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Title: Range Cattle Experiment Station, Ona, Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00090234/00001
 Material Information
Title: Range Cattle Experiment Station, Ona, Florida
Series Title: Range Cattle Experiment Station, Ona, Florida
Physical Description: 14 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kirk, W. G
Range Cattle Station, Ona
Publisher: Range Cattle Experiment Station
University of Florida
Place of Publication: Ona Fla
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1948
 Subjects
Subject: Cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Pastures -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Coordinates: 27.393449 x -81.934452
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: W.G. Kirk ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "December 14, 1948."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090234
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 309783953

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Full Text


.0 C v A RANGE CATTLE EXPeRI.M NT STATION
Oha, Florida
Doccimber 14, 1948




S :aff

Dr. C1, Go Kirk, Vice Director in Chargo
r. a E1rer L Kodgecs, r.nou.list
1'I Do We j 'ones. AsiistteAt. Soil Tochnologist
I IiEc:.acs .J, Fulfurd, Ass5.itant Aninal husbandman
r. 0,O C. Coker. 'orn Foemian




Contents*
Page
IU Pasture trostments and beef gains at the Rang Cattle Station. 1

II0 Grass pastures on the sandy lands of South Florida s * . * 2

III* Pasture Legum!s a e o e * *o * e * e 9

ZVo Phosphorus source postures a a a a oaa o ... 9

V Cattle proarea oa a o o o * * * * * * *10

VI. Weight of crlvcs at meaning . * *. . * * 10

VIt. Winter feeding co e on the range e o * * 10

VIII* Winter feeding citrus products on range *o 0 o .o 11 0

IX. MinorF. Consumption 0 a g e c * * o e e * 11

X0 Fattoning cattle on citrus products .0 oa a 0 .e a 12

XI4 Pe.sture e.tablishent costs o e o e * o 15


* Nono of this material to be copied for publication






to PTE T' REAT1iTTS A2TjD 32-, 'IG QL. A7 Tir & ;19

Pasturo Planted Fortilizor Ter.ntment Boof Gain
Noe to$


per acre per year, pounds


-- --- - j
1,. 16 Carpet Rock Phos., Line, N.47O0

2, 19 Conmon Line, NPK. 30c0
Bahia
38 20 Carpet- Line, !E,PK 46c0
Clover

4, 12 Carpet. Line, !# PK 1.0
Lospedcza

51 14 Carpet No fertilizer or Line So5

6. 18 Carpet Rock Phosphate 19o0

7, 13 Common No Fertilizer or Limello6
Bahia

8, 10 Carpet Lime, HPK 3805

9, 17 Carpet Lime, IE, NPK 58.0

11,15 Carpet. Limer Rock Pnose, 11.0
Clover- IE, K
Lespodeza

22 No. 99 NTPKO Limo
Bermuda

23 Pangola Lime, Copper, IPK

24 Coastal Lime, sPE
Bermuda

25 Ponsacola Line, 1IP
Bahia

27 Carpet 1NK

28 Vaeoy Lime, NPK

29 Native No lime or fertilizer

30 ,Native Rock Phosphate


87.0

63,0

59,0


6,0



27,5


70,0

10105

49.0


1S45

97.5

107 "0

143.0


.1,0



3600


72 .5

91,5

104.0


1946

5500

62o0

24505


800



13.0


3200

67.0

10800


1917

53o5

58.0

59905


700

7,9

10,0


69,0

?770

146,0


1948 Av'!4

'-- 72o0

-wo 64.0

722.5 305e2


6105 88.1


5e0 896

14.5 2309

o*- 20,0


71,0

7500

4**


58 8

78o3

84.0


80.0 139.0 208.0


128,0

86.0


116.0

124,0


160.0

123,0


223.0

191,0


156*7

131.0


132.0 1110o 100*0 216e0 136,0
i


57.0 45.0

12900


72.0

145,0

705

25e5


82.0

139,0

16.5

18.5


64 0

137,6

12.0

22 0


530, 89e0 162o5 161.5





Ii. GRASS PASTURES ON THE 3i- ': :;, JA .- ..;--:

There is often more than one good way to do a thing and much of the informa-tioL
presented here is offered as suggestion rather than as being the one-and-only way
of doing the job.


Grass Varieties.

No grass is superior to all others for all conditions and seasons. Any
cattleman who uses improved pasture to any large extent will want to use more than
one variety of grass, each probably in a pure stand. Unfavorable weather, disease
and insect conditions are less likely to affect all the pasture at one time when
several grasses are planted. The varieties chosen by each individual will depend
on the local growing conditions, management plans and personal preference.
BAHIA Common Bahia has been planted in Florida pastures for many years. It is
notorious for taking from one to three or even more years to make a stand. It has
a deep root system and is most valuable for dry areas and in dry seasons. Common
Bahia in grazing trials at the Range Cattle Station produced more beef per acre
than Carpet grass but less than the Pensacola strain. Seeding of Common Bahia
should be made at 15 Ibs. per acre of good seed. Pensacola Bahia is a narrow-
loafed variety having the same general characteristics as the Common but germinates'
and produces a sod more quickly. It has less leaf disease than the Common and a
little more frost resistance. Seed is high-priced and scarce but the difference
is worth while if the pasture is fertilized and carefully managed. Pensacola
Bahia should be seeded at 10 Ibs. per acre.
BERMUDA: One of our earliest sources of improved pasture was thb Common or "Garden"
Bermud that comes so quickly into cultivated and fertilized land. Since this
grass grew only on places that had improved fertility the feediwas very nutritious
and Bermuda developed a reputation for being a "strong" grasses Common Bermuda
is less productive than the larger varieties and little is now being planted.
Coastal and 99 Bermuda, both developed at Tifton, Ga., are higher in yield and more
disease resistant that the Common. Neither of these produce seed and must be
planted by vegetative parts. Costal and 99 are similar in adaptation and yield
but the former is most widely distributed* Both Tifton Bermudas are more resistant
to leaf spot disease than the native St. Lucie strain. Often called Giant Bermuda.
The St. Luoie muast be propagated by runners or stems,' It is a vigorous plant,
will tolerate more water and a lower fertilitylevel than the Tifton Bermudas but
is less productive under good conditions. None of the Bermuda grasses should be
planted under conditions of low fertility or extremely poor drainage. It has been
a common practice to diso a Bermuda sod to stimulate growth and renew the
pasture. This cultivation benefits the grass but if continued over a long period
of time will deplete the soil humus supply.
CARPET: There is a larger acreage of Carpet than of any other improved grass in
the state. It was widely used in the early years of the pasture improvement
program when few other varieties were available. Carpet grass on poor land makes
low quality feed and because of this has been incorrectly condemned as a poor
grass It yields excellent forage on fertile land but is giving way to other
varieties because its production is not as high as other grasses where soil fertil-
ity is adequate& Carpet grass on moist land makes a highly productive combination
with winter clover but its low production record by itself makes it a poor bet for
new plantings.
COGONt This grass is grown on some upland soil with moderate successes Small
areas planted on the flatwoods are not promising. Yield data are not available
and this grass cannot be compared directly with other varieties. The danger of
Cogon becoming a pest in cultivated areas has hampered both investigation and
utilization. It Is planted by use of crowns and roots and is reported to produce
some seed* Cogon has some frost resistance and is grazed readily enough by
cattle. While individuals may wish to use it, there is little indication that






KE1NTUCEY 31 AND ALTA FECU The Fscs hv-e een wic.eiy 'iscusoc .C!j TI .:
In IrcTentt seasons "i'eTtifier of these similar varieties has made mu'h ,r,".1 -
South Florida. Even with good moisture conditions and heavy fertilization *.he~
produce sparingly and apparently do not live through the summer. Trial plantings
are being continued but no large use should be attempted until more favorable
information is obtained locally. Seeding of small areas should be done in the fall
at 15 to 20 Ibs. per acre
PANGOLA: This grass looks much like Crab grass but does not produce viable seed
and lives from year to year without being reseeded. Pangola is suited for use on
a wide variety of soil types and will survive both periodic flooding and extreme
drought. It is well-liked by grazing animals an gives excellent response to
fertilization. Pangola is particularly sensitive to corner deficiency and should
not be -lanted without attention to this need. Where copper is a limiting factor
growth is slow, young leaves are pale yellow, spotted with brown and the old
leaves at the base of the plant turn dark brown and die. Affected plants show
benefit within two weeks after addition of cooper. The leaves and stems of Pangola
are easily frosted but are eated readily after being thus damaged. Young runners
are frosted back to where they have put ldovw roots. Any rooted part with survive
ordinary frost. Pangola is easily established by vegetative stems or crowns
planted in moist ground and spreads rapidly whUn fertility conditions are good.
It has given high yields in experimental pastures and is one of the most productive
grasses available.
PARA: This variety has been in use for a long while and is being grown on low,
marshy sand land with good results. Para is relished by cattle when in the green,
leafy stage and is killed by continuous grazing. It becomes excessively stemmy
when allowed to mature and is very sensitive to frost damage. Propagation is by
vegetative means. Para is useful for pasture on the sandy land only in special
situations.
RHODES: Although planted in Florida for many years, Rhodes grass has never become
important as a forage species. Recent seedings show some promise and, if it
proves to be frost resistant, this grass may be Useful, especially on well-drained
upland areas. Rhodes should be seeded at 10 to 15 pounds per acre on well
prepared land and covered by oackirg.
ST. AUGUSTINE: It is little-used for pasture on sandy land. Dry weather brings
on- aacks of Chinch bug. This grass is frost-resistant and, once established,
makes a thick sod. It is slow to cover the ground and must be sprigged in rows or
planted with seed pieces for best results. In sha ed areas and for lawns where
chemical control of insects is possible St. Augustine is a useful grasses
TORPEDO: Known also as 'ullet grass and botannically as Panicum repens, this
F~ods is Ming planted in pastures throughout southern Florida, It is commonly
believed to be a native grass but its origin is uncertain. Under conditions of high
fertility and cultivation it is extremely aggressive and can be a serious pest,
because of the vigorous development of underground runners it is almost impossible
to subdue Torpedo grass by cultivation. Where the pest situation is of no
importance it is a good pasture grass. It responds to fertilization is palatable
and cattle do well on it. Torpedo and Pangola grass given similar fertilizer
treatment on one soil type produced equal gains per acre during a five-month
grazing trial* Torpedo grass is planted by digging crowns and underground runners
or mowing solid, stemr.y hay and scattering this vegetative material at 500 lbs. or
more per acre. It is best covered by discing. Torpedo appears to produce some
seed but this is uncertain and of interest because of the danger of spreading the
grass to cultivated land. It will establish under lower fertility conditions
than Pangola, Bermuda or Bahia but does not produce high quality feed on poor land.
Torpedo has a wide range of soil adaptation and will withstand both dry weather
and flooding. Severe frost kills top growth but does not affect the root. Much
discussion may be summed up by saying, "Torpedo grass is a pest in cultivated
land and is a good pasture species for the cattle country."





,YS:i Though ftorcn in man-iy -lcces tlo):!-hout r l'rid his :.;-, I. t L ..
iknca,. Closely related to Dallis grass, it has a bunch habit of growth and
produces clumps of slender seed heads standing four to five feet high. Vasey is
very palatable to cattle and is quickly killed where grazed all the time. It
yields well and where carefully managed, is not damaged by frost and makes a
little growth during the winter. There is a little seed on the market and five
pounds ner acre of good seed is enough. The seed is fuzzy and must be mixed with
mash feed or ground grain to separate it for planting. With special care on moist
fertile land Vasey may be useful.


LAND PREPARATION:

CLEARING: Stumps are a nuisance, cause breakage of machinery and spoil the looks
of a pasture. Where they can be disposed of without cost to the landormer it is
good riddance. In case the cost of bulldozing and hauling must ble borne by the
pasture project, stump removal may be a luxury. Good :spsture can be made around
stumps and the individual must decide what course to t.ke. T-.ere good land has a
growth of trees and shrbcs the cost of clearing is almost prohibitive. The
operator may want to clear and improve in case the l'cmtion i s especially valuable.
Again, if hammock lard provides a hideaway for cattle there mry be an advantage in
clearing in suite of the cost. Kiliing palmetto is the greatest problem in
preparing 'asture land. Heavy discingr and chopping are the only means of doing
this at present. Special machines for cutting under the palmetto are being used
with some success on prairie land but are not adapted for use on out-over woods.
Twice over with a heavy tandem lisc is standard preparation. A third cutting, with
a medium-weight disc or chopper, is often required to do a good job. The land
should be worked enough to produce almost complete killing of grass and palmetto
before improved pasture is planted. Partial or incomplete land preparation leads
to disappointing results. Regardless of the type machinery used in land breaking,
the best stand and growth of grass are obtained where the first cutting is done 4/
to six months before planting. An interval of one to several months between the
first and final stages of land preparation will give a better kill of native
growth and provide a mellow, firm seedbed.

GRASS PLANTING-

TIME: Grass should be planted when an adequate supply of moisture for the young
plants is assured. There is never any certainty on this point, but the beginning
of the rainy season is one of the best. nhen a large acreage is to be planted it
is necessary to take some chances on the weather. It is a good time to plant
grass in South Florida whenever: (1) Seed or vegetative planting material is
available. (2) Soil is moist and well-prepared. (3) Equipment and labor are ready
to do the job. Newly broken land is usually free of weeds but old farmland is
commonly infested with Common Bermuda, Chickweed and other pests. There is often
disappointment when the first planting of improved pasture,is made on land already
occupied by weeds. Fall and early printer planting helps reduce the trouble with
weeds when-such land is used.
TYPE OF LAND: All other things being equal, the best land available should be used
oFr mpro7vd pasture. It is a serious mistake to pick out the poorest land to
improve. Returns from cultivation, planting and fertilization will be the *
greatest on land having the highest natural productivity. Location of water for
animals, drainage ditches, existing fences and other factors will also affect
the choice of land.
PLANTING NA0TERIAL: Propagation of the grasses that produce seed is familiar
procedure but the introduction of varieties that must be planted by using
vegetative parts has complicated the operation. Many grasses produce shoots and
roots from the joints of the stem when it is placed in moist earth. Either
underground stems or aboveground runners or upright stems will root and grow
readily under favorable conditions. Grass roots themselves cannot produce new




plants but many varieties sach as the Tifton Bermudas and Torpedo have steomy
underground parts, called W, that make excellent planting material. Those
rhizomes and the stubby stems that make up the crown of the plant are more hardy
than green hay but are more difficult to prepare for planting. Special digging
equipment or much expensive hand work is required to get it out of the ground.
Solid, steamy Pangola, Torpedo and Coastal or 99 Bermuda about two feet high makes
top quality planting.material. Young, fine stems should be avoided because they
dry out quickly and lack vigor. As grass grows taller it becomes tangled and is
difficult to mow and hard to spread evenly and sparingly. Anyone planning to
plant more than a few acres of the vegetatively propagated grasses should consider
growing a seed plot or have arrangements to get the planting material from neigh-
bors. There is some money saving in producing you own seed and also greater
freedom of action and less danger of delay between cutting and planting. A mowing
machine must be in first-rate running order to cut these grasses. Seed plots '
should be treated with a 6-6-6 or similar complete fertilizer at 500 Ibs. per acre
two or three months before the prospective planting date. Grass fertilized in
February of a warm, moist spring will be ready to use for seed in April or May.
Yields of planting material and rates of seeding are both variable but a cutting
4rqm an acre of well-grown grass will cover 30 up to 100 acres. Where crowns and
'ieaw re dug for planting the coverage can be greater than with a crop of hay
but new growth is delayed to a greater extent. Grass should be protected from
drying before it is planted. Wed grass will begin to ferment and heat within a
few hours after being piled during warm weather. Prompt planting is the only safe
plan but grass can be kept three or four days if drying and stack fermentation are
guarded against.
SCATTERING PLANTING MATERIAL: Seed grasses are put out by small hand seeders
arrived either onoot, horseback or jeep. Grass seeding attachments on soil
packers do the best job. Some seed has been put out by airplane. Regardless of
method it is vital that the seed be scattered evenly. Distribution of vegetative
material is laborious because of the weight required per acre. It may be scattered
from a truck driven through the field ahead of the covering machinery. Large
acreages can be handled by this method and with careful supervision a uniform
spread of grass may be obtained. This is hard on the truck, requires extra labor
and may result in drying of the grass between scattering and covering. Another
good method is dropping the grass from a platform bolted to the front of the
tractor pulling the covering and packing equipment. This method will reduce labor
cost a little, insures uniform distribution and there is no drying of the grass
before it is covered. A single tractor unit can plant from 15 to 25 acres a day,
depending on the width of cut. One truck can supply the grass to two or three
planting units on large acreages.
COVERAGE: Broadcat planting of grass seed are best covered by running a packer
over freshly disced and seeded land. Some seed are buried by this method and
some left on the surface but packing will packing will place a percentage of them
at the proper depth to produce a stand. Ihny grass failures have been caused by
lack of seed coverage, especially with Bahia grass. Small seeds shah as Carpet
should not be covered deeper than one-fourth inch while the Bahia will come up
through an inch of soil. Grass crowns and rhizomes may be worked into the ground
with a light or medium disc. Hay cuttings are best covered by running a heavy
disc adjusted to cut at a very slight angle. This will press the stems deeply
into moist soil without throwing enough loose earth to completely bury them. A
chopper is not good for covering vegetative material because the blades pull too
much grass back to the surface as they rotate.
PACKING: Grass failures can often be traced to the planting of seed or vegetative
material in uncomnaoted soil during dry weather. Packing the surface reduces
moisture loss and promotes germination and rooting of plants. The surface of a
sandy soil dries out very quickly when dished and left loose. Use of a packer
permits planting when it would otherwise be too dry for best results. Operation
of packing equipment when the ground is soft has a strong leveling effect and
smooths the field for following machinery. The strongest packing machines should
be obtained, along with a supply of replacement parts, and given daily inspection




ani. repair iuch of the available equipment is not rugged enough for best results
but imrrov-ements are being mad-,, Ground that is too rough to put the packer over
should be given more preparation, The use of soil pecking equipment should be
increased greatly in the pasture improvement program.
LAND TREATMENT
LIME: Most of the land in South Florida is '"sour" and needs lime if it is to grow
good pasture. Ground limestone, either dolomitic or calcic, is commonly used in
pasture improvement although other conditioners may be used if transportation
problems or local supply make it desirable, Land differences prohibit making a
uniform lime recomnieindstion but one ten of ground limestone per acre will bring
the soil Ph up to 6,0 or 5,5 on average flatwoods land, This is high enough for
grass, Retreatment with one-ha;f ton pr acre will be needed after four to six
years of heavy grazing, Impor-ranrt as lime is for improved pasture production there
is little use of putting t out '::z ic : "o,-r;.. iz-:r is addo-d also.
FERTILIZFR: The amounts and value of food tc-tsinad from- a p.asturo depend on the
forti- ty of the soil. Gc qual'CJy pat4:;.ruo -racr w rea dried and anlyzed contains
at least one percent Hibr--gr- ',.- C. pc c"nt Phosphorus and one percent Potassium
as well as varying amounts of other chenioa'. elem?:.'ts. If feed crop containing
adequate protein and mineralIs are to be grown on land low in natural fertility
then the needed elements muAt be a6ded, Mst of the ss.nd1 alnd is low in every-
thing and needs a complete fer-'ilrzer combined with the lime treatment in order to
produce good pasture., This statern.t is :-navoLdable although it involves a very
large item of expense. The profit on a frrt-il.ized past.re will depend on the care
and management given it but any effort to produ.ico good pastuBe without regard to
fertility needs will result in a oostly failu-r,
Many formulas and rates of complete fertilizer are being used on pasture with
satisfactory results. A n appliation of 300 l:bso per acre of 5-10-5 or similar
formula at planting time will be erxcugh to give t:he grass a good start, Heavier
rates at this time are wasteful .s most of the impo..'tont grasses start slowly and
do not utilize large quu.nittites of fertrilzer before it is lost in heavy rains.
Refertilization on established sods should include more nitrogen, a 6-6--5 mixture
being widely used at 4C0 to 500 Ibs. per acre, Nitrogen is an expensive fertilizer
material and this fact has led to many efforts to e.'cnomi.ze by outtrng the percentage
of this element. However, since Nitrogn: is the material that stimulates growth of
leaves and green stems, feed production is lowered when the Nitrogen supply is rec.
duced. Pho.phorus applied annually at 3C ibs. per ac.re of P205 provides enouEh of
this mineral for normal plant growth and animal nutrition. G:rasses use large amounts
of potash and this elemniat can-ot be left out of the fert:..liier program on a heavy
producing pasture, Thirty pcunds per acre of K20 in the fertilizer gives good
results but may be higher than u-c.ssary,
SITINGLE EF.LLi 'T FETILIZATIONC The high cost of fertilizers has furnishedreason to
me every pse.. erort c lower the cost 4f post-re improvement, Because most
flatwoods soil is low in every major pl.r.t feod element many responses have been ob-
tained to applications of only one fe-'t it.zer material such as lime of Phosphate-
"'ith steadily increasing expense for land preparation and seeding, the returns from
inconmplte and unbalanced scil treatmaintc have become inw adseqte to cover costos
There may be exceptions but there is little futu; e :.n any soil Inprovement prog'-am
that supplies some nutrient needs and leaves other unfilled, The most cow feed per
dollar of cost is being produced in the pasture where all the nutrient needs of the
grass are at least partly satisfied,
MINOR ELELmNTS: The soils of South Florida are generalNy locking in copper, Other
e.en;"I ts lit 'd in sml.'A quantities are often in short supply Imp-oved pasture
land t1a-t has bet been previously treated should receive the equivalent of 15 lbse
per acre of copper s;iphste unless local experience has shown that it is not needed.
Carpet grass and the Kahias have respouded to a combination of copper sulphate,
15 lbs. to manganese sulfates-, 5 ibs. and zinc sulfate-10 lbs. per acre better than
to copper alone Pangola is most llke.y to be affected by a 3ack of copper, Bermuda
grass gives little to no response to the minor eleom:nts, There have been no trials
with Torpedo grass but it has been established on pastures in many places without
secondary elements.





C. '.ic- -v.:r.ons at the Range Cattle Station show that the effect of minor eleronts
l, .;:, four to five years. Retroatment should bc considered at the end of this
t '-', v; 9
Ti.Le of Fertilizations Pasture should be fertilized when planted unless ex-
):ee'neSni-sEti o land to be rich enough to give the young plants a good
start without treatment Established grass will make the most efficient use of
the fertilizer if it is applied when the weather is warn and the soil moist but
not watersoaked. Fertilizer should not be put on during periods of cold, dry
or wet weather If early spring grazing is needed, then February fertilization
id advisable. Fall grivth, particularly of Pangola, can be stimulated by ferti-
lizer application in Auigust or early September whenever the soil surface is not
saturated. Grass fertilized at this tine may be protected from grazing and re-
served for use later one It is advisable to trcrt different pastures at different
times rather than all at one timco This will provide a more uniform supply of
fecdo The best quality of grass is produced during the first two months after
fertilized is applied An improved pcsturc will continue to provide feed for
several Years after a good start is rbteincd but it needs to be fertilized every
year to avoid continuing losses in both quality and quantity of grazing. When
the cost of planting grass is considered fecd can be produced at less cost per
unit on land that is fortilizcd every year than whcre treatment is limited to
every second or third yrc-s If finances or equipment prevent annual fertilization
of pasture then treatment of a different pert of the area every year will give
the best results. The desirability of fertilizing the same pasture more than
once a year has not been dcternined. If this is to be tried a complete fertilizer
in the fal combined with a nitrogen topdressing in the spring nay be the best.
More than one light application of fertilizer per year requires too much machinery
and labor for the results,
Using Improved Pasturce Graming New Plantin:t Young gr-ss is damaged by continued
heavy grazing an'd cattle should not be turned on for 60 days after sccding Most
of the coon grasses will establish under mcdor-tcR grazing but the rate of
spread is reduced. Runners should be allowed to Icct before moro than light
grazing is permitted. Protection requires fencing, which is a heavy expense,
However, the most profitable use of a good pasture requires that it be fenced
and this should be figured right along with the other costs 6O improvement.
Caring Capacitys Hoi much improved pasture per ccw is needed? This question
TeaT i" c'r rTT rwcr. Pasture productivity varies from yc:r to year. Seasonal
and soil differences and methods of manaacmnt affect the amount of gro tho Evo
cattle have boen carried exclusively on improved pasture without other food or
grasinge Fangola, Torpedo, Coastal Bermuda or Pensacola Bahia fertilized annually
will produce enough feed on two acres to carry a mature cow the year round and a
calf to six months of age. This is simply a conversion to a yeor-long basis
and does not man a cow could be shut in on a two-acre block to make a living.
Fattening Cattle on Imnroved Pastures Yearling and two-ycf.r-old steers stores
a~Tt'R i7TaT-13t- r-ti ~an rciiht for three to give months when grazed on
improved pasture at one head per acreo The grass is fertilized in the spring
when cattle are put on the pasture. As the supply of available nutrients is
used up the = otcnin content of the pasturage drops and the cattle stop fatten"
ingo -iihen tl.is happens, usually is July, there is grass left in the posture that
is valrubll for maintaining animals. This nature feed will amount to a ton or
more per acre of dry material0 if left ungrazcd until cold weather comes.
Imnrovcd Combined W-th Native Pastureo Most of the improved pasture areas are
be-nTc e to plG-ornIeEnT t vc rnge. This practice is most effective when
the planted pasture is made to supply as much feed as possible when the native pa
pasture is in its poorest condition. A supply of feed can be saved for later use
by keeping cattle off the improved grass during late surzcr and early fall.
Frost does not destroy the value of such reserve pasture although it does lower
the quality a little. Fertilization of improved posture at the time the cattle
are shut off will increase growth and provide a larger fall and winter food
supply,






None of the grasses make any tonnage of growth after the nights turn oool and
reserves of feed must be produced while I i is still anrmx Even when the pasture
is providing plenty of winter roughage the protein supply may be too low to permit
carrying high-grade cattle in satisfactory condition. The use of limited amounts
of high-protein supplement will impro-e the conditions of the animals and increase
the carrying capacity of the pasture.
MAINTENACNEs Fertilization and lining practices have been discussed in preceding
sections. -ven well-prepared land villa have some palmetto other weeds surviving.
A close-cutting, medium weight chopper should be r4Wover new pasture at lease once
a year until the sod is complete and no weeds remain. The importance of keeping
undesirable growth out of a pasture should not be overlooked. )jisoing a grass sod
to stimulate growth is a practice of long standing, This hastens the destruction
oforganic matter in the soil and can eventualJy reduce the productive capacity of
a sandy pasture. Torpedo responds to cultivation in the same way as Bermuda.
Pangola does n6t kequii a' ultivatiof" and is cveroel.y cbehoed in growth by heavy
disoing or chopping. Considering the cost of dishing it is worth while to question
whether an equal cost of nitrogen fertilizer would give as much grazing without
depleting the small amount of organic matter in the soil,
A pasture is usually too rough to be mored for maintenance during the first year
or two after planting. Mowing is an expensive operation under the very best of
conditions. Experience at the Range Cattle Station shows that mowing to renew
growth is wasteful of feed and effort. Improved pasture must be grazed enough.
during the spring and summer so no grass matures and gets tough.

CONCLUSION

Productivity rather than cost per acre determines the value of a pasture, Careful
utilization must be made of improved pasture if it is to be a profitable venture.
The evidence shows that a moderate acreage of well prepared and fertilized pasture
furnishes the most cow feed per dollar of cost







Winter Cloversi

The greatest yields obtained at the Rangv Cattle Station :were from a combination
of carpet grasZs an? v inri- :. elove:s, .n the prs six years this trial has given
excellent results for two yz.Prs, f::-r gains 'for two years and ttwo year of al-
most complctec failure T is indic.ats tn-t .inter clover should not be consid-
ered as a tried and proven crop f:,.r this Cres.
A complete discussion fo winter clovwrs is 'resented in Press Bullcntin
654-

HaEiry Irnd io0

T'.s sulmer legr. does best on weall drained areas, Plantings at the Eange
Sta-.tin on fLr..wtoods 3an. havc been dam. *ed by standing wr.tcr but pro'lucrd a
s,'.cCttered stand. Ind.ig responds to lime and fertilizer and will made ex-
collenrt gro.'rh cn high~ r luIand
Cattle do rat e;At Indigo readily but do v:ell once they become accustom-
ed to it.

Lespedeza:

Lespcdezas are not pronisini, Yiclds h.vc thot been high when fertilized the
same as winter clover, During s n.x years of crials there have been two fair
years while the o-ther four iw-'re poor: On the basis of these results, lespedo-
zas are not reccmni:cded for south Florida,

Other Legumes:

Alyce Clover, a sunror legume, is be.t suited to z.ell drained areas, This
crop produces excellent forc.'re and hay but is kevcrely dauaigd by nomatcdes.
It will n5t stindi the flooding that is common to flatwoods lands during the
SUl Cro

Big trefoil has not boon satisfactory \':hen planted on flatwoods land at the
Range Cattle Station,
ePo ~PHDHRUS SOURCE Pi3aTL RS- in cooperation with the iamin Station, Gaincsville,
and the Florida Agricultural Research Institute,
';inter Haven.
This project was initiated to study the effect of phosphorus in different forms
cn -rass nrod'uo-ion and animal nutrition.
Th3. principal variable is source of phosphorus, with line being introduced with
supzrphosphate in one treatment to conpensatc for the Ca in sone of the phos-
pho'us carriers, Nitrogen, pot.sh and minor elcmncns are supplied uniformly in
the cxpsrimerto Pr.ngols gra.ss is used on all past r.'s being grazed by mature
cwvs throughout the yct.re Fie.ld nurmhors and treatments completed to date are
listed, poundage represent rate of application per acre
Fied ~o, 1er't; llze Tieatiento
E',TrOP'- ,~-" (.'hpre 500 Ibs. yearly, 1000 lbs. calcio linm
in l947%
S2 0 2p 250 Ibs annually. (No phosphorus)
83, 86 5=19-'5 (superphospha-te) at 500 Ibs, annually.
E4, 87 l10-,0-10 at 250 lbs. annually, 200C0 rs. rock phos. every 3 yrse
89, 91 5-17-.5 ( concentrated superphosphcat) at 500 Ibs. annually*
M-,or elements were anpl id as f olOi;' cr .crS. Copper sulphate 20 Ibs,
!.arianese s'lffAte 80 lo21 and Zne su batc 1.5 ibs.
acl'iial ,phophate and basic slag are to be added as new treatments in this
pro3-;cc.


fP;.-. :p. s~i~'t~z's '~""""'"
J~:I;.UI J~~u





Vo CATTIE PROGRAM


Ao Establishment of Brahman herd,

3B Crossbreeding: Value of certain crosses for Florida ranges and for beef pro-
duction. Shorthorn.*Brahnan breeds are nr being used. First generation heifers will
be b .ckcrosscd to parental breeds.

C. Grading ups Com~mrcial herd consists of grade .rachmn, Dcvon, Hereford and
Shorthorn females Brcahr.in and Shorthorn bulls are now, being used,

De Records: Breeding, growth rats, productivity and weight changes of mature
cattle arc obtained which will indicate the value of all animals.

Eo Fattening Utl ilia.tion of feed for fattening by cattle of known breeding and
the quality of mcat proiuced.

Fo Management: Importance of a controlled breeding season, weaning of clves,
methods of handling cattle and control of parasites on the general thrift and
productivity of range herds.

VLe VJEIGHT CF CALVES AT WEANING
The breeding season is four months beginning about April 1, calves being born
from January 15 to 1-ay 15. TAe average birth weight, age and gains from birth to
September 15, 1948, are given bolts

Calves Averages
Sire Dame Pasture
Weight Days Gain Gain Condition
Shorthorn Brahman Mkle 7 61 217 472 411 1.89 Good
Female 8 60 196 424 364 le%


Polled Grade a (e 9 70 225 473 402 1e79 Fair to
Shorthorn Brahman Fcmcle 18 64 200 398 334 1o64 Good


Brahman Gr.de Decve
(Smoky) Shorthorn, n lle 19 70 206 376 306 1l49- Fair to
Hercford & Female 21 77 184 370 294 160 good
Br hman 0. T 19 IT Mr9 w

Brahman Grade Devon 8 74 215 389 316 lc48 Fair
(Floppy)Hereford ILle 9 73 221 392 518 lr,44

Vl 'Wi FEED17 IG CO8 O TH RANGEr

V11, W&I:-ME FEED2IG COWS ON THE RAMGE


A summary of five years
future upon rcquesto


study of winter feeding will be available in the near


/h)




Vllio VITNM1R FEEDING CITRUS PRFBUCTS ON RANGE


burned


Lot 1.
L-:t 2
Lot 3
Lot 4


Grrdo Brahman and Shorthorn cows frno two to six years of age were placed on
test in November, 1946, They will have 13-3 acres of range per ccwV Whole oranges
and grapefruit will te fed at the rate of 15 to 20 pounds per cow per day on the
ground~ The value of each treatment will be judged as follonst
L. Percent calf crop
2, Gronth rate o c !ves
de Gro.de of osalves at weaningr
4o Wei,.;ht cbanhcs of cowvr
G, Thriftiness of cocs and calves
IKo 1,IHERAL CONSUMPTION
It is knvon that Florida range cattle need supplemental minerals, but ho7 much
and hov to get them to cat it are practical problems sill in the process of being
worked out. The mineral mixtures now being fed at the Station consist of the
followings


I1odiffied Salt Sick


Steamed bonencal 2a00 pounds
Defluorinated superphosphate 2.00 "
Cowmon salt 33,89 100e00 pounds
Red oxide of iron 3039 10.00 "
Copper sulfate 0068 2 2000
Cobalt chloride or sulfate 0004 2.00 ounces
Blackstrap molasses 2o00 "'
Cottonscod meal 2000 "
The salt in the complete mineral prevents spoilage of boncocal and cottonseed
meal in wet whether. The molasses and cottonsced meal have been added to improve
palatability. The modified slat sick mineral is fed in a throe-compartment box
along vith common salt and bonencale
The average yearly total mineral consumption by two-ycqr old heifers and mature
cows has boon as follows

Pasture' Typo and Pounds per Animal per 12-1onth Period
Supplements Fed 1943, 1944-45 1945-46 1948647 1947-48 Av'og
I -- [ L Il II i 1 [ I2i lI


Unim prved Past.'ro

One-half burned yearly
Oncmhalf burned yearly
plus car~.molasses
Onc-half burned yearly plus
s'garcano
One-half burned yearly
plus cottonseed pellets
Partially Improved Pasture
Ono-fourth -_proved,1/3
to 1/2 unimproved burned
One-sixth improved, 1/4 to 2/3
unimproved burned


w 46029
25,43 33o71

17o48 28.92

18,32 26.40


75067 93095 94463 770 o
62050 84.83 76.99 56.69


54071 76,94


68.33 49.28


52.87 82c83 83.87 52.86


17.93 27.53 45.21 76.13 81.04 49.57


S 12.40


11.03 14064 18,50 14.14
10o03 18.06 14.04


//


One -half
h .
6 0
a a


sture


pas


Lot 5 "


" cull oranges
" c cull grapefruit
a" cull grapefruit, 1/2 pound cottonseed pellets
per animal per day
1 1/2 pounds citrus pellets per animal per day
(35 carts aoch dried citrus pulp and citrus
molaues and 30 parts cottonseed meal)


Conclete Mineral





Sug~cst ions t


boro attention should be given to adequate ninoral feoding.

One mineral box for every section of ran.;c or for every 50 cows, placed where
cattle gathered

Good protection from rain will help koop incral in good condition.

Inspect boxes every two wookls

Cattle consunc least mineral in spring. There is an inoroasc in Jtvly, but the
largQrzt consumption is from Dor cbor to Felruary,

Cattle oat less m3ncoal when on a good burn. Fertilizing improved pastures
also doorcases cons'm.pt-3'. a
X. FIATT1NING CArTLE CN CIRUS PR.D-'CTS
Results of focdinr trials with b tcrs fed individually in dry lot and in
group on Carpct grass and nav-iv pasturc. The majority of the stoors ha.' 50 per
cent or more Brahamn blood, Lots 1 to 11 inclusive were fed for 120 days, and Lots
12 and 13 for 112 days.

Lot AvcraCg Fgod Req-1rcd fvr Laintcnanc. and 100 Pounds Gek3n
No. Daily .Ey Ic-tod-"F?.: ^ ? ro sh Citrus Citrus
Gain asod Snappod Citrus y -tsh Pressed Pellets
M Corn Pulp Pulp Pulp Molasses


Dry Lo~ .
U 2o38
2** 2*18
3* 2.55
4* 1.98
5* 2'oi6
6***l1e5
Native Pasturo

8**1,21
9**1.,81


251
234
235
301
276


500

79


117
135
110
136
129


318 166

102
139
w %122


* M
365
354 *
S 1992
1595


f f


- 1972


* 413


-* 1389
* 2541 w


10**,2 ,55 174 115
11***2019 199 125 *
Carpet Grass Paestro
312*;e*0 9 No Supploncntal Feed


. (99)


M (115)


* (115) 529


* Results of 3 trials ** 2 trial *** 1 trial.


258
310


130**2.12


258
104





FEEnn IN TR IALS UTUDWa.*


Dry-Lot Val.u o f citrus and blacks trap mollassc fzt fS.tt3'ing stereo, Ration
consits of 'ay, cottoan3dc ne.a, dried citc'uz pulp and cit-rus or blackgtr p molasses
Twelvo otters fed indi'vidu1lyZ

Native Pasture :ia- '?,, rs fed cirrus pclc-'-s.
S;c s. 'i:c,.a "cd the s'-iec u. -,irt cf dried citrus pulp and cotton-
seed meal as contained in the 3itrs jplleta, pr.u ci.tr:ue nirla3sea self fed.

Feeding Trials to Bsgi' Jau;': 'y 'F4F

D'y -Lot Val'so of orange for fl.ttonin; scttlce
Ccniin'.catir. Lf ci-v anc.d criie iaI'ascus foding.O

N~~.ive P.stur PJ Fei;J.ng grapefruit wi'hL no cct~'l seed mn'al
.oeearing Zrapofruit wit:h adequate anoun-Is of cottonseed ncal*

Su estions and Rcarocrr.ndations for Fattening Cattle on Citrus Products:

1. Citrus products t.re rich in sug-rs and low in protein and are not roughage
feeds. They can be used for cither maintanaenc. or fattening.

2. Cattle eat citrus products readily.

S3 Grade steers, heifers rnd co;s that are thrifty, of good type and quiet
disposition, vwighing frnn 5'.0 to 15' pounds, cen be fattened successfully on those
feedbo All sharp horns should bc tipped and heifers and co~is kep-: separately from
stcr s,

4ae eed cattle in ;roupst from. 10 to 20 animals in dry-lot where fed twice
a day, and in larger numbers on pasture where self-fed.

5. Provide threo linear foot of trough space for animals in dry-lot, one-
half this space for cattle self-fedo

68 Good .gins can be scoured on an average daily ration of:

4 to 7 pounds of hay or equivalent pasture
2 to 3 pounds cottonsued neal

Plus any one of the following*
8 to 10 pound- dried citrus pulp
30 to 40 pounds fresh grapefruit pulp
40 to 50 pounds frash ;rapofluit
4 to 5 pounds dried citrus pulp, and 4 to 5 pounds citrus molasses
4 to 5 pounds dried citrus pu!p and citrus molasses self-fede

7o In dry-lot feeding use more hay at the start, gradually dooreasing the
amount vrhile ircreasin the ao.trus products and cottonseed meal until cattle arc on
full feed On pasture increase citrus products and cottonseed neal slocly to full
feed.

8e Feed 1 pound of cottonseed meal to each 250 to 275 pounds live weight of
animals'


/Io




9g Jfhole grapefruit con-ain about 86 pcrcnt water. They may be fed whole
on a :..ood sod and either quartered or sliced when fed in bunka in dry-lot or
pasture. ."cll-growr cattle car.: cat whole :rapefruit but it should be cut smaller
for young animals, Cattle eat more rad fptten faster when Erspefruit are cute

10, On pasture it nay be practical to self-foed a mixture of 4 parts dried
citrus pulp to 1 of cottonsued meal at the beginning of the feeding period, with
a 3 to 1 mixture after 40 days, along with molasses self-fcd throughout.

11, Molasscs may be self-fed by incrting a full barrel in a bunk or trough
where it runs out sla;ly., mintainin a leo7-l of aboi.t 1/2 inch in the trough. A
trough 14 by 2 1/2 fact provides enough sp,.ce for 25 to 40 cattle.

120 Pellets made up of 43 parts dried citrus pulp, 3o parts citrus molasses,
25 psrts cottonseod meal and 2 parts mineral mixt urc can be fed on a good sode
Tvelve pounds -f these pollcts conti.in 8cS pounds citrus products and 3 pounds of
cottonsccd I:alo Pellets disintegrate quickly when wet,

13. When fattenin- cattle either in d lot or on pasture they should beo
a. Fed the sa..c time every day
b. Supp?-ied -,ith plent,' of fresh water
c. Given access to a good 'irneral mixture
d. Spraycd frcquontly with a DDT solution t: control horn flies

14. Keep troughs and bunks clean. Rcmoie any mold or decayed feed.

15. Shod over the feed troughs will prevent feed spoilage and there will be
less danger of cattle going off facd,

16. Cattle can be maintained throughout thz winter on pasture supplemented with
about 1/3 the amount of citrus products riv3n for fattenin., The addition of 1/2
pound of cottonseed pellets will help balance the ration, resulting in more thrifty
cattle and less weight losses























/6/




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