January 6, 1944
REPORT OF COMMITTEE OX POST-WAR PLANNING FOR FLORIDA AGRICUTLTUTE TO THE
FLORIDA STATE PIAl^INHG BOARD-
Planning for improvement in the uses made of Florida's 34,727,680 acres of
land is perhaps the key problem in a post-war program for the State. Products from
Florida's farms, groves, livestock ranches, and forests have been in the past its
leading sources of income. Effective measures should be taken to conserve these
natural resources, to plan for the efficient production of those commodities for
which our State has the greatest natural advantages, and for the further utiliza-
tion of the raw products through manufacturing and industrial plants to be located
in this State where practicable.
A brief picture of the trend of Florida land use for agricultural purposes
for the past 30 years is shown in appendix table 1. The percentage of the total
land area in farms increased from 15 in 1910 to 24 in 1940. The average size of
farms increased from 105 to 134 acres during the same period. This tendency in
size increase was interrupted by the Florida land boom of the mid 1920's and the
depression period of the early 1930's. Although the proportion of the are- of
total Florida land represented by harvested crops is gradually increasing, it
amounted to but 4.8 percent in 1940, compared with 18.6 percent for the 5 South-
eastern States and 16.9 percent for the United States. The proportion of the total
land area available for crops was 8.2, 26.6, and 27.8 for Florida, the 5 South-
eastern States, and the United States, respectively, in 1940. Approximately one-
third of the Florida land in farms is available for crops in comparison with one-
half for the entire nation.
;j The Post-war Planning Committee of the College of Agriciuture follows:
H. Harold Hume, Provost and Dean of the College of Agriculture )
Harold Mowry, Director, Agricultur.al Experiment Station ) ex-officio
L. 0. Gratz, Assistant Director, Agricultural Experiment Station)
A. P. Spencer, Director, Agriciltural Extension Service )
C. M. Hampson, Extension Economist, Agricult-url Extension Service ) co-
C. V. Noble, AgricAltural Economist, Agricultural Exp-riment Station ) chairmen
J. Wayne Reitz, Prof. of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture)
J. T. Creighton, Professor of Entomology, College of Agriculture
R. B. French, Associate Chemist, Agricultural Experiment Station
F. H. Hull, Agronomist, Agricultural Experiment Station
F. S. Jamison, Truck Horticulturist, Agricultural Experiment Station
H. S. Newins, Director, School of ?orestry
L. T. Nieland, Farm Forester, Agricu.ltur-.l extensionn Service
Frazier Rogers, Professor of Agricultur.al Engineering, College of Agriculture
A. L, She.ly, Animal Industri:-list, Agricultural Experiment Station
F. 3. Smith, Professor of Soils, College of agriculturee
W. B. Tisd.le, Plant Pathologist, agricultural Experiment Station.
Many other members of the Teaching, Experiment Station and Extension Service
Divisions of the College of agriculture assisted in the '-ork. Contributions
were made also by members of Branch Experiment Stations.
Many of the specific recommendations came from cooDerating agricultural agencies
in Florida, namely: The Agricultural Adjustment Agency, the Florida State Plant
Board, the Soil Conservation Service and the Federal Agricultural Research
Appendix tables 2, 3, and 4 were compiled from forms 1, 2, and 3, respectively,
of the National Maximum Wartime Production Capacity Study, summarized'in September,
1943. These data furnished the background for post-war crop and livestock recommen-
dations made in this report.
The principal type of farming areas in Florida are indicated in figure 1.
Only small acreages of commercial cropland are located in areas 4 7nd 5 as outlined
in this map.
The relative importance of commercial agricultural, horticultural, and live-
stock commodities can well be brought out by the cash farm income derived from each
commodity over a period of years. This information is given in appendix table 5.
The total cash farm income more than doubled during the eight-year period beginning
with 1935 and in 1942 amounted to $202,570,000 for the State. C sh income from all
crops including government payments represented 81 percent of the total during the
eight-year period with 19 percent coming from livestock and livestock products.
The citrus crop was accountable for 34 percent, and all truck crops including white
potatoes and strawberries made up Pn additional 32 percent of the total farm cash
income. In other words, approximately two-thirds of the farm cash income in Florida
is derived from citrus fruits and winter truck crops.
Before the specific recommendations of the College of Agriculture staff are
outlined, it would be well to formulate the specific aim for agricultural develop-
ment work in Florida. This a.im should be to r-aise the standard of living of all
persons engaged in agriculture, horticulture, livestock ranching and forestry by
an intelligent increase in production of all products and provision for extension
of markets. This world in turn benefit ll other rcside-ts of the State by making
food and fiber commodities more readily available -lnd by increasing the purchasing
power of rural populations for non-agricultural products.
Two general recoi.ie:idtions arec suggested which vould lead to the eccom-
plishment of the propo:-ed aim:
1. The 1940 Census clhi-sifies 40 percent of tl, farms of the State as mere
subsistence units which indicates that in many instances Florida. farm businesses
are too sme.ll for efficient op ratior. Every effort should be made to increase the
size of th.,se ,arn business units and to decrease the number of subsistence
2. For those subsistence far:e.rs who are not properly equipped to operate
an efficient farm unit and who cannot be readily absorbed into non-farming indus-
tries, a greatly increased "live .t home" program should be encouraged (5A).
A sumTary of the specific recommendations of the College of Agriculture staff
is made by subject-matter groups. Most of the recotmmendations carry reference num-
bers to the more detailed memoranda submitted by staff workers. These memoranda
are included in the appendix.
SOILS A.D SOIL COSEaVATION, I1.CLULTDIj WATER CONTROL
1. Ccnpletion of detailed soil survey of the State at the earliest practicable
2/ Numbers in parenthesis ( ) refer to the detailed nemora-nda in the appendix.
1 CITRUS- CENTRAL FLORIDA S FLATW
SECTION- CONSIDERABLE TRUCK \ :
1-A CITRUS RIDGE SECTION SOME TRUCK 3-E
1-B CTRUS INDIAN RIVER SECTION SOME TRUCK
2 TRUCK -HASTINGS POTATOES
TRUCK SANFORD CELERY
2-BTRUCK PLANT CITY STRAWBERRIES SOME CITRUS
2 TRUCK TOMATOES & CELERY SOME CITRUS
2D TRUCK SOME CITRUS
2-TRUCK TOMATOES & BEANS
2 "TRUCK -SOME SUGAR CANE
STRUCK TOMATOES, BEANS, PEPPERS, POTATOES --- - -
S GENERAL FARMING COTTON
A GENERAL FARMING SHADE TOBACCO
GENERAL FARMING COTTON A FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
GENERAL FARMING SOME TRUCK ,\
3- GENERAL FARMING WATERMELONS & CUCUMBERS
-EGENERAL FARMING TRUCK & SOME CITRUS
GENERAL FARMING STRAWBERRIES TRUCK SOME CITRUS
4 DAIRY L POULTRY SMALLER AREAS ADJACENT TO ALL OTHER
OF THE LARGER CITIES
= 5 LITTLE AGRICULTURE FOREST, CUTOVER LAND OPEN RANGE
GRAZING FOR CATTLE AND HOGS
Fig. 1.-Tentative type of farming areas in Florida. (Map prepared by
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Florida Agricultural
2. A continued and enlarged soil and water conservation educational and extension
program (6, 23).
3. Augmentation of soils research, particularly in the correction of soils of low
productivity through the use of the proper "trace" elements (6).
4. Continuation of conservation research in the Everglades (7).
5. An effective soils extension program (6).
A. Field and Pasture Orops
1. Crops best adapted and those designed to better soil productivity through
erosion control and soil enrichment should be used (8).
2. Corn acreage can probably remain near normal. Yields can be increased
by greater use of hybrid .nd other improved seed, as well as wider use
of fertilizer, cover and green manure crops. Late February and March
plantings should be encouraged (8).
3. Peanut acreage is now over-expanded to p.id in oil production for the war
effort. Soils are being depleted temporarily by this crop expansion, but
after the war the .creage should be decreased to where a proper balance
of various crcp acreages, by devoting land to dug peanuts once in three
years, will offer opportunity to maintain soil productivity (8).
4. Flue-cured tobacco acreage could be increased if warranted by demand.
Large ncrea'ges are suitSble for this crop in Florida (8).
5. Wrapper (Shade) and Binder (Sun) tobacco acreages should probably remain
6. The oat acreage should bo increased, This crop can be widely used for
grazing, hay, grain, and cover .nd soil erosion control. With the
development of rust-resistant varieties of oats particularly adapted
to Florida conditions, every effort should be used to increase seed
supplies to meet planting needs (8).
7. Sea Island cotton acrenge is raidly decreasing. The present different .
tial in price over upland cotton does not warrant its continued produc-
tion. A higher price differential or more effective means through
research of lowering the cost of production may check the disappearance
of this crop (8).
8. Upland cotton should continue as an important cash crop for northwestern
Florida. Use of pure seed of adapted, longer-fibered varieties should
be greatly encouraged (8).
9. Wider use of high yielding, mosaic resistant varieties of sugarcane for
sugar, syrup and. forage purposes should be encouraged. The possibilities
of sugarcane as part of the winter ration for cattle are encouraging and
should be given further study (8).
10. Florirda climate is conducive to and. its soils are in need of cover and
green manure crops. Their use should be encouraged and. every effort
made to find new and more satisfactory crops for both summer and winter
11. Cheap and abundant forage is essential to livestock development. Wise
use of those forage crops best suited to individual needs is imperative(8).
12. Cheap, abundant, nutritious pasturage is the foundation of a livestock
industry. The wisest use of our native pastures in conjunction with
improved pastures needs to be more carefully determined (8).
1. Great caution should be exercised in any new plantings in the light of
the present high production and prospects for greatly increased produc-
tion from present plantings. Consumer purchasing power is not likely to
remain so high in the post-war period as at the present time (9, 10).
2. New markets must be established for both fresh and processed fruit. The
quality of processed fruit must be improved and n~w' by-product outlets
found (9, 10, 16, 23).
3. Careful scrutiny should be given to maturity laws, making them meaning-
ful in realeasi-g only quality fruit (9).
4. Increased research in thr control of fruit rots in the marketing process
by studies of:
(a) Diseases causing rots
(b) Methods of packaging
(c) Preservation methods during transportation. (10).
5. Continuation end expansion of cost of production research (9).
6. Continuation and expansion of costs from tree to car research (9, 16).
b. Vegetables, flower, ornamentals and other horticultural crops
1. Investigate possibilities of economic development of highly perishable,
high valued flowers, ornamental plants, fruits and vegetables for air
transportation (11, 16, 23).
2. Investigate possibilities of economic development of greenhouses in
Florida in competition with other areas having higher heating and other
3. There is opportunity in Florida for a greatly increased production of
flowers of various kinds to be marketed Ps cut-flowers to the tourist
trade. This branch of horticulture should receive attention.
4. Preservation of Florida fruits and vegetables for "off season" use in
5. Development of new varieties well adapted to each particular production
6. Continued research to improve quality of all products (11).
7. Continued and expanded research in costs of production, harvesting and
marketing (11, 16).
8. Extension horticulturists are essential to convey research findings
clearly and quickly to industry involved (1).
1. Research in transportation of agricultural products by rail, boat, motor
truck and air. These studies should reveal comparative costs, advan-
tages and disadvantages of each transportation method. (10, 11, 16)
2. Continued crop improvement through the introduction of new species and
varieties, breeding improved types, and the setting up of an organiza-
tion for the production and maintenance of supplies of improved seed
(8, 11, 23).
3. Explore possibilities for the processing of more citrus fruits and
vegetables, together with new by-products from same (11).
4. Continued research in the introduction, production, processing and local
manufacture of fiber and other industrial crops nnd their utilization(ll).
5. Continued research to determine the nutrient requirements of our crops
as grown under different soil, climatic nnd management environment (8,
6. Careful studies of soils and other land-use problems in advance of
plantings to avoid unwarranted losses (11).
7. Continued research on methods to increase nutritional value of food and
feed commodities (11).
ANIMALS AND ANIMAL PRLUDUCTS
A. Beef Cattle
1. Expansion should be encouraged in definite relationship to increased
carrying capn-city of pastures and the production of supplementary
2. Continued research on improved pasture development (12).
3. A systematic pasture maintenance program (12).
4. Research in controlled woods burning, advantageous to pasture and to
forestry (12, 13),
5. A program of water control in flatwoods areas (12).
6. Continued research in winterr feeding (12).
B. Dairy Cattle and Dairy Industry
1. An increase in milk and milk products is needed throughout the State for
better nutrition of the entire population (12).
2. An increase in dairy cattle for home milk supply and for sale of cows
as replacements in commercial dairies (12).
3. Investigations to determine the maximum use of pastures for economical
milk production (12).
4. Research on the use of more home-grown feeds and Florida by-products for
dairy cattle (12).
5. Increase the number of superior purebred dairy cattle as locaL sources
of good breeding stock, and encourage expansion of official Herd
Improvement Registry and Dairy Herd Improvement Association production
records with the respective breeds and in commercial dairies (12).
6. Establishment of essential by-product plants, especially in general farm-
ing areas, to take care of all milk not required as fresh milk and
7. A continued .nd expanded dairy extension program, to include extension
service to dairy manufacturing plants and frnrms regarding processing
problems (12, 16).
1. Expansion should be encouraged in keeping with the local feed supplies.
2. Continued research and extension of sound feeding programs (12).
3. Plan feed production schedule to enable a wider marketing season for
4. Program to save more of the pigs that are furrowed (12).
1. Development of an improved poultry and egF marketing program (12).
2. Research in the local production and manufacture of feed and feed-stuffs
for Florida poultry industry (12).
3. Continued research in pastures and green feeds for poultry (12).
4. Research in commercial broiler production (12).
5. Development of commercial chick industry for Florida and Latin America
(12 and 23).
1. Continued research in improved breeding of all classes of livestock (12),
2. Continued and exppaniod research in proper animal nutrition (12).
3. Continued and expanded research and control methods for internal and
external parasites and livestock diseases (12).
4. Develop adequate cold storage facilities for the preservation of live-
stock and livestock products.
FORESTRY Note: It is understood that the Florida Forest ?nd Park Service is sub-
mitting separate memoranda concerning Forestry.
1. A continued and greatly expanded program for the protection of Florida
forests from fire (13).
2. Promote conditions conducive to effective natural reforestation (13).
3. Artificial reforestation should be encouraged on all lands best suited
to forestry and not subject to natural methods (13).
4. Encourage the expansion of State-owned forest and park land (13).
5. Encourage the expansion of Federal-owned forest and park land in forest
problem areas (13).
6. Encourage the development of county, municipal and other local units of
forests and p-rks (13).
7. Welcome Federal cooperation in all forestry programs (13),
8. Make a thorough investigation of forest taxation (13)..
9. Cooperative endeavor in collective bargaining and marketing of forest
10. A thorough forest research program by:
a. Federal agencies
b. State agencies
c. Florid" School of Forestry
(1) In silviculture
(2) In forest economics and utilization
(3) In wood technology and timber physics (13).
11. Educational work in forestry should be encouraged by:
a. Amending State Law, Chapter 6837 (No. 31), to empower county
commissioners to vote scholarship funds for scholarship in agri-
culture or forestry (13).
b. Offering ,: course in vocational forestry in high schools in
counties where forestry is important (13).
c. Activation of the quail hatchery on the Welaka Wildlife Forest(3).
12. A three-point forestry extension program
a. Timber growing
c. Game production (13).
1. By continued research, develop suitable plant varieties which are highly
resistant to parasitic diseases and insects (14).
2. Encouragement of seed treatment at source or before planting against
seed and soil borne diseases for all crops showing benefit therefrom.
3. Encourage the establishment of farmer cooperatives for the purchase and
use of efficient spraying and dusting machinery (14).
4. Increase appropriations with reduced restrictions so that research can
be coordinated and shifts made to now problems as needs arise (14).
5. Provide funds for two or more extension pathologists to convey research
findings accurately to growers and to demonstrate their practical appli-
1. Inaugurate research in medical entomology (15).
2. Control pests of medical importance (15).
3. Continued research and education for the protection of agricultural crops
and livestock against insects.
MARKETIDG Note: This section has been discussed with members of the Florida
State Marketing Bureau and the State Department of Markets.
Many of the recommendations herein will undoubtedly be found
also in their respective memoranda.
1. Revisions of standardization and grades for all agricultural products
to make them more meaningful to consumers (16).
2. Reasonable standardization of shipping containers (16).
3. Continued and expanded research in methods of handling all perishable
commodities, including coloring, wrapping, packaging, precooling, and
4. Investigation looking toward the elimination of state ond municipal
trade barriers (16)..
5. Investigate the possibilities of cooperative purchasing of farm and
grove supplies, such as feed, seed, fertilizer and spray materials (16).
6. Continued research to improve the services rendered by cooperative mar-
keting organizations (16).
7. Use to be made of government-owned or sponsored processing plants after
the war (16)?
8. Consumer preference studies covering specific Florida citrus and vege-
table commodities in competition with fruits and vegetables produced
9. An economic survey of Florida livestock auction markets (16).
10. A survey of Florida milk, butter, cheese, and icecream markets (12, 16).
11. Marketing efficiency studies of Florida's leading vegetable crops,
similar to those already made for citrus (16).
12. Establish local industries for food, feed, forest, and other products
where economically feasible.
13. Expand foreign markets for Florida agricultural products, particularly
in view of the improved methods of preservation ,nd transportation which
will be available.
14. Expand personnel for research and extension to insure healthy progress
with marketing program (16).
1. Plan for properly absorbing Florida farm veterans and ex-defense workers
into Florida enterprises (17).
2. Encourage producer organization for the procurement of labor (17).
3. Encourage producer furnishing of suitable quarters for labor (17).
4. Promote and support an efficient government employment service (17).
5. Continuous research and educational work on farm labor (17).
1. A study of the present tenancy situation (18).
2. Careful evaluation of present tonant-purchase plan (18).
3. Examine legal aspects of landlord-tenant relations, and increased educa-
tional work leading to wider use of written leases (18).
4. Determine opportunities for agricultural settlement following the war:
a. Final disposal of military lands, if for agricultural use, to be
made only upon-the approval of some recognized agricultural
b. No free or cheap land grants to ex-service men or women as com-
pensation for their services (18).
1. Inaugurate research and extension work in:
a. Suitable farm buildings, fences and other structures
b. Possibilities of air conditioning
c. Proper water supply and sanitation systems
d. Proper systems of drainage and irrigation
e. Rural electrification in all of its phases, including telephones.
f. Suitable farm power and machinery
g. Adequate cold storage and locker plants
h. Suitable farm to market roads (19, 23).
AGRI CULTURAL CREDIT
1. Consolidation of government lending agencies:
a. Short-term loans
b. Mortgage loans (20).
2. Encourage farmers to use only legitimate credit agencies (20).
3. Encourage the establishment of reserves in gcod years as a basis for
credit in bad years (20).
4. A uniform and less expensive method for transferring property titles(20).
5. Develop special types of credit for specific purposes. Example, for
the development of forest lands (20).
1. Greatly enlarge upon research and extension already begun to:
a. Study nutritive status of rural people.
b. Raise the level of hunan nutrition (21).
2. Introduce nutritional teaching and demonstration in the public schools.
1. Inaugurate research and extension wcrk in:
a. Making the farm a home as well as a business establishment
b. Survey of the public agencies and organizations serving farm
population, as to their adequacy and efficiency.
- . r
1. Full support to the State Plant Pcard in its program seeking to prevent
entry into ani dissemination within the State of destructive plant
pests (22, 23).
2. Urge the Bureau of Entonclogy and Plant quarantine, United States
Department of Agriculture, to strengthen its foreign plant quarantine
policy in order to prevent entry of additional foreign plant pests (22).
3. Full support to the Bureau of Entcmology and Plant Quarantine by inter-
ested State agencies to the end that adequate funds for the enforcement
of foreign plant quarantines be forthcoming (22).
4. Petition the Secretary of the United States Treasury, in charge of
Customs Service, to give careful consideration to the question of plant
post risk before designating interior cities as ports of entry for
foreign connerce (22).
5. Hold, if possible, the real progress already naRe under the direction
of specific Federaplly appointed agencies. This will mean snme type of
program for stabilization to prevent chaotic cor.nitions when the slump
in agricultural prices takes place (23).
6, Inaugurate a program of gr-.at magnitude to stock and improve fishing
in our fresh-water strear.s and Ilkes and to protect the salt water fish-
ing. This is to encourage a gocd tourist business and thereby draw
money from ether places and furnish an added nmrket locally for Florida
farm products (23).
7. Avoid any farm real estate boom, promotion or hi_.h pressure development
of agricultural resources and production (23).
EDUCATION, RESEARCH AND EXTENSION WORK
1. Provide e minimum of one adequately trained teacher of vocational agri-
culture in each of the high schools where the work is being offered at
the present time (24).
2. Extend the vocational teaching program to .ll other high schools in the
State where it is needed as rapidly as funds and teaching personnel
will permit (24).
3. Continue to bring to the attention of all Boards cf County Commissioners
in the State of Florida the provisions of Chapter 6837 (No. 31)
authorizing county agricultural college scholarships (24).
4. A restatement or revision of the above mentioned Act is recommended(13,
5. An increased number of college scholarships for outstanding rural boys
and girls who have demonstrated their wcrth as prospective college
6. Facilities frr an enlarged program of 4-H Club work in order to reach
more farm youth (24).
7. Maintain an enlarged agricultural research program, adequately financed
and well coordinated (23).
8. Maintain an enlarged agricultural extension program to convey to growers,
farmers and livestock ranchers the results cf research. Emphasis should
be placed upon adequate aid to county and hone denonstraticn agents who
are greatly overburdened.
9. An adequate building improvements pro;r?.n for agriculture for the
University of Florida (24).
10. Adequate finances for personnel and facilities to carry out the program
CVT: h 1-8-43
Ag.iEcon., Exp.Sta. 200