Title: Abstracts of current research projects
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Title: Abstracts of current research projects Department of Vegetable Crops
Alternate Title: Department of Vegetable Crops abstracts of current research projects
Physical Description: 1 v. (various pagings) : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Dept. of Vegetable Crops
Publisher: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1970
Copyright Date: 1970
 Subjects
Subject: Vegetables -- Research -- Abstracts -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
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Bibliographic ID: UF00090244
Volume ID: VID00001
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 273051779

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ABSTRACTS OF

CURRE;IT RESEARCH PROJECTS

DEPARTMENT OF VEGETABLE CROPS






















Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

University of Florida

Gainesville

1970












Department of Vegetable Crops Staff
George A. Marlowe, Jr., Chairman
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida


Gainesville Staff


Experiment Station

D. D. Gull
C. B. Hall
L. H. Halsey
S. J. Locascio

Extension Staff

M. E. Harvel
James MIontelaro


Lorz
Nettles
Showalter
Thompson


J. M. Stephens


Branch Station Academic Staff

Central Florida Experiment Station, Sanford Head: J. F. Darby

!1. T. Scudder P. J. Westgate

Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade Head: D. W. Beardsley

H. W. Burdine H. Y. Ozaki (tFFL)
V. L. Guzman J. R. Orsenigo
N. C. Hayslip (IRFL) E. A. Wolfe

Gulf Coast Experiment Station, Bradenton Head: J. W. Strobel

D. S. Burgis

Potato Investigations Laboratory, Hastings Head: D. R. Hensel

J. R. Shumaker

Sub-Tropical Experiment Station, Homestead Head: R. C. Conover

H. H. Bryan

Watermelon & Grape Investigations Lab, Leesburg Head: J. t. Crall

G. W. Elmstrom



















CSRS Review, Department of Vegetable Crops
Schedule of Presentations


March 9, 1970, 10:00 a.m.


Room 362, Food Science Building


Introduction


and Handling: Part 1


H- 915 Influence of Temperature on Ripening
Quality of Tomatoes

H-10ll Composition and Structural Characteristics
of Watermelons Related to Bruising and
Market Quality

H-1116 Effect of Handling Practices on Quality
of Fresh Vegetables


D. D. Gull
B. D. Thompson

R. K. Showalter



D. D. Gull


Processing


uCM 45 Factors Affecting Post-Harvest Market
Quality of Processed Potatoes


D. D. Gull


Marketing


H-1243 Establishing Guides for Adjustments by Firms
Marketing Fruits and Vegetables in Southern
Region

Utilization

1141 Vegetable Crops and Plant Introductions New
to Central Florida


R. K. Showalter


P. J. Westgate


1336 Tropical Crops Exploitation


Harvesting


-r F-


D. D. Gull
















CSRS Review, Department of Vegetable Crops
Schedule of Presentations


March 9, 1970, 1:00 p.m.


Room 362, Food Science Building


Variety Improvement


391 Vegetable Variety Trials


H. H. Bryan
D. S. Burgis
G. W. Elmstrom
V. L. Guzman
L. H. Halsey
N. C. Hayslip


398 Breeding for Resistance to Diseases in the
Tomato

1289 Development of Improved Celery Varieties
for Florida

1291 Combined Disease Resistance in Peppers

H-1305 Vegetable Breeding for Florida

1455 Breeding Cantaloupe, Honeydew and Other
Cucumis Melons for Florida

1484 Development of Sweet Corn Hybrids Having
Resistance to Heiminthosporium turcicum Leaf
Blight and High Sugar detention


D. S. Burgis
N. C. Hayslip

E. A. Wolfe


H. Y. Ozaki

A. P. Lorz

G. W. Elmstrom
L. H. Halsey

E. A. Wolfe


Plant Protection


591 Chemical Weed Control of
Commercial Vegetable
Production


D. S. Burgis
G. W. Elmstrom
N. C. Hayslip
S. J. Locascio


992 Nematodes--Their Effects and Control on
Vegetable and Ornamental Crops

1088 Chemical Control of Weeds in Vegetable Crops
on Organic Soils


H. Y. Ozaki


J. R. Orsenigo
W. T. Scudder


Locascio
Nettles
Ozaki
Shumaker
Westgate


Orsenigo
Ozaki
Scudder
Shumaker














CSRS Review, Department of Vegetable Crops
Schedule of Presentations


March 10, 1970, 8:00 a.m. Room 362, Food Science Building

Growth and Development

H-1113 The Physiology and Biochemistry of Tomato C. B.
Ripening

1147 Cause and Control of Pencil Stripe in Celery H. U.

1231 Fresh Tissue Test for Nitrogen on Vegetable V. L.
Crops

scheduled Growth Regulator Investigations with Cucurbits G. U.

scheduled Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crop Production: V. L.
Potatoes

Crop Management

837 Fertilizer Studies with Vegetable Crops on H. W.
Organic Soils V. L.

901 Fertilizer Requirements of iatermelons G. W.


1005 Spacing of Vegetable Crop Plants


1009 Response of Crops on Organic and Sandy Soils
in South Florida to Soil and Foliar Appli-
cations of Minor Elements

1123 Strawberry Culture

1139 Methods of Fertilizing Vegetables


1220

1267


Unscheduled


Production of Celery Transplants

Nutritional Requirements of Vegetable Crops
Grown on Sandy Soils of Florida

Off-season Potato Culture


S. J.

V. L.
N. C.

H. U.
N. C.


S. J.

N. C.
V. F.
H. Y.

V. L.

N. C.
H. Y.

H. H.


Hall


Burdine

Guzman


Elmstrom

Guzman




Burdine
Guzman

Elmstrom
Locascio

Guzman
Hayslip

Burdine
Hayslip


Locascio

Hayslip
Nettles
Ozaki

Guzman

Hayslip
Ozaki

Bryan


Ur

Un





















CSRS Review, Department of Vegetable Crops

Schedule of Presentations


March 10, 1970, 1:00 p.m. Room 362,

Harvesting and Handling: Part 2

1203 A Systems Engineering Approach to
Vegetable Harvesting

1406 Variety Development, Cultural
Practices and "Iechanical Harvesting
Systems for Fresh Market Tomatoes


Food Science Building


V. L. Guzman
L. H. Halsey

H. H. Bryan
D. S. Burgis
D. D. Gull


H. Y. Ozaki
J. R. Shumaker

L. H. Halsey
A. P. Lorz
N. C. Hayslip





















Department of Vegetable Crops Wlorkshop


March 11, 1970, 8:00 a.m.

Departmental Research Coordination Sessions

All Faculty: 8:00 10:00 a.m. Room 1086 McCarty Hall

Discussion on general research program of the Department of
Vegetable Crops.

10:00-10:30 a.m. Coffee Break

***Select one of two units in which you feel your work most contributes.

Unit A 10:30-12:00 p.m. Room 1086 McCarty Hall

Discussion group on agricultural engineering needs in vegetable
crops.

Projects 560, 638, 811, 970, 1017, 1020, 1163, 1203, 1220, 1243

Unit B 10:30-12:00 p.m. Room 3042 McCarty Hall

Discussion group on research needs on the fresh market tomato
harvest mechanization program.

Project 1406


12:00 p.m.


Adjourn







Project 915

THE INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON RIPENING QUALITY OF TOMATOES

B. D. Thompson, D. D. Gull


Object:

To determine proper temperature for handling tomatoes and
to further define attributes of quality and conditions of chilling
injury.


Fruits chilled while immature but remaining attached to
plants did not show classic symptoms of chilling injury. Further
investigations indicated no chilling injury if branches remained
attached to the fruit. This effect, however, may have been com-
pounded with the parthenocarpy of the fruit used in this test.

Current work is to determine post-harvest changes in
composition and respiration of detached fruits of varying ages
following drilling. We also will investigate the functions
of seeds and plant parts on the occurrence of chilling injury.
The project will be revised on the basis of work now underway.










PROGRESS REPORT


Project: Hatch 915

Title: The influence of temperature on ripening quality of tomatoes.

Leaders: B. D. Thompson, and D. D. Gull.

Objective: To determine proper temperature for handling tomatoes produced
during different seasons at various locations in Florida.


Report of Progress:

During the past season major emphasis has been directed toward revision
of the project.

Work Planned:

As controlled temperature facilities become available, subject growing
plants to periodic reduced night temperatures. Developing fruits will be
studied for occurrence of organic acids, carbohydrates and changing patterns
of respiration and ethylene. Should temperature alter basic metabolism then
various enzyme systems will be investigated.








PROGRESS REPORT


Project No: 1011

Title: Characteristics of Watermelons Related to Bruising and Market Quality.

Leader: R. K. Showalter

Objective: To develop and evaluate methods for measuring watermelon texture
and resistance to bruising.

Progress Report:
Watermelon bruising and cracking during harvesting and transportation is
a serious problem. One-fourth of the melons examined in a previous study were
damaged internally during harvesting. The chief textural characteristic of
watermelon flesh is crispness, but methods of measurement were not available.
When force was applied to one side of complete cross-section slices, break-
age occurred first in the heart area, followed by the outer flesh and last
in the rind.
After a technique was developed in 1967 to measure deformation and force
required to break 5/8 x 3 1/2 inch cylinders of flesh, it was found that heart
flesh of 4 varieties of melons broke with 40 percent less deformation than that
required to break flesh from the outer area between the seeds and the rind.
Force required to break heart flesh samples averaged 28 percent less than for
the outer flesh.
Increasing the water content of outer flesh samples markedly reduced
their maximum deformation and breakage force. After 6 percent water was added
by vacuum infiltration, the flesh could be deformed only 2/3 as far as un-
treated flesh without breaking. There was little difference in mechanical
properties of Charleston Gray and Jubilee varieties.
Time of force application was not controlled in the 1967 and 1968 measure-
ments, but in 1969, more accurate measurements were made with a motor-driven
testing machine operated at 0.5 inch per minute. The average maximum defor-
mation (0.33 Inch) of flesh samples from 26 Jubilee watermelons was decreased
31 percent by addition of 5 percent water. Average breakage force of these
samples (344 grams) was reduced 29 percent by hydration. When the moisture
content of samples from the same melons was decreased 7 percent by osmotic
dehydration, the average deformation was increased 62 percent. Results in-
dicate that crisp watermelon tissue with a high water content is more suscept-
ible to breakage during handling and shipping.

Work planned for this year:
Make additional flesh breakage measurements at controlled rate of force
application after flesh hydration and dehydration. Publish results and ter-
minate the project.










PROGRESS REPORT


Project: Hatch 1116

Title: Effect of handling practices on quality of fresh vegetables.

Leader: D. D. Gull

Objective: To develop improved methods for maintaining quality of fresh
vegetables.

Report of Progess:

Tomato fruits of four stages of maturity, (1) one-half grown, (2) imma-
ture-green, (3) mature-green, and (4) breaker were treated with Ethrel and
ripened for quality evaluations. Ethrel treated fruits of maturities 1 4
reached the full ripe stage 9, 6, 5, and 0 days respectively, sooner than
non-treated fruit. Ripening was normal and more uniform than non-treated
fruit. The sugar/acid ratio was higher in treated fruits and the differ-
ential diminished with advancing maturity. Stimulation to ripen was ach-
ieved by treating on a small area at the stem scar, equatorial plane, or
blossom scar. Different formulations of Ethrel were equally effective in
initiating ripening.
Ethrel is more effective than ethylene in initiating ripening whether
applied externally or injected into core tissue. Exposure to reduced temp-
perature following treatment with Ethrel or ethylene caused a dimunation in
the rate of ripening.

Work Planned:

Study the ripening effect of Ethrel, both pre- and post-harvest applied,
as compared to ethylene on tomato varieties of different fruit maturities.
Establish the relationship between induced ripening, firmness, and prolonged
shelf life. Determine whether Ethrel or ethylene has any effect upon the
incidence of post harvest diseases.
This project is to be revised during the year.










PROGRESS REPORT


Project: NCM-45

Title: Factors affecting post-harvest market quality of processed potatoes.

Leaders: D. D. Gull, C. H. Dearborn, Milton Workman, A. I. Nelson, H. C.
Dostal, J. L. Weigle, C. L. Bedford, R. E. Nyland, R. B. O'Keefe
E. E. Ewing, E. P. Lana, W. A. Gould, K. G. Weckel, A. G. Hazen,
R. C. Gardner and Roy Shaw.

Objective: Establish chemical and physical characteristics desired in
potatoes for processing which can then be used by the breeders in variety
development.

Report of Progess:

This project was inactive during the past year and the annual meeting
was not attended because of lack of funds.

Work Planned:

Initiate studies of enzyme systems responsible for carbohydrate trans-
formations in the potato. Investigate sugars, phenols and nucleic acid
metabolism in relation to chipping quality. Determine the effect of phy-
siological preconditioning on chemical composition so as to improve quality
of potatoes for processing. Determine toxic properties (solanine) of
Florida potatoes.






PROGRESS REPORT


Project No: 1243

Title: Guides for Adjustments in Marketing Fruits and Vegetables in Southern
Region.

Leaders: R. K. Showalter, Vegetable Crops Dept.
A. H. Spurlock and D. L. Brooke, Agricultural Economics Dept.

Objective: To evaluate product quality for alternative methods of harvesting,
grading, sizing, trimming and packaging sweet corn, celery and
snap beans.

Progress Report:
Studies were made during the past three years with growers who were mech-
anizing their vegetable harvesting operations. Information was obtained on
grading and handling requirements after machine harvesting that would result
in a product quality similar to that after hand harvesting. Nine lots of
celery (100 stalks per lot) were hand cut and weighed in fields of commercial
growers. An average of 37 percent of the harvest weight was removed by hand
topping and stripping. Machine harvesting and topping in the same fields and
hand stripping by commercial crews reduced the harvest weight 48 percent. An
evaluation of hand vs machine sizing showed that machine sizing by stalk weight
or diameter resulted in more uniformity of packed crate weights than hand siz-
ing.
In 20 lots of sweet corn (500 pounds per lot) obtained from machine har-
vesters, immature ears ranged from 6 to 13 percent In 1967 and from 7 to 18
percent in 1968. Stalk sections and leaves in these tests ranged from 4 to
12 percent, and shanks on marketable ears averaged 6 percent of the ear weight.
Marketable ears ranged from 64 to 83 percent of total harvest weight after re-
moving trash and small ears. Packed crates of non-trimmed corn contained 52
to 63 ears and weighed 36 to 54 pounds. When shanks, flag leaves and tips
were removed by machine, ear weights were reduced 16 to 23 percent and cartons
packed with 60 trimmed ears weighed 11 to 15 percent less than wirebound crates
with variable ear counts.
Twenty-four lots of machine harvested snap beans examined in 1967 included
11 to 20 percent stems, leaves, immature and broken beans. One field had a
total packout of 84 percent of the 32,500 pounds of machine-harvested beans.
At 5 farms where beans were harvested by machine and by hand at the same time
in 1968, machine harvesting averaged 6 percent immature and 5 percent broken
beans. Hand harvesting averaged 2 percent immature and 2 percent broken pods.
Grading and sizing after machine harvesting removed most of the leaves and
stems, but removed very few immature and broken beans. Machine harvested snap
beans are inferior in quality to those harvested by hand, and there is much
need to develop better varieties and equipment for mechanical harvesting.
In 1969, a method was developed to measure the force required to detach
snap beans from the plant. Force to pull the Harvester variety averaged about
5 pounds (1600 pods measured) compared with 2 pounds for Provider variety
(1400 pods). Pull force increased as maturity and pedicel diameter increased.
As harvest mechanization moves ahead, it is important to measure various qual-
ity factors of the vegetables that are related to changes In harvesting and
handling methods.

Work planned for this year:
1. Study snap bean pod detachment as affected by variety, maturity, and
location of separation point between pod and plant.
2. Study pod breaking force as affected by variety, maturity, and wea-
ther conditions.






PROJECT BRIEF

1. State Project No. 1141

Title: Vegetable Crops and Plant Introductions New to Central Florida

Workers and Their Station Units: R.B. Forbes (Central Florida

Experiment Station)

2. Object: To evaluate vegetable crops new to central Florida area on

sand at Sanford and on peat at Zellwood for home and commercial

use.

3. Findings: Rhubarb: Seeds of the victoria variety of rhubarb were

planted on October 15, 1968 on the muck at Zellwood. Roots of

Valentine and McDonald (red varieties) were planted on December

19, 1968. Rhubarb plants in Florida will not live through the

summer unless dug, refrigerated and replanted in the fall. Yields

of Victoria from sand were encouraging.

Dasheen: Dasheen tubers (Colocasia escutenta) were planted on

the muck at Zellwood on April 22, 1969, and on the sand at

Sanford. Dasheens were a crop failure on the sand due to root

knot nematodes, but produced 19.3 tons/A of tubers on the muck.

Tree Tomato: Plants of Cyphomandra betacea were grown from seed

planted in Sanford, but were killed by frost. The fruit is red

in color and tastes somewhat like a tomato.

Chinese Gooseberry: Vines of this plant (Actinidia Chinensis) are

growing from seed planted in Sanford. This brown, fuzzy fruit,

two inches in length is grown in New Zealand and California, and

sold locally under the name of Kiwi.

4. Future: To continue trials with new crops.

Philip J. Westgate
Professor (Horticulturist)
Central Florida Experiment Station
Sanford, Florida 32771










PROGRESS REPORT


Project: State Project 1336

Title: Disease and cultural problems of minor subtropical vegetables,
fruits and ornamentals.

Leaders: D. D. Gull, C. W. Campbell, and S. E. Malo.

Objective: To ascertain and make recommendations on optimum cultural prac-
tices and disease control for subtropical crops of economic importance to
Florida.

Report of Progress:

A number of plant selections of dasheens were obtained from the Plant
Introduction Station at Savannah, Georgia and evaluated for potential
commercial production. Five of the more promising lines were tested for
edible quality and storability. Specific gravity of the tubers and pre-
ference as expressed by taste panel varied from season to season. Higher
specific gravity tubers were lighter, more mealy and mild than tubers of
lower specific gravity. Although dasheens can be mechanically harvested
and tubers successfully stored for several months at 450F. and 85-95% R.H.,
the preparation of tubers for market is laborous and costly therefore the
economic potential to Florida growers is questionable at this time.
Plants having tuber-setting characteristics have been selected and
maintained.

Work Planned:

Emphasis will be placed on selecting plants based on yield and uniform-
ity of tubers. Also of paramount importance is shape and edible quality of
tubers. Environmental factors resulting in the fluctuation of quality from
season to season will be investigated.










Project 391 Vegetable Variety Trials


Albregts--S&VFL; Burgis--GCES; Crall--W&GIL; Everett--SFFL; Forbes, Westgate--
CFES; Guzman, Wolf--EES; Halsey, Locascio, Lorz, Nettles--V.C. Dept.; Hayslip,
Ozaki--IRFL; Schumaker--PIL; Smith, Lutrick--WFES.

Objectives: Evaluation of varieties and new strains of vegetables for their
suitability for commercial and home production in Florida--specifically in Dade
County rock and marl soils.

Findings: A strain of rust virulent on previously resistant Dade and Polaris
pole beans occurred in Dade County in 1968. Eight selections from B386, 417,
583 and 729 lines and 7 plant introductions were resistant to the "new" rust
strain. Selections were made for rust resistance, bush plants with pole type
pods, multiple pod set and long, straight dark green pods. McCaslan and Dade
yielded higher than other varieties tested.

A white skin potato line 5459 (Raritan) from New Brunswick (NB), Canada has
consistently provided higher yields of high specific gravity tubers in marl soils.
NB5850 had excellent chipping quality over several years but did not yield as
well as Raritan or the standard Red LaSoda and LaRouge which do not have good
chipping quality more thanafew days after harvest--Kennebec and LaChipper are
the predominant white skin varieties grown in Dade County. Chieftan was a high
yielding, uniformshallow eyed, redskin variety with some skin russeting, which
had much seed piece rotting after planting and had poor chipping quality several
days after harvest.

King Cole and Superette cabbage were outstanding varieties on rock soil with
21 and 20 Ton/Acre, respectively.

Producer, Mississippi Silver, Snapea and Fla. 588-03 were outstanding Southern
pea varieties tested on rock soil.

Hybrid Summer and Goldneck squash had highest early and total yields.

Walter, Tropi-Red and Marion tomatoes harvested with the IFAS experimental
harvester had a high % of stems attached after harvest. Jointless line
2144-D2-Sl-DBk had outstanding vine characteristics, fruit size and yield for
fresh market machine harvesting. Line 2086-Dl-Sl-D2-BG2-DBk had better fruit
removal characteristics (without stems) but was rough. Some lines, though
jointless, had tender fruit stems which broke and remained attached to the fruit
after harvest.

Plans: Machine harvest characteristics of tomato varieties and lines will be
continued. Potato varieties will be tested through 1970 then vegetable variety
testing will be turned over to extension where it belongs.


March, 1970


H. H. Bryan













Vegetable Crops Workshop 1970
D. S. Burgis
Gulf Coast Experiment Station

State Project 391
Vegetable Variety Trials

Other Project Leaders:
E. E. Albregts, Strawberry & Vegetable Field Lab.
J. B. Aitken, North Florida Station
H. H. Bryan, Sub-Tropical Station
J. M. Crall, Watermelon & Grape Investigations Lab.
P. H. Everett, South Florida Field Lab.
R. B. Forbes, Central Florida Station
V. L. Guzman, Everglades Station
L. H. Halsey, Main Station (Veg. Crops)
N. C. Hayslip, Indian River Field Lab.
D. R. Hensel, Potato Investigations Lab.
C. M. Howard, Strawberry & Vegetable Field Lab.
S. J. Locascio, Main Station (Veg. Crops)
A. P. Lorz, Main Station (Veg. Crops)
M. C. Lutrick,West Florida Station
V. F. Nettles, Main Station (Veg. Crops)
H. Y. Ozaki, Indian River Field Lab.
W. T. Scudder, Central Florida Station
R. L. Smith, West Florida Station
J. R. Shumaker, Potato Investigations Lab.
J. 0. Strandberg, Central Florida Station
P. J. Westgate, Central Florida Station
E. A. Wolf, Everglades Station

Objectives:
1. To evaluate tomato varieties, strains, and Fl hybrids as regards
their potential for commercial varieties or possible home garden use.
2. To evaluate vegetable varieties as need for this is indicated.

Ilajor findings in past 3 year period:
1. Evaluation contributed to the introduction of the tomato varieties
Tropic and Walter.
2. Strains of processing type tomatoes well adapted to Florida
production are available for introduction at the present time.

Plans for project for coming 2 year period:
1. Evaluation of present material should produce a tomato variety for
fresh market with resistance to both Verticillium and Race 2
Fusarium wilt in the 2 year period.










G. W. Elmstrom
Watermelon and Grape Inv. Lab.
Leesburg, Florida
February 20, 1970

FLA-WG-00391

Vegetable variety trials

Watermelon. In a 1969 replicated trial at Leesburg 16

varieties and breeding lines were rated for early and total

yield, fruit texture, flavor, and sugar. Sweet Princess,

Crimson Sweet, Charleston Gray, and three F68 (Florida)

lines were early maturing and had the highest composite rat-

ings. Total yields were low in Garrisonian, Kansas 66-1,

VBL Tetra-2, and VBL W872, and fruit quality was poor in

Summerfield, Kansas 66-12, VBL W872, and the three Tri-X

(seedless) varieties.

Cantaloupe. In a 1969 replicated trial at Leesburg the

two breeding lines VBL 67-2 and AC67-14 were outstanding for

both yield and fruit quality. Somewhat less promising were

Planter's Jumbo, VBL 67-7, Saticoy Hybrid, Samson Hybrid, AC67-

17 and AC67-59. Disease resistance of Hales Best Jumbo and

Edisto were unacceptable. Fruit of L39-1 was of excellent

quality but was small in size. Vines of AC63-11 lacked vigor

and uniformity.










VEGETABLE VARIETY TRIALS


V. L. Guzman Project No. 00391


Objective: To evaluate existing varieties or cultivars as to suitability

and adaptability for commercial and home production in Florida.

In order to find varieties with desirable horticultural characteristics

and high yield, it is necessary to test hundreds of vegetable varieties

with the hope of selecting the best available. For example, during the 1940's

Golden Security sweet corn was tested and recommended. During the 1950's

Florida 104, Florigold 107, 106 and 106A replaced Golden Security. During

the 1960's, Wintergreen, Golden Belle, Silver Queen (white hybrid) were

recommended to the farmers. It is hoped that during the 1970's, two new

varieties bred at EES will replace most of the sweet corn varieties grown

for the fresh market trade, due to high sugar retention properties of these

new hybrids. Vegetable variety tests were conducted with carrots, lettuce,

radishes, sweet corn, bush snap beans, broccoli, cabbage and potatoes.


Future work: To continue testing vegetable crop varieties.








PROGRESS REPORT


Project: State 391

Title: Vegetable Variety Trials

Leaders: L. H. Halsey, Gainesville Vegetable Crops Dept.

Objective: To evaluate new strains and varieties of vegetables as to their
suitability for commercial and home garden production in Florida.

Report of Progress:
Participation in Southern Cooperative Variety Trials of cantaloupe and
southern pea. Data obtained aided in recommendation of Fla. 421-07 southern
pea for release by Florida Main Station, and of VBL 67-1 cantaloupe for re-
lease by U.S.D.A. Comparisons in southern pea trials were made on single
and multiple harvest basis for relationship to mechanized harvest.

Work planned:
Leader L. H. Halsey accepted the responsibility as chairman of the
Southern Cooperative Cantaloupe Variety Trials, effective Jan. 1, 1970, for
a five year period. Variety trials with cantaloupe and southern pea will be
conducted to include comparisons related to machine harvest.

Publication:
Contribution to composite annual reports distributed to Cooperators in
Southern Cooperative Variety Trials.

Contributor to: V. F. Nettles (co-ordinator) 1967. Vegetable Variety
Trial Results for 1966. University of Florida, I.F.A.S., Agric. Exp. Sta.
Cir. S-179.









VEGETABLE VARIETY TRIALS


Norman C. Hayslip


State Project 391


I. Other leaders:


Title


Albrogts
Aitken
Burgis
Bryan
Everett
Forbes
Guzman
Halsey
Hensel
Howard
Locascio
Lorz
Lutrick
Nettles
Ozaki
Scudder
Smith
Schumaker
Strandberg
Westgate
Wolf


Asst. Horticulturist
Asst. Horticulturist
Assoc. Horticulturist
Asst. Horticulturist
Soils Chemist
Assoc. Soils Chemist
Horticulturist
Assoc. Horticulturist
Assoc. Soils Chemist
Asst. Plant Pathologist
Horticulturist
Horticulturist
Assoc. Soils Chemist
Horticulturist
Assoc. Horticulturist
Horticulturist
Asst. Agronomist
Asst. Horticulturist
Asst. Plant Pathologist
Horticulturist
Horticulturist


Strawberry 6 Vegetable Field Lab
North Florida Station
Gulf Coast Station
Sub-Tropical Station
South Florida Field Lab
Central Florida Station
Everglades Station
Main Station
Potato Investigations Lab
Strawberry & Vegetable Field Lab
Main Station
Main Station
West Florida Station
Main Station
Indian River Field Lab
Central Florida Station
Main Station
Potato Investigations Lab
Central Florida Station
Central Florida Station
Everglades Station


II. Major objectives:

To evaluate new strains and varieties of vegetables as to their
suitability for commercial and home garden production in Florida.

III. Major findings:


Tomatoes
State Project
were grown in


- Official STEP entries, advanced breeding lines from
398, new varieties, and standard commercial varieties
replicated yield and/or observations plots each year.


Major cultural methods for which tomato stocks were evaluated:
(1) bush crop for mature-green harvest, (2) trellised or staked crop
for vine-ripe harvest, and (3) bush crop grown on plastic film covered
beds for vine-ripe harvest (an experimental method). Data obtained
for the past few years are summarized in Indian River Field Laboratory
Report IRL 69-1, May 15, 1969.

The recently released IFAS tomato varieties, Tropic, Tropi-Red,
Tropi-Gro, and Walter were evaluated. Tropic, a non-determinate
trellis type plant with extra large fruit is adapted to harvest in
the turning, or vine-ripe stage of maturity. Its chief advantage


Name


Station







- 2-


is its resistance to Verticillium wilt a serious disease in Dade
County. Tropi-Gro and Tropi-Red are determinate plant types with
large fruit, and are best adapted as bush crops for mature-green
harvest. Both are resistant to Verticillium wilt. Tropi-Gro has
shown too much blossom-end roughness, but Tropi-Red has produced
very satisfactory crop. Alter is a determinate type plant with
very smooth and uniform, medium sized tomatoes. It is the first
variety released with resistance to race 2 Fusarium wilt, and is
extremely promising for production as a bush crop for mature-green
harvest.

IV. Present work and future plans:

The most advanced IFAS breeding stocks and future releases
will be maintained in yield and observation trials. !Machine
harvest types with resistance to Verticillium and race 1 and 2
Fusarium wilt, gray leaf spot and graywall will dominate future
trials. Participation in the STEP trials will continue.





VEGETABLE VARIETY TRIALS


State Project 391 S. J. Locascio

Leaders at other stations evaluating strawberries: E. E. Albregts, Straw-
berry and Vegetable Lab., Dover and H. H. Bryan, Sub-Tropical Station,
Homestead.

Object: To evaluate new strains and varieties of vegetables as to their
suitability for commercial and home garden production in Florida.

Some Recent Major Findings

Twenty-two strawberry clones have been evaluated for their adapt-
ability to the relatively short days and mild winter conditions of Florida.
Over a period of several years, a number of clones have produced yields of
high quality marketable fruit up to 118 percent more than the standard clone
Florida Ninety. Maximum yields were produced by Tioga, Dabreak and Torrey
over a 5 to 6 year period. In addition to increased yields, fruit of these
clones are larger and maintain firmness better than Florida Ninety.

Current Research

Evaluation on new strawberry varieties will continue.

Recent Publications

1. Locascio, S. J. and E. E. Albregts. 1969. Strawberry clone evaluation
in Florida. Proc. Tropical Region ASHS: 13. J. S. 3333.





MISCELLANEOUS PROJECTS

Current Research

Influence of K level on susceptibility to bacterial related gray-wall In
tomatoes (with C. B. Hall). Tomatoes are being grown at various levels of
K and two N sources in greenhouse experiments. Tomatoes will be inoculated
to evaluate the effect of K rate on development of the disorder.

Tomato density and fertility studies (with Adriano Navarro). Dwarf and
standard tomato varieties will be grown at four populations with two
row arrangements and at two fertility levels.






V. F. Nettles
1970


State Project: 391, Vegetable Variety Trials


Other Leaders:


Location:


Halsey, J. M. Crall, N. C. Hayslip, A. P. Lorz,
Ozaki, P. H. Everett, R. B. Forbes, V. L. Guzman,
Locascio, H. H. Bryan, P. J. Westgate, M. C. Lutrick,
Smith, J. R. Shumaker, J. B. Atkins, E. E. Albregts,
Howard, D. S. Burgis, W. T. Scudder, J. 0. Strandberg,
Wol fe


Department of Vegetable Crops, Main Station, Central Florida,
Everglades, Sub-Tropical, North Florida, West Florida and Gulf
Coast Stations; Potato Investigations, Watermelon and Grape
Investigations, Indian River, South Florida, Strawberry and
Vegetable Laboratories


Objective:

To find which of the existing varieties and strains of the major
vegetables are best suited to commercial production in the principal
vegetable producing areas of Florida.

Results:

Replicated trials of watermelon and sweet potatoes conducted for
past three seasons. Crimson Sweet was outstanding for three years. Charleston
Gray was also outstanding for two of the three seasons and Sweet Princess
was equal to Crimson Sweet in one season. Outstanding entries in two of
three replicated sweet potato trials have been Georgia Red and N. C. Porto
Rico 198. Red Cliff and Cherokee were also considered among the leaders in
1968 and 1969, respectively.

A replicated pickle trial using entries of the Southern Cooperative
trial was planted in 1967. Southern Cross and Pioneer produced more Size
No. 1 pickles than Pixie and Model.

Entries of All American Section and samples of the State Seed
Arbitration Committee were also grown as required.

Projected Work:

Watermelon and sweet potato trials are planned for the approach-
ing season.




VEGETABLE VARIETY TRIALS


Henry Y. Ozaki


State Project 391


I. Other leaders:


Title


E.
J.
D.
H.
P.
R.
V.
L.
N.
D.
C.
S.
A.
M.
V.
W.
R.
J.
J.
P.
E.


Albregts
Aitken
Burgis
Bryan
Everett
Forbes
Guzman
Halsey
Hayslip
Hensel
Howard
Locascio
Lorz
Lutrick
Nettles
Scudder
Smith
Schumaker
Strandberg
Westgate
Wolf


Asst. Horticulturist
Asst. Horticulturist
Assoc. Horticulturist
Asst. Horticulturist
Soils Chemist
Assoc. Soils Chemist
Horticulturist
Assoc. Horticulturist
Entomologist
Assoc. Soils Chemist
Asst. Plant Pathologist
Horticulturist
Horticulturist
Assoc. Soils Chemist
Horticulturist
Horticulturist
Asst. Agronomist
Asst. Horticulturist
Asst. Plant Pathologist
Horticulturist
Horticulturist


II. Major objectives:

To evaluate vegetable varieties on the sandy soils of the lower
east coast.

III. Major findings:

Harvester produced the best yields of quality bean pods in most
trials. Green Isle has produced quality pods in 2 trials. Provider,
Greenpod 63317, Greenpod 64467, Greenpod 64478, Experimental 1208,
SEX 772, Maestro, DelRey, Code 188, Avalanch, Astro, and Picker were
outstanding in one trial.

In the 1967 trial, Poinsett was the best cucumber variety.

Early Calwonder produced the best yield of quality pepper pods.
Tobacco etch virus infected all varieties of the 1969 trial.

SC 12 (yellow crookneck), Seneca Prolific Hybrid (straightneck)
and Seneca Zucchini Hybrid produced the best yields of quality squash.

IV. Future research:

Pepper and bean variety trials will be conducted. Some winter
sweet corn will be evaluated.


Name


Station


Strawberry & Vegetable Field Lab
North Florida Station
Gulf Coast Station
Sub-Tropical Station
South Florida Field Lab
Central Florida Station
Everglades Station
Main Station
Indian River Field Lab
Potato Investigations Lab
Strawberry & Vegetable Field Lab
Main Station
Main Station
West Florida Station
Main Station
Central Florida Station
Main Station
Potato Investigations Lab
Central Florida Station
Central Florida Station
Everglades Station







STATE PROJECT #391
VEGETABLE VARIETY TRIALS

J. R. Shumaker
Potato Investigations Laboratory
Hastings, Florida

OTHER WORKERS: V. F. Nettles, L. H. Halsey, A. P. Lorz and S. J. Locascio;
Department of Vegetable Crops. J. O. Strandberg, W. T. Scudder, R. B. Forbes
and P. J. Westgate; Central Florida Station. V. L. Guzman and E. A. Wolfe;
Everglades Station. N. C. Hayslip and H. Y. Ozaki; Indian River Field Labora-
tory. D. S. Burgis; Gulf Coast Station. P. H. Everett; South Florida Field
Laboratory. E. E. Albregts and C. M. Howard; Strawberry and Vegetable Field
Laboratory. J. B. Aitken; North Florida Station. H. H. Bryan; Sub-Tropical
Station. J. M. Crall and G. W. Elmstrom; Watermelon and Grape Investigations
Laboratory. M. C. Lutrick and R. L. Smith, West Florida Station.

Emphases of variety trials is on cabbage and potatoes. Observational trials
of miscellaneous vegetables are used to evaluate area potentiality.

Cabbage: Varieties and experimental lines are being evaluated primarily for
fresh market adaptability to the Hastings area. Data is recorded for earliness,
concentrated total yield, mechanical harvester adaptability and several head
characteristics. During the past two years, hybrid strains continued to show
greater uniformity and both larger and more concentrated yields than open-
pollinated ones. In 1968-1969 the highest concentrated total yielding, horti-
culturally desirable strains were: Harvester Queen, Kleen Cut, and Pack Rite
maturing in 92 days; and S L Cross, A S Cross, Hybrid 21, Superette, Green
Boy, and King Cole maturing in 115 days. Best mechanical harvester adaptability
ratings were obtained from Harvester Queen, King Cole, Pack Rite and Market
Topper.

Potatoes: Varieties and seedling potatoes are being evaluated for both process-
ing and fresh market adaptability to the area. Data is recorded for yield,
specific gravity, chip color, and other horticultural characteristics. Of
24 varieties grown in replicated trials Red LaSoda was the only entry in the
1969 trials to significantly outyield Sebago, standard variety in the Hastings
area. Sebago was superior to Red LaSoda in specific gravity and chip color
evaluations. Pungo, Ona, and seedlings, B5267-2 and NB 5810, were about equal
to Sebago's yield, specific gravity, and chip color. NB 5459 was superior in
specific gravity but equal in yield and chip color to Sebago. Peconic and
Wauseon performed well in yield and chip color evaluations but were inferior
to Sebago's specific gravity. Of 96 seedlings grown in observational trials,
12 were superior to Sebago in both yield and specific gravity evaluations.
They will be further evaluated in 1970.

Testing of these commodities will continue to emphasize; (1) fresh market and
mechanical harvester adaptability of cabbage varieties, and (2) both pro-
cessing and fresh market adaptability of potato varieties.








PROJECT BRIEF


1. Project No. 391

Title: Vegetable Variety Trials

Workers and Station Units: V. F. Nettles (Gainesville), A. P.
Lorz (Gainesville), E. A. Wolf (Everglades), R. B. Forbes,
and G. L. Greene (Central Florida Experiment Station).

2. Object: To find which of the existing varieties and strains of the
major vegetables are best suited to commercial production
in the principal vegetable producing areas of Florida.

3. Findings: Celery Varieties. Twenty three varieties of celery were
seeded on Duda's seed beds at Lake Jem on December 26, 1968
in cooperation with Mr. E. A. Wolf, Everglades Station. These
seedlings were transplanted to the muck on April 14, 1969.
Disease ratings were made on June 9 and 23, 1969. At
harvest, stalk rot ratings, percent seeders, petiole length
and width, average weight per stalk, total and marketable
yields were obtained. Varieties EES 1410A and EES 1654
were saved for increase and possible release.
Radish Varieties: Eight varieties of radish were planted on
muck on October 21, 1969.
Sweet Corn: Fifty-three varieties of sweet corn were planted
on the muck at Zellwood on April 1, 1969 and on the sand at
Sanford on April 9, 1969. J. Harris' Gold Cup continued to
be the leading variety of sweet corn on the muck.
4. Future: Southern Pea Variety Trials at Sanford.
Sweet Corn Variety Trials at Sanford and Zellwood.
Radish Trials at Zellwood.

Philip J. Westgate
Professor (Horticulturist)
Central Florida Experiment Station
Sanford, Florida 32771










Vegetable Crops Workshop 1970
D. S. Burgis
Gulf Coast Experiment Station

State Project 398
Breeding for Combined Resistance to Diseases in Tomato

Other Workers:
H. H. Bryan, Sub-Tropical Station
J. P. Crill, Gulf Coast Station
D. D. Gull, Main Station (Veg. Crops)
P. H. Everett, South Florida Field Lab.
N. C. Hayslip, Indian River Field Lab.
J. W. Strobel, Gulf Coast Station
B. Villalon, Sub-Tropical Station

Objectives:
1. Evaluation of strains and breeding lines developed by Florida plant
breeders so that the best of these can be advanced to replicated
testing and STEP (So. Tomato Exchange Program) trials.
2. Save seed of established tomato types so that other interested
cooperators may have enough to conduct preliminary trials.


Major findings in past 3 year period:
1. Evaluation of fixed strains has resulted in the
selections being advanced to STEP trial status:
Fresh Market STEP Resistance
STEP 557 1150-4
STEP 570 407-D3 J2* Verticillium
STEP 571 1723-1 Vert. and Fusari
STEP 582 852-D1 Vert. and Race 2
STEP 583 1713-D3 Vert. and Race 2
STEP 584 1723-2 Vert. and Race 2
STEP 585 1775-2 Vert. and Race 2
STEP 586 2153-D3 J2 Vert.
STEP 587 2197-D3 J2 Vert.


Processing STEP
STEP 1006 407-D3-D4 J2
STEP 1009 1346-D10 "
STEP 1011 2086-D1 "
STEP 1020 1346-D10-S3
STEP 1021 1841-S3
STEP 1022 2125-D1
STEP 1023 920-D1-ABk


following Florida


um race 2
F
F
F
F


Resistance
Verticillium
Vert.
Vert.
Vert.
Vert.
Vert.
Vert. and Race 2 F


Plans for project for coming 2 year period:
1. To bring one or more fixed fresh market types with both Verticillium
and race 2 Fusarium wilt resistance up to variety status.
2. To bring one processing type with the Verticillium and race 2
Fusarium wilt resistance to variety status.

*J2 pointless peduncle allows calyx to remain on fruit stem when fruit
is removed.








BREEDING FOR COMBINED RESISTANCES TO DISEASES
IN TOMATO

State Project 398 Norman C. Hayslip


I. Other leaders:

Name Title Station

H. H. Bryan Asst. Horticulturist Sub-Tropical Station
B. Villalon Asst. Plant Pathologist Sub-Tropical Station
J. P. Crill Asst. Plant Pathologist Gulf Coast Station
D. S. Burgis Assoc. Horticulturist Gulf Coast Station
P. H. Everett Soils Chemist South Florida Field Lab
L. H. Halsey Assoc. Horticulturist Main Station


II. Major objectives:

To develop varieties of tomatoes of desirable horticultural
characters possessing, in combination, genetic resistances to as
many as possible of the numerous diseases important on the crop
in Florida.

III. Major findings:

Segregating and fixed IFAS breeding lines from this state-wide
project have been grown each year in observation and selection plots
by IRFL. Major emphasis in recent years has been (1) development
of bush and trellis types with resistances to race 2 Fusarium wilt and
Verticillium wilt, (2) development of machine harvest types with
concentrated maturity and the jointless factor for stem-free fruits,
(3) selection toward plant types from which could be harvested vine-
ripe tomatoes without the costly and labor consuming practices of
pruning and training the plants on trellis or stakes.

Three Verticillium and one race 2 Fusarium wilt resistant IFAS
lines have been released as commercial varieties. These are Tropic,
Tropi-Gro, and Tropi-Red (Vert. resistant), and Walter (race 2
Fus. resistant). Selections from the IFAS 1150 family have been
fairly well adapted for vine-ripe harvest without pruning or
training the plants. Several machine-harvest types are approaching
the refinements necessary for release.

IV. Present work and future plans:

Emphasis on trellis tomato types will be discontinued at this
laboratory. Major emphasis will be on machine-harvest types.
Some attention will be given to types for hand harvest as vine-
ripes or mature-green harvest off bush crops grown on plastic
covered beds.








State Project 1289 Development of Improved Celery Varieties for Florida.

Objective: To develop celery varieties by selection and hybridization, for
Florida having uniformity of type, slow bolting, resistance to
early blight (Cercospora apii Fres.) and bacterial leaf spot
(Pseudomonas cichorii Swingle) Stapp, and upright growth habit
suitable for mechanical harvest.

Accomplishments during the past 3 years: (1) Two new varieties having moderate
resistance to early blight, are being released this spring. Both are recom-
mended for use in the Everglades -- Earlibelle for the first transplanting in
late summer and June-Belle for late spring transplanting when early blight
disease control is most difficult. Both varieties come from a cross made in
1959.
(2) Plants of an excellent slow bolting early blight resistant line EES1752
(F3) from a cross of 259-19 Summer Pascal and EES212 are currently being
grown in California for seed production on both a mass and individual plant
increase basis. This line was produced through a technique developed at the
Everglades Station whereby celery seedlings are artificially vernalized
prior to transplanting to the field to induce premature seeding of easy
bolting segregates in populations segregating for slow bolting factors.
(3) High resistance to bacterial leaf spot was found in foreign plant celeriac
introductions screened in the summer of 1967. F2 seed from crosses between
these hollow stemmed, pigmented selections, Florida 683, and Everglades Station
early blight resistant lines has been produced. Good resistance to bacterial
leaf spot was also found in Florimart and the EES1624 (SS) line. Some 77
crosses were made during the spring and summer of 1969 between selections of
Florimart, EES1624, Florida 683, Florida 2-14, and several EES early blight
resistant lines to combine desirable characteristics of the various lines
and varieties. These F1 plants are currently being grown in California and
Florida to produce F2 seed.
(4) Over 100 S1 to SS lines are being tested during the 1969-70 season.

Future plans -

1) Screen F2 progenies now on hand having the PI bacterial leaf spot resis-
tance in late summer. Select for resistance to bacterial leaf spot and
early blight.
2) Test new F2 progenies from 1969 crosses and select within best for further
selling or crossing and testing.
3) Continue evaluation and development of best advanced lines currently being
tested.


E. A. Wolf





COMBINED DISEASE RESISTANCE IN PEPPERS


Henry Y. Ozaki


State Project 1291


I. Other leaders:


Title


A. Cook
E. Stall
H. Blazquez


Plant Pathologist
Plant Pathologist
Asst. Plant Pathologist


Main Station
Main Station
South Florida Field Lab


II. Major objectives:

Screening for resistance to cucumber mosaic and aster ringspot
viruses in pepper accessions; identification of minor gene resist-
ance to bacterial leaf spot in peppers; combination of major gene
virus and bacterial spot resistance in peppers.

III. Major findings:

Line 9-8-Bk, with resistance to tobacco etch, potato Y and
bacterial spot, has been placed in a replicated trial.

IV. Future research:


Cooperation with Cook and Stall will be continued.


Name


Station






Project: Project 1305
Title: Vegetable Breeding
Leaders: A. P. Lorz


Southern peas:
The objective of producing new high yielding determinate types of cream
blackeye and other types of southern peas is characterized by:
1. The establishment of about 200 breeding lines in need of or in the process
of evaluation.
2. Release plans for market type cream line 421-0-7.
3. The establishment of 69F-99 as a breeding parent for extremely determinate
runnerless habit.
4. The discovery of several plant introductions of the yard-long type with
green pod attributes which compare favorably with snap beans. From
crosses of this type with Snapea and other types with more uniform pod
length, the effort will be made to select types superior to Snapea in
quality, appearance, uniformity and resistance to fusarium wilt.

Beans:
Although some emphasis is being given to the development of improved white
seeded green and wax podded bush types with improved machine harvest efficiency,
attention is also directed toward the development of a bush type with the large
market pole bean type pod for the possible machine harvest of this type bean as
well.

Pole beans are still being bred with emphasis on horticultural attributes of
pod size, appearance, freedom from strings and fiber, resistance to rust and
viruses and for long racemes extending beyond the foliage for easy hand harvesting.

Appreciable amounts of seed for breeding purposes have been harvested from
derivatives from the compiles of P. vulgaris, P. coccineus and P. polyanthus with
selection emphasis on characters exhibited by the two non-commercial species.
The objective is to preserve non-commercial germ plasm in fertile phenotypes
which are more compatible than the original species in crosses with P. vulgaris.

The effort is also being made to extract such characters as early racemose
flowering and robust bush habit as attributes which could improve the commercial
types.

Species hybrids involving P. vulgaris crossed with P. acutifolius have been
produced thru embryo-culture but the plants failed to survive beyond the point of
flowering. Attempts are still in progress to achieve this cross in order to
extract bacterial blight resistance from P. acutifolius.

The amphidiploid character of several derivatives from the P. lunatus X
P. polystachyus cross was cytologically confirmed by Mr. William Stall, and other
derivatives at the tetraploid level are being investigated by Mr. Jim Wyatt.

The appearance of such recessive lunatus-derived characters as bush habit
white seeds is genetic evidence of some chromosome homology between genomes of
the two different species. Efforts to backcross the amphidiploids to P. lunatus




2

continue to be fruitless. The objective is to create a triploid having two
P. lunatus genomes plus an extra genome from the wild species, a prelude to the
establishment of a series of eleven fundamentally P. lunatus types each with a
different pair of polystachyus-derived chromosomes.

Endive-Escarole-Chicory:
The past two growing seasons witnessed the further intensification, through
selection, of the heading tendency which was first observed in the progenies of
endive-chicory crosses. Individual plant types having compact heads similar to
those of head lettuce and Chinese cabbage are occurring with greater frequency.
Although the percentage of heading types is frequent in some lines, the character
is not yet fixed either by genetic homozygosity or by freedom from instability
with respect to the effect of minor cultural differences. The establishment of
uniformity in any phenotype intermediate between the existing commercial rosette
type and a compact heading type could be desirable in that the degree of self
blanching of the interior leaves would be enhanced. Efforts will continue to
achieve and stabilize such types.

Andromonoecious Watermelons:
Several different phenotypes have now been fixed which bear a strong
resemblance to the Charleston Gray parental type but which have the andromonoecious
flowering habit.
Other now stabilized andromonoecious derivatives show some promise as larger
ice box types in the 10-15 Ib. range. One line in particular appears to be early,
fruitful and of high quality. Seed from selfed melons are available for observa-
tion but the quantities are insufficeint at present to supply enough for replicated
trials.
Further screening of selections is projected, after which this part of the
work will be phased out, but further work with short internode types is contemplated
to facilitate the harvest of commercial types either by machine or at least with
mechanical aids.











G. W. Elmstrom
Watermelon and Grape Inv. Lab.
Leesburg, Florida
February 20, 1970

FLA-WG-01455

Breeding cantaloupe, honeydew and other Cucumis melons for

Florida

L. H. Halsey and G. W. Elmstrom, Leaders

The major objectives of the work at the Watermelon and

Grape Investigations Laboratory are to develop commercially

acceptable Fl hybrid varieties of Cucumis melo which are

adapted to the culture and climate of Florida, and to develop

parental lines with genetic properties suitable for hybrid

seed produ-tion. Under this new project adapted varieties

and advanced breeding lines will be screened for combining

ability. During the fall of 1969 seed from 83 different crosses

were obtained from a planting of 39 cantaloupe cultivars and

advanced breeding lines. The Fl hybrid progenies will be

evaluated for fruit quality and disease resistance.

Parental lines with a monoecious characteristic and growth

hormones regulating sex expression will be used to facilitate

hybrid seed production. An attempt will be made to incorporate

the monoecious characteristic found in Bower's Dwarf, A88-01,

into one of the parental lines for hybrid seed production.









PROGRESS REPORT


Project: State 1455

Title: Breeding Cantaloupe, Honeydew and other Cucumis Melons for Florida.

Leaders: L. H. Halsey, Vegetable Crops Department.

Objective: To develop varieties of Cucumis spp. which are culturally and
climatically adapted to Florida conditions, and to develop
parental material containing genetic properties suitable for
hybrid development.

Report of Progress:

Strong selection pressure was possible in numerous lines in F2 and F3
generations for Powdery mildew and Alternaria blight In the spring, and for
Downy mildew in the fall plantings.

Work Planned:

Continued crossing and selection to meet the terms of the objectives
stated above. Acquire genetic material to broaden the base of the gene
bank available.








Non projected Development of sweet corn hybrids having resistance to
Helminthosporium turcicum leaf blight and high sugar retention.--

Two Fl hybrids, containing the sh2 endosperm character, having as parents
inbred lines partially developed under former state project 603, are ready to
be recommended to the variety release committee for release. These hybrids,
one having resistance to northern leaf blight, tentatively named Staysweet
and Resistant Staysweet, produce ears having approximately 10% total sugar
at full market maturity and 6.5% after 10 days storage at 44F compared to
3.4% and 2.5% respectively for regular lobelle. Eating quality of the ears
of these two sh2 hybrids after 5 and 10 days storage has been rated as superior
to that of lobelle checks and Illini Xtrasweet. Release circulars are in
the process of preparation for submission to a release committee for considera-
tion.

Several new F4 and F5 sh2 lines, having the single gene Ht resistance to
northern leaf blight, are being screened this spring.

Proposed work -- preparation of project statement --
to evaluate potential usefulness of all inbred lines currently on hand, both
su, and sh2, and to investigate certain other mutant endosperm genes such
as ae, du, and wxy for possible usefulness in developing hybrids with improved
storage quality.


E. A. Wolf












Vegetable Crops Workshop 1970
D. S. Burgis
Gulf Coast Experiment Station

State Project 591
Chemical Weed Control for Commercial Vegetable Production

Other Project Leaders:
E. E. Albregts, Strawberry and Vegetable Field Lab.
P. H. Everett, South Florida Field Lab.
R. W. Harkness, Sub-Tropical Station
N. C. Hayslip, Indian River Field Lab.
S. J. Locascio, Main Station (Veg. Crops)
J. R. Orsenigo, Everglades Station
H. Y. Ozaki, Indian River Field Lab.
W. T. Scudder, Central Florida Station
J. R. Shumaker, Potato Investigations Lab.

Objectives:
1. Develop a tomato herbicide program on a noncultural system which will
eliminate hand labor for weed removal.
2. Find new chemicals with greater selectivity for all crops -
especially tomatoes.
3. Find chemicals which are effective on specific weed species, i.e.
nightshade, signalgrass and nutsedge.

Major findings in past 3 year period:
1. Investigations lead to recommendations of: 1) Planavin for tomato
transplants and lay-by treatment on cucurbits.
2. Developed recommendation for use of Prefar as a preplant incorporated
treatment on cucumbers and watermelons.
3. Re-evaluation of 2,4-D for control of nutsedge.

Plans for project in coming 2 year period:
1. Achieve No. 1 objective.
2. Discover a chemical which is selective for tomato but not for black
nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.).
3. As a result of herbicide testing a revision of Circular S-38
Nutgrass Control with 2,4-D in Florida.








G. W. Elmstrom
Watermelon and Grape Inv. Lab.
Leesburg, Florida
February 20, 1970

FLA-WG-00591

Chemical weed control for commercial vegetable production

The objectives of the work at Leesburg are to evaluate
the effectiveness of herbicides and cultural practices in
controlling weeds and determine the tolerance of watermelons
and cantaloupes to these methods.

In a 1969 replicated trial at the Watermelon and Grape
Investigations Laboratory, eight pre-emergence herbicides were
applied to plots of Charleston Gray watermelon. Early growth
of the seedlings was slowed by a long period of cool tempera-
tures, and seedling tolerance to herbicide treatments was not
easy to evaluate due to a high incidence of Fusarium wilt.
The most common weeds found were Florida purslane (Richardia
scabra L.), hairy indigo (Indigofera hirsuta L.), nutsedge
TCyperus esculentus L.), and common ragweed (Ambrosia
artemislifolia L. .

Sinbar (0.8 lb.) and Planavin (1 lb.) had the highest
composite ratings for weed control among the chemical treat-
ments but these were considerably below the ratings for the
hoed and hand-weeded treatments. The three best chemicals
for control of grasses were Dacthal (6 lbs.), Prefar (6 lbs.),
and Sinbar and those best for control of broadleaf weeds were
Treflan (1 lb.), Sinbar, and Planavin. Control of both grasses
and broadleaf species was poor with Vegadex (4 Ibs.), Vegadex
plus Randox (2 Ibs. each), Alanap (4 Ibs.) Alanap plus
Prefer (4 lbs. each), and Dalapon (10 Ibs. Figures in
parenthesis represent pounds of active ingredient per acre.
Dacthal, Treflan, Prefar, and Planavin were incorporated
immediately after application.

Plans for the present year include using some of these
materials at higher concentrations and in combination. The
length of time during which weed growth must be controlled in
order to obtain acceptable yields will also be determined.
Future plans include screening materials which have shown
promise in preliminary trials. Also to be studied is the use
of plastic mulch and/or fumigation for weed control.






CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

State Project 591 S. J. Locascio

Leaders at other locations: D. S. Burgis, Gulf Cocst; W. T. Scudder, Central
Florida; J. R. Orsenigo, Everglades; Herb Bryan, Sub-Tropical; N. C. Hayslip
and H. Y. Ozaki, Indian River Lab.; and P. H. Everett, South Florida Field
Lab.

Object: To determine the effectiveness of certain chemical preparations for
the control of weeds in vegetable production on sandy soil.

Some Recent Major Findings

Watermelons: Several herbicides have been evaluated for pre- and post-
emergence weed control in watermelons. Adequate weed control without crop
injury and yield equal to hand weed treatment have been obtained with the
following preemergence treatments: 6 and 9 lb/A bensulide and 4 lb/A
dichlormate. The influence of rate and incorporation depth of nitralin and
DCPA to watermelons has been established.

Strawberry: Various herbicides have been evaluated in strawberry plant
nurseries. Most effective herbicides are 4 lb/A diphenamid, 10 Ib/A DCPA
and 2 Ib/A nitralin.
Activated charcoal does not provide adequate safety to use such herbi-
cides as simazine on strawberries grown on sandy soils.

Current and Proposed Research

Watermelons: Several herbicides will be evaluated at different rates and
methods of incorporation.

Strawberry plant nurseries: Weed control, strawberry tolerance and plant pro-
duction as influenced by nitralin, Kerb, bensulide, DCPA, and Preforan will
be evaluated.

Herbicide leaching studies (With Laurence Sistrunk): The movement of nitralin,
bensulide and dichlormate as influenced by various rates of water will be
investigated in lab and greenhouse studies. Herbicides will be leaching in
tubes through a clay and a flat woods soil. Movement will be determined by
bioassey.

Herbicide persistence studies (with D. S. Burgis and Walter Eiker): Nitralin,
bensulide and trifluralin will be applied at 1 and 2 times their recommended
rates in a spring, fall, spring cropping situation. Herbicide breakdown and
residues will be followed at monthly intervals by bioassey techniques and
probably analytically.

Recent Publications

1. Locascio, S. J. 1967. Effect of activated charcoal on the toxicity
of dichlobenil. Proc. Sou. Weed Conf. 20: 157-163. J. S. 2630.

2. King, T. G. and S. J. Locascio. 1968. Effectiveness of several
herbicides applied on watermelons. Proc. Sou. Weed Conf. 21: 186-179.
J. S. 2907.




CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

State Project 591 Henry Y. Ozaki


I. Other leaders:

Name Title Station

J. R. Orsenigo Horticulturist Everglades Station

II. Major objectives:

To determine the effectiveness of certain chemical preparations
for the control of weeds in vegetable production on sandy soil.

III. Major findings:

Plots treated with EPTC and with CP-31393 produced the highest bean
yields but not significantly. The crop was least tolerant of CP-31393
and most tolerant of benefin. CP-31393, DCPA and EPTC provided the best
annual grass and broadleaf weed control. But both SD-11831 and tri-
fluralin warrant further evaluation.

Pre-transplant trifluralin reduced both time required for weeding
and pepper yield.

IV. Future research:

Bean herbicide tests will be conducted. Pepper herbicides with
differential treatments that resist leaching will be evaluated.







Project No.: CF-00591
Title: Chemical Weed Control for Commercial Vegetable
Production
Leader: W. T. Scudder, Central Florida
Co-Leaders: D. j. Burgis, Gulf Coast
J. R. Orsenigo, Everglades
P. H. Everett, South Florida
N. C. Hayslip, Indian River
H. Y. Ozaki, Indian River
S. J. Locascio, Vegetable Crops
J. R. Shumaker, Potato
E. E. Albregts, Strawberry & Vegetable
G. W. Elmstrom, Watermelon & Grape
R. W. Harkness, Subtropical
Major Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of new chemical
herbicides for the control of weeds in vegetable production on sandy
soil.
Major Results: During the past three years under this project:
1. Approximately 75 new chemicals offered by industry have been
screened for potential value as herbicides for use in vegetables on sand.
2. Advanced replicated yield trials have been conducted with the
following crops: sweet corn, cabbage, celery, carrots, snap beans,
and cucumbers.
3. Weed control recommendations for grower use have been made for
each of the above crops.
4. Soil and plant chemical residue studies have been made to aid in
securing label registration for new herbicide treatments.
Project Plans: During the next two year period:
1. Screening of additional new herbicides will be continued.
2. Advanced replicated yield trials will be continued for all major
vegetable crops of the area to determine the relative value of new
herbicides selected from the screening program.
3. Grower weed control recommendations will be revised as superior
herbicides are found for the several crops included in the advanced
trials.
4. A long-range "permanent" plot soil residue study with Atrazine
will be conducted to determine the seasonal rates of persistence in
and disippation from Central Florida Leon fine sand soil.
5. Studies will be conducted using combinations of different herbicide
chemicals and use of adjuvants such as oils and biodegradable
surfactants to permit use of lower chemical rates and reductions
in chemical residue levels in crops and soils.


March 9, 1970









STATE PROJECT #591
CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

J. R. Shumaker
Potato Investigations Laboratory
Hastings, Florida

OTHER WORKERS: S. J. Locascio.; Department of Vegetable Crops. W. T. Scudder;
Central Florida Experiment Station. D. S. Burgis; Gulf Coast Experiment
Station. J. R. Orsenigp; Everglades Experiment Station. P. H. Everett;
South Florida Field Laboratory. E. E. Albregts; Strawberry and Vegetable
Field Laboratory. R. W. Harkness; Sub-Tropical Station. G. W. Elmstrom;
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory. N. C. Hayslip; Indian River
Field Laboratory.

Herbicides, their rate and method of application, are being evaluated for weed
control effectiveness in commercial cabbage and potato production. Evaluation
of crop tolerance and residual effect of herbicides are also being conducted.

Cabbage: In 1969 winter weed control trials consisting of preplant, soil incor-
porated trifluralin and postplant CDAA + CDEC, CDEC, DCPA, nitrofen and pro-
pachlor were conducted with direct seeded and transplanted cabbage. Chickweed,
Stellaria media, and seedling dock, Rumex hastatulus, were the most numerous
weeds. DCPA at 10.5 A/A (Ibs.) was superior to other herbicides tested. Good
weed control was observed following the use of trifluralin at 1.0 A/A (ibs.)
and CDAA + CDEC, both at 3.0 A/A (ibs.). Propachlor at 3.9 A/A (ibs.) and
CDEC at 6.0 A/A (Ibs.) were slightly less effective. All herbicide treated
plots produced significant increases in yields over the uncultivated control in
the direct seeded cabbage.

Potatoes: In 1969 preemergence application of seventeen herbicide treatments
gave variable weed control. Metaburon at 3.0 and 2.0 A/A (ibs.), linuron at
2.0 and 1.0 A/A (Ibs.), Maloran at 2.0 and 1.0 A/A (bs.), and Lasso at 4.0 A/A
(lbs.) gave good control of weeds and were superior to other herbicides tested.
DCPA at 10.5 A/A (ibs.), Lasso at 2.0 A/A (Ibs.), DNBP at 3.0 A/A (ibs.), EPTC
at 6.0 and 4.0 A/A (Ibs.) and nitrofen at 4.0 A/A (ibs.) were rated slightly
less effective. Trifluralin incorporated into the soil after planting reduced
yields. Smartweed, Polygonum pensylvanicum, interfered the most with harvest
operations.

Herbicides, their rate and method of application, will continue to be evaluated
for weed control effectiveness in commercial production of cabbage and potatoes.
Emphases will be placed on herbicide evaluations on direct seeded cabbage rather
than the transplanted crop.

The use of combinations of herbicide treatments with both crops will be evalua-
ted and should provide information on more effective weed control.




NEMATODES THEIR EFFECTS AND CONTROL ON VEGETABLES AND ORNAMENTAL CROPS

State Project 992 Henry Y. Ozaki


I. Other leaders:

Name Title Station

J. A. Winchester (formerly Everglades Station)

II. Major objectives:

To evaluate (1) the effect of specific plant parasitic nematodes,
alone or associated with various soil microorganisms, on vegetable and
ornamental crops, (2) the effect of cultural practices, environmental
conditions and crop rotations on nematode population levels, (3) chemical
methods of controlling economically important plant parasitic nematodes.

III. Major findings:

Tannic acid reduced rootknot galling and increased cucumber plant
vigor. Increasing the ppm from 10 to 10,000 resulted in some increased
benefits.

IV. Future research:

Cooperate with Everglades Station nematologist in vegetable trials
on sandy soils.













Project No.: CF-01088
Title: Chemical Control of Weeds in Vegetable Crops on
Organic Soils
Leader: W. T. Scudder, Central Florida
Co-Leader: J. R. Orsenigo, Everglades
Main Objectives: To evaluate the activity of chemical herbicides and to
develop improved methods of controlling weeds in vegetable crops
on organic soils.
Major Results: During the past three years under this project:
1. Advanced replicated yield trials have been conducted with the
following crops: sweet corn, celery, carrots, and spinach.
2. Weed control recommendations for grower use have been made
for each of the above crops.
3. Soil and plant chemical residue studies have been made to aid in
securing label registrations for new herbicide treatments.

Project Plans: During the next two year period:
1. Advanced replicated yield trials will be continued for all major
vegetable crops of the area to determine the relative value of new
herbicides selected from the screening programs at the Everglades
Station and at Sanford.
2. Grower weed control recommendations will be revised as superior
herbicides are found for the several crops included in the advanced
trials.
3. A long-range "permanent" plot soil residue study with atrazine
will be conducted to determine the seasonal rates of persistence in
and disippation from Central Florida Everglades mucky peat soil.
4. Studies will be conducted using combinations of different herbicide
chemicals and the use of adjuvants such as oils and biodegradable
surfactants to permit use of lower chemical rates and reductions in
chemical residue levels in crops and soils.


March 9, 1970









Hatch Project 1113


The Physiology and Biochemistry of Tomato Ripening


Object: To study physiological and biochemical changes occurring in the
tomato fruit during maturation with special emphasis on the changes from
the mature green to the red stage.

Findings: The enzyme polymethylgalacturonase was isolated from tomato
fruits. This previously unreported enzyme which is capable of cleaving
pectin (methoxylated) could be a major factor in tomato softening.
The enzyme B-1, 3 glucanase also has been found in all portions of
ripe tomato fruit with the highest level in the outer pericarp.
Studies made with Dr. R. E. Stall of the Plant Pathology Department
on bacterially induced browning (graywall) of tomato fruits produced the
following results:
Bacteria (normally non-pathogenic) isolated from field samples of
graywall-affected fruits caused similar symptoms when inoculated into
healthy tissue.
Browning of the tissue occurred within 2 to 4 days following inocu-
lation if the bacteria multiplied to a certain level. No browning
occurred if the bacteria multiplied to a lower level.
Four bacterial types isolated from natural graywall tissue had a
different growth response to pH. This is of importance in isolation
procedures.
A comparison of inoculation methods using several tomato stocks in-
dicated two types of resistance, one by exclusion of bacteria from the
fruits and one by resistance of the tissue to bacterial growth.
Polyphenoloxidase activity was found to occur in bacterially induced
graywall tissue and in natural graywall-affected tissue.
More browning occurred in fruit affected with tobacco mosaic virus
than in fruit free of the virus following inoculation with bacteria.

Future work:

Kinetic studies will be made of the enzyme polymethylgalacturonase.
A comparison will be made of the relative levels of this enzyme and poly-
galacturonase in the various portions of tomato fruits according to maturity.
A similar study will be made of the enzyme B-1, 3 glucanase.
A study of the influence of potash levels on the susceptibility of
tomato fruits to browning induced by bacteria.
A comparison of the ammonia content of naturally occurring and bac-
terially induced graywall tissue.
The isolation and purification of a bacteriostatic material from
tomato fruits which preliminary experiments have shown to be present.


C. B. Hall










FRESH TISSUE TEST FOR NITROGEN ON VEGETABLE CROPS


V. L. Guzman Project No. 01231


Objective: To determine the relationship between nitrogen in the plant

found by quick tissue test and the nitrogen content of the growing media,

or that applied to the soil, and the effect on yield and quality of sweet

corn and celery. Experiments were conducted to validate the reliability

of the diphenylamine NO3-N colorimetrictest in fresh plant tissue. Sweet

corn and celery were grown ir cultures containing various rates of NO3-N

using a change-over design which permitted a switch of plants from one solu-

tion to another. There was a significant linear relationship between N03-N

rates applied and NO3-N in the plant ascertained by reaction color index of

the test. In corn plants a one day period was sufficient for NO3-N uptake.

Growth measured by weight and height of plants showed no significant rela-

tionship to rates of N03-N applied, possibly due to the short period from one

change-over to the next. The test also showed that high rates are difficult

to differentiate. These results have been confirmed under field conditions

with sweet corn and celery. Differences of N rates of 75 and 100 pounds

per acre were difficult to differentiate. However, the most important value

of the test is in detecting N deficiency before symptoms appear.







G. W. Elmstrom
Watermelon and Grape Inv. Lab.
Leesburg, Florida
February 20, 1970

Non-projected

Growth regulator investigations with cucurbits

The purpose of this work is to evaluate growth regulating
hormones for possible use in increasing early yield of cucurbits
or for facilitating the production of hybrid seed. Early yield
may result if plants can be induced to produce female flowers
at an earlier stage. Mass production of hybrid seed is possible
when a monoecious line which can be regulated to produce only
female flowers is interplanted with untreated plants of a
second line The hybrid seed is saved from the fruit on the
treated plants.

Ethrel concentrations of 50, 100, and 400ppm caused the
development of hermaphrodite flowers at an earlier than usual
stage of growth and decreased the ratio of male flowers to
hermaphrodite flowerson all varieties of cucumber, pumpkin,
and squash treated. However, early yield was increased only
on the summer squash and cucumbers.

Application of Ethrel caused a slight stunting of watermelon
plants and greatly delayed formation of male and hermaphrodite
flowers.

Five untreated plants of the andromonoecious cantaloupe
variety Edisto produced 805 male flowers and 52 hermaphrodite
flowers during the first two weeks of flowering. A similar
number of plants treated at the one or two true-leaf stage with
800ppm Ethrel and 6oo0ppm Alar produced 9 male and 61 her-
maphrodite flowers during the first two weeks of flowering.
This represents an increase in hermaphrodite flower production
from 6.0% to 87.1%. Early yield was not changed by Ethrel
application.

Future work will involve studying the interaction of
EAhrel with other growth regulators, number of applications
required, and differential response due to variety, growth
stage at application, and season of the year. Also to be
studied is the effect of Ethrel on maturity of cantaloupe and
honeydew fruit when applied directly to the fruit.










GROWTH REGULATORS IN VEGETABLE CROP PRODUCTION


V. L. Guzman Non-projected


Objective: To determine the effect of plant growth regulators on those

factors which may affect production of vegetable crops and will be of practical

and economic importance in Florida. As a result of this work, Gibberellic

acid is used for breaking dormancy in potato seed pieces. Gibberellic acid

is also used for increasing petiole length and yields of celery. In addition,

it was found that by the use of kinetin-like substances, vegetables such as

broccoli, lettuce, escarole, cabbage and celery can be kept with better

appearance after harvest for a longer time. Growth retarding chemicals

applied at the proper stage increases yield of carrots.


Future work: Growth regulators are to be tested for their effect on pre-

venting bolting of celery, for hardening celery seedlings and for increasing

yields of certain vegetable crops.








G. W. Elmstrom
Watermelon and Grape Inv. Lab.
Leesburg, Florida
February 20, 1970

PLA-WG-00901

Fertilizer requirements for watermelons

The objectives of the work at the Watermelon and Grape

Investigations Laboratory are to develop fertilizer recom-

mendations for Florida watermelon growers and to determine

deficiency and toxicity symptoms likely to develop in Florida

soils. Fertilizer trials will include studies with various

forms and rates of nutrients, fertilizer placement and timing

of application.

In 1969 the effects of timing, placement, and rate of

fertilizer application on watermelon yields were evaluated.

Generally, application of 50% of the fertilizer prior to seed-

ing and 50% supplementally was superior to application on a

75%-25% schedule. This effect was not so pronounced at the
higher rates of application. The effect of placement in

narrow (10-inch) or broadcast (40-inch) bands was not marked,

but at high rates of N and K yields were best with broadcast

placement. Yields were highest at per acre rates of 240 lb.

each of N and K20 and 120 lb. of P205, intermediate at 120 or

240 lb. each of N,K20, and P205, and lowest at 120 lb. each

of N and K20 and 240 Ib. of P@05.

Cultivars F68-2 and Charleston Gray yielded equally well,

but the soluble solids content of fruit of the former (11.5%)

was about 1% higher. Soluble solids were highest at per acre

rates of 120 lb. each of N and K20 and 240 Ib of P205.





FERTILIZER REQUIREMENTS OF WATERMELONS


State Project 901 S. J. Locascio and J. G. A. Fiskell

Leaders at other locations: J. G. A. Fiskell and H. L. Breland, Soils
Department; P. H. Everett, South Florida Field Lab.; H. W. Lundy, Suwannee
Valley Station.

Object: To study the effects of various fertilizer elements, their levels,
time and method of application on the yield and quality of watermelons under
the varying environmental and cultural conditions.

Some Recent Major Findings

Phosphorus sources, rate and copper rate: Watermelons were grown at 2
locations on virgin Immokalee and Leon sands low in Cu and P to evaluate their
response to P source and rate, and rate of Cu. Fruit yields and Cu com-
position of the tissue increased with Cu application of 2 and 4 lb/acre.
Generally, applied P Increased the P in watermelon tissue but decreased tissue
Cu. Without the addition of Cu, this reduction in Cu uptake decreased yields
as the rate of applied P was increased. With the addition of Cu, yields
increased with applications of P from ordinary superphosphate, ammoniated
superphosphate and concentrated superphosphate. Maximum yields were obtained
with 105 and 70 lb/acre P for the Immokalee and Leon sands, respectively.
Where the P source was diammonium phosphate, Cu uptake and yields were
reduced at all levels of applied Cu.

Fertilizer rate and placement: Watermelon yield responses to fertilizer
rates of 1000, 2000, and 4000 pounds per acre 6-8-8 applied in four place-
ments were evaluated at four locations.

In general, broadcast fertilization was superior to single and double
narrow bands; the latter provided similar yields. Unfavorable response was
obtained to broadband placement at 2 1/2 inches below the seed. This place-
ment caused poor seedling emergence and survival unless planting was
followed by rain or irrigation. Also subsequent growth was delayed so that
these melons were later maturing than the other treatments. Plastic mulch
encouraged early growth, but had little effect on yield. Placements had
an effect on soluble salt levels in soil samples taken near the seedlings and
in soil near the fertilizer. Rates were also reflected in the soluble salt
levels. Nitrogen content of mature leaves at harvest increased linearly
with increasing rates and 11 level in leaves from the broadband was higher than
those from narrow bands. Rates were reflected in leaf K values.

Root development studies: Growth rates of watermelon roots grown on Leon
and Arredondo fine sands were studied by applying 32P in fertilizer bands
at various distances from the plant both laterally and vertically. The
32p was absorbed from fertilizer band placed 5 cm to the side of the seed
and 5 cm deep within 5 days after emergence on the Leon soil and within 8
days on the Arredondo soil. On the Leon soil at the early runner stage 32p
absorption was detected from 90 cm away down the row in 46 days. Roots
absorbed 32P from 30 cm deep 12 days after plant emergence on the Leon soil.
The relative activity was greatest where lime was incorporated into the
surface 0-30 cm of soil.

Fertilizer placement, micronutrient rate and placement: Stand counts,
taken at thinning indicated a significant reduction where the 8-8-8 ferti-
lizer was banded in a split application at the rate of 2,000 lb/A.







Marketable fruit yield was significantly increased by the broadcast
fertilizer placement while the number of small fruit was increased with
the band fertilizer placement. Interactions between micronutrient source
and placement significantly influenced yield. At the 4 lb/A Cu rate, yields
were highest where the Cu was banded at the pound Cu rate, yields were
highest with the broadcast application. Yields were similar at both place-
ment where Frit 503 was applied at 30 lb/A. At the 60 lb rate, however,
yields were significantly higher with the broadcast placement.

Broadcast fertilizer application resulted in significant increases in
K, Zn, Mn, and P and decreases in Ca and Mg in the plant tissue harvested
at the thinning stage.

Current Work

1. Fertilizer placement, micronutrient (Cu and Frit 503) rate and placement
studies as above will continue.

2. Experiments began in 1969 to evaluate factorial combination of two
fertilizer placements, broadcast and bands with two rates of 6-8-8,
1,500 and 3,000 lbs/A applied 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90% at planting will
be continued in 1970.

3. Slow release N and K studies. Sulfur coated urea and sulfur coated KCI
will be compared with NH4NO3 and KC1 at various rates and time of appli-
cation to study the efficiency of these slow release materials. Of
special interest will be the leaf K content throughout the season as
influenced by treatment.

4. Watermelon responses to irrigation (with M. E. Marvel): The level of
watermelon response to irrigation will be evaluated at 2 or 3 locations.

Recent Publications Associated with Project 901

1. Fiskell, J. G. A., S. J. Locascio, P. H. Everett and H. W. Lundy. 1967.
Effect of fertilizer placement and rate on watermelon yields. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 80: 168-173. J. S. 2827.

2. Locasclo, S. J., P. H. Everett and J. G. A. Fiskell. 1968. Effect of
phosphorus sources and copper rates on watermelons. Amer. Soc. Hort.
Sci. 92: 583-589. J. S. 2760.

3. Fiskell, J. G. A., H. Breland, S. J. Locascio and P. H. Everett. 1967.
Effects of phosphate sources on Cu and Zn movement from mixed ferti-
lizer and band placement. Proc. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. of Florida.
27: 35-49. J. S. 23.

4. Breland, H. L., J. G. A. Fiskell, and S. J. Locascio. 1969. Measure-
ment of root development of watermelons. Proc. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc.
of Fla. 29. (In Press).










SPACING OF VEGETABLE CROP PLANTS


V. L. Guzman Project No. 01005


Objective: To determine optimum plant spacing or population for heavy yields

of superior quality of vegetable crop plants. It was found that for sweet

corn highest yields and best marketable quality could be attained with 32-

inch rows and 8 to 10-inch plant spacing within the row. This is an increase

from the 14000 plants/acre 10 years ago to approximately 24000 plants/acre.

The most productive spacing for celery was found with 24-inch tows and 6

to 7 inches between plants in the row. With cabbage it was 24-inch rows

with 9-inch spacing between plants in the row. In carrots marketable yields

were superior with plant populations of 24 to 27 plants per foot; however,

toot appearance seemed slightly inferior with these two spacings.


Future work: Continue spacing experiments with carrots, lettuce and leafy

vegetables.








SPACING OF VEGETABLE CROP PLANTS


Norman C. Hayslip


State Project 1005


I. Other leaders:


Title


H. Y. Ozaki
V. L. Guzman


Assoc. Horticulturist
Horticulturist


Indian River Field Lab.
Everglades Station


II. Major objectives:

To determine optimum plant spacing of sweet peppers, celery,
tomatoes, and other vegetable plants for early and/or heavy yields
of superior quality.

III. Major findings:

Using a determinate tomato breeding line transplanted into beds
7 feet apart, three spacing treatments were compared: (1) One plant
per hill spaced 12" apart, (2) one plant per hill spaced 24" apart
and (3) two plants per hill spaced 24" apart. Highest total yield
was obtained from treatment (1) followed by (3) and (2) in that
order. Largest fruit were obtained from treatment (2), with no
difference in size between treatments (1) and (3).

Plant population studies of the VF-145 processing tomatoes,
Castlemech-9 and Castlemech-H, gave the following results:


Plants/acre

74,700
49,800
24,900
12,400


Lbs. ripe, pink
& green/acre

50,600
44,800
33,900
40,800


% pink 8 green

19
22
24
55


Ave. size
ripes (lb.)

.141
.146
.149
.168


Three tomato stocks were grown on plastic covered beds at in-
row spacings of 2, 3, and 4 feet. In all stocks, fruit size was
largest at 4-feet spacing with size decreasing at the 3 and 2-feet
spacings in that order. Yields from 2-feet spacings were greater
than those from 4-feet spacing in all stocks. Yields from the 3-
feet spacings were highest in one stock, but intermediate between
the 2 and 4-feet spacings in the other two stocks.


Name


Station







-2 -

IV. Present work and future plans:

Hill seeding studies with the goal being to eliminate or greatly
reduce the need for thinning tomatoes are underway, and will be con-
tinued as part of a special seed-soil-fertilizer plug-mix technique
under investigation. By creating an optimum environment around the
seeds and seedlings through the plug-mix technique it is honed to
increase reliability of stand and uniformity of early growth. As
reliability of germination and plant stand is increased the seed
population can be decreased perhaps to a point where thinning will
be unnecessary.






STRAWBERRY CULTURE

State Project 1123 S. J. Locascio

Leaders at other locations: E. E. Albregts, Strawberry and Vegetable Field
Laboratory, Dover.

Object: To investigate the effects of various cultural factors, such as
fertilizer levels, fertilizer placement, nutrient sources and mulch on
strawberry production.

Some Recent Major Findings

Effects of K source and rate and N rate on yield and quality

Strawberries were grown during three seasons on Ona and Kanapaha
fine sands to evaluate their response to N and K rates and sources of K.
Fruit yields were not significantly influenced by N rates from 46 to 180 lb/
acre. Increased rates of K, from 35 to 180 lb/acre had no significant effect
on total yield during two seasons. In the third season, a significant
reduction in total yield occurred as the rate of applied K was increased from
0 to 130 lb/acre. This yield reduction was associated possibly with a K-Mg
antagonism. The N and K composition of leaf tissue was increased by increased
rates of applied N and K respectively.

Sulfate, chloride and nitrate sources of K produced the same leaf
tissue composition and total fruit yields and had little differential effects
on the quality of fresh fruit.

Sprinkler irrigation for freeze protection (With D. S. Harrison and V. F.
Nettles)

Cold protection provided by sprinkler irrigation at rates of 0.13
in/hr and 0.26 in/hr was evaluated on strawberries. Data were obtained
during four periods when minimum air temperatures were 29, 28, 16 and 240 F
respectively, and wind speed varied from 0 to 12 mph. Comparable protection
as measured by leaf temperatures was provided by the 0.13 and 0.26 in/hr
rates when wind speeds were 0-2 mph, and air temperatures were as low as
240 F. When air temperatures were lower, or wind speeds were higher, the
0.13 In/hr rate did not provide cold protection equal to that provided
by the higher rate.

Polyethylene mulch color and soil fumigant studies (With G. C. Smart, Jr.)

When black mulch was used, plant growth and early yields were compar-
able with Telone, Dowfume MC 33, Brozone, Vorlex and methyl bromide. Maximum
total yields, however, were produced with Dowfume MC 33, Telone, and methyl
bromide. With clear or grZy mulch, maximum yields were associated with fumi-
gants that also provided weed control. These included methyl bromide, Brozone,
and Dowfume MC 33.

Brozone and Vorlex with black and clear mulch and Telone with black
mulch provided comparable nematode control and yields. Yields were lowest
from the untreated control on clear mulch and Telone on clear mulch where
weed seed growth seriously competed with the crop.






In another experiment plants dipped in 300 ppm solutions of
Zinophos or Dasanit for 15 minutes greatly reduced numbers of root-knot
nematodes. Soil applications of Zinophos and Dasanit were not effective.
Yields were not significantly different with any treatment, but were
highest from plots set with plants dipped in Zinophos.

Current Work

1. Irrigation method, plant spacing and bed shape. (With Dr. Allen Overman).
Studies begun in 1969 are being continued. Treatment factors are as
follows: irrigation methods, overhead, seepage, and a check, two ferti-
lizer rates, two plant spacings 12" x 12" and 12" x 9", and two beds
shapes.

2. Time of planting and plant chilling studies. The influence of Tioga
plant source, time of planting and cold storage treatment on fruit
production is being evaluated.

3. Strawberry plant nursery nematicide studies (With G. C. Smart, Jr. and
M. E. Marvel). Various post planting nematicides will be evaluated in
combination with a preplant nematicide, Telone, to evaluate their effect
on strawberry plant production and nematode control.

Recent Publications

1. Locascio, S. J. and G. K. Saxena. 1967. Effects of K source and rate
and N rate on strawberry tissue composition and fruit yield. Proc.
FSHS. 80: 173-76. J. S. 2843.

2. Locascio, S. J., D. S. Harrison and V. F. Nettles. 1967. Sprinkler
irrigation for freeze protection. Proc. FSHS. 80: 208-211. J. S. 2817.

3. Smart, G. C., Jr., S. J. Locascio and H. L. Rhoades. 1967. Root-knot
nematode control on strawberry. Nematologica 13 (1): 152-153.

4. Saxena, G. K. and S. J. Locascio. 1968. Fruit quality of fresh straw-
berries as influenced by N and K nutrition. Proc. ASHS. 92: 354-362.
J. S. 2870.

5. Locascio, S. J. and G. C. Smart, Jr. 1968. Influence of polyethylene
mulch color and soil fumigant on strawberry production. Proc. FSHS
81: 147-153. J. S. 3144.

6. Smart, G. C., Jr., and S. J. Locascio. 1968. Influence of nematicides
and polyethylene mulch color on the control of nematodes on strawberry.
Proc. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 28: 292-299. J. S. 3217.









METHODS OF FERTILIZING VEGETABLES


State Project 1139 Norman C. Hayslip


I. Other leaders:

Name Title Station

H. Y. Ozaki Assoc. Horticulturist Indian River Field Lab

II. Major objectives:

To determine best method of fertilizer application to increase
vegetable yields and uniformity.

III. Major findings:

In a fall test with heavy rainfall tomato yields from plots with
strip plastic over banded fertilizer were equal to those from plots
with full bed plastic cover, and higher than the no-plastic 3-split
fertilizer application plots. In the dry season spring test, yields
from strip plastic plots were much higher than those from full bed
cover with plastic, and were equal to the no-plastic, 3-split fertilizer
application plots.

These trials indicate the use of full bed cover with plastic
should be limited to those farms where the land is level, and where
a high water table can be maintained to provide moisture through
seepage and capillarity into the plant beds. Strip plastic may be
used on farms not level enough for full bed cover since rainfall is
absorbed in the plant beds, and overhead irrigation can be used if
needed during periods of drouth. Best results from plastic covered
fertilizer treatments can be expected in the fall when frequent and
heavy rainfall occurs.

Due to the encouraging results with tomatoes, onions and cabbage
using strip plastic covering banded fertilizer to reduce leaching, an
implement was developed for bedding, fertilizing, laying strip plastic
over the banded fertilizer and seeding the crop in a single operation.
This work was done with the cooperation of the Assistant Agricultural
Engineer at the Everglades Experiment Station.

IV. Present work and future plans:

The strip plastic application machinery described above is under
test on experiment station and grower plots, and will be continued
for the next year, testing its value on a number of vegetable and
other row crops.

A companion project involves a plug technique using mixtures of
soil, peat, pearlite, lime, fertilizer, fungicides and vegetable seeds.
The goal is to develop an "optimum environment" around the vegetable








2 -


seeds and seedlings by inserting the mixture into the plant bed at
proper spacings. Hopefully, the technique will increase the reliability
of plant stand by reducing damp-off, fertilizer injury, soil compaction,
etc. Uniformity of germination and early seedling growth should be im-
proved by the uniform mixture surrounding the seeds and seedlings.

If the plug technique continues to show promise, an implement for
mechanizing the plugging operation will be developed with the help of
the Assistant Agricultural Engineer at Belle Glade. The ultimate
goal will be to use the plug technique in place of conventional seeding
along with the use of strip plastic over banded fertilizer. The ferti-
lizer in the plug mix would supply nutrients until the root system had
reached the banded fertilizer.

These studies will continue for the next 2 or 3 years.







V. F. Nettles
1970



State Project: 1139, Methods of Fertilizing Vegetables

Other Leaders: D. R. Hensel, N. C. Hayslip, H. Y. Ozaki, G. H. Snyder

Other Locations: Potato Investigations and Indian River Laboratories,
Everglades Experiment Station

Objective:

To study the effects of methods of fertilizer application and
to include different types of fertilizer and analyses on the growth and
quality of vegetables.

Results:

Comparisons at Gainesville have been made on the effect of
liquid and dry fertilizer on the yield of cabbage, pepper and beans using
a USDA special transplanter #75 in cooperation with ARS.

No consistent results were found with the crops tested except
that increased yields resulted from dividing the basic amount of fertilizer
into several applications. The use of a dry analysis fertilizer produced
greater yields of cabbage than the use of a liquid fertilizer in 1967 and
1968. The single band of fertilizer to the side of the plant being best
in 1968, but no differences in the methods of placement was observed in
1967. Broadcasting of fertilizer proved to be the best method with peppers
in 2 of 3 years with the results being equally divided in the comparison
of liquid and dry fertilizer. With beans, the use of liquid fertilizer
applied in 0 hi-low application was best in 1968. An interaction of type
of fertilizer and method of placement in 1969 showed that broadcasting
resulted in higher yields with liquid fertilizer but produced lowest yields
with the dry analysis. In 1967, no differences in bean yields were found
as a results of the types of fertilizer. The use of double bands or
broadcasting was better than the use of a single band.

Projected Work:

Continue tests with cabbage, beans and peppers with liquid and
dry fertilizer utilizing different placement methods and time of applica-
tion. A higher analysis liquid fertilizer also will be added. Increased
emphasis will be placed on the analysis of the soil for soluble salts
concentrations and the moisture content of the soil.





METHODS OF FERTILIZING VEGETABLES


State Project 1139 Henry Y. Ozaki


I. Other leaders:

Name Title Station

N. C. Hayslip Entomologist Indian River Field Lab
G. H. Snyder Asst. Soils Chemist Everglades Station

II. Major objectives:

To study the effect of methods of fertilizer application; to
include different types of fertilizer and analyses on the growth
and quality of vegetables.

III. Major findings:

Pepper Test: Separate band placement of N and K were compared
to placing the two elements in the same band.

Leaf tissue % K was greater when the K fertilizer (200 Kg/Ha)
was banded separately from the N rates of 200, 600 and 1800 Kg/Ha.
At the 66 N rate, the mixing of N and K resulted in higher leaf K
than that from separate placement. Increasing the N at the 3 high
rates progressively decreased leaf K.

The soil K was higher in the bands without N fertilizer. The
yield decreased with increasing N.

Bean Test: Fertilizer, at 20 and 40 pounds per acre rate,
was placed in direct contact with bean seeds. Ammonium poly-
phosphate (10-34-0), diammonium phosphate (18-46-0), magnesium
ammonium phosphate + potassium ammonium phosphate (7-40-6), and
ammonium polyphosphate + potassium nitrate (6-21-6) reduced
plant stand below the stand from the grower's commercial practice
of top-banding to both sides of the row. The 40 pound rate
reduced the stand below that from the 20 pound rate. Diammonium
phosphate, at 40 pound rate, severely reduced stand, almost
completely inhibited germination of seeds.

IV. Future research:

Cooperation with Dr. Snyder who will study the movement of
soluble salts for pepper fertilizer under plastic mulch will be
continued.










PRODUCTION OF CELERY TRANSPLANTS


V. L. Guzman Project No. 01220


Objective: To improve methods of celery transplant production by comparing

new methods of seeding, shading, growing media, hardening, harvesting and

transplanting with those now in use.

As r. resultof this work, the following recommendations have been made:

Use of a celery drill instead of the broadcast type seeder used by the farmer.

The celery drill was designed and built by EES. Use of permanent structures

with woven polypropelene 54% shade for protection of germinating celery seed

and seedlings during the hot months of the year. The harvest of seedlings

at eight weeks instead of at 12 weeks or longer. To accomplish this it is

necessary to harden the seedlings by exposure to direct light five weeks from

seeding and to avoid topping of the young plants.


Future work: To investigate the possibility of using other media than soil

for the production of celery seedlings under controlled conditions of tempera-

ture, light, humidity, water, nutrients, etc. so that production of transplants

can be accomplished in large factories under fully mechanized technology.








NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF VEGETABLE CROPS
GROWN ON SANDY SOILS OF FLORIDA

State Project 1267 Norman C. Hayslip


I. Other leaders:

Name Title Station

H. Y. Ozaki Assoc. Horticulturist Indian River Field Lab

II. Major objectives:

To determine the effects of sources, rates and ratios of ferti-
lizer, and frequency and methods of fertilizer application on yield
and quality of vegetable crops grown on the sandy soils of the
Florida lower east cost and Indian River areas.

III. Major findings:

A series of nitrogen and potassium rate and ratio trials on
Immokalee fine sand have consistently shown that the severity of
graywall and white tissue in tomato fruits is influenced by the
level of potassium in relation to nitrogen. With a constant N
rate both graywall and white tissue were reduced as the K20 rate
was elevated. Information on graywall has been published (Fla.
State Hort. Soc. Vol. 80, pp. 182-186), and data on white tissue
will be published in the future.

Graywall resistant tomato varieties have developed very little
graywall under low potassium levels, but these tomatoes have de-
veloped white tissue under low potassium the same as has the gray-
wall susceptible variety, Homestead-24.

These studies indicate graywall and white tissue may be reduced
on tomatoes grown on Immokalee fine sand by using a N to K20 ratio
of 1:2 or 1:3 in place of the 1:2 or 1:1 ratios used commercially.

To date, no evidence has been obtained to show the rates and
ratios of N and K20 used have an effect on firmness of fruits,
green gel, dark seeds, puffiness, riDening, or flower abcission.
Less fruit cracking was obtained from higher nitrogen rates,
probably due to less exposure of fruits to sun and winds. These
data suggest that much misinformation has prevailed for many years
on the effect of "untimely" applications or "excessive" rates of
fertilizer on tomato crops. Rainfall, especially on crops near
maturity, usually results in lower fruit quality. It is suspected
that in many cases fertilizer takes the blame for reduced quality
because it is often after heavy rainfall that tomatoes are top-
dressed to replace N and K20 lost through leaching.








2-


IV. Present work and future plans:

Segments of the strip plastic and plug mixture studies fall
under this project, and will be reported as these investigations
continue.

As we approach machine harvest of fresh market tomatoes,
fertility studies will be evaluated as they relate to the best
procedure for the once-over destructive harvest.





NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF VEGETABLE CROPS
GROWN ON SANDY SOILS OF FLORIDA

State Project 1267 Henry Y. Ozaki


I. Other leaders:

Name Title Station

N. C. Hayslip Entomologist Indian River Field Lab
G. H. Snyder Asst. Soils Chemist Everglades Station

II. Major objectives:

To determine the effects of sources, rates and ratios of
fertilizer, and frequency and methods of fertilizer application
on yield and quality of vegetable crops grown on the sandy soils
of Florida.

III. Major findings:

Bean Test: Increasing the rate of broadcast fertilization
from 240N-200K to 360N-300K per acre decreased plant weight but
not yield. The check plots without N-K had the lowest yield and
stand.

Pepper Test: Increasing the nitrogen and potassium under
plastic mulch from 300N-250K to 1800N-1500K, pounds per acre,
reduced yields for 3-row beds but not for 2-row beds. It
reduced total and U.S. 1 yields but not U.S. fancy yields.

Soil K and plant tissue % K decreased with increasing N
fertilization.

Tomato Test: With synthetic soil blocks (BR-8), complete
nutrient solution increased tomato transplant height above those
fertilized without K or without Mg or without S and with 20-20-20
fertilizer. Sulfuric acid increased the benefits of 20-20-20
fertilization.

IV. Future research:

Bean and pepper tests with high plant populations will be
conducted.






EXPLORATORY RESEARCHES


Offseason Potato Culture. Bryan- Coordinator; Baranowski, Harkness, McMillan,
Orth--SES; Overman--GCES

Objectives: Effects of offseason summer mechanical and chemical fallowing on
potato yield, wireworm, nematode, disease and weed control.

Findings: Summer disking over several years eliminated most weeds but bermuda
grass increased. Nut grass, goose grass and smart weed persisted in covercrop
plots. Paraquat and oil sprays 1 to 2 weeks before turning land for planting
eliminated bermuda grass during the crop season. Summer disking reduced wire-
worms, nematodes and probably old land damage to potato roots (not conclusive).
More soil nitrogen and less potassium occurred in fallow plots. Plants were
larger and yields were higher from summer disked plots than from covercrop plots
over a 4 year period. An experiment to evaluate chemical fallowing with herbi-
cides showed less nematodes and a trend for higher yields one year after initia-
tion but the 50 acre experiment was too large to manipulate with frequent rains
and high water tables during the summer.

Plans: Plots in the original experiment have been split to include covercrop,
fallow plots and fumigation treatments to determine fumigation effects, how long
previously followed plots would maintain yigher yields after covercropping and
visa versa. A smaller experiment (10 acres) was initiated to determine chemical
and mechanical effects vs. sorghum on insect, disease and weed population and
yields. Is algae involved in higher yields from fallow plots?


Minor Element Nutrition of Kenaf and Vegetables. Bryan and McMillan--SES

Objectives and Findings: Minor element drenches in a commercial kenaf field to
determine effects on chlorosis and purple spotting of foliage and tip dieback
when plants were 4 to 5 feet high showed that Fe deficiency was the causal factor.
Two aerial applications of FeSO4 when plants were 4 feet tall eliminated the
problem and 98% of the sticks (pole bean stakes) were harvested; a single appli-
cation resulted in a 40% crop and no application resulted in no crop. Iron foliar
spray and nematocide treatments showed that root knot aggravated the problem and
marketable stakes could be grown with nematocides alone; however, iron sprays
produced larger stakes and more seed and a combination of iron and nematocide
produced the largest stake and seed yields. Geigy 157 chelated iron foliar sprays
resulted in larger malanga plants with greener foliage than other iron treatments.
Mixing iron chelates with fertilizer effectively eliminated iron deficiency
symptoms on malanga. Iron chelates will be tested on tomatoes, potatoes, beans
and cucurbits grown on alkaline rock and marl soils.


Growth Regulator Effects on Vegetables. Bryan--SES

Objectives: To determine effects of growth regulators on growth, development
and yields of vegetables.

Findings: Ethrel applications to cucumbers in 1968 and crookneck squash in 1969
enhanced production of female flowers, delayed male flowering, increased branching,
shortened internodes, increased early yields and total cucumber yields. Similar
growth responses were found in watermelons and cantaloupes. Ethrel reduced


March, 1970


H. H. Bryan












height, increased stem diameter and branching, delayed blooming and yields of
beans. Ethrel applied to corn before tasseling reduced plant height, enlarged
stem diameter, induced adventitious roots 4 inches above the soil, improved ear
length and tip fill. Alar improved ear length and weight and tip fill. Potato
seedpieces dipped in 500 to 5000 ppm Ethrel reduced yields. Foliar applications
of Ethrel to potatoes at 3 stages of development: 25 days after emergence
(d.a.e.) reduced plant size and yield; 55 and 76 d.a.e. caused senescence and
abscission of mid and lower foliage, did not reduce yields, but red skin color
was darker with all times of application and lenticles were enlarged in all
Ethrel treatments with the exception of the 25 d.a.e. 500 ppm spray. Alar applied
to potatoes 25 d.a.e. eliminated foliar fleck (ozone damage?). Cycocel applied
55 and 76 d.a.e. increased yields.

Plans: Ethrel effects on squash and cucumber yields will be repeated in grower
trials. Ethrel effects to shorten plant height, increase stem diameter and in-
duce adventitious roots indicate several means to reduce lodging and will be
tried in conjunction with population studies. Ethrel effects to improve potato
skin color and increase lenticle size will be tried at lower levels to determine
if color and yield can be improved without enlarging lenticles. Cycocel to
improve yields and Alar to eliminate fleck damage of potatoes will be repeated.


Optimum Potato Plot Sample Size. Bryan--SES; Martin--Statistics

Objectives and Findings: Determination of the optimum sample size to obtain from
large experimental plots may lead to more efficient and accurate estimates of
potato yields. Three years of data indicate that 25 to 30 feet of row per plot
is an adequate sample to estimate yields of large plots. Data from one year
indicated no effect of number of row but another year 2 or more adjacent rows
provided a better estimate of yield. Thus, samples will be taken from 30 feet
or row in 2 adjacent rows to estimate yields in large plots.


Frost Protection Studies. Bryan, Orth--SES

Objectives and Findings: Petroleum blocks (Tree Heet) were used for frost
protection in a commercial tomato field. One hundred packages per acre provided
temperatures 1 2* F and 200 packages per acre provided 3 40 F above the
untreated controls. Further test are needed.






PROGRESS REPORT


Project: State 1203

Title: A Systems Engineering Approach to Vegetable Harvesting. I. Mechan-
ical Aids for Harvesting Vegetables.

Leaders: L. H. Halsey, Vegetable Crops Department
R. C. Fluck, Agriculture Engineering Department
W. W. Deen, Jr., Everglades Exp. Station
D. R. Hensel, Potato Investigations Lab.

Objective: Establish and verify the functional specifications for mechanical
aids for harvesting vegetables.

Report of Progress:
A tractor mounted cutter device was designed,built and tested. The
cutter severs the cabbage heads at a fixed height above the ground, resulting
in variable numbers of heads cut too high or too low.
Field trials comparing cabbage varieties at various spacings,and var-
ieties at various seed and plant size levels were conducted to determine means
of reducing variability in height of heading. Results indicate that such
variability was related in part to varietal and physiological factors, with
some indications that other factors would affect height of heading and other
physical properties related to mechanical harvest.

Work planned:
Project will be revised in 1970.

Publications:
Beeman, J. F., W. W. Deen, Jr., L. H. Halsey, and D. R. Hensel. 1967.
Design Considerations and Performance of a Nonselective Fresh Market Cabbage
Harvester. Proc. Assoc. Sou. Agric. Wkrs., Inc. 64:44-45. (Abstract of
Paper).

Halsey, L. H., J. F. Beeman, D. R. Hensel, W. W. Deen,Jr., and V. L.
Guzman. 1968. Certain Physical Properties of Cabbage in Relation to Harvest
Mechanization. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 92:438-445.

Fluck, R. C., D. R. Hensel, and L. H. Halsey. 1968. Development of a
Florida Mechanical Cabbage Harvester. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 81:140-147.





SYSTEM ENGINEERING APPROACH TO VEGETABLE HARVESTING


Henry Y. Ozaki


State Project 1203


I. Other leaders:


W. W. Deen, Jr.


Asst. Agricultural Engineer Everglades Station


II. Major objectives:

To harvest peppers mechanically.

III. Major findings:

Revolving tines removed pepper pods. Approximately 10 to 35%
of pods were injured torn or bruised white spot below epidermis.
Also 40 to 50% of the mechanically harvested pods required hand
de-stemming.

IV. Future research:


Cooperation with Dr. Larry Shaw will be anticipated.


Name


Title


Station










STATE PROJECT #1203
SYSTEMS ENGINEERING APPROACH TO VEGETABLE HARVESTING

D. R. Hensel and J. R. Shumaker
Potato Investigations Laboratory
Hastings, Florida

OTHER WORKERS: R. C. Fluck; Agricultural Engineering Department. L. H. Halsey;
Vegetable Crops Department. W. W. Deen, Jr.; Everglades Station.

The prototype cabbage harvester was field tested in the spring of 1969. It was
tested on both transplanted and direct seeded cabbage. The machine functioned
extremely well wherever careful management practices in preparation had been
performed. The cabbage harvester was turned over to a farm equipment firm which
will build a production model and continue to field test the machine.

Direct seeded, precision-planted cabbage was grown and compared with conven-
tional seed bed-transplants at different spacings for once-over harvesting.
Direct seeded cabbage resulted in increases in earliness, yield, and average
head weight. Increases in spacing resulted in increases in average head weight
and per cent of marketable heads with a non-significant increase in yield. Two
seeding schemes were compared, with 2 seeds, later thinned, producing greater
yields and higher percentage of marketable heads than planting to stand.
Average head weight was greater with the planting to stand method.

A firm, smooth planting bed, maintenance of adequate moisture in the seed zone,
and use of an effective herbicide were found to be very important for direct
seeded cabbage.

Present investigations have entailed the field testing of an electronic thinner
in connection with direct seeded cabbage. Future investigations will be
directed toward problems associated with uniform seed germination and plant
emergence. The use of vermiculite and other materials as soil anticrustants
shows promise of promoting uniform emergence.




Project 1406 Variety Development Cultural Practices and Mechanical Harvesting
Systems for Fresh Market Tomatoes. March, 1970. H. H. Bryan--SES Project
Chairman.
Bagnall, Fluck, Shaw--Ag.Eng.; Bartz--Pl.Path.; Burgis, Crill, Strobel--GCES;
Deen--EES; Everett--SFFL; Halsey, Locascio, Lorz, Nettles--Veg.Crops;
Hayslip--IRFL; Villalon--SES.
Objectives: 1. Develop cultural practices for machine harvested tomatoes.
a) Use of growth regulators--concentrate maturity, schedule harvest and condition
plants and fruit; b)plant populations nutrition levels and clump planting--concen-
trate maturity; c) direct seeding, transplanting, and stagger seeding dates accord-
ing to physiological age to concentrate maturity and schedule harvest; d) root
pruning and preharvest root removal--conditioning fruit and plants.
2. Machine and plant-fruit evaluation.
3. Coordinate project work, and expedite communication.
Findings: 1. Culture. a)Growth regulators--Ethrel, Alar, combinations of Alar
and Cycocel have delayed harvest and concentrated yield. Ethrel at 1250 to 5000
ppm applied to seedlings induced epinasty, adventitious roots, branching, delayed
harvest and concentrated fruit set. Ethrel sprayed in the field or used as a
fruit dip initiated early ripening and speeded ripening of green fruit. Germina-
tion of seed from very immature green fruit treated with Ethrel was earlier than
seed from water dipped fruit. Alar effectively concentrated fruit set when applied
at 2500 or 5000 ppm to young seedlings and again after fruit set. Alar combined
with 1250 ppm Cycocel concentrated fruit set more effectively than either used
alone. Morton EP-346 and M.A.R.S. AG-30 effectively concentrated fruit set.
Fruit size was not affected or was increased by most growth regulator treatments.
Foliar sprays of 4% Folicote before digging transplants improved concentrated
fruit set and total yield. b) Maximum yields were obtained from 25000 plants/acre
and high fertilizer levels delayed maturity in 1967. Three subsequent experiments-
2 mulched and 1 unmulched--showed no interactions between density, variety or
fertilizer levels. Thus, when using the same phenotypes a population study could
be conducted without variety or fertilizer influence on density effects. Greatest
concentration of fruit set was obtained with densities of 19000 to 38000 plants
per acre. High fertilizer levels produced highest yields in unmulched plots.
Fruit size was not greatly reduced with increasing populations but fruit number
per plant was reduced. c) Seeding 2 weeks apart in Sept. only allowed a week delay
in maturity for M-H in January. Alar foliar applications to young seedbed plants
delayed maturity about a week. Direct seeding 24 days after planting Sept. seed
beds produced plants ready for harvest about 30 days after transplants were
harvested. d) Preharvest root removal (wilting) effectively improved fruit re-
moved in some varieties if extensive wilting was not allowed. This also allowed
easier pickings by the machine.
2. Five acres of tomatoes were transplanted or direct seeded on flat
beds for a sequential machine harvest evaluation from 1/5 to 2/28/70. Five acres
of wide flat topped beds have been prepared in a commercial field for M-H testing,
packing house and terminal market evaluations from March 16 through April 10.
3. Adequate seed of outstanding jointless multiple disease resistant
lines are being assembled by plant breeders for large-scale M-H tests of 200 to
600 acres for next year. Contacts have been made with various machine and con-
tainer manufacturers, federal fruit inspectors and other researchers familiar with
M-H tomatoes. Memos have been sent to leaders throughout the year to keep them
informed of new developments.
Plans: Seedling growth regulator effects are being tested further this spring.
One factorial involves a seedling Alar treatment, TIBA 2 weeks later to induce
flowering, Alar to throw top blooms after fruit set and Ethrel to initiate the
ripening process after first fruit color occurs; low Ethrel levels on preharvested
fruit-effect on fruit size and concentrating maturity. Population density studies
vs maturity at harvest is being studied this spring. Clump planting and root
pruning to concentrate set and increase yields will be tested next year. Larger
plantings for M-H and plant-fruit evaluation are planned/testing commercial and
the IFAS exDerimental harvester. for







Vegetable Crops Workshop 1970
D. S. Burgis
Gulf Coast Experiment Station

State Project 1406
Variety Development, Cultural Practices and Mechanical Harvesting Systems
for Fresh Market Tomatoes.

Other Project Leaders:
Agricultural Engineering
L. O. Bagnall, Hain Station
R. C. Fluck, Main Station
L. N. Shaw, Main Station
W. W. Deen, Everglades Station
Postharvest Physiology
J. A. Bartz, Main Station (Plant Path.)
D. D. Gull, Main Station (Veg. Crops)
R. H. Segall, USDA, Hort. Lab., Orlando
Breeding
J. P. Crill, Gulf Coast Station
J. W. Strobel, Gulf Coast Station
B. Villalon, Sub-Tropical Station
A. P. Lorz, Main Station (Veg. Crops)
Horticultural Evaluation
H. H. Bryan, Sub-Tropical Station
P. H. Everett, South Florida Field Lab.
L. H. Halsey, Main Station (Veg. Crops)
N. C. Hayslip, Indian River Field Lab.
S. J. Locascio, Main Station (Veg. Crops)
V. F. Nettles, Main Station (Veg. Crops)

Objectives:
1. Observe lines and strains of tomatoes and evaluate as to horticultural
characters which are desirable in plants grown for mechanical harvest.
2. Evaluate cultural practices such as "topping" and "hedging" which may
facilitate the mechanical harvesting of a variety.

Major findings in past 3 year period:
I have only worked on this project since May 1969 and have so far
completed one experiment on hedging the results of which indicate that
the practice may be of some value.

Plans for project for coming 2 year period:
1. Evaluate lines and strains developed by Florida breeders and hope that
by 1973 one or more fixed tomato types suited to mechanical harvesting
will have reached the variety release stage. The lines are:
Tomato Lines Resistance
STEP 570 407-D3 J2* Verticillium
STEP 586 2153-D3 Vert.
STEP 587 2179-D3 Vert.
Fla. Line 2153-D5 Vert.
Fla. Line 2367-D2 Vert. and Fusarium race 2
2. Develop cultural practices which can be recommended for tomatoes
grown for mechanical harvest.

*J2 jointless peduncle allows calyx to remain on fruit stem when fruit
is removed.










PROGRESS REPORT


Project: State Project 1406

Title: Variety development, cultural practices and mechanical harvesting
systems for fresh market tomatoes.

Leaders: D. D. Gull, H. H. Bryan, L. H. Halsey, A. P. Lorz, W. W. Deen,
N. C. Hayslip, P. H. Everett, R. C. Fluck, J. W. Strobel, J. P.
Crill, and D. S. Burgis.

Objective: 1-Breed and evaluate tomato varieties suitable for mechanical
harvesting in Florida. 2-Develop and test mechanical harvesting system
for fresh market tomatoes. 3-Determine best production methods to assist
mechanical harvesting. 4-Determinefruit characteristics desirable for
mechanically harvested tomatoes, post-harvest physiology, and evaluation of
handling systems.

Report of Progress:

Simulated harvest of fruits into pallets containing water, to mini-
mize mechanical damage, showed no appreciable damage to fruit if removed
from the water in less than 6 hours. Longer periods in water caused crack-
ing, penteration of the stem scar, and increased incidence of decay.
Susceptibility of tomato fruits to surface abrasion is inversely pro-
portional to maturity. The shoulder area of tomato fruits is more resist-
ant to skin puncture than the blossom end.
Mechanically harvesting tomatoes with the Clemson machine resulted in
a 30% reduction in number of marketable fruit as compared to hand picking;
principal cause of reduction was decay and sand abrasion.
Coarse sand caused puncture of fruit cuticle while fine sand particles
caused a "blistering" but no break of cuticle.

Work Planned:

Determine the effect of pre-harvestapplications of Ethrel on ripening
of mechanically harvested green tomatoes. Investigate post-harvest fruit
maturity separation by electronic color sorting and mass flow (bulk density)
techniques. Continue evaluating handling systems as they are developed.








PROGRESS REPORT


Project: State 1406

Title: Variety Development, Cultural Practices and Mechanical Harvesting
Systems for Fresh Market Tomatoes.

Leaders: L. H. Halsey, Vegetable Crops Department

Objective: 1. Breed and evaluate tomato varieties suitable for mechanical
harvesting in Florida. 2. Develop and test mechanical harvesting system
for fresh market tomatoes. 3. Determine best production methods to assist
mechanical harvesting. 4. Determine fruit characteristics desirable for
mechanically harvested tomatoes.

Report of Progress:
Small, large and unsized seed of Homestead 24 and Floradel tomatoes
were planted at one-half and one inch depths. Results showed that for
tomatoes obtained at a single harvest such as would occur with a once-over
harvest by machine, there were relatively few responses to sizing the seed
into large and small groups, compared with unsized seed. Also, the depth
of planting, within the range tested and with adequate moisture, had only
a small effect on the production of marketable fresh tomatoes. Varieties
differed in that Homestead 24 benefitted most from small seed, and Floradel
from large and unsized seed, in production of size 6 x 6 tomatoes.

Work planned:
More critical studies of seed size effects and their interaction with
varieties. Varieties most suitable for M.H. will be included as they become
available. Variety response to time of harvest and various cultural factors
will be determined.

Publication:
Halsey, L. H. 1969. Seed Size and Planting Depth Effects on Two
Tomato Cultivars. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 84: (In Press).






Project: Project 1406
Title: Variety Development, Cultural Practices and Mechanical Harvesting
Systems for Fresh Market Tomatoes
Leaders: Bagnall, Bartz, Burgis, Crill, Deen, Everett, Fluck, Gull, Halsey,
Hayslip, Locascio, Lorz, Nettles, Segall, Shaw, Southam, Villalon


The phase of the work reported here concerns the breeding of dwarf types
suitable for high population density studies in connection with mechanical
harvesting.

From a complex involving erect dwarf (Tiny Tim) prostrate dwarf (Miniature),
several birdsnest types back crossed to multiple disease resistant stocks many
bizarre plant habit phenotypes are appearing whose breeding potential needs to
be further investigated.

Ideally we are hoping to establish types characterized by a small erect
plant with two to three commercially acceptable fruits simultaneously harvestable
and completely held free from contact with the ground.

We are using some of the California processing types to introduce elongated
fruit, tough skins, high solids and resilient firm locular walls in an effort to
establish a high degree of resistance to handling injury and abrasion.

The jointless character has been introduced into the extreme dwarf types for
further use In the establishment of types whose fruits will shake free with no
adherent calyx or pedriel.








VARIETY DEVELOPMENT, CULTURAL PRACTICES AND MECHANICAL HARVESTING SYSTEMS
FOR FRESH MARKET TOMATOES


State Project 1406


I. Other leaders:


Name


Norman C. Hayslip


Station


Title


0. Bagnall
H. Bryan
S. Burgis
P. Crill
W. Deen, Jr.
H. Everett
C. Fluck
D. Gull
H. Halsey
P. Lorz
W. Strobel
Villalon


Asst. Agricultural Engineer
Asst. Horticulturist
Assoc. Horticulturist
Asst. Plant Pathologist
Asst. Agricultural Engineer
Soils Chemist
Assoc. Agricultural Engineer
Assoc. Horticulturist
Assoc. Horticulturist
Horticulturist
Plant Pathologist & Head
Asst. Plant Pathologist


Main Station
Sub-Tropical Station
Gulf Coast Station
Gulf Coast Station
Everglades Station
South Florida Field Lab
Main Station
'lain Station
Main Station
Main Station
Gulf Coast Station
Sub-Tropical Station


II. Major objectives:

1. Breed and evaluate tomato varieties suitable for mechanical
harvesting in Florida.
2. Develop and test mechanical harvesting systems for fresh market
tomatoes.
3. Determine best production methods to assist mechanical harvesting.
4. Determine fruit characteristics desirable for mechanical harvested
tomatoes.

III. Major findings:

The writer organized and prepared the state-wide project state-
ment, and served as state chairman of the project for about two years.
A one week trip to the Davis, California area in 1966 was made with
the Assistant Agricultural Engineer, Belle Glade to observe the com-
mercial tomato harvesting operation with machines. Blackwelder, Hume,
FMC and Button harvesters were seen in operation, and manufacturers of
Blackwelder, Hume, Button and Benner-Nawman machines were visited.
Personnel of the University of California at Davis were also visited.

A three weeks visit to the west coast of Mexico in January, 1969
was made to study the production, harvesting and packing of the 27,000
acre vine-ripe pole tomato crop. Ideal climate, abundant irrigation
water and soil, and more than enough cheap labor make the Culiacan-Los
Mochis area of Mexico a great threat to the Florida tomato industry.
Vine-ripe tomatoes (varieties developed by IFAS) are shipped from Mexico
throughout the United States and Canada in increasing numbers. Florida
has no choice other than to completely mechanize its tomato crop. The








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mechanization must not only reduce or eliminate labor and/or improve
its efficiency, but must also reduce the unit cost of production
harvesting and packing in order to compete with Mexicon tomatoes.

A complete stationary harvesting system was designed, constructed,
modified and tested at IRFL during first two years in cooperation with
Assistant Agricultural Engineer, Belle Glade. This stationary machine
lifted freshly cut plants with fruits attached off a moving simulated
tomato bed, onto the elevator where they were delivered to the vine-
fruit separator. Detached fruits fell onto an inclined trash disposal
belt then rolled into a water tank for sand removal. As the tomatoes
were elevated out of water tank, they were sprayed with water, then
were moved across a grading belt and into transport boxes. The
resulting fruits were carefully examined for damage, and were equal
to hand harvested check samples.

Using the components and principals of the stationary unit, the
Assistant Agricultural Engineer constructed a mobile tomato harvester
which was given a preliminary testing in the spring of 1969. Based
upon these tests the machine was modified during the summer and fall
of 1969, and again tested on sand in the late fall and early winter
of 1969.

In cooperation with the Assistant Agricultural Engineer, the
Eastern Division FMC tomato harvester and the Clemson tomato harvester
have been tested in Florida. Both proved to inflict too much damage
to the tomatoes.

Another segment of the study at IRFL has been participation in the
tomato breeding and evaluation of machine harvest types in cooperation
with the plant breeders.

The need for uniformity in growth and maturity on crops to be
harvested by machine is one reason for the initiation of the plug-
mixture technique under study and discussed in more detail under
State Project 1139.

IV. Present work and future plans:

Will continue to work with the Assistant Agricultural Engineer
in further development and testing of the IFAS experimental tomato
harvester; evaluate tomato breeding lines for machine harvest; and
continue to develop the soil-fertilizer-seed-fungicide mixtures for
plugging into the soil in an effort to improve uniformity of maturity.




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