Title: Range Cattle Experiment Station Animal Science Workers Meeting, October 5-6, 1967, summary of new research projects
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00090236/00001
 Material Information
Title: Range Cattle Experiment Station Animal Science Workers Meeting, October 5-6, 1967, summary of new research projects
Series Title: Range Cattle Experiment Station Animal Science Workers Meeting, October 5-6, 1967, summary of new research projects.
Alternate Title: Summary of new research projects Range Cattle Experiment Station Animal Science Workers Meeting, October 5-6, 1967
Physical Description: 23 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Range Cattle Experiment Station
Publisher: University of Florida
Range Cattle Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Ona, Fla.
Publication Date: 1967?
Subject: Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Pastures -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Coordinates: 27.393449 x -81.934452
Summary: Describes the projects done at the Range Cattle Experiment Station including the title of the project, the leaders, the cooperators, the duration of the project, the object, and the method of procedure.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090236
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 309850150

Full Text

October 5-6, 1. -'7

Summary of N'ew Research Projects

Title: Urea in Cattle Finishing actions,, /


,, G, Kirk and H. L Chapman, Jr

Cooperators; A- Z, Palmer,. R L, Shirley, and
J. E, .lMoore,

Duration: 3 years,

Object: Determine the amount of urea that can be used to
furnish supplemental nitrogen in cattle fati'e:n,- rations on
pasture and in dr1!ot

methodd of Procedure: Initial trials will include four lots of
8 to 10 steers each fed for 140 days both on pasture and
in drylot Tne four lots on pasture will be fed a limited
amount of mixed feed for 112 days and full fed for the
last 28 days while the four lots in drylot will be full fed
for 140 days, Brahman and English cross steers will be
used, divided uniformly between treatments as to age,
breeding, weight, and grade. The feed mixture for
the initial investigation will have the following composition:


28-day periods
1st 2nd 3rd

4th 5th

Citrus pulpl/ 50 50 50 50 50
Cottonseed huals 30 25 20 15 10
Corn meal 5 10 15 20 25
Protein supplement 15 15 15 15 15

I/ Citrus pulp used will contain about 80% pulp and
20% molasses,


I:)j ~7

_I__ --1~-~-~----1~-1 1_11__~

i~6-:~ G~Y

The amount of citrus pulp and protein supplement in the
mixture will be held constant while the ene y content will
be increased during the experiment by adjusting the
amount of cottonseed hulls and corn meal. In addition
2 pounds of pangolagrass hay will be fed to the steers
in drylot Cattle will have free access to the Ona
mineral mixture.,

Cottonseed meal and urea levels in the experimental
rations ..;:' be adjusted in the protein supplement, which
will have the following composition:

Treatment rnunber
2 3


Cottonseed meal, 41%
Urea (26. .)
Corn meal
A!f .-i::J f meal
Defluorinated phosphate
Liquid phosphate./
Common salt
Trace minerals premixd/
Vitamin A premix.4/

2j Liquid phosphate is
known as Poly ".,

77.00 38,50
3 3.,00
15,00 15o00
4,25 4,25
- 0,50
1,75 1,75
1,00 1,00
1.00 1,00



a 10-34-0 fertilizer product

/ Trace mineral premix will be comprised of 50%
modi'ed salt sick mineral, 25% ZnSO4, 15% LAgSO4
and 10% Mn5S04,
4/ Vitamin A premix %',:; contain 9,000 L U.,/lb,

The estimated percentages of the total nitrc .-rn in the
mixed feeds from urea are as follows:




1' 5 (ConK )

26-day _oerods
1 2 3 4 5

2 20 20 19 18 18
3 30 29 28 28 27
40 39 38 36 36

Experimental deta collected will include production, carcas.
and chemical data. This is outlined below:

1 Total anc periodic weight changes,
2 Feed utilization.
3 Change in feeder and slaughter grades.,
4. Proximaee analysis of all feeds and forages.,
5 Intransit shrink.
6.. Carcass weight and percent yield.,
7. Carcass grade, conformation, maturity, degree
of marbling, amount of exterior and inter or fat,
and color and quality of fat and lean tissues.

Chemical determinations will be made in cooperation with
the Animei Mutrition Laboratory and carcass studio;
with the iAeats Laboratory, Animal Science Departi~ent,,

An Economic evaluation of the feeding experiment wil!
be made using ini:ial and final value of the experimental
animals, feed cos' and a daily charge of 10 cen;t per
steer while on the experiment. Experimental date will
be subjected to analyses of variance,

I I 1; (2.

1 l ;. : Salt Tolerance of Pasture Plants,

Leaders: C B, Dantzman, E, M,* Hodges, and J, E.
M C aleb,

Duration: 3 years.

Object: Determine salt tolerance of pasture plants adapted
to south central Florida and test methods of altering
salt concentrations in the soil which affect plant growth.

Method of Procedure: A greenhouse study will be made
starting with pangolagrass planted in pots that are
adapted to maintain a water reservoir and which are
protected from free water evaporation, Pots -will be
filled to 1/2" of top with thoroughly mixed soil, then
planted with grass, A field plot study using clots 10
feet by 10 feet or larger will follow the greenhouse
trials. Each treatment will be replicated five times for
statistical analysis of results.

I, I' elative salt tolerance treatments:

A.. Sodium chloride at 0; 25; 50; 100; 200;
400; 800; 1,600; 3,200; and 6,400 ppm
applied in irrigation water. Forage will
be harvested at one-month intervals, An
application of 200 pounds per acre of 10-52.0
will be made after each harvest, A second
trial of sodium chloride treatments bracketing
the toxic level will be selected on the basis
of the toxic level found in the first trial.

E, Effect of high levels, 800 and 6,400 ppm of
sodium chloride will be studied on germination
and growth of seeded and sprigged plants as
follows: before planting, during planting,
during germination, and 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and
32 weeks after germination,

IL. Effect of fertilizer and lime levels on plants at pre-
determined salt concentrations:

A The following plan will be used:

Fertilizer applied after
each harvest lbs/A rate

M P205 K2C



Lime tons/A




I!II. Method of changing salt concentration in soil:

A, Repeat salt treatment described in I-A.
Remove salt solution in reservoir once
per week, flush sod with surface application
of 1-inch of fresh water, drain for one hour,
then replace reservoir to greenhouse pots.

B, Repeat salt treatments in I-A using 10 by
10-foot or larger plots,

IV, Measurements to be made include:

A, Cl, Na, Ca, .Mg, K, P, total dissolved solids.
and pH of the soil at 0 to 2 inches, below 2
inches and of irrigation water.

B, Relative humidity and temperature with a
hygrothermograph or other device,

C, Evaporation rate.

D. Amount of solution used by plants.

E C!, Na, Ca, Mg, K, and P of plant material.


13G1. (Cont.)

_ ~_

131 (Cont. ) V, Observations will include the following:

A. Appearance, color of leaves, vigor and
general plant health, and insect or disease
damage. These will be rated from 1 to 10,
with 10 being the superior quality, vigor,
resistance, etc,,

VI, Design of the experiment and treatment of data
will be determined through consultation with the
Department of Statistics at Gainesville.

1365 Title: Use of Forage Stored in Oxygen-free Structures
in Beef Cattle Production.

Leaders: H, L, Chapman, Jr., J, E. McCaleb, and
E. M. Hodges.

Cooperators: R.E.L. Greene and F, G, .Aartin.

Duration: 3 years

Object: Determine il various oxygen-free structures can
be economically utilized in cattle production in central
and south Floridae

Method of Procedure: Initial experiments under this project
will have two purposes. Information will be obtained to
compare the performance of cows, weanling calves and
steers that are fed forage from upright oxygen-free
structures wit'i that of similar cattle grazing on pasture.
Secondly upright oxygen-free structures will be compared
with horizontal plastic oxygen free structures for weanling
calves, Treatments for the first experiments are presented

1365 (Cont.) Treatment number Treatment description


1 Pangola pasture + blackstrap molasses,
2 Pangolagrass haylage + blackstrap


1 Pangolagrass haylage from upright
metal structure,
2 Treatment one + supplemental feed.
3 Pangola haylage from horizontal
plastic structure,
4 Treatment three + supplemental feed,,
5 Pangolagrass silage from trench silo.
6 Pangolagrass silage from trench
silo + supplemental feed.


1 Pangola haylage.
2 Pangola haylage + supplemental feed,

Within each experiment the groups will be equal in respect
to breed, se.<, age, weight and grade of animals.
There will be 30 to 35 in each cow group; eight steers
and eight heifers in each calf group; and eight Good or
Choice steers and eight Standard steers in each steer
group. Data collected will include the following:

A. Animal data

1, Weight changes of all animals,
2, Reproductive performance of cows,

Pregnancy rate.
*o Weaning rate,
;, Weaning weight and grade of calves.

S5{, (Confe. ) 3. Carcass evaluation of steers,

a. Intransit shrink.
b, Dressing percent,
c. Cooler shrink.
d. Carcass grade.
e. Color and texture of lean and fat tissue,

4, Feed utilization.

B, Chemical data

1, All experimental feeds will be analyzed,

a, Proximate analysis,
b. Phosphorus and calcium.

An economic evaluation will be made for each study,
Data will be subjected to appropriate statistical analyses,

Subsequent experiments will be based on results obtained
in the first experiments.,

1367 Title: Response of Pangolagrass to Potassium,

Leaders: J. E. McCaleb, C, L. Dantzman, E,, MI
Hodges, and H. L, Chapman, Jr,

Duration: 3 years.

Object: Determine the effect of soil levels of potassium on
yield of vegetation harvested for hay and quality as
measured by animal performance.

Method of Procedure: Two trials will be conducted
simultaneously to determine the effect of three levels
of K20 on forage production and animal performance.
Soil samples will be analyzed by standard laboratory
procedures using 1 0 ', ammonium acetate as extracting
solution and Kcl added in amounts to bring each of three
replicates to 50, 130, and 210 pounds of K20 per acre,
respectively (10%) prior to each fertilization. P205
will be equalized at approximately 30 pounds per acre
(10%) for all treatments, M will be applied at 50 Ib per ac

1367 (Cont,) per application, Soil samples will be taken before each
fertilization in harvested fields and in February and
September in pastures to determine an-ounts of P205
and K20 required to maintain desired levels of these
plant nutrients in the soil. Pastures w1li be fertilized
twice per year at staggered intervals for? each treatment
replication, One pasture of each K20 le'el will be
rejuvenated mechanically approximately Ju-: 1 and
deferred to fall, Treatments will be evaluated as

I, In one trial forage yield will be determine. by number
of pounds o' hay per acre. Approximate.; 10% of
bales will b! sampled for determination of percent t
oven-dry material and proximate analyses.

II. In a second trial animal performance will initially be
determined by grazing three 2.5-acre pasiurcs of
each K20 level, Eight weanling heifer celves as
testers will be placed on each fertilizer treatm-nt in
September and remain until the following S'epte.-ber,
In subsequent years animal groups will be replicated.
This is not possible during the first trial, Ani.nls
will be weighed at a maximum of 28-day intervals to
determine average daily gain and total gain per \cre.
The put-and-take system of grazing management
will be used to utilize forage and provide data on
seasonal carrying capacity, Salt, water and cornp', -e
mineral mixture will be provided for each replication.

Illo Correlation of soil test with forage production will be
through statistical analysis of data provided by
items 1 and 2 and by harvesting vegetation in three
unprotected plots in one pasture of each treatment
at start and end of each grazing period. Visual
estimates will be recorded of percent of ground
covered by F angola in each harvested plot, Forage
analyses will be done under State Project 1369
to determine percent oven-dry forage and proximate
analyses o

IV, Cost will ':e determined for tons of harvested forage,
gain per animal and seasonal animal gain per acre.

V. Data obtained will be analyzed by appropriate statistical


1368 Title: Yearlong Grazing on Grass and Grass-Legume

Leaders: E, M., Hodges, J, E McCaleb, and
H. L. Chapman, Jr.

Duration: 4 years,

Object: Compare the effect of various grass and grass-
legume pastures under yearlong grazing conditions
on beef cattle performance.

Method of Procodure: Grazing trials will include the
following grivss varieties and grass-legume combinations:

1L Pangol:.grass (PI 111,110)
2, Starr bermudagrass (PI 224,152)
3. Slender' digitaria (PI 300,935)
4. Pensacola bahiagrass
5.. Argenrine bahiagrass
6. Parac'ay 22 bahiagrass
7, Pens icola bahiagrass-Hairy indigo
8. Pen .acola bahiagrass-Aeschynonmene
9, Pensacola bahiagrass-Stylosanthes humilis

Each fr rage area will consist of a 10-acre unit.
Bahiar" 'ass will be grazed rotationally in two divisions and
other grasses rolationally in four equal parts, One-fourth
of en:h 10-acre unit will be renovated in June each year,
covering the entire area in four years. Renovated
portions of bahiagrass will be grazed in regular rotation,
gr;.sing of other grass varieties will be deferred four
to 3ight weeks following renovation, One-half of each
g.'ass-legume unit will be managed to emphasize legume
r.,,oduction each yeai. The remaining half of the grass
..rea will be divided and grazed rotationally during the
period of legume establishment and growth, Insect
control measures will be applied to forages when

Grass pastures will be fertilized with equal spring and
fall applications of 12-6-6 to total 100 Ib/A of nitrogen
per acre per year. Retreatment with copper will be
in alternate years at 0.1 unit per acre. Approximate
levels of 2,000 pounds per acre available calcium oxide
and 100 pounds magnesium oxide will be maintained in


Project No.

1368 (Conto) the soil. Legume areas will receive 300 lb/A
0-10-20 (0.5% B203) annually in June with calcium,
magnesium. and copper maintenance additions being
the same as for grass,

Weaned steer calves similar in breeding and conformation,
weighing 400 to 450 pounds will be used as "tester"
animals, 10 head for each treatment. Additional cattle
will be added in periods of rapid forage growth.
Calves will be started on trial Septenber 15 to October
1 and weighed off approximately September 1 of the
following year.

All tester animals will be fed 2 pounds per head
daily of a 20% crude protein 70% TDN supplement
when the lowest quality pasture does not maintain
weight of the calves. Supplementation will be increased
for all groups in case weight loss exceeds an average
of 50 pounds per animal,

Initial feeder and slaughter grade and final slaughter grade
will be recorded for all tester cattle. Individual weights
will be taken every two weeks.

Forage yield estimates will be obtained for each forage
type and treatment. Plots approximately 1.5 x 15 feet
will be mowed at the beginning and end of each monthly
(approximate) grazing cycle, harvested material
weighed and representative samples taken for analytical
purposes as outlined in State Project 1369,

1369 Title: Evaluation of the Nutritional Quality of Forages
Grown on Mineral Soils of South and Central Florida,

Leaders: H. L. Chapman, Jr,, J, E. Moore, J. E
McCaleb, and E M, Hodges.

Duration: 3 years,

Object: Determine the chemical composition of accepted and
new pasture forages and relate composition to beef
cattle production in south and central Florida.


I 3Q~ (Cont;,,)


Method of Procedure: Studies under this project will
be conducted in conjunction and simultaneously with grazing
trials as outlined in State Project 1368, fertilizer
trials (State Project 1367), irrigation studies (State
Project 1366) and possibly with selected forage variety
selections from State Project 1167. Initial investigations
will involve collecting hand plucked forage samples for
chemical analysis before and after the pastures in
State Projects 1366, 1367, and 1368 are grazed.
In addition 5 x 5 caged plots will be harvested at
various stages of plant growth for yield estimates and
for chemical analysis. Ieterminations will include dry
matter, crude protein, crude fiber, ether extract, ash,
cellulose, cell contents and cell-wall constituents,

Subsequent studies may include in vitro studies of
cellulose digestion as well as other chemical constituents.

Data will be subjected to appropriate statistical analysis
to relate chemical analytical results with performance of

Title: Measurement of Elements Deposited from Atmosphere,

Leaders: C. L. Dantzman, Ho L, Breland, and
W, G. Kirk.

Duration: 3 years0

Object: To determine amounts of chlorine, fluorine, iodine
and sulfur brought down from the atmosphere in rainfall.

Method of Procedure: This work will be a survey study
to determine amounts of chlorine, fluorine, iodine,
sulfur and other contaminants brought down from the
atmosphere in rainfall,

Rainfall collection units will be located away from roads,
buildings and farming activity., Rainfall will be caught
in a stainless steel rain-gauge type unit and funnelled into
an acid-washed glass jug. The raincatching unit will
be protected by mounting it in a wooden stand, the top
of which will be covered with plastic screening to keep
out insects and frogs. Hardware cloth of 1/2 inch mesh


Project Mo,

1382 (Cont.) having a portion of the wires cut and bent upward to
provide a spiked surface will be placed over the top
to prevent the perching of birds.

Rainfall collection jugs will be changed at one-month
intervals or sooner during heavy rainfall periods.
The collected rainwater will be stored in a darkened
coldroom (38"F) until analyzed

Samples will be filtered to remove solid materials and
analy: ed for chlorine, fluorine, iodine and sulfur.
Analysis and measurement wij be done with potentiometer
electrodes and/or other equip.nent specific for measuring
each of these elements. Volumes of rainfall collected
at monthly intervals will be us3d for calculating total
arrounts of elements deposited.

7/ 1383 Title: Feed Additives in Beef Cat e Finishing Rations.

Leaders: H, L, Chapman, Jr., J W. Carpenter,
A. C, Warnick, A. Z, Palmer, and F. M. Peacock,

Cooaerators: F, G. Martin.

Duration: 3 years,

Object: Determine the effect of various feed additives on
tne growth and carcass characteris'.cs of steers and
heifers :eing fattened for slaughter

Method of FPocedure: The first materiel to be evaluated
under this project will be melengestrcl acetate (MGA)
with crossbred heifers in drylot, The outline of
experimental treatment is presented below:

Treatment number Treitment description

SControl + .4 mg MAGA/head/daily
3 Contr-l + .4 mg MGA/head/day +
24 ing implanted stilbestrol.,


- I-

Each experimental group will contain 15 yearling heifers
weighing approximately 500 pounds. Allottrent will be
from outcome groups equal in respect to breed, weight
and grade. The heifers will be full-fed a concentrate
feed mixture composed of hominy feed, citrus pulp,
protein source, alfalfa meal, minerals and vitamin A.
In addition 2 pounds of pangolagrass hay will be fed
per head daily. The concentrate: fiber ratio will be
adjusted each 28 days to lower the fiber content.
The feeding period will last approximately 180 days,
Data collected will include chemical analysis of feeds,
weight changes, feed utilization, dressing percent,
characteristics of bone, fat and lean tissue, change in
slaughter grade and anatomical examination of reproductive
organs during the experiment and at post mortem,
The ovaries will be weighed and examined to determine
if ovulation has been inhibited during the feeding period,
Counts and measurements will be made of follicles,
and corpora lutea, Experimental data will be subjected
appropriate statistical analysis.

Subsequent experiments will be based upon results obtained
during the first experiment and the development of other
feed additives that appear to have promise for stimulating
growth of heifers and steers,

_. a,-

Title: Various Phosphorus Compounds for Balancing
the Calcium:Phosphorus (Ca:P) Ratio in Florida-
Produced Cattle Feeds.

Leaders: H. L. Chapman, Jr., R, L. Shirley, and
F, M o Peacock.

Cooperators: F. G. Martin.

Duration: 3 years.

Object: Determine if supplementation of citrus pulp, citrus
molasses and blackstrap molasses with various P materials
to adjust the Ca:P ratio will improve production of beef



Prpiecjtz NQo,

1384 (Cont,) Method of Procedure: The initial study will evaluate the
use of a compound produced by Borden Chemical Co.
containing 10% nitrogen (N) and 15% P, This material
has a fertilizer formula of 10-34-0 and will be referred
to by this terminology in the method of procedure section,
The material will be evaluated with yearling heifers and
mature cows during the initial studies. The experimental
design of the first two experiments will be as follows:

L Use of 10-34-0 in citrus pulp for yearling heifers.

The experimental rations for the first study will be
isonitrogenous and approximately equal in TDN,
Ca, and P content.

nation ingredient Treatment
composition (%) numbers
1 2

Dried citrus pulp 89 82
Cottonseed meal (41%-solvent) 13
10-34-0 (Texas) 8
Dicalcium phosphate 4
Trace mineralized salt 1 1
Calcium carbonate 2

Eighty-four crossbred yearling heifers will be divided into
four equal groups on the basis of weight, grade and
breed, Each treatment will have two groups of heifers,
The groups will be randomly allotted to the experimental
treatment. The cattle will graze pangolagrass pastures
and receive 6 pounds of the experimental ration per
heifer daily,, The cattle will be fed once daily. Water
will be provided by automatic waterers. Pre-
experimental treatment with thiobendazole will be given
for internal parasite control,

Representative samples of experimental rations and
pasture forage will be taken for proximate analysis,
Ca and P determination. Water will be analyzed for
Ca and P.

Data will be subjected to statistical analysis. Subsequent
studies will be based on the results of the initial trial but
will probably include comparisons of various Ca: P ratios
with the same feeds.


1384 (Cont,) I, Evaluation of 10-34-0 as a P source for brood cows.
Studies during the first year will involve determining
palatability of 10-34-0 in water and the efficacy of the
supplemental P in the diet to provide different Ca:P
ratios, The amount that will be given will vary with
the diet. Experimental feeds will have the following
corn position:

Ration ingredient Treatment numbers
composition (%) 1 2

Dried citrus pulp 100 98.5
Urea 262 1.5

Cattle on treatment number 1 will be given 10 grams
of P a day from 10-34-0 from December 1 to May
31 each year and 5 grams of P from the 10-34-0
product during the other 6 months of the year. Ths
P supplement will be administered in the drinking
water. The experiment will last through a minimum
of 3 lactation-gestation periods. Santa Gertrudis,
Charolais. and Brahman cows will be used. The
initial number of cattle on each treatment will be:

Treatment n bumers
1 2

Santa Gertrudis 16 16
Charolais 20 20
Brahman 25 25

Each breed group will be maintained on separate
pastures. As additional numbers of cattle become
available each breed will have 30 animals. The
cattle will be allotted into equal groups on the basis
of weight, breed and relative productivity a.rd the
groups randomly allotted to treatment. They will
graze pangolagrass and will be given 5.0 pounds of
the supplemental feed daily from approximately
December 1 to April 1, Body weights will be obtained
approximately every 13 weeks, Feed, forage and
water samples will be analyzed for P and Ca.
Blood tissue will be analyzed for hemoglobin, hemato-
crit, P and Ca. Experimental data will be subjected
to appropriate statistical analysis.

1385 Title: Supplemental Feeding of Steers and Heifers
on Pasture,

Leaders: H, L. Chapman, Jr,. F., M, Peacock,
E, MAHodges, J, WV. Carpenter, and A. Z. Palmer.

Cooperators: R.E,L. Greene and F, G. Martin,

J duration: 3 years

Object: Evaluate supplemental feeding programsfor steers
and heifers of various quality and breeding being finished
on pasture in central and south Florida.

Method of Procedure: The first experiment to be initiated
in the fall of 1967, will involve the comparison of
various levels of supplemental feed for 700 to 750
pound steers on pangolagrass pastures, as compared
with steers being full fed in drylot. The experimental
design of this experiment is presented below:

Treatment number Level of supplemental feed (% of body wt


1 0,0
2 0,5
3 1.0
4 1,5


5 Full feed

The initial study will have six Good or Choice and
six Standard feeder steers per treatment. Each
treatment groltp will be equal in respect to weight,
grade, breed, and quality. The same supplemental
feed will be fed on pasture and in drylot,

Data collected will include 28-day weights, feed utilization,
feeder-stocker and slaughter grades, intransit weight
loss, dressing percent, evaluation of carcass conformation,
maturity, and quality, color of le an and fat tissue and
yields of retail cuts of beef, All animal weights will be
taken the same time of day. Intransit weight will be
determined by weighing cattle on the truck at the

1.' 5 (Con ,)


experiment station and off the truck at packing house,
Dressing percent will be determined by several
procedures including dividing delivered live weight
into 48.-hour cold carcass weight, Economic evaluations
will be made of each program. These evaluations will
be based on rate of gain, value of carcass when
slaughtered and cost factors involved in each program,
Data will be subjected to appropriate statistical analysis.

Subsequent experiments will involve combinations of
pasture and drylot fattening but the scope of these
experiments will be based upon results of the
initial study.

Title: Post-weaning Management Programs for Beef
Calves in Peninsular Florida,

Leaders: H. L. Chapman, Jr,, F,. M, Peacock, and
R.E, L. Greene.

Cooperators: F, G: Martin.

Duration: 3 years.

Object: Develop economical programs fcr producing
feeder and slaughter steers from weaned calves produced
in Florida,

Method of Procedure: The initial experiment will be
conducted with weanling steers grazing pangolagrass
and receiving various levels of supplemental feed.
The feed mixture will be primarily citrus pulp,
blackstrap or citrus molasses and a protein source,
The experimental outline is presented below:

Treatment number


Level of supplement
(% of body weight)


Project '0o.

1386 (Contc) If negative control animals lose 50 pounds in body weight
enough supplemental feed will be given to prevent
mortalities. Each group will contain 8 animals. The
groups will be equal in regards to grade, weight, age,
and breed. Data collected will include growth data,
feed utilization and proximate analyses of feed and forage.
During the first trial the steers will be kept on pasture
until sold for slaughter at 950 to 1,000 pounds liveweight.
The initial trial will use only one breed. Breed
comparisons will be made in subsequent trials, Drylot
phases of work will not be interjected until the second
or third year of study. The experimental design will
be determined at that time. However, it is tentatively
planned to carry experimental animals to a uniform
weight on pasture, followed by a period in drylot in
which the experimental animals will be carried to a
uniform degree of finish. All data will be subjected to
appropriate statistical analysis.

Economic evaluations will be based on the performance
from weaning to tiL-e the steers go into the feedlot or to
slaughter as well as the relation of the treatment upon
performance of the animals in the feedlot. These
evaluations will be made by comparing rate of gain of
all animals, value of the carcass of animals when
slaughtered and relative expense of each program.

A second experiment will be conducted to evaluate the
utilization of forage store.' under oxygen-free conditions
and fed free choice in conjunction with various levels of
supplemental feed. Details of this experiment may be
slightly modified depending upon results from the first
experiment, Tentative plans are to follow the same
experimental design as for the first experiment. This
will be done in conjunction with State Project 1365.

Subsequent experiments using different forages, supple-
mental feeds and ensiled materials will be based upon
results obtained from the first two experiments.

' -Ci .---- -'-'--- .

Title: Irrigation of Pastures on Peninsular Florida
Flatwoods Soils.

Leaders: J, E McCaleb, J, "M. Myers, C, L.
Dantzman and E M. Hodges,

Cooperators: Department of Agricultural Engineering,
University of Florida.

Duration: 3 years

Object: Determine the effect of ditch-spacing (interval)
and methods of management of irrigation on soil moisture,
plant growth and nutrient movement in flatwoods soils,

Method of Procedure: The initial study will be in a 10-acre
field lying adjacent to a 6-inch,high pressure turbine
electrical pump delivering approximately 600 gallons per
minute, The area is unditched, It has been in improved
pasture since 1947 and was originally planted to
Pangolagrass (Diqitaria decumbens Stent,) and
Whiteclover (Trifolium repens L,). Present vegetation
includes Pensacola bahiagrass (Pasalm notatum Flugg.)
and Common bermudagrass (Cvnodn dactvlon L. Pers.).
The area has an east to west slope of three to six
inches per 100 feet. Ditches, barriers and fences will
be placed to agree with the objectives of this study,

I Effect of distance between lateral ditches and
management of water application.

A, Lateral ditches will be constructed 40, 80, and
120 feet apart. Soil moisture will be determined
at intervals of 20 feet across each land by soil
samples. Measurement of water table will be
determined in perforated plastic pipes.

Be Management of water application will be studied
by maintaining constant water level in selected
ditches compared with intermittent irrigations in

II. Method of treatment evaluation.

( Cont ,. )
Rate and characteristics of movement of water
from lateral ditches to center of land will be
determined by observ.,'ii- changes in depths to
water table. Water table tubes shall consist
of 2-inch 1i plastic pi pe, perforated at 2-inch
intervals to aiico'' n-lovi. of water. Each pipe
will rest on the clay pan and extend above the
soil surface, Three reclicaticon of water table
sampling pipes will be inislaeed for each ditch
spacing and irrig ai.[.n a.plic,.'ion treatment.

B. Movement of selected major elements in the soil
water will be determined by analysis of soil
water (collected from water table tubes) and
soil samples. Soils will be extracted with
1 'i ammonium acetate solution and analyzed,
P, K, Ca, Mg, and pH will be determined
for ':oth water and soil si .l!e5s

C Effect of year-long water control on persistence
and growth i:abi;s of annual and perennial forages
,,ii be determined by harvesting plots to obtain
gr'.en and air-dry veicghi's Proximate analysis
of selected forage plants will be determined.

D, Economics will be determined for cost of land
preparaLion, ditching, water and fertilizer per acre
in relation to yield and quality of air-dry forage

e .-eic -c.-d trials will be evaluated by appropriate
statistical procedure,,

STitle: Pasture and Supplement Systems for Beef Cows.

Leaders: E M. Hodges, F., M. Peacock, J, E. McCaleb,
H, L, CiA.a.nan, Jr., and R.EL, Greene.

Cooperators: F, G. Martin and C. L. Dantzmano

Duration: 5 years.


Object: Compare production performance of b-ef cows
on various forage and supplement management systems
in peninsular Florida and determine the relative
economics of each.

Method of Procedure: This study will be initiated in
September 1967. The outline of experimental treatments
to be used are as follows:

number Description

1 Pangolagrass pasture + pangolagrass hay checkc
2 Check + winter annual grass (r-yegrass
or oats).
3 Check + concentrate feed,
4 Check + summer legume (Aeschynomene)
5 Pangolagrass + Pensacola bahiagrass-
summer legume + pangolagrass hay,
6 Pangolagrass + Pensacola bahiagrass-
Hubam clover + pangolagrass hay.
7 Pangolagrass + grass-clover (irrigated)
+ pangolagrass hay.
8 Pangolagrass + grass-clover + winter
annual and summer grasses (all irrigated
as needed) + pangolagrass hay.

Fertilizer and lime practices will be in accord with
recommendations for intensive use, This will include:
all-grass, fertilized equally spring and fall with 12-6-6
to provide 100 pounds nitrogen per acre annually, limed
to maintain 1,500 and 150 pounds per acre respectively
of available calcium oxide and magnesium oxide; legumes,
300 pounds per acre 0-10-20 with 0.5% B203 in appro-
priate season, winter legumes receiving additional
0-10-20 or potash and limed to maintain oxide levels
50% higher than on grass pastures; additional fertilizer
will be used as required in each production system;
all .pastures will be retreated with copper at 0,1 unit
per acre every second year.

The experimental groups 'ill be equally di-'ided in
respect to age and relative production of females.
Each group will be allotted to 40 acres of improved
pasture and the number of animals per group will initially
range from 25 to 35 Erahman x Shorthorn breeding-age
females based on optimum estimated carrying capacity
for each program, Adjustments will be made if the
initial stocking rates are not correct, but after the first
year the maximum number of animals per treatment
should be constant.,

A 90-day breeding season will be used, starting
approximately February 15 of each year, Cows will
be palpated 60 to 90 days .-.e.r the bulls are removed
ana jil open cows replaced by 2-year old heifers,
Calves will be weighed at approximately 205 days of
age but weaning age of calves will be determined by the
milking ability of the cows as affected by management
system. and will range from 210 to 300 days of age.
The principal feed supplement used except for Treatment
3 vwil be pangolagrass hay harvested outside the
experimental area, Fifteen tons of hay (~ pr'-.x ;ng
6% total protein) will be made available for each herd
and will be used as needed during periods of forage
deficiency- All feed, fertilizer, and other input items
will be itemized on a herd basis. The supplemental
concentrated feed will be citrus pulp or molasses
combined with a protein source when needed as indicated
by forage analysis. The feeding period will continue
until the bulls are removed from the herds or as long
as needed All animals will receive a complete mineral
mixture, free choice., Anthelmintics will be used only
as the need is indicated,

Data collected will include chemical analysis of feeds and
forages, labor, equipment and all other expense records,
weaning weights and grades, annual cow weights in
September, pregnancy rate, calving percentage, sale
receipts and cows per treatment, Monthly evaluation of
forage quantity and quality by mowing and plucking
procedures in conjunction with State Project 1369,
Experimental data will be subjected to statistical and
cost analysis

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