida county in 1941 the total births

per 1,000 total population was 33.7, and total deaths per 1,000 total population

13.1 The effective per capital buying income for the same year was $214 contrasted

with another county in which the per capital purchasing power was $781 (Fig. 17).

For this second county in which is located a resort city a crude birth rate of 12.8

1/ Some authorities use a fertility ratio based or the total number of children
under 5 per 1,000 females 1b-44. It is computed as follows:

Fertility ratio umber of children under 5 1,00
Number of females 15-44

In 1930 about 370 children per 1,000 women 15 through 44 were necessary to main-
tain a stationary population. For discussion refer to Land Economics by Ely
and Wehrwein, pp. 14-15, and to La. Bull. No. 403, 1946, La. Agri. Exp. Station,
Differential Fertility in Louisiana, p. 7.

By the use of this formula a fertility ratio of 314 children under 5 per 1,000
females 15-44 was obtained for the 1940 population of Florida.

Percent of NaturEl Increase




Wet loss

0- 4.9

5.0 8.9

9.0 12.9

13.0 16.9

17.0 20.9

21 and Over

Fig. 16.--Rete cf Netural Increase
Counties, 1941,

for all Races in Florida, by

Source: Statistical Abstract of Florida Counties, Florida State
Charmbr of Commerce, 1944.

Buying Income in Dollars


.S :. -.. 25

x (50




r $ 250

1 500

1 750

1 1000

0 and Over

17.--Effective Per Capita Buying Income, 1942.


Statistical Abstract of Florida Counties, Florila
State Chamber of Commerce, 1944.

and rude death rate of 13.5 were reported.-

In growing cities certain traditions are dropped whereas others are acquired.

This is especially true when city populations are composed of persons from many

areas, as are most cities in Florida. Traditions relating to unlimited family size
have survived more persistently in rural areas than in the cities./ Population re-

placement rates drop when knowledge concerning family limitation is received and

accepted. This is especially true among urban populations if replacement rates are

sufficient criteria for judgment.

Family and religious opposition to birth control are traditional in many

rural areas. The family is the important social unit. In cities birth control is
widespread and traditions opposing it disappear. The social influence of the family

for its members may become subordinated to outside activities. Therefore, urban

social values often may be viewed from the individualistic rather than from the

familistic standpoint. Yet, even in spite of adherence on the part of many members

of rural populations to traditional religious and family training, the fertility

rates in regions of chronic poverty may continue to drop because of a changing age

composition alone. It is quite probable that the U. S. Census of 1950 will

establish that changes in population replacement rates in Florida are constantly

taking place.

Educational Problems

In reviewing population changes in Florida considerable emphasis has been

placed upon the pattern and effects of migration, of nativity, tradition, changes

in the age composition and fertility rates. All of these influences have a direct

1/ Crude birth rate: Births per 1,000 total population. Crude death rate: Deaths
per 1,000 total population.

2/ Changes in traditions should be more thoroughly explored. Dr, Kingsley Davis,
of Princeton University, in a letter to the writer states, "It is very important
from the point of view of demographic analysis to differentiate between the
traditions lost and the ones not lost, and to study the timing of these changes".

bearing in some manner upon the type of educational problems met with, and the

educational facilities provided, and in the mental approach to the solution of

educational problems.

Decreasing fertility rates tend to lower the school load; in-migration to

increase it. Age creates conservatism, which carries into matters of public welfare.

Isolation adds to traditional resistance of age to change. Community poverty
reduces the amount of property available for taxation for school purposes. In-

equality of educational opportunity is the result. In the rural areas (Table 6)

where improvement in educational progress is most needed the people are the least

able to bear the burden of its cost. The per capital burden of education is extreme

in some counties, particul-arly in those with less than 15,000 inhabitants.

Table 6.--Children Attending School per 1,000 'ersons
of Voting Age, by Size of Counties for the State of Florida, 1945*.

Sie :Ages 7 to 15 Years
S'hite Negro

Counties with population of:
Over 150,000 : 164 197
150,000 to 75,001 : 158 : 229
75,000 to 30,001 203 : 310
30,000 to 15,001 212 266
15,000 to 5,001 : 272 : 294
5,000 and under 288 205

The state : 188 : 245

*Children per 1,000 adults for each race 'taken separately,

In 1945 in Florida the ratio of white children in school from 7 to 15 years

of age to the supporting white adult group of voting age decreased in large steps

with increases in the population per county.

Data were insufficient to check school enrollments by size of urban centers

or to compare them with rural communities. Obviously there are many children in

1/ During 1946 the Tampa yorning Tribune brought this problem in Central Florida
to the attention of its readers. See Appendix, page 1 (D).

high school beyond age 15 for whom also data were not available. Differences,

however, are striking. Since the Negro population is not distributed proportionally

with the white population throughout the state, the differences between the races

in the adult support pattern may arise from unequal proportional distribution of

the Negro race, and from recent rapid Negro migration.

Some Effects of Population Changes on Rural Communities

Rural-urban and out-county migration has created serious problems of com-

munity adjustment in some counties. A serious loss is the transfer of rural com-
munity wealth- due to migration. In many instances continuance of established

institutions, and the addition of new services required by changed conditions, can

be supported by rural communities with greatly reduced populations only through

extreme social sacrifice. In dollars and cents the sums of money lost to rural

communities through rural-urban and out-county migration of youth and adults are

theoretically stupendous. Admittedly all estimates are subject to extreme error,

but they serve to point out the magnitude of the problem.

Assuming that it costs at least $125 per year to feed, clothe and educate

a child in rural Florida, each child upon reaching age 15 would then represent a
community investment of from $1,250 to $1,875 per capital. In 31 Florida counties

the migration of 35,402 persons from rural areas from 1935 to 1945 represented a
loss in corrmunity wealth of from $33,145,000 to $47,728,000-, (Fig. 18). On the

other hand, as a result of in-migration, rural areas in more favored counties of

the state gained in equivalent contributions in wealth from 200 million to 300

million dollars.

/ As represented by expenditures for rearing, clothing, and educating children;
rents and inheritance, etc.
2/ In 1940, 74.9 percent of the rural population was over 15 years of age. It was
assumed this percentage was educated and reared at community expense and the
debt had not been repaid. No allowance was made for migration due to natural
increase. The investment of $1,250 equals 10 years and $1,875, 15 years of
invested community wealth.
The loss in rural community wealth to one county from 1935 to 1945 was more than
10 times greater than the 1940 value of all farm products sold, traded, or used
by farm households, as given by the U. S. Census for 1940 for that county.


Loss in Teslth

S\\ \\\. \


Under $ 500,000

$ 500,000 $ 999,999

$1,000,000 $1,499,99

$1,500,000 $1,9999

$2,000,000 $2,499,999

$2,500,000 .2,600,000

Counties with probable gain in Rural health

Fig. 18.--Contributions in Educational and Community Wealth Lost to
Rural Cormunities between 1935 and 1945 through Net Rural-
urban and Out-County migration of Persons over 15 Years of Age.

DEA/s 10/30/46
Ag. Ec., Exp. Sta. 85

Additional transfers of wealth, such as interest paid to non-rural residents,

inheritance, transfers of capital resources, among others, further penalize rural

communities with declining populations and low per capital incomes. Continued

transfers of rural community wealth may ultimately threaten the existence of local

government in some civil subdivisions. In 1945 in each of 9 counties less than

5,000 persons were enumerated. For 6 of these 9 counties a net population loss

was recorded from 1940 to 1945. The responsibility for educational support in

rural communities with declining resources may become more of a state and national

task than a local requirement. That the problem is more than state-wide can be

visualized by the following facts.

From 1935 to 1945, the number of Alabama and Georgia born residents of

Florida increased by over 111,000 persons. If the cost of rearing and educating

children in Alabama and Georgia equals $125 per year per child, then these two

states alone would have transferred wealth ranging from 100,000,000 to $180,000,000

to Florida during this 10-year period. As of 1945, 1,061,118 persons born in other

states were living in Florida. The wealth contributed to Florida by the rest of
the United States through migration would run into the billions. Clearly this

transfer has meant a loss to some areas, providing they were able, through the

development of their resources and capacities, to give employment to all the people.

The long distance migratory habits of the native white American indicates the

national, as well as the state responsibility for long-range policy planning in

community readjustment programs.

The problems of adjustments do not end in depopulated areas. They are in-

creased in urban centers where readaptation to new ways of living are difficult

for many rural-urban migrants.

I/ There has been some return of wealth to other states through migration of Dersons
born and educated in Florida.


If stability of population- is one of the prerequisites for the well-being

and prosperous future of Florida, and if a measure of well-being and prosperity

depends upon regional adjustments between populations and the natural resources of

the state, then the complete achievement of this goal cannot be expected immediate-

ly. Rather, it would seem that certain local areas have particularized problems
which, because of redundant populations-, will become still more pressing before

they are solved. Many of these problems are more rural than urban in nature.

They comprise problems of land tenure, farm management, cropping practices, terms

of farm leasing agreements, marketing problems, community adjustment relationships

and rural education, among others.

Need for continued research in specialized fields of rural relationships

for localized areas in various sections of the state is necessary to a thorough

understanding of the problems involved. Policy programs instituted for the better-

ment of the public welfare can best be suited to the needs of the people when full

recognition is given to the means by which local communities can achieve some

degree of economic stability.

In some communities stability cannot be attained without encouraging

the out-movement of surplus populations to areas of economic opportunity. In other

areas improvements in the ways of farming, or the introduction of new or specialized

crops may be the answer. It may be necessary to encourage the introduction of

some types of industrial enterprises in areas of surplus labor. Tihatever the

answer, or whatever the policy programs initiated, it evolves on the question of

1/ Diettrich, Sigismond DeR., Florida's War Economy, Economic Leaflets, College of
Business Administration, U. of ,'la., Gainesville, November, 1945.

2/ Davis, Dr. Kingsley. Ibid., p.38. "Assuming a democratic value scheme the
problem is more one of equalizing opportunity."

the size of the population in a Piven area that can be effectively employed, at the

least per capital cost, to quantitatively relate material resources and services to

a per capite income large enough to provide a level of living acceptable to most

Americans. Until such a point is reached relative economic stability will not have

been achieved. The adjustment of populations to natural and material resources,

from the standpoint of human welfare, is the problem basic to all populations.

The population of 1lorida can enjoy a full measure of prosperity only when

the rest of the United States is likewise relatively prosperous. To that end,

state as well as national economic policies should be directed.


(A) Census errors: Where recognized errors appeared in the tabulations in
the Seventh Census of the State of Florida, U. S. Census data were substituted if
available. In Table 1, page 9,, the white population for 1870 is given as 90,057.
The U. S. Census reports 96,057. The Negro population for 1940 in Table 1 is given
as 515,428. The U. S. Census reports 1,230 less, this number representing inhabi-
tants of other non-white races. The negro population listed in Table 1 for 1935 is
given as 463,205, in Table 9, page 60, as 456,367. Discrepancies were adjusted
when possible.

(B) Overpopulation: "We may say that a given area is 'overpopulated' in
relation to its economic resources when economic progress comparable to that possible
in other parts of the country is blocked there by the size of the present population
relative to present occupations and industries and recognized possibilities in that
area. The answer to 'overpopulation' in this sense might be either emigration or
the development of new agricultural, industrial, or service opportunities".
(The Problems of a Changing Population, National Resources Committee, Washington.
D. C., 1938.)

(C) Farming.....a way of life: "The family farm has been criticized by
many writers. Sir Daniel Hall calls it the 'peasant' or 'yeoman' type of land
holding and says that while it is good politically it has serious defects eco-
nomically, especially from the standpoint of maximum food production..........
He advocates large corporation farms of 2,000 to 10,000 acres under the control of
competent managers, thus opening farming to men of large capacities." (Ely and
Wehrwein. Land Economics, p. 162).

"Please note that I called farming a means of livelihood, not a mode of
life. I am weary of listening to smog voiced hypocrites state farming is a mode of
life in such a way as to imply that farmers, having a mode of life, should be happy
to slowly starve to death...... The surprising thing is that farmers have com-
placently accepted this attitude." (C. B. Bitting, residentt, United States Sugar
Corporation, "ontgomery Hearings, 77th Congress, 1st Session, House Report No. 369,
Union Calendar No. 114).

Another viewpoint is this: "But the realists expect that after the war
there will be easily a million workers living off the land over and above what is
economically necessary; and some sort of provision must be made for them.

"What this means is that agriculture is going to continue to be subsidized.
It will be subsidized partly because of the difficulties of finding any other so-
lution; it will be subsidized partly in the recognition that farming is a way of
life, and a good way of life to be kept and maintained...... It is an opportunity
to underline two fundamental objectives of farm policy. One is to keep food
passing in increasing quantities to the consumer in the recognition that the right
to food may become a recognized American right. The other is to see to it that
men brought up on the land, and with no assurance that they can leave it, are
guaranteed the more traditional right -- the right to work." (Planning for Plenty.
Fortune, October, 1941).

(D) Education: "The wealth that counts for education in Florida does not
include the homes from which most children come. Only homes assessed at more than

$5,000 and other properties may be taxed to run schools....... Many of Florida's
35 districts have little non-exempt property and their schools are poverty stricken.

"Consolidation of these districts is the solution favored by many for this
most serious problem........ Yet there are indications of opposition to a general
consolidation."* (Tampa Morning Tribune, October 3, 1945, J. A. "urray, Staff

*Specifically in reference to Fillsborouph County.

DEA:LMoA 3/13/47
Ag.Ec., Txp.Sta. 100.

__ __

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs