Title: Reports of current vegetable research in progress at branch stations
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00090242/00001
 Material Information
Title: Reports of current vegetable research in progress at branch stations presented to Vegetable Research Conference, Orlando, Florida, September 25-26, 1957
Physical Description: 23 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: University of Florida, Agricultural Experiment Stations
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1957
Copyright Date: 1957
 Subjects
Subject: Vegetables -- Research -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Fruit -- Research -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
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General Note: Caption title.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00090242
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 289017667

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REPORTS

OF CURRENT VEGETABLE RESEARCH

IN PROGRESS AT BRANCH STATIONS


Presented to

Vegetable Research Work Conference

Orlando, Florida

September 25-26, 1957




TABLE OF CONTENTS


GULF COAST EXPERIMENT STATION.

SOUTH FLCRIDA FIELD LABORATORY .

WATERMELON AND GRAPE LABORATORY.

POTATO INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY

SUBTROPICAL EXPERIMENT STATION

EVERGLADES EXPERIMENT STATION.

INDIAN RIVER FIELD LABORATORY. .

PLANTATION FIELD LABORATORY. .


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GUL COAST EXPERIMENT STATION


Pole Beans

State Project 591 (Herbicides)
Use of EPTC as both pre- and post-emergence spray for eradication of broadleaved
weeds and grasses.

State Project 6$4 (Insecticides)
Use of systemic and non-systemic phosphatic insecticides applied as seed treat-
ment, soil drench or aerial spray,

State Project 660 (Fertilization)
Effect of different sources of nitrogen.
Minor element requirements and pH,
Nutrient intensity and balance studies,

Miscellaneous (Breeding)
Breeding and selecting for combined resistances to diseases and for horticultural
characters resulting in higher yields and improved quality,

Bush Beans

tate Project 591 (Herbicides)
See discussion under pole beans.

Peppers

tate Project 660 (Fertilization)
Effect of nitrogen source, minor elements, pH, nutrient intensity and nutrient
balance on blossom-end rot.

tate Project 854 (Pathogenic Bacteria)
Identification and control of bacteria pathogenic on peppers,.

Cabbage

tate Project 523 (Nematodes)
Nematode populations as affected by cabbage-tomato rotation.

Celery

tate Project 672 (Fertilization)
Fundamental nutritional studies on the effect of nutrient intensity level on
growth and quality and on control of black-heart.

Sweet Corn

tate Project 391 (Variety Trials)
Southern cooperative trials on both observational and replicated yield test
basis.








State Project 591 (Herbicides)
Use of Herbisan, EPTC, Simazin, Karmex DW and Dyanamid as lay-by sprays.

State Project 660 (Fertilization)
Yields and Quality as affected by nitrogen source, minor elements and nutrient
intensity and balance,

Tomatoes

State Project 391 (Variety Trials)
Replicated variety trials of several commercial varieties and 10 advanced GCS
disease-resistant breeding stocks. Emphasis on vine-ripe harvest.
Southern tomato exchange program with 34 items in observational trials and
8 items in replicated trials.
Test of methods of trellising to reduce bruising caused by rubbing against wire
or string supports.
Effect of low temperatures on immature fruit in the field and subsequent loss
at time of harvesting,

tate Project 398 (Breeding)
Breeding for combined resistances to diseases, including virus diseases, with
emphasis on selection of features most important in pink harvest.

tate Project 402 (Nutrition)
Nutritional studies involving (1) nutrient intensity and balance, (2) variable
boron and iron levels, and (3) calcium-magnesium and calcium-potassium
rations and their effects on (a) blossom-end rot, (b) shoulder blotch and
softness and (c) crease-stem,

tate Project 591 (Herbicides)
Use of post-emergence herbicidal sprays at time of staking with EPTC, Simazin,
Herbisan and Karmex DW.

tate Project 645 (Insecticides)
Phosphatic insecticides other than parathion,

tate Project 754 (Soil Fumigants)
Fumigation for control of pathogenic soil fungi and Nematodes with Vapam, Crag
Mylone and mixtures involving allyl alcohol,

tate Project 660 (Fertilization)
Yield and quality as affected by sources of nitrogen and potassium,

tate Project 800 (Fungicides)
Control of late blight, gray leafspot and Botrytis, Emphasis will be placed on
vine-ripened fruit.

tate Project 854 (Bacterial Diseases)
Identification and control of bacteria pathogenic on tomatoes.







Potatoes

Miscellaneous (Fertilization)
Effect of type and quantity of soluble salt on yield and quality of potatoes.

Cucumbers, Squash and Cantaloupes

State Project 391 (Variety Trials)
Southern Cooperative Trial of 15 disease-resistant cucumber stocks in replicated
yield trials.

State Project 523 (Nematodes)
Efficiency of broadcast application of soil fumigants for nematode control with
cantaloupe.

State Projedt 591 (Herbicides)
Pre- and post emergence use of Alanap-3, Herbisan and EPTC,

State Project 660 (Fertilization)
Effect of nitrogen source in fertilizer, minor.elements, and nutrient intensity
and balance.

State Project 779 (Disease Control)
Control of soil rot, anthracnose and angular leaf spot of. cucumbers. Identi-
fication and control of bacteria causing stem-end soft rot of cantaloupe.

Leafy Vegetables

State Project 391.(Variety Trials)
Observational trial of eight USDA slow-bolting, heading stocks of lettuce.

State Project 591 (Herbicides)
Use of Herbisan, EPTC and Simazin pre-emergence on field-seeded cabbage and
post-emergence to set plants.

Miscellaneous Crops

State Project 591 (Herbicides)
Use of pre-emergence and post-emergence herbicides on broccoli and cauliflower.

tate Project 650 (Residues)
Residues determinations on radish, broccoli and cauliflower,

tate Project 660 (Fertilization)
Effect of various nitrogen sources in the fertilizer on yield and quality of
cauliflower.


SOUTH FLORIDA FIELD LABORATORY

Tomatoes

tate Project 391 (Variety Trials)
Trials involving several commercial varieties and 10 advanced Gulf Coast Station
disease-resistant stocks for both green-mature and vine-refined harvest. Plots
will be replicated, permitting statistical analysis of yield data.








State Project 591 (Herbicides)
Tests with Vapam, Crag Mylone and several allyl alcohol mixtures applied as in
the row fumigants. Other chemicals will be tested as post-emergence sprays
at time of staking. Emphases will be placed on control of bermuda grass.

State Project 660 (Fertilization)
Nutrient intensity and balance studies including variations in quantity and
ratio of the fertilizer in combination with different liming materials as
interrelated with certain minor elements.

State Project 800 (Disease Control)
Comparison of spray schedules with particular emphasis on control of bacterial
spot and gray mold (Botrytis)

WATERMELON AND GRAPE LABORATORY
Leesburg, Florida

Work in progress on watermelons at Leesburg encompasses two broad areas: breed-
ing for high-quality, disease-resistant melons and disease control.

Work on the breeding and selection for better watermelon varieties was sharply
curtailed this past season because of other duties incident to the re-location of the
physical facilities of this laboratory. However, selections were continued on
heavily wilt-infested soil from the promising non-resistant varieties Blackstone and
Garrisonian.

As a result of the continuing fungicide testing program, maneb has been added to
the recommended list for the control of watermelon foliage diseases. Studies were con-
tinued on the fruit rot caused by Mycosphaerella citrullina and on other phases of the
gummy stem blight problem. Work in progress on Fusarium wilt of watermelon includes
studies on pathogenicity differences among various isolates of the fungus, differences
in varietal susceptibility, and seed transmission of the disease.

Work on insect control in watermelons will be initiated as soon as a new staff
position for an entomologist is filled.


POTATO INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY

Cabbage

The testing of cabbage varieties, which is a continuing part of the research pro-
ram at Hastings, is done for the purpose of selecting new strains and varieties which
cel old ones in yield and market qualities. When suitable facilities become avail-
ble, we hope to participate in a station-wide, cabbage breeding program aimed at
creating new varieties better adapted to local conditions than the varieties now
wanted in Florida and bred primarily for production in northern states.

Research is now in progress to determine the effect of starter solutions, foliar
mtritional sprays and sidedressing materials on the yield and quality of cabbage
own in soil adjusted to pH 5.0 to 6.5.








Work was started this fall to determine the effectiveness of different chemicals
in killing weeds in cabbage plant beds and fields.

The present research program on cabbage insects at Hastings emphasizes aphid
control tests with promising systemic and non-systemic insecticides. In addition,
chemical control of various worms on this crop is studied as problems develop. Any
insecticide that shows promise of becoming useful on cabbage insects is also investi-
gated from tho residue aspect. This work is aimed at determining the necessary
interval between the last application of insecticide and harvest in order for the
cabbage to be safe for human consumption. Another aspect of research which will re-
ceive attention in the future deals with the study of insecticidal resistance in
cabbage insects. There have been early indications of resistance development in
cabbage loopers and the nature of this specific problem will be investigated. Studies
of the biology and life cycle of various cabbage insects are going to receive in-
creased attention in the future and light trap studies of insect emergence and flight
will be emphasized.

Potatoes

An important part of the research program at Hastings is the testing of potato
varieties for the purpose of selecting new ones which are better adapted to local
conditions than those now planted by growers.

Studies are being made to determine the best method of irrigating potatoes by
comparing the yield and quality of tubers grown at very high, high, medium and low
soil moisture levels. Data are being obtained in irrigated plots on effect of pre-
plant, single and split applications of fertilizers on the yield, specific gravity
and market qualities of the potatoes. Potato seeding and fertilization rates also
are being investigated to determine the amount of seed and fertilizer required per
acre for the most profitable production of potatoes grown in irrigated land.

Factors affecting potato production on old land are being investigated. Some
of the physical and chemical differences between virgin and cropped land are being
determined. Effect of different cover crops, potato-pangolagrass rotations, land
leveling and deep plowing on the physical properties of the soil and potato yields
are being studied.

Since 50 percent or more of the potatoes grown at Hastings are sold to chip
makers, soil and cultural factors and characteristics of new varieties which affect
the specific gravity and chipping qualities of potatoes are being investigated.

Work to determine the effect of 2,h-D foliage spray and captain seed treatment on
intensification of the skin color of Red Fontiac potatoes and reduction of skinning
of the tubers will be completed next year.

Tests which were started last year to determine the usefulness of herbicides for
eed control in potato fields will be continued.

Corky ringspot is a troublesome soil-borne disease of potatoes on some farms at
stings. It discolors the flesh and disfigures the tubers making them nonsalable.
ests are being conducted to select potato varieties and seedling selections which
re immune or highly resistant to this disease. Studies also are being made to de-
ermine the effect of soil factors and cultural practices on development of the
disease in potatoes grown in infested soil.






-6-


Several dormancy-breaking chemicals, antibiotics and fungicides and gibberellic
acid were used in treating seed pieces of dormant, partially dormant and nondormant
potato seed stocks in 1957 to determine their effect on germination of the seed, pre-
vention of seed decay and growth and yield of plants. Research will be continued with
some of these chemicals.

Due to the increased importance of wireworm injury to potatoes in the Hastings
area, an extensive research program dealing with major phases of this problem is be-
ing conducted. Since insecticidal control of wireworms has become progressively less
effective during the last three years, an effort is being made to find more effective
insecticidal treatments. Effects of various soil factors and conditions upon wire-
worm activity and injury to potatoes are also being studied. Certain cover crops may
affect the prevalence of wireworms and this aspect is also receiving attention. The
life cycle and general biology of the wireworm have been poorly understood and con-
stitute another area of research. Farming methods seem to play an important role in
the increase of wireworms in potato fields, so these various practices are likewise
being investigated. In addition, a nematode capable of killing this wireworm has been
found ard this inter-relationship is under study in hopes that such a nematode may
rove useful in controlling the wireworm. Future work on this general problem of
wireworm control shall follow the approaches that have been outlined; plus any new
avenues of research that show promise as the work progresses.


SUBTROPICAL STATION
Homestead, Florida

Beans

Control of Rust on Pole Beans (State Project 749).--This project is about com-
ple&-ed since a control much superior to sulfur has been found. Further work will
be concerned with timing of applications, confirmation of previous results as a basis
for definite control recommendations. Some study of "maneb stimulation" should be
made. Eradicant and systemic fungicide controls will be continued.--R. A. Conover

Polo Bean Breeding.--(Miscellaneous)--The aim .of this project is to find or
develop a pole bean adapted to Dade County conditions, which will combine the do-
sirable features of McCaslan and Florigreon, and to eliminate the undesirable charac-
teristics of Florigreen.--R. A. Conover and J. C. Noonan

Insect Control (State Project 471),--A study of slugs and development of prac-
tical controT. Observations on what appears to be an insect feeding on bean blossoms
re being made. Treatments of seed with systemic insecticides for possible reduction
of serpentine leaf miners on cotylcdonous loaves,--D. 0. Wolfenbarger and R. M.
Baranowski

Loafy Vegetablos

Insect Control (State Project 471).--Testing of insecticides for control of
phids and of lepidopterous larvae.
--D. 0. Wolfonberger and R. M. Baranowski





-7-


tinor Vegetables

Variety Trials (State Project 391).--The minor vegetable variety planting will
include about 16 different vegetables with several varieties of each for adaptation
observations.--J. C. Noonan

Melons

Muskmelon Diseases (Miscellaneous).--Investigations in progress are concerned
with, Ta) better downy and powdery mildew control; (b) phytotoxicity of fungicides,
and (c) testing of eradicant and systemic fungicides,--R. A. Conover

Potatoes

Insect Control (State Project 471).-Observations and evaluation of species
(other htEan irE w ms) causing tuber defects; and soil and foliage treatments for
reduction of such defects,--D. 0. Wolfenbarger and R. M. Baranowski

Herbicides.--For control of nutgrass, paragrass, and bermuda grass,-J. C. Noonan

Varieties,--The potato variety planting will include 20 or more varieties and
numbered strains,-J. C. Noonan

Seed Treatment (State Project 682).--Further tests with Terrachlor for control
of rhizectonia and scab; also tests with various treatments for seed piece decay
especially on Sebago variety.--G. D, ue~hle

Fungicide Tests (Miscellaneous),--Testing of new materials in cooperation with
Dr. Gerhold of onm & Haas Co--G. D. Ruehle

Tomatoes

Varieties (State Project 39).--The variety tests on rockland soil will include
some 60 varieties and/or numbered strains.--J. C. Noonan

Weed Control.--Herbicide tests will be continued on rockland soils and herbi-
cides will bescreened for toxicity to tomatoes as well as effectiveness for weed
control.--J. C. Noonan

Insect Control (State Project 471).--Entomological investigations on tomatoes
will inclue (a) seed treatments for reduction of serpentine leaf mines, (b) foliage
applications for control of leaf and fruit infesting insects, (c) slug control studies,
and (d) phytotoxicity of pesticides,--D. 0. Wolfenbarger and R, H. Baranowski

Disease Control (State Project 291).--Bacterial Sot studies to determine role
of seed transmission of the causative organism. Plant bed tests will be continued
for (a) better use of present control materials and for (b) evaluating new materials,
particularly eradicants. Field tests designed to control bacterial spot in the field,
including costs and returns from use of control, will be continued,

Control of fungus diseases especially gray leaf spot on rockland plantings and
late blight in marl glade plantings.





-8-


They will be designed to find out how Dyrene (superior for gray leaf spot con-
trol) can be used without jeopardizing late blight control or without losing the
nutritional benefit of maneb. Tests with new materials will be continued, particu-
larly systemic or eradicant type fungicides.

Investigations of tomato virus diseases will be started as soon as facilities
(greenhouses) ere available for use.--R. A. Conover

Tomato culture investigations (State Project 286).--The effects of rates of
appli'ation o f-rilizer and of irrigation on the yield of tomatoes and the composi-
tion of tomato lear-es is being studied. Each element in the fertilizer has been
varied separately and in combination with the others. Moisture stresses in the rock-
dale soil and water movement through tne Miami oolite have been investigated.

Optimum ranges of rates of application for each of the major elements on both
marl and rockland have been determined. Significant influences on the results with
one element have been found when the supply of another was varied. Graywall was
found to be related to fertility only to this extent, those treatments which pro-
duced the largest vines and the highest yields also produced the most graywall. The
amount of graywall was not reduced by the application of any fertilizer unless it was
applied in such large excess that the plants were noticeably stunted and yields re-
duced.

From the analysis of leaf samples from the fertility plots standards of ade-
quacy are being developed for each element. In some cases the absolute concentration
of an eleront has proved a suitable standard but in others the interrelationship be-
tween two elements is more critical. Irrigation has been found to influence plant
composition as well as yield and further work along this line is indicated. Finally
an investigation of the combined influence of fertility and water supply on fruit
quality, especially shipping quality and eating quality is needed.

It is planned to plant tomatoes on the same piece of rockland soil for consecu-
tive years to determine causes of such soil "running out" for this crop. This will
be started this year if land preparation can be completed in time. The staff will
team up on this project,--J. L. ialcolm and R. W. Harkness

Tomato Breeding (State Project 398).--The goal is a high yielding, high quality
tomato well adapted to Dade County and containing resistance to wilt gray leaf spot,
Alternaria and tobacco mosaic. In cooperation with J. M. Walter.--R. A. Conover and
J. C, Noonan

Gray Wall.--In all tomato work every opportunity to obtain information on gray
wall is take,--Entire Staff

Strawberries

Insect and Mite Control.--Control of citrus root weevil larvae and of mites in-
festing strawberriDs.--D . Wolfenbarger and R. M. Baranowski

Miscellaneous

Sprayers.--To determine suitability of air-blast concentrate sprayer for con-
trolling diseases and insects of Florida vegetable crops. Tests have already been
made on tomatoes, potatoes and squash.--R. A. Conover and R. M. Baranowski in cooper-
ation with Frank Irons, U.S.D.A. Agr. Eng,





-9-


REPORT TO'WORK CONFERENCE ON VEGETABLE RESEARCH
Orlando, Florida, September 25 26, 1957

EVERGLADES STATION
Belle Glade, Florida


BEANS

Variet-ies (State Project 391) In 1956 fall plantings highest yields were
obtained from Contender, Ferry Morse Tendergreen, Seminole, SVBL breeding line
2567-. and Woodruff Tendergreen, All round podded varieties in the trial except
Tender:-eens exhibited pod hollowness between the seed. In a 1957 spring plant-
ing Mssississppi AE3 breeding line C-12-6 yielded highest followed by Seminole,
SVBL breedi:-ig lines B3370 and B2567-1, and Rogers Brothers Tenderwhite. The most
promising ge'en podded varieties in a spring observational planting were Ferry
Morse White F eded Tendergreen, Asgrow XP219 and Northup King NK105. High yield-
ing wax typas were Florida AES 101-B and Mississippi AES Choctaw.

One variety trial is planned this year comparing older varieties with new
varieties and breeding lines in a search for better fresh market and processing
varieties.

Hollow pod condition (State Project 703 and Miscellaneous) Most varieties
grown jn the 195-57 trials exhibited varying percentages of a hollow pod condi-
tion. In fact half of the varieties exhibited 100 percent hollowness This
condition duj.s not refer to hollowness around the seed, but a many-pointed star-
shi aped. holloness between the seed-. This condition is especially severe in the
Seminole variety and is of considerable economic importance as processors
discriminate against beans showing this hollowness. Observations have indicated
that the hollowness, or at least its severity, is influenced by some nutritional
cr environmental condition. In tests conducted last year neither plant spacing
a' 1, 3, 6 and 12 inches in 36-inch rows nor foliar applications of boric acid,
Eodium molybdate, zinc sulfate, copper sulfate or ferrous sulfate had any effect
on the development of hollow pod. One or two experiments will be conducted
during the 1957-58 season in further study of this condition.

Weed Control (State Project 654) In tests conducted last spring a varietal
susceptibility to herbicides was noted in that Seninole was severely retarded by
pre-emergence applied dalapon while Tendergreen was relatively unaffected. Plans
for this year include:

1. Advanced screening: time and rate of pre- and post-emergence applied
"most promising" herbicides.
2. Seasonal herbicide requirements: crop and weed response to best herbi-
cidal treatments during major bean growing periods of year.
3. Varietal response to herbicides: may be combined with foregoing.
4. On-farm experiments with herbicides.

Insects (State Project 87) In spring 1957 experiments best control of the
bean leaf seletonizer was obtained with toxaphene E.C., 1 lb./A. Thiodan E.C.,
4 lb./A., and perthane 7.P., 1 Ib./A., also gave good control.

Insect control work on snapbeans this year will be mostly concerned with a
comparison of the more recent insecticides with the standard materials. Thiodan,
Trithion, Niagra 1240, Phosdrin and other recent materials will be compared with
DDT, toxaphene and parathion for control of the populations that develop.








CABBAGE


Insects (State Project 669) In tests last year endrin E.C., lb./A., gave
nearly 100 percent control of the larvae of the cabbage looper. Toyaphene,
phosdrin, thiodan and a toxaphene-phosdrin combination gave fair control, Mixed
infestations of three species of aphids were controlled almost 100 percent by
treatments rci isting of phosphates alone or in combination with other types of
insecticides: Endrin EC., j lb./A., gave 95 percent control of southern army-
worms (laTe instar stage) in. comparison to fair or poor control by other
insecticides tested.

Since a good larvacide and a good aphicide are needed for control of cabbage
insect combinations of the best of these materials will be tried next year,
Among the treatments being considered are: (1) Endrin plus demeton, (2) Lndrin
plus phosdrin, (3) Endrin plus parathion; (4) Thiodan plus demeton, (5) Thiodan
plus phosdrin (6) Thiodan plus parathion, (7) Toxaphene plus phosdrin, (8) Toxa-
phene plus demeton, and (9) Toxaphene plus parathion.

A polyhedrosis virus disease of cabbage loopers has been tested for control
of this larv,, Preliminary trials indicated that the disease could possibly fit
into the locker control picture, in consideration of recent difilc..ibies .n co::-
trolling this species with insecticides. An additional test is planned for this
season


CELERY

Breeding (State Project 603) Objectives of the celery breeding program
are to produce adapted varieties having resistance to early blight and possessing
plant type desired by the fresh market. The Everglades Experiment Station line
B].3i-1~8 which has shown high resistance to early blight caused by Cercospora al.i
and has been tested during the past two seasons in a number of commercial fields-
and trials is being released to seedsmen. The variety to be produced from seed
of the 148 line will be called "Emerald" and will be described in a circular
forthcoming this winter. Seed of the Emerald variety will be available to
growers from seedsmen about September 1958.

Work during the coming season will consist of three phases.

(1) A continuation of the present program being carried out in cooperation with
the Cornell Agricultural Experiment Station with regard to further selection and
testing of breeding material in various stages of development. A number of
selections from the B56-148 line, its parent line B56-136, and related material
will be tested in a disease nursery and in commercial plantings daring the coming
season in an effort to obtain varieties from this material which will have better
uniformity, lass node cracking, and more resistance to premature seeding than
Emerald.

(2) Continuation of the work initiated during the past season to develop a
technique which may be used routinely in the breeding program to eliminate plants
and lines which bolt prematurely when exposed in the seedling stage to prolonged
periods of cold temperature. Briefly, in this work, young plants of varieties
differing in their bolting characteristics are exposed at different temperatures
to different lengths of cold prior to transplanting to the field in an attempt to
establish the optimum age of plants, temperature, and length of cold exposure
which will eliminate those plants which go to seed too easily





-11-


(3) Continuation of studies carried on for the past three seasons on seeding of
selections in Florida by the use of cold treatment and various growth regulators.
Following the successful production of viable seed in two previous seasons, the
seeding experiments at Belle Glade last winter were, in general, a failure appa-
rently as a direct result of the exceedingly wet winter and spring season Good
bolting occurred but very little viable seed was obtained, A number of selections
from a very late spring nursery are now being grown under artificial environmental
conditions in an effort to induce bolting and seeding well in advance of the
expected rainy season.

Major emphasis during the coming season will be placed on the last two phases
of the work because solving these problems are basic to speeding up the celery
breeding program and making it more productive.

Varietiel Fertilizing and Cultural Practices (State Projects 391, 808 and
837) "-Typei Rof pascal celery being grom in theEverglades are changing to a
considerable extent for the 1956-57 season. An est-mated 2000 to 2500 acres of
the Utah type are in prospect as compared to about 1000 acres for the 196-57
season. In addition to this, the fact that seed of E.E,S. 56-1.8 has become
available and will be grown by most growers on a triel basis in the 1957-58
season, opens the possibility for an even greater shift in the 19d5-59 season
away from the old line varieties of the Summer Pascal type.

Both of these new celery types have been observed in celery variety trials
and other experiments conducted at the Everglades Station for the past two
seasons, These observations indicate that some shifting in standard celery pro-
duction practice among most growers may be necessary to improve the quality and
type of these rnew celery varieties and to place Everglades growers in a better
competitive position.

As observed in celery variety trials at the Everglades Experiment Station,
both Utah 52-70 and the Everglades 148 types have certain strong points in their
favor and certain weak points that will count against theme As observed, the
weak points for the different types offer the opportunity for further research for
remedial practices.

Listed as follows are strong and weak points from a cultural standpoint as
observed in trials daring the past two seasons:

1. Utah 52-70 -
as Strong points:
(1) High yields of high quality celery of the same type as being
grown in California.
(2) It seems to be better adapted to growing conditions in the Ever-
glades than any other Utah type observed thus far. It does not
ordinarily manifest the physiological disorders "brown check-
ing", cracked stem, and magnesium deficiency found on some of
the other Utah types,
(3) This celery type has a greater number of outer petioles left
after field triming and more heart petioles than the S. Pascals.
be Weaknesses:
(1) It is highly susceptible to early blight, more so than Sumner
Pascals, and much more so than the E.E.S. 148 type; perhaps not
as susceptible though as some-of the other Utah varieties. How-
ever, out of the rainy season, fairly good commercial control of
early blight has been obtained with regular Summer Pascal spray
program.








(2) It is an easy bolter which indicates that it probably should
not be set in the field for a spring crop in the Everglades.
Possibly December 15-20 is the latest date to safely set this
variety in the field in the Everglades.
(3) Petiole size in 52-70 has been criticized as being too slender.
There is good evidence, however, that this can be at least
partially remedied by wider spacing and a longer growing period.

2. EE.,S, 1,8 -
ao Strong points:
(1) Yood yields
(2) It has given better yield and type for May and June harvests,
and possibly also for late November and early December harvest
than any other variety observed.
(3) It is highly resistant to early blight, much more so than even
the Summer Pascal types.
(4) It has a large number of outer petioles and a relatively large
number of heart petioles,
b, Weak points:
(1) There is still considerable variation in plant type, height and
petiole length from the base of the plant to the first noda,
In view of new grading and marketing standards this could cause
some consternation among inspectors.
(2) Observations have indicated that the parent line of B56-148 is
a fairly easy bolter, probably not among 100 percent of its
population but oa.ugh to result in some losses where a prolonged
period of cold temperatures continuously below 600 olcurs when
plants are on the seedbed. It is assumed that B56-148 will
exhibit this characteristic to about the same extent when proper
conditions occur.
(3) A fairly high percentage of its plants on most locations exhibit
a severe cracking at the first node. Foliar applications of
boron have decreased this cracking, both in percentage of
plants exhibiting cracking, and severity of cracking. However,
even with this reduction, enough cracking still occurred to
reduce yields considerably by abnormal field trimming of
cracked petioles.
(4) It seems to be more brittle than Summer Pascal types being grown.
This may be related to the above problem of cracking at the
node. Observations indicate that this brittleness may rapidly
increase following 90-95 days after setting in the field.
Whether this brittleness is severe enough to seriously inter-
fere with present methods of field harvesting is yet to be
determined.
(5) It has a lighter green foliage and petiole color than other
pascals being marketed. In the field, loss of color on outer
petioles is especially striking 90-95 days after setting. This
point may or may not be of significance from the viewpoint of
consumer acceptance. Only marketing trials can determine con-
sumer acceptance of this factor.

Research with celery as planned for the 1957-58 and 1958-59 seasons is
concerned with learning to grow these new types of celery, under the changing
conditions in the Everglades.




-13-


1. Fertilizer & Soil Investigations
A problem which must be taken into account is the increasing nematode
population where host crops are grown. Celery is one of these crops. So far the
most economical means of control seems to be by flooding the planting area
periodically during the summer months. This raises pH and brings about problems
of increased cost brought about by additional sulfur required to lower pH, There
is some evidence that certain minor elements might be applied to the foliage and
celery grovaw on this higher pH soil. With this in mind and the possibility of
changing celery types with their various peculiarities, the following research
is planned for the 1957-58 season,

a. Two experiments, to be harvested about March 15 and Nay1l5 on high
pH soil with pH adjusted with varying amounts of sulfur, and certain
minor elements applied by foliar application, using Summer Pascal,
Utah 52-70 and E.E.S. 148 celery varieties.
b. Nine seedbed experiments with varying sulfur levels and nitrogen
sources on Summer Pascal and Utah 52-70 celery.
c. Three ex-eriments on the node cracking and brittleness in the E.E.S.
118 line.

2. Experiments designed to determine optimum cutting stages for Utah 52-70
and EE.S. 148 in relation to the Summer Pascals as indicated by certain chemical
and physical changes occurring in the plant. Also the effect of spacing on these
changes.

a. One experiment in ihich the three varieties will be cut at weekly
intervals from 70 through 120 cays. Plant parts will be subjected to
chemical analysis to determine changes taking place, especially in the
older and outer part of the plant to determine a chemical basis for
maturity. Plants rill be subjected to breaking tests to determine
increase or decrease in brittleness with age. Plants will be measured
for increase in size, size of petiole, plant height with increase in
age of the various varieties. Pithiness at the base of the petiole
and at the first node will be rated for increase in pithiness at the
various stages of cutting.
b. There has been good observational evidence that some of the criticisms
of Utah 52-70 can at least be partially remedied by spacing, This
applies to petiole size and type* A spacing experiment with the three
varieties will be conducted in the fall of 1957-58 with others to
follow in 1958-59.
c. Variety trials with respect to harvest date will be continued in the
1956-57 season with an early winter trial, a later winter trial and
a spring trial.

Diseases (State Project 711) A complex of seedbed diseases including
damping-off, early blight, bacterial blight and anthracnose was effectively con-
trolled experimentally with zineb, 2 lb./l0 gal., plus thiram, 1 Ib./100 gal.,
plus streptomycin, 25-50 ppm. Twto other mixtures consisting of zineb-chloranil-
streptomycin and zineb-neutral copper-streptomycin were also highly effective.

Dyrene and copper mixtures were superior to all other materials tested for
the field control of early blight and Rhizoctonia,

Experiments planned this year will include:

1. Field and seedbed evaluations of new materials and combinations of
materials for use in control of early blight, bacterial blight and








Rhizoctonia. At least two varieties of celery will be tested, one of
which is very susceptible to blight.
2* Greenhouse, laboratory and field work on the symptomatoloy of Cercospora
apii (early blight) and Pseudomonas aii (bacterial blight) occurring in
the same lesion.
3, Tjemerature, humidity and rainfall as related to spore dissemination of
eas:.i-y blight (spore dissemination measured with the aid of a spore
collector).

Insects (State Project 87) The control of caterpillars that attack celery
is oft3n difficult because of sprays failing to penetrate the foliage canopy to
get co~m between the stalks where the insects are feeding. Granular insecti-
cides may be effective in this respect. Granular insecticides and different
spray gallonages will be compared during 1957-53.

7eed Control (State Project 654) Studies planned during 1957-58 include:

1. Advanced screening: time and rate of application of "most promising"
herbicides; pre-setting, post-setting and late post-setting.
2. Seasonal herbicide requirements: crop and weed response to best herbi-
cidal treatments throughout growing season.
3. Varietal response to herbicides,
4h Effect of scratching on weed control and celery.
5. On-farm experiments v.1th herbicides.


~LTTUCE

Nutritional Sprays (State Project 703) Recent experiments showed no
yield response to foliar sprays of urea at 7.5-10 pounds in 100 gallons per acre.
At the 10-pound rate injury resulted as necrosis along leaf margins.

Diseases (State Project 824) Streptomycin sulfate at 50 ppm. on a 5-day
spray schedule provided some control of bacterial soft rot. Less soft rot
developed with a soil water table of 30 inches than with 18 inches. Disease
incidence was reduced by sidedress applications of ammonium sulfate. Fumigating
with chloropicrin did not control soft rot.

Experiments planned for 1957-58 include:

1. Continue field studies on control of soft rot.
2. Three variety trials v~th new varieties that showed some promise last
season.
3. Two cultural practices tests involving use of polyethylene film and
ridging.


ONIONS

Diseases (Miscellaneous) In experiments last year a tip dieback asso-
ciated with Stemphylium was most effectively controlled with thiram and zineb.
A screening program for the control of purple blotch will be conducted next year.


PEPPERS

Bacterial Disease (State Project 750) Experiments this year on control of
bacterial soot continued to show the sqnerioltv of .trannmvpTn nva nr\r







sprays and the additive effects of the two materials used in combination, The
effectiveness of streptomycin was not noticeably affected by the addition of
glycerol.

Virus (State Project 558) Much work during the past four years has been
directed at obtaining a control program which will be effective against several
aphid-borne viruses affecting pepper. Some success has been attained, Potato
virus Y (vrt:ibanding mosaic virus) and three different kinds of cucumber mosaic
virus are known to be the causal agents. Important weed hosts for these viruses
are known.

It has been found that nearly all virus infection comes from diseased weeds
vwth.i a few hundred feet of a field. Once the virus has been established in a
field, these weeds are no longer important since most of the total spread in a
field occurs as the result of aphids flying from plant to plant in the crop.
Thus it is important to eradicate known weed hosts of virus for several hundred
feet around fields before the crop is planted.

It has also been found that nonsusceptible crops planted around susceptible
ones act as barriers to infective aphids entering the susceptible crop* This is
because virus is lost by the aphids within an hour (most aphids become ncninfec-
tive in less than 15 minutes) after they acquire it. The aphids alight on the
nonsusceptible barrier crop and become noninfective before entering the suscep-
tible crop. Fifty to 100 feet of barrier crop is sufficient for considerable
protection,

Use of weed control plus barrier crops rill result in considerable reduction
in virus spread into a field from the outside but does nct restrict spread within
the field once the virus has been established. Current work is being directed
toward development of more efficient barriers, and the investigation of chemicals
which will affect virus in infected plants.

In addition, work is being done in the greenhouse on the ways that aphids
and other insects transmit viruses. Immediate practical applications for some
of this type of work are not readily apparent but it is firmly believed that the
more we understand about the way viruses are transmitted, the more likely are
the prospects of developing control programs. The idea of using barrier crops
resulted from this type of work.

Nearly all the viruses affecting celery, lettuce, squash, tomato and cucumber
are similar to the pepper viruses in the way that they are transmitted by aphids.
Thus it is felt that cultural controls which work for one crop will also prove
effective against viruses affecting other crops.


RADISH

Fertility (State Project 837) A series of three radish fertilizer experi-
ments will be conducted on organic soils during the coming season. The
objectives will be to determine requirements for phosphate and potash fertiliza-
tion in relation to soil test results, and to investigate the need for inclusion
of nitrogen in the fertilizer program.


SOUTHERN PEAS

Insects (State Project 87) The most serious insect pests of southern peas
are the cowpea curculio and southern green stinkbug. In experiments conducted








last year, gathion, thiodan, heptachlor and dieldrin were most effective on the
green stinkbug. Best control of the curculio was obtained with thiodan, dieldrin
and toxaphene. Three of the most effective materials, toxaphene, dieldrin and
thiodan, will be tried next year in both fall and spring plantings, each in three
distinct programs:

1. Three pre-tloom applications.
2e One pre.-bloom and one post-bloom application.
3* Two post-bloom applications.

Curculio counts will determine percent wormy shelled peas under the different
treatments. Stinibug counts will be made to determine number of surviving stink-
bugs under thes various treatments, If populations of other species become
import.ut, counts will be made on these also.


SWEET CORN

Breeding (State Project 603) -- Objectives of the sweet corn breeding program
are to develop adapted hybrids which possess resistance to leaf blight caused by
Helminthosporium turcicm and have ear types suitable to the fresh market, VTori
will be continued during the coming season on screening hybrids and inbred lines
from seedsmen and other stations concurrently with the development of Everglades
Station inbred lines and production and testing of experimental hybrids utilizing
these lines. Cooperation with Mr. Smith of the U.SD.A. in this work will be
contiued.o

The possibility of utilizing an endosperm character, Shrunken 2, which
causes high retention of sugar in the fresh kernels in cold storage will be
investigated further. Preliminary investigations have shown that ears from lines
containing this factor contain as much as five percent sucrose after eight days
storage at 400 F. compared to two percent for ears of Golden Security and flavor
of the ears were far superior to those of Golden Security.

Varieties (State Project 391) In January plantings this year, three
hybrids, Woodruff No.6, Crookham 85-1 and Vaughn No.206, showed excellent per-
formance in spite of frost injury. In early commercial plantings seeded Febr'~ry
8, Seneca 7ampum, Florida 104 and Golden Security gave maximum yield and qualify`,
In late commercial trials planted March 15, R-8 was most outstanding in yield and
ear type. Due to grower interest, trials with white hybrids were initiated this
year. At least two hybrids, '-hite Hybrid Noo31 and an experimental R-62683,
seemed to offer possibilities.

Trials next year will include:

as Yellow sweet corn hybrids.
(1) One replicated and observational trial.
(2) Three or four commercial trials with five or six hybrids that seem
to have possibilities for the area.
b. 7ihite sweet corn hybrids.
(1) One small observational and replicated trial.
(2) Two commercial trials with two hybrids that seem to have commercial
possibilities.

Insects BudWrorms (State Project 87) In spring 1957 trials, budrorms were
more effectively controlled by dylox (2 Ibs. 50% W.P,) and by a mixture of para-
thion emalsion (0.25 pint with toxaphene E.C., 0.5 pint) than by DDT E.C.(l quart),


"l6-







all applied at 100 gallons per acre. Parathion and parathion-toxaphene mixture
gave significantly greater reduction of budworm injury than toxaphene applied
alone. Two new materials, guthion E.C. and thiodan EoC. showed promise for bud-
worm control.

Studies planned during 1957-58 include:

(a) The effect of spraying pressure, gallonage, (as affected by nozzle size),
and nozzle arrangement on budwvorm control.
(b) Comparison of granular insecticides and insecticide sprays for budworm
control. In other areas, granular insecticides have been effective for
the control of insects feeding within the whorls of corn and may be an
improvement over insecticide sprays,
(c) Promising new insecticides will be screened for budworm control)

Earworms (State Project 401) Control was superior when DDT and para-
thion dusts were applied at 24- rather than 48-hour intervals. DDJ 50 V.P or
DDT EC. sprayed at 24- or 48-hour intervals was no different in earworm
control than dusts at 2k-hour intervals Toxaphene E.C; gave control inferior
to that of DlT or parathion. At higher dosages thiodan, sevin and guthion gave
poorer control and endrin gave slightly better control than DDT. The endrin
dosage required would be more expensive than DDT, DDT-oil gave better control
than DDT but injured the ears. Toxaphene E.C. showed no promise for earworm
control either alone or in combination with D.T, Experiments indicated that
degree of penetration of the insecticides increased as the concentration of
enrls-_f.er increased. Penetrants sh,-ning greatest promise were Triton X-100,
Na-conyl Z flakes, and a mixture of Triton X-1CO with Triton X-171,

Studies planned during 1957-58 include:

(a) Determine the effect of spraying pressure, gallonage (as determined by
nozzle size), and nozzle arrangement on corn earvorm control.
(b) ;Jork will continue to determine if the amount and concentration of
wetting agent present has any effect on the control obtained with DOT
7.P. sprays and emulsions.
(c) The more promising newer insecticides will be screened for their
effectiveness in corn earworm control. Any of these that show promise
will be compared at several dosages with DDT and DDT-oil emulsionso
(d) During the past season there were indications that the intervals between
spray applications are unnecessarily short during the winter. Sweet
corn will be planted at two-week intervals during the season. During
the silking periods it will be sprayed at 2- and 4-day intervals to
determine if good control can be obtained with less-frequent applica-
tions. This study will probably continue for several years.

Subterranean Insects -- In studies planned during 1957-58, aldrin and
heptachlor will be compared as broadcast treatments at several dosages. The
effectiveness of aldrin and heptachlor coated seed will be studied, If badly
infested soil becomes available further work will probably be done on methods
of application and comparing dosages of endrin and dieldrin.

Diseases (State Project 587) Spraying tests conducted during 1956-57 to
study the field control of helminthosporium showed:

(a) Two nozzles over the row is superior to one.
(b) Increase in number of drop nozzles from one to three resulted in
increased disease control.
(c) Control increased with an increase in eallonaae from 60 to 290 nar acre.




0
-A.lkO


(d) Pressures ranging from 200 to 400 p.s.i. showed no control differences.
(e) The following materials gave disease control in descending order of
effectiveness; zineb 2/100 plus thiram 1/100, maneb, zineb, nabam plus
zinc sulfate or amobam plus zinc sulfate, dyrene, nabam plus manganese
sulfate.
(f) The commercial formulation of zineb known as "Parzate" appeared more
et'ecftive than "Dithane Z-78".

Experiments planned for 1957-58 include:

1. Temperature and humidity as related to time of spraying for leaf disease
control.
2. Temperature, humidity and rainfall as related to spore dissemination of
the Helm.nthosporium species causing blight on corn (spore dissemination
me::~nred with the aid of a spore collector).
3. Evaluation of combination sprays for control of the Helminthosporium
blights and trials for new experimental and commercial spray materials.

'eed Control (State Project 654) Experiments planned for this year
include: -

1. Advanced screening: time and rate of pre- and post-emergence applied
"most promising" herbicides.
2. Seasonal herbicide requirements: crops and weed response to best herbi-
cidal treatment throughout crop year.
3c Varietal response to herdcjides,
4. On-farm experiments with herbicides.


TOMATOES

Virus (State Project 558) Work is in progress on the pseudo curly top
disease of tomato. The vector of this disease has been found, is being reared
under greenhouse conditions and during the next year considerable -ork will bo
done on this virus. Control with insecticides seems very likely for this virzv.s


Members of Everglades Station research staff contributing to this report are:

H, W. Burdine, Assistant Horticulturist
R. S. Cox, Associate Plant Pathologist
U. Go Genung, Assistant Fntomologist
E. D. Harris, Jr., Assistant Entomologist
D. S. Harrison, Assistant Agricultural Engineer
J. R. Orsenigo, Assistant Horticulturist
H. E, Ray, Assistant Soils Chemist
J. N, Simons, Assistant Virolorist
F. E. Van Nostran, Assistant ''l.Int Pathologist
J. P, Uinfree, Assistant Soils Chemist
E. A. .olf, Associate Horticulturist




EES
200




-19..
REPORT TO "ORK CONFERENCE ON VEGETABLE RESEARCH
Orlando, Florida, September 25-26, 1957

INDIAN RIVER FIELD LABORATORY
Fort Pierce, Florida


Vegetable Research Program, 1957-58


TOMATOES


BDeedLng and'variety trials--Although multiple disease resistance is a major
goal in this work, improved quality and yield are also important factors, Mcst'
of the studies are conducted on a cooperative basis with the Gulf Coast Experiment
Station, Bra .tentone This laboratory also participates in the Southern Tomato
Exchange Proam. Unstaked mature green and staked or trellis pink trials are
conducted each fall and spring. Some of the more advanced lines are tested on
commercial tomato farms.

The need for improved disease resistant tomatoes is urgent, M3iany tomato
growers who have farmed virgin soil for many years are faced with the necessity
of repeating tomatoes on the same soil. Soil. and foliar disease problems will be
greater on these "old" tomato soils, Any disease which can be eliminated through
breeding will be an important aid to growers'on these old soils. Disease resis-
tant tomatoes are also needed on virgin soil, more so today than ever before. It
is possible o have late blight, rXtryt~s, gray leaf spot and bacterial spot
threatening a tomato crop at the same time. This was the case in the spring'of
1957. The chemicals needed to control these diseases are (1) maneb or zineb,
(2) dichlone or ferbam, (3) copper and (I) streptomycin. while e some combination
sprays are possible, others will cause plant injury or are not otherwise compati-
ble, and any mixture is expensive. The elimination of gray leaf spot alone would
be an aid in simplifying the spray program.

L.ith the development of the vine-ripened tomato market, the need for crack
resistance, firmness and slow ripening characteristics in tomatoes has incren.ad.

Fertility trials--Studies are made in cooperation with the Soils Chemis-ty
Section of the Everglades Station. One major factor in present trials is an
effort to reduce losses of fertilizer, especially N and K, through leaching. The
experiments are designed to evaluate differential methods of applications, times'
of application and sources of nutrients. One season's data has been accumulated,
and another season is underway. Supplementary studies of the movement of N and K
during rains are being made.

Foliar sprays of major and secondary elements are being tested. Past trials
have shown the value of foliar sprayed N following heavy rains which resulted in
severe leaching and'some root damage. Since it is necessary to spray a tomato
crop 18 to 25 times, the use of foliar sprays may prove to be a practical method
of feeding the crop part of its N requirements, thus reducing the risk of leach-
ing of this element. The place of certain secondary elements such as iron and
molybdenum in tomato production is also being investigated.

The heavy rains, thin sandy soils and the cultural method of growing
tomatoes on high beds result-in a serious leaching problem. Not only is the cash
value of the fertilizer lost, but also yields are reduced due to a deficiency of
nutrients. It may be impossible to replace leached fertilizer by side or top
dressing rapidly enough to prevent a set-back of the crop. In addition, it is
difficult to determine ho much additional fertilizer is needed for nroner




-20-


nutrition as there is no satisfactory way to measure leaching losses precisely in
the field. The aim of the present trials is to obtain data which can be used for
recommending methods to circumvent the serious leaching problem.

Cultural methods--One of the principal goals of the work at the Indian River
Field-i~borator'y is o develop methods which will make tomato production on prev-
ously cropped soils a profitable venture with a minimum of losses. One problem
which often develops is soil rot of the fruit which lay on the ground. In an
effort to eliminate this problem, studies are being carried out on cultural
methods which may protect the fruit from this disease. The use of plastic mulch,
chemically treated organic mulches such as sawdust and hay constitutes part of
this work, Methods of trellising and pruning are also included in the trials
It is hoped that a more economical method may be found which will reduce the unit
cost in producing trellis pinkso

Tomato-;,sture rotation-This work hat been underway since 1950. Many as-
pects of thee o-tation~ ave been worked out, however some important gaps must be
filled before making recommendations for large-scale use of this land-use program.
A major portion of the present work is reported under "Disease Control". Other
projects include a common Bermudagrass control study which entails both chemical
and cultural methods of controlling i.his grass.' Past work has shi'-'that Pangola-
grass is a good competitor for Bermuidagrass and, if managed properly, it wtll
greatly reduce and weaken the stand of Bermudagrass, However, in area where the
common Bermudagrass has developed a heavy sod, the Pa1golagrass cannot become
firmly established. If the Bermudagrass is weakened just prior to a spring
plant, ng of Pangolagrass it can be successfully reduced by meEns of competition
with t:he Pangolagrass.

Additional investigations of nematode species and population trends in the "
tomato-pasture rotation are being made. Pangolagrass, natural weeds and grasses,
and clean' culture are being compared in an experiment established one year agoo
Nematodes, tomato diseases, tomato yields; leaching of nutrients and bed erosion
are factors involved in this trial.

Control of foliar diseases of tomato--Trials will be continued in an atte7:rpt
to improve the control program for te-four major foliar diseases of tomato in cur
area; namely late blight, gray leaf spot, botrytis gray mold and bacterial spoilr
Formulation of a control program has been difficult, since all four diseases can
occur at the same time and different materials have given the best control of
each of these diseases. These difficulties have led to testing combinations of
materials to control these diseases. Future work will include testing such com-
binations of materials for control of the diseases which are expected to be the
most prevalent daring the testing season. In addition, an evaluation of a prac-
tice of changing control programs along with the changing climatic seasons will be
made. More work will be done in evaluating chemicals and combinations of chemicals
for control of each of the foliar diseases as well as soil rot of the fruit,
Promising control programs will be tested further on a field scale on commercial
tomato farms.

Study of soil-borne diseases under tomato-pasture rotations--One of the limit-
ing factors in recommending a veqetabe-pasture rotation is the very little know-
ledge of the effect of such a rotation on soil-borne diseases. !Te have recently
cleared, ditched and diked nine acres of virgin soil which will be used to study
the incidence and severity of soil-borne diseases under several tomato-pasture
rotations. Rotations will be established on artificially infested as well as non-
artificially infested soil. The tomato crops in these rotations will be compared
with tomato crops on virgin soil and on soil continuously cropped to tomatoes.
Of primary interest in this study will be the effect of various pasture grasses




- A"


on the soil-borne diseases of tomatoes, the effect of the number of years between
tomato crops in the tomato-pasture rotation on the soil-borne diseases of toma-
toes and the difference between spring versus fall tomato crops in the rotation
in respect to the same soil-borne diseases.

Work for the coming year vwll consist of raising a tomato crop on the plots
to stimulate old tomato land and the establishing of soil-borne causal organisms
in the artifically infested plots. Experimentation will also be undertaken to
find the best method to determine the incidence of the soil-borne diseases.

Bacterial seed transmission test--The role of tomato seed as a source of
primaY7iinouiu or tEhe bacteri-l sot causal organism has been open to specula-
tion for sons time. It has been reported in literature that Xanthomonas
vesica'oria can be present on the surface of the seed as a conrTEainnt, However,
in recenE yr..rs the practice of allowing seed to remain in the fermenting tomato
juice has controlled some bacterial diseases of tomato. Evidence is needed
as to whether or not the bacterium is commonly present on tomato seed from this
area. In cooperation with Dr. Re A. Conover variously treated seed will be
tested for transmission of bacterial spot.

Soil fumigant trials-Many have asked whether some of the new soil famigants
can be used economica3y on a field scale on old tomato land. ~7ork will be
started in an exploratory nature to evaluate these fumigants for such a use.


POTATOES


Variety and time of planting trials--A small acreage of white potatoes is
grown in the Indian River area. For best market prospects, growers try to plant
early enough to harvest the crop before potatoes at Hastings are din. Potato
chip manufacturers are one of the primary purchasers for these potatoes.

Potato variety and planting date trials have been conducted for several
years, and this study will be continued for at least one more year.

Fertility trials-Rates and methods of applying N and K are being investi-
gated in cooperation with the Soils Section of the Everglades Station. Die to
the nature of the sandy soils and the necessity of high beds, fertilizers are
readily leached during hea-vy rainfall. aajor comparisons are the application of
all N and K-at planting, part at planting and the balance in one sidedressed
application, and the application of extra N and K in one or two sidedressed appli-
cations. One treatment is included without minor elements (Cu, En, Zn, Fe, B,
Mg) to determine the value of these in the fertilizer.

Control of foliar diseases of potatoes--Potato foliage in the Indian River
area has been observed that was diseased with botrytis gray mold. A trial is
planned to test fungicides for the control of this disease and to evaluate the
effect of several foliar sprays on other potato diseases which occur in this area.

Potato seed piece treatment-Some antibiotics have been used advantageously
for potato seed piece treatment. Some of the antibiotics and combinations of
antibiotics and fungicides will be evaluated for their effect on seed piece decay.





-22-


UCUCIBERS


Trellis and nr.lching trial-In an effort to eliminate the belly-rot'problem
on cucumbers, a study has been established using various trellis methods, and
plastic and organic malches. Some of the organic mulches rill be chemically
treated.





-23-
REPORT TO YORK CONFERENCE ON VEGETABLE RESEARCH

Orlando, Florida, September 25-26, 1957


PLANTATION FIELD LABORATORY
Fort Lauderdale, Florida


Program of Vegetable Research, 1957-58



A. Beans:

1. Seeds from the Southern Cooperative Trials will be planted.

2. Advanced breeding lines of Dr. Lorz, Florida Agricultural

Experiment Station, will be observed.

3. Molybdenum and iron experiment on beans will be conducted,

(a) Sprays and soil applications.

4. Urea-formaldehyde and inorganic nitrogen sources will be

compared.


B. Cucumber:

1. Plastic mulch and plastic covering experiments will be con-

ducted to determine their effects in hastening maturity in

winter,


C. Peppers:

1. Nitrogen and potash sidedressing experiment will be conducted.

2. Liming experiment will be repeated.

3. Iron and molybdenum experiment will be conducted.

(a) Spray and soil applications.

4o Urea-formaldehyde and inorganic sources will be tested.

5. Variety trial will be planted.


D. Sweet Corn:

1. Southern Cooperative Trials will be planted.




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