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Title: Grower's handbook
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00090239/00001
 Material Information
Title: Grower's handbook frost service, 1936-1937
Alternate Title: 1936-1937 frost service grower's handbook
Frost service grower's handbook, 1936-1937
Physical Description: 24 p. : ill. ; 16 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Ellison, Eckley S
Federal-State Horticultural Protection Service
Publisher: Chilean Nitrate Educational Bureau, Inc.
Place of Publication: Orlando, Fla.
Publication Date: 1936?
Copyright Date: 1936
 Subjects
Subject: Plants -- Frost protection -- Handbooks, manuals, etc -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: handbook   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: "Compiled by the Federal-State Horticultural Protection Service"--Cover.
Statement of Responsibility: written and prepared by Eckley S. Ellison.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090239
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 309296036

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover 1
        Front cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Main
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Back Cover
        Page 23
        Page 24
Full Text









1936-1937


FROST SERVICE

GROWER'S HANDBOOK
Written and Prepared by
ECKLEY S. ELLISON, Director,
FEDERAL-STATE HORTICULTURAL PROTECTION
SERVICE
Lakeland, Florida





t




Published and distributed by
CHILEAN NITRATE EDUCATIONAL
BUREAU, INC.
ORLANDO, FLORIDA






WEATHER BUREAU FORECAST
STATIONS


STATION
Conway
Fern Park
Phillips
Plymouth
Forest City
Groveland
Fruitland I
Umatilla
Kissimmee
Winter Ha
Lake Ham:
Mammoth
Highland I
Frostproof
Avon Park
Sebring
Fort Meade
Lakeland
Polk City
Valrico
Dade City
Brooksville
Elfers
Wauchula
Arcadia
Sarasota
Ellenton
Parrish

Winter Ga
Sanford
Oviedo
Cornwell
Plant City
Clearwater
Pinellas Pa
Iona
Saline
Fruitville
Oneco


CITRUS STATIONS
COUNTY
Orange
Orange
Orange
Orange
Seminole
Lake
?ark Lake
Lake
Osceola
ven Polk
ilton Polk
Polk
'ark Polk
Polk
Highlands
Highlands
e Polk
Polk
Polk
Hillsborough
Pasco
Pasco
Pasco
Hardee
DeSoto
Sarasota
Manatee
Manatee
TRUCK STATIONS
rden Orange
Seminole
Seminole
Highlands
Hillsborough
Pinellas
rk Pinellas
Lee
Charlotte
Sarasota
Manatee





FROST FORECASTS
All frost forecasts issued by the Horticult-
ural Protection Service at Lakeland are com-
bined into two official bulletins released twice
daily from November 15, 1936 to March 31,
1937. The main bulletin is released in the morn-
ing at 11:00 A. M. and a supplementary bul-
letin in the evening at 9:00 P. M. The morn-
ing temperature bulletin gives warning of im-
pending cold to Florida growers through radio
and press services and commercial telegraph
lines. The evening bulletin is given out chiefly
by radio, telephone and telegraph. The morning
forecast gives full and complete information
while the evening forecast covers only changes
made necessary due to receipt of additional in-
formation of changing weather situations. In-
terested growers should plan to receive both
bulletins.
BULLETINS ARE COMPLETE
Each morning temperature bulletin is divid-
ed into three parts:
1. Weather Descriptions
2. Temperature Forecasts
3. Future Weather Outlook
In the weather descriptions the existing
weather situation is stated in simple non-tech-
nical terms and usually contain the main rea-
son why certain forecasts are to be issued.
Definite minimum temperature forecasts are
issued every time the temperature is expected
to drop to 320 or lower for a number of citrus
and truck stations spread in a network over
Central Florida districts. By naming the low-
est temperature to be reached in each locality
we avoid all indefiniteness since there is no





doubt as to the exact nature of the frost that
is expected to occur.
The future outlook gives the temperature
changes for Central Florida for as far in ad-
vance as it is possible to state them. The out-
look is not expected to have the same high per-
centage of accuracy as the daily temperature
forecasts and is subject to change.
FORECAST ADVICE IS SPECIFIC
Forecasts cover the night interval only. They
begin at 4:00 P. M. and expire at 9:00 A. M.
the following morning unless it is necessary to
extend this period to cover dangerous condi-
tions. Weather changes, wind behavior, and
temperature trends are stated in detail. The
time when the lowest temperature will be
reached and also the time when critical tem-
peratures will begin are stated. In case of no
dangerous temperatures this fact is clearly
stated and minimum temperature forecasts are
omitted. Rain forecasts are not included as
the service covers only frost.
COLD LOCATIONS PICKED FOR
FORECAST STATIONS
The particular stations for which forecasts
are issued are selected with great care. In all
cases they are in the colder parts, if not actu-
ally the coldest part of the area served and
still be representative of considerable local
acreage. Stations in citrus areas have the shel-
ters so arranged that the thermometers are 4/2
feet above the ground. Truck stations are lo-
cated on the ground with the thermometers
about one foot above the surface. Thus the
forecasts are issued for thermometers located
close to the ground in the coldest part of the
area served. Most of the acreage in the vi-
4





cinity will enjoy higher temperatures than that
posted for the forecast station. It is not un-
common to find as much as 200 difference in
temperature between bottom and top of long
hillside slopes. How the forecasts can be
adapted to your own thermometer will be ex-
plained later. Right now it is important you
should clearly understand the forecasts are
made only for certain thermometers placed in
the coldest places.
DISTRIBUTION OF FORECASTS
Several different channels of forecast distri-
bution have been organized so that no one
should experience any difficulty in getting the
bulletins within a short time after they have
been officially released.
RADIO SERVICE
Complete forecast bulletins are telegraphed
to a number of Florida commercial radio sta-
tions and broadcast by them on a prearranged
schedule so they can be obtained at several
different times by tuning the proper station.
PRESS SERVICE
Morning forecast bulletins are telegraphed
by the Associated Press to member newspapers
throughout the State and appear in early after-
noon editions.
RAILROAD TELEGRAPH SERVICE
A short form of the morning bulletin is sent
by wire over the railroad lines of the Atlantic
Coast Line and the Seaboard Railway and are
posted by agents at depots in Agricultural
areas. Arrangements can sometimes be made
with agents to supply information to individ-
uals by telephone.





PRIVATE TELEGRAPH SERVICE ON
BULLETINS
The Postal Telegraph Co. will furnish the
complete bulletins daily on expedited wire ser-
vice to private subscribers at the rate of $7.50
per month for the morning or evening bulletin
or $13.50 per month for both. Make arrange-
ments direct with the telegraph company for
this special rate service.
SPECIAL TELEGRAPH SERVICE
Individuals can obtain special wire service
direct from Lakeland headquarters of the
Horticultural Protection Service by payment of
the wire charges. You can be listed to receive
notice by telegraph collect when frost is fore-
cast for your particular area on application.
TELEPHONE SERVICE
The Lakeland office offers telephone service
at all hours except 8:00 A. M. to 11:00 A. M.
and from 8:00 P. M. to 9:00 P. M. During
these hours the forecasts are being prepared
and your cooperation in reducing traffic will
be appreciated.
FLORIDA RADIO STATIONS BROAD-
CASTING FROST REPORTS
Kilo-
Station-City cycles Watts
WJAX-Jacksonville 900 5000
WRUF-Gainesville 830 5000
WDBO-Orlando 580 1000
WLAK-Lakeland 1310 100
WDAE-Tampa 1220 5000
WFLA-Clearwater 620 5000
WSUN-St. Petersburg 620 5000
WOAM-Miami 560 1000





TIME TABLES OF RADIO BROADCASTS
OF TEMPERATURE BULLETINS


11:00
11:00
12:00
12:00
12:05
12:10
12:15
12:30
12:30
1:30
1:30
4:00
4:30
5:00
5:00
5:30
5:30


WRUF and WLAK repeat bulletins every hour
on the hour when frost is forecast.
WDBO repeats bulletin on frequent schedule
when frost is forecast.


9:15 P.
10:00 P.
11:00 P.
11:00 P.
11:00 P.
11:00 P.
11:05 P.


EVENING BULLETIN
M.-WLAK (Remote control from
M.-WJAX Weather Bureau)
M.-WQAM
M.-WFLA
M.-WSUN
M.-WDAE
M.-WDBO


M.-WLAK (Remote control from
M.-WRUF Weather Bureau)
M.-WRUF
M.-WQAM
M.-WJAX
M.-WDBO (12:30 P. M. on Sun.)
M.-WLAK (Remote control from
M.-WDAE Weather Bureau)
M.-WRUF
M.-WFLA (5:30 P. M. on Sun.)
M.-WSUN (5:30 P. M. on Sun.)
M.-WDAE
M.-WJAX
M.-WRUF
M.-WDBO
M.-WJAX
M.-WQAM




MINIMUM TEMPERATURE FORECASTS
DATE II _
Station











I I I -
____ ____ ____ ___ ___ -
_____________________ ____ ~I~ [1
______________ ___ 7
____ ____ ____ __ ~___




MINIMUM TEMPERATURE FORECASTS
I I [ Y [ 11






I





HOW TO USE FROST FORECASTING
SERVICE
We find it necessary for the protection of the
growers who use the forecasts as a guide in
their grove heating operations to locate each
forecast station in the coldest part of each local
area. If we selected the warmer locations for
our forecast points then we would be forced to
issue "No danger" forecasts on many nights
when damaging cold would be experienced in
the lowlands. Such forecasts not only would
be valueless but actually mislead the growers
into loss of their crops in case they were pre-
pared to protect them. By selecting the cold-
est place for the forecast station the growers
near each station can be reasonably sure that
the temperature in the coldest places in their
own groves will not be lower than the tem-
perature named for the forecast station.
As all practical growers know, there is usu-
ally a considerable difference in temperature
on cold nights between low and high ground
and between exposed and sheltered groves. It
would be impossible to name a single definite
temperature that would fit all the thermometer
stations in the neighborhood of a forecast sta-
tion. When a thermometer is located on the
top of a tall building in the heart of a large
city, or in an exceptionally warm grove loca-
tion, it cannot be used to judge the tempera-
ture conditions in the adjacent frosty low
ground sections. Any practical grower knows
this fact. However, some city wiseacres have
attempted to undermine public confidence in
the Weather Bureau frost forecasts by calling
attention to the inaccuracies of the forecasts
when compared with readings of their own fav-
ored thermometers.





We make no claims of infallability for our
forecasts, since future events are always uncer-
tain, yet it is a matter of public record that the
forecasts issued during the 1935-1936 season,
the first year of our operation in Florida, were
unusually accurate. At the four main forecast
stations covering the key temperature situa-
tions in Central Florida about 127 of the 132
forecasts issued were correct within two de-
grees of the temperature named in the forecast.
FORECASTS ARE EASILY ADAPTED
Minimum temperature forecasts for the cold-
est station in any section can be modified by
the growers in that section to the extent of
forecasting the lowest temperature to be ex-
pected in their own groves and truck gardens,
merely by adding to the forecast station tem-
perature the number of degrees that represents
the difference in temperature that usually ex-
ists between their own thermometer stations
and the forecast station. This difference is de-
termined beforehand by comparing the mini-
mum temperature readings taken on cold
nights from their own thermometers with the
minimum readings at the forecast station on
the same nights. At each forecast station a
record of the lowest temperature readings are
displayed, or these readings can be obtained
from the Weather Bureau field man in your
district. Or, if you choose, mail your readings
to the Lakeland office and we will make the
comparisons for you.
Suppose as a result of such comparison a
grower should find that the temperature at his
own station was, on the average, four degrees
higher than at the forecast station. If a forecast
of 26 is made for the forecast station, this is
changed by adding the warmer four degrees
difference to it, making the adapted forecast
for the private station 300. 11





THERMOMETERS MUST BE SHELTERED
All thermometers used in outdoor work must
be properly sheltered. This is highly import-
ant. Unsheltered thermometers, regardless of
how accurate or costly such instruments may
be, will not indicate the true free air tempera-
ture. Thermometers exposed in the open with-
out shelter indicate nothing except the temper-
ature of the thermometer itself, which temper-
ature varies for each instrument depending
chiefly upon the materials used in its construc-
tion. This is due to the fact that objects ex-
posed to radiation effects lose heat at night at
differing rates. Dark colored objects radiate
heat faster than bright shiny objects and by
the introduction of variable expansion and con-
traction rates in different parts of the ther-
mometer, incorrect temperatures are secured.
We have found some unsheltered thermome-
ters to be as much as 8 degrees colder than
sheltered thermometers of the same kind
placed alongside, although all the thermome-
ters proved to be accurate in the laboratory
brine tests.
KIND OF THERMOMETERS TO USE
As a result of many years of experience it
has been found that thermometers for farm
use during the winter frost season should pos-
sess many distinct features. In order to in-
corporate all of these features in a single in-
strument some manufacturers have prepared
for the trade a thermometer designed especial-
ly t, meet the Weather Bureau specifications:
1. Accuracy within V2 degree.
2. Quick acting unbleachable red spirit in
tube.
3. Sturdy, large size index for easy reading.
4. Wide smooth bore in seasoned glass.
12





5. Graduated in degrees, with degree marks
engraved in the glass stem.
6. Short range to provide open scale so
fractional degrees can be easily read.
7. Large overflow bulb.
8. Sturdy construction.
9. Low Cost.
Thermometers conforming to these specifica-
tions can be obtained in Florida for less than
$3.00 for single instruments and less than $2.50
for lots of 12 or more. For further informa-
tion write the Weather Bureau, Lakeland.
SIMPLE THERMOMETER SHELTER
Sheltering a thermometer for night use sim-
ply means placing a board over the top of the
instrument to screen it from the sky. When
this is done the false temperature registered as
a result of radiation of heat to the sky are
avoided and the thermometer indicates the
temperature of the surrounding air. It is true
that the exposed parts of the tree and of ground
plants are not shielded from radiation effects;
however, the leaves afford shelter and much
fruit is protected by leaf screens. It is true,
also, that an unsheltered thermometer will not
correctly indicate the temperature of the un-
sheltered fruit. Specifications for a practical
thermometer shelter that costs little or nothing
to make are included in this booklet.
GROVE TEMPERATURE RECORDS
In the pages next following, forms have been
provided which make the keeping of tempera-
ture records from your own thermometers an
easy matter. Space has been provided for the
records from three thermometers during the
entire winter season. At the end of the season
file the book away for future reference.








THERMOMETER SHELTER


FRONT VIEW


SIDE VIEW
Io'* -*





Specifications and instructions for building
thermometer shelter pictured on opposite page.


Bill of Materials:

One post-2"x4"x6' Cypress or pine sur-
One back-1"x6"x16" faced four sides and
One top-l"xl0"xl6" painted with two coats
Two blocks-Cut di- outside white lead
agnally from corner paint. Post is creo-
to corner from one
piece 1"xl0"x16". soted at bottom.

Assembly
Nail triangular end blocks to back and fit top
into place to complete thermometer shelter. If
the minimum thermometer swings bulb up-
wards for setting, it will be necessary to hinge
the top; otherwise the top can be nailed rigid-
ly in place. Fasten this shelter on post at top.
Make slanting cut on post at top so that rain
water may drain off. Insert post into ground
so that the bulb of the thermometer is 4Y2
feet above ground. Face the open side of the
shelter towards the north. Mount the mini-
mum thermometer on the back of the shelter
so that the bulb end is about one inch lower
than the top end. Place the shelter in the open
between tree rows and away from grove heat-
ers. Use flashlight for night reading.
15




Station ---------------- Year .....-.....
| Minimum Temperature Readings
DATE) Nov. I Dec. I Jan. I Feb. I Mar.

1__
2
34
4
5
6
7
8
9
10T
11
12
13
14
15
I I I I




Station _---.------


I MinimumTemperatureReadings
DATEI Nov. I Dec. IJan. IFeb. IMar.
16 1


18 -
19 1
20


22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30 -
31 _____ _____1_____1____ _____


-..------ --- Year .-------.-




Station----- ---------------- Year.....
Minimum Temperature Readings
DATEI Nov. | Dec. | Jan. Feb. | Mar.


2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
3- ( ______I ____
4) ___ 1 __ ___ ____


S___I _____ _____


__ _________ 1 ____







13
14 _
15 ________________I________




Station ---------------------------------Year........--------
I Minimum Temperature Readings
DATE [ Nov. IDec. I Jan. I Feb. I Mar.
16
17 1


19 1
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
.29
30 -
2031 ___ ____ ___ ____ ____




Station ..--.--..----------------.. Year.--------.
Minimum Temperature Readings
DATE Nov. Dec. | Jan. [ Feb. Mar.

11
2
3
4
5
6
7

8
9
10

11
12
13
14_
15_
i-




Station


Year


I Minimum Temperature Readings
DATE1 Nov. jDec. I Jan. I-Feb. IMar.

16 _
17 __

18 1
19 _
20 ___ ___ ____ ____
21 _


23
24
25 _
26 _
27
28 J
29 ____ ____ ___ _ ____
30I
301 ___I____ ___ ___





MEMORANDUM










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