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Executive summary

HIDE
 Front Cover
 From the Secretary of State
 Table of Contents
 The economic impacts
 Historic rehabilitation
 Heritage tourism
 Main Street program
 Historical museums, parks...
 Historical resources
 Property values
 Acknowledgement
 Back Cover
University of Florida
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Material Information

Title:
Executive summary
Abbreviated Title:
Economic impacts of historic preservation in Florida
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Publisher:
Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID:
UF00090052:00001

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Executive summary
Abbreviated Title:
Economic impacts of historic preservation in Florida
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Publisher:
Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID:
UF00090052:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    From the Secretary of State
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    The economic impacts
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Historic rehabilitation
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Heritage tourism
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Main Street program
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Historical museums, parks & sites
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Historical resources
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Property values
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Acknowledgement
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Back Cover
        Page 36
Full Text
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Economic m acts


I EXECUTIVE SUMMARY




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Economic impacts



of Historic Preservation in Slorida

SEPTEMBER 2002


CHAPTER 1


PAGE 5


M The Economic Impacts


CHAPTER 2


PAGE 9


M Economic Impacts of
Florida Historic Rehabilitation


CHAPTER 3


PAGE 13


M Economic Impacts of
Florida Heritage Tourism


CHAPTER 4


PAGE 17


M Economic Impacts of
Florida Main Street Program


CHAPTER 5


PAGE 21


M Economic Impacts of
Florida Historical Museums, Parks & Sites


CHAPTER 6


PAGE 25


M Economic Impacts of
Florida Historical Resources Grants-In-Aid Program
and Rehabilitation Tax Incentives


-"0- .-


CHAPTER 7


PAGE 29


M Economic Impacts of
Florida Historic Districts on Property Values


CHAPTER 8


PAGE 33


M Acknowledgements

Photos: (cover) Old Capitol, Tallahassee; (clockwise from top left)
Colony Hotel, Delray Beach; Osceola County Courthouse,
Kissimmee; Restoration of Custom House, Key West;
historic residence, Tampa


4% UNIVERSITY OF
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Fredric G. Levin College of Law

www.law.ufl.edu/cgr/pdf/historicreport.pdf


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35741-UF Historic Report.qxd 8/15/03 3:16 PM Page 5


The Economic Impacts


Throughout its history, the state of Florida has attracted

would-be and future residents with seductive visions of sreat

climates, beautiful vistas, and ear-round playgrounds. The end

result of that lure and its accompanng dreams hds been

unprecedented growth For lorida, placidn ever greater demands

on the state s housing and infrastructure, as well as on its tax base.


While the state has
rewarded the new
comers with much
that is new, Florida
also is among the
most ancient of American states,
with well over four centuries of his
toric settlement laid on the archaeo
logical remains from millennia of
prehistoric settlement. This study
examines the value of
retaining and maintaining
historic properties and
sites amidst the pressures
of new development.
This study, The
Economic Impacts of
Historic Preservation in
Florida, is the first of its
kind in Florida.
Commissioned by the
Florida Department of
State, Division of
Historical Resources and
the Historic Preservation
Advisory Council (now I
known as the Florida Historical
Commission), the study is intended
as a statewide analysis of historic
preservation activity in Florida. The


ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN FLORIDA


study examines direct and multiple
er effects from investment in historic
preservation throughout the state in
such activities as historic rehabilita
tion of all types of properties, her
itage tourism, Main Street invest
ment, grants programs, tax credits
and museum operations.
The final numbers reflect
statewide findings and do not
examine individual
!,'"i}l| communities, with the
notable exception of
the property values
analysis. However, as
indicated in the number
ous charts of Florida
Community involve
Sent in various preser
Station programs, the
report includes input
from every region of the
state and its cities,
towns, and villages. In
each chapter of this
Executive Summary,
individual communities are fea
tured. These communities were
selected at random, and their sto
ries are intended to demonstrate


how these many programs have
been implemented in creative ways
throughout the State of Florida.

GENERAL FINDINGS
While the numbers found in this
report are admittedly conservative,
several conclusions can be made
about the final results, including:

/ Historic preservation creates jobs
in Florida.
More than 123,000 jobs were
generated in Florida from historic
preservation activities during 2000.
The major areas of job creation
include the manufacturing sector,
retail trade sector, services sector,
and construction sector.

/ Historic preservation makes a
substantial contribution to tax
collections for Florida state and
local governments.
More than $657 million in state and
local taxes were generated from
spending on historic preservation
activities during 2000.

/ Visitors to Florida spend billions of
dollars while visiting historic sites.
More than $3.7 billion was spent in
Florida by tourists who visited his
toric sites. The tourists are lured by
Florida's historic sites, historic muse
ums, state parks, and archeological
sites. There are more than 1,400
Florida listings in the National
Register of Historic Places and more
than 135,000 historic structures and
archeological sites in the Florida
Master Site File of historic sites.




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Florida Historic Sites


. I I . 1 1


Orlardo


Dery ec


ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN FLORIDA


( .. .11I


St Petersbur,


1 SA^


The 135,000 archaeological sites and historic structures
on the Florida Master Site File are widel distributed

throughout all parts of the state. These sites reflect the
unique environment and history of the Sunshine State.


I




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/ Public funds invested in historic
preservation grants are matched many
times over with private funds in local
rehabilitation projects.
Since 1983, state historic preservation grants
have been awarded to projects in every Florida
county, representing 2,751 projects and a state
investment of $212.1 million, which the
Secretary of States office estimates is more than
doubled by leveraged public and private funds
in these local communities.


/ The Main Street Program creates a greater
sense of place in Florida communities.
Since the Main Street Program began in Florida
in 1985, eighty Florida communities have
leveraged a state investment of $4 million into
partnerships between private investors and
local governments. This investment became a
total public/private investment in these com-
munities of $486.5 million (as reported by May
2002) designated to improve the downtown of
these communities.


/ Historic preservation helps to maintain
property values in Florida.
In an examination of the assessed values of
mainly residential property in eighteen historic
districts and twenty-five comparable non-his
toric districts throughout Florida, there was no
case where historic district designation
depressed the property values. In fact in at least
fifteen cases, property in historic districts
appreciated greater than comparable, targeted
non-historic districts.


The conclusions cited above are the result
of extensive analysis of data from various pub
lic and private entities involved in historic
preservation activities throughout Florida. In
collecting data for this project, the research
team reviewed information available through
the Bureau of Historic Preservation, including
grant reports, federal rehabilitation tax credit
data, and Main Street project reports; surveyed
local officials regarding rehabilitation activities;
and conducted site visits of historic districts
and sites in cities throughout Florida.
The following chapters will detail how each
category of historic preservation activity gener
ates jobs and gross state product in Florida.


West Palm Beach
SUMMARY OF BENEFITS
Historic preservation activities in Florida impact the state some
$4.2 billion annually. These impacts can be seen in job creation, income gener-
ated, increased gross state product, increased state and local tax collections, and
increased in-state wealth.
For every category of historic preservation activity, the amount of econom-
ic benefit to the state of Florida is substantial, as indicated below:


Direct Economic Benefit:


SPENDING
] Heritage Tourism $3.721B
] Historic Rehabilitation $350M
Net Historical Museum Operations $58M
Net Main Street Program Activity $64M


Net Historical Net Main Street
Museum Operations Program Activity
I Ilistorlc
Ishablltation








Heritage Tourism


Total Impacts of Historic Preservation In Florida...
$4.2 billion annually

Florida Benefits of the $4.2 billion Direct Annual Investment, Based on
Multipliers:
Jobs 123,242
Income $2.766 billion
Gross state product $5.266 billion
Total Taxes $1.254 billion in taxes
State & local taxes $657 million
In-state wealth $4.672 billion


Jobs and Income in Florida Supported by Historic Preservation:
JOBS
Services Sector 33,621 $7
Retail Trade 55,002 $7
Construction Sector 3,893 $1
Manufacturing Sector 9,627 $3
Other Sectors 21,099 $7
Total 123,242 $2.7


INCOME
'51 million
'96 million
74 million
22 million
'23 million
766 billion


ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN FLORIDA





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( . . II


ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN FLORIDA




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Historic Rehabilitation


Local, state, and federal governments and private lending

institutions throughout Florida are forming partnerships to invest

in the redevelopment of commercial and residential historic

properties and districts. Creative financing plans feature combinations

of loans, rants, tax credits, and investments of public and private funds.


1 he result of this is rehabili
station of older structures
allowing for their contain
ued contribution to our
communities. This rehabili
station may be as simple as restoring a
decayed older house in one of Florida's
many residential historic districts, or
as extensive as the adaptive reuse proj
ects that have transformed old indus
trial buildings in Tampas Ybor City to
make a vibrant and exciting commer
cial and entertainment district.
Like other forms of construct
tion activity, rehabilitation itself has
an economic effect. State officials
estimate that sixty to seventy per
cent of the cost of the typical his
toric rehabilitation project in
Florida is expended on labor, and
that usually benefits local laborers.

FINDINGS: Economic Impacts of
Florida Historic Rehabilitation
In examining the economic
impacts of rehabilitation of historic
properties in Florida, researchers
defined rehabilitation as all con
struction work that the Census
identifies as "alterations." Not
included are minor repairs or struc


tures added to buildings. "Historic"
is defined as property that is:
1. Designated as a national or local
landmark; or
2. Is located in a national or local
historic register district; or
3. Might be eligible for historic design
tion because of age or other factors.
More detailed methodology is dis
cussed in the technical report
of the study.


The findings of the study are:
B Historic properties accounted
for about 6.5 percent of rehabilita
tion of existing residential
and non-residential buildings in
Florida in 2000.
B That 6.5 percent of rehabilitation
activity on historic properties repre
sents an estimated $350 million in
spending.
B The total economic impact on
the state of Florida of the estimate
$350 million in spending includes:
* 10,443 jobs
* $317 million in income
* $496 million in gross state product
* $111 million in taxes (including
$50 million in state & local taxes)
* $446 million in in-state wealth


I I .11 pnrillield


ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN FLORIDA


ii




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tIFyW~ The 10,443 in state jobs generated
from historic building rehabilitation
include jobs from the following
IL .categories:

SConstruction 2,666 jobs
SServices 2,107 jobs
S* Retail Industries 1,700jobs


SPRINGFIELD HISTORIC DISTRICT,
JACKSONVILLE
Local communities are develop
ing creative ideas about funding the
rehabilitation of historic homes, many
in districts located near the urban core
of the city. The City of Jacksonvilles
Springfield community, located just
blocks from downtown, is considered
the city first downtown neighbor
hood, and during the silent film era,
was an eastern version of Hollywood.'
Historic Springfield is a nationally and
locally designated historic district.2 In
1998, with leadership from the
neighborhood and from Jacksonville
Mayor John A. Delaney, the Historic
Springfield Initiative began "as a pro
Likelard



Jobs Created by Florida Rehabilitation













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10




35741-UF Historic Report.qxd 8/15/03 3:18 PM Page 11


gressive plan to provide much
needed infrastructure improve
ments, home ownership incentives
and assistance, and resources for
community development,"accord
ing to the Mayor.3
In 1998 the City sponsored
the auction of twenty-three
homes in the Springfield district.
Prior to the auction, lending
institutions were reluctant to
invest in the neighborhood. Since
the auction, the city has devel
oped a consortium of five banks
that make loans for housing in
the neighborhood, supplemented
by public funding programs for
homeowners who qualify and by
assistance from community
based non-profit organizations.4
Since the auction and the invest
ment work on properties in
Springfield, property values have
doubled, according to city staff.5
Springfield's redevelopment is
a long-term project for the city


with concentration of activity
occurring by quadrant, due to the
size of the district. The city's
Neighborhoods Department con
ducts monthly meetings to review
city services and needs in
Springfield, and, ultimately, resi
dents hope for development of a
town center near their homes.
The City of Jacksonville
has received numerous awards
for its innovative programs
in Historic Springfield. The
awards include selection by the
National Community Development
Association for an Audrey
Nelson Community Development
Achievement Award for use of
Community Development Block
Grant funds in Springfield. The
city was also recognized by
Freddie Mac" in 2000 as the eighth
Alliance Community in the U.S.
and the first in the Southeast, for
expanding mortgage credit oppor
tunities for homeowners.


1. For additional information, see RICHARD ALAN NELSON, LIGHTS! CAMERA! FLORIDA!:
NINETY YEARS OF MOVIEMAKING AND TELEVISION PRODUCTION IN THE SUNSHINE STATE
(Tampa: Florida Endowment for the Humanities, 1987).
2. For more information about Historic Springfield, see WAYNE W. WOOD, JACKSONVILLE'S
ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE: LANDMARKS FOR THE FUTURE. JACKSONVILLE'S HISTORIC LANDMARKS
COMMISSION (1989).
3. "Historic Springfield Initiative." Brochure published by the Planning and
Development Department, Jacksonville, Florida.
4. Interview with Carole A. Burchette, Program Manager, Housing Services Division,
Planning and Development Department, City of Jacksonville (Mar. 28, 2002).
5. Id.


ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN FLORIDA


FLORIDA'S CERTIFIED
LOCAL GOVERNMENTS*


Auburndale
Clay County
Collier County
Coral Gables
DeLand
Delray Beach
Eatonville
Eustis
Fernandina Beach
Fort Myers
Fort Pierce
Gainesville
Gulfport
Highlands County
Hillsborough County
Hollywood
Homestead
Jacksonville
Jupiter
Key West
Kissimmee
Lake Park
Lake Worth
Lakeland
Lee County
Leesburg


Miami
Miami Beach
Miami-Dade County
Micanopy
Monroe County
Mount Dora
New Smyrna Beach
Ocala
Orlando
Palm Beach
Palm Beach County
Plant City
Pompano Beach
Quincy
Sanford
Sarasota
Sarasota County
St. Augustine
St. Petersburg
Tallahassee/Leon
County
Tampa
Tarpon Springs
Welaka
West Palm Beach
Windermere


* The Certified Local Government (CLG) Program is administered
jointly by the states and the National Par Service. CLG's have estab
Lashed histonc preservation programs, meeting federal and state
requirements, which entitle them to certain grants and technical
assistance. 36 C.F.R. pt. 61 htto://dhrdos.state.fl.us/cla/index.cfm

Florida Income Generated
by Historic Rehabilitation
Government Agriculture, Forest,
Government
/ Fish & Mining

i nstructlon











I ...... Insurance,
h UlI) I l t I~edl Lbldte
Wholesale

] Construction $94.57M
1 Services $61.03M
Finance, Insurance & Real Estate $38.36M
Manufacturing $55.74M
Retail $26.19M
] Transport $17.35M
] Wholesale $17.1M
Agriculture, Forest, Fish & Mining $4.84M
Government $1.63M

11




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)t Augustine
12 ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN FLORIDA




+^




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D UIrl S Y


1enrl ace T



Tourism is a vital component o Florida' s economy as one of the

state s top three revenue producers. Heritage tourism, one of the

top reasons for pleasure travel, has become increasingly

important both to travelers and to the communities the visit

and offers significant benefits to the community Heritage

tourism can offset the costs of maintaining historic sites, help

stimulate preservation efforts, and perpetuate the sense of place

that lends communities their unique character and identity


lorida had 71.5 million vis
itors during 2000. Some
89 percent of those visitors
were from the United
States; 8 percent from
overseas countries; and 3 percent
from Canada. Domestic visitors iden
tify vacationing as their primary rea
son for coming to Florida, followed
by visits to friends and relatives and
business trips.
Florida is home to hundreds of
opportunities to host tourists who
are interested in historic sites.
From the abundance of historic
hotels in places like Miami Beach or
St. Petersburg to such seasoned and
historic attractions as Silver
Springs, Parrot Jungle, Cypress
Gardens, Marineland and Sunken
Gardens, diverse sites attract thou
sands of annual visitors. In a survey
released in March, 2002, Visit
Florida found that six in ten
respondents to their survey (61%)
participated in some history-based



ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN FLORIDA


activities while vacationing in
Florida in the past year. These
activities included visits to historic
cal museums or memorials,
old homes, historic villages, Native
American sites, military sites, parks
or other historically important
sites. In 1997 Visit Florida's Florida
Visitor Study listed three historic
sites among the top ten attractions
for air visitors -Kennedy Space
Center Visitor Complex, Ernest
Hemingway House, and St.
Augustine Historic District. The
same survey found five historic
sites and museums among the top
ten major attractions of auto visi
tors surveyed -Kennedy Space
Center, St. Augustine Historic
District, Cypress Gardens, National
Museum of Naval Aviation, and
Silver Springs.' More than one-half
of Florida's museums are historical,
representing more than 9.7 million
visitors last year, according to the
Florida Association of Museums.


Nlver >prmgis

FINDINGS: Economic Impacts of
Florida Heritage Tourism
No detailed statewide analysis
has yet been conducted, focusing
on the travel and spending patterns
of heritage tourists in Florida.
However, findings of this study
relating to heritage tourists who
listed historic visits as a major rea
son for travel to the state
still yielded substantial informa
tion about heritage tourism,
including:
M An estimated $3.721 billion
in expenditures in Florida was gen
erated by heritage tourism in 2000.
M In Florida, that $3.721 billion
means:
* 107,607 jobs
* $2.314 billion in income
* $4.552 billion in gross state
product
* $1.093 billion in taxes (including
* $583 million in state and local taxes)
* $4.042 billion in in-state wealth
creation


ii




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Mont Dora

ST. AUGUSTINE
St. Augustine epitomizes her
itage tourism in Florida. The city's
13,000 residents and 14.4 square
miles host 3.5 million tourists annu
ally2 The tourists relive the history of
the nation's oldest continuously occu
pied city, strolling along St. George
Street, peering from atop the fortress
of Castillo de San Marcos, or driving
across the Bridge of the Lions. The
charms of St. Augustine even lured
one of the most famous Floridians,
Henry Flagler, who was so impressed
that he built the Hotel Ponce de Leon
and the Alcazar Hotel and purchased
the Hotel Cordova.3 Flagler also plat
ted the Model Land Company district
for his employees of the Florida East
Coast Railroad, and that area remains
today as one of St. Augustine's resi
dential historic districts.
Heritage tourism is the industry
of St. Augustine. "The whole city is
funded on tourism, and the tourism
base is historic preservation,"
observed David D. Birchim, Senior


Planner for the City of St. Augustine.4
The Economic Development Council
of the St. Augustine and St. Johns
County Chamber of Commerce esti
mates that tourism county-wide
brought in $490 million in 2000.5

KEY WEST & PENSACOLA
Old Town, in Key West, is a
190-block area that contains 2,580
structures.6 Heritage tourism has
been a mainstay for Key West and


Pensacola. Key West's Old Town and
Hemingway House and Pensacolas
Seville Historic District have attract
ed tourists for decades.

MOUNT DORA
In recent years heritage tourists
are making their own Florida discov
series. Historic Mount Dora in Central
Florida' is a charming mix of com
mercial and residential properties.
The 9,800 residents of the city host an
estimated one million visitors annual
ly, largely through a calendar filled
with festivals built around the down
town historic shopping district.8
"Events put us on the map.
People come for the charm," said
Craig Willis, Executive Director of
the Mount Dora Area Chamber of
Commerce. About one-half of
Mount Dora's annual visitors come
for a festival. "Our topography has a
lot to do with it. The hills, oak trees,
overlooking a lake. The historic
character and quaintness. .We don't
market historic. We market charm
and quaintness. We don't have to say
it. It's part of it."
The festivals are the biggest
business in Mount Dora, and Willis
said urban sprawl is the biggest
threat. "If we sit back, Orlando's
going to be knocking down the front


Primary Activities of Domestic Visitors to Florida, 2000"


ACTIVITY
Beaches
Shopping
Theme/Amusement Park
Nightlife/Dancing
Outdoor (Hunt, Fish, Hike)
Historical Places/Museums
Golf/Tennis
Cultural Events/Festivals
National/State Park
Sports Event
Gambling
Other


TOTAL
32.4%
32.4%
26.5%
12.0%
10.7%
9.1%
6.3%
6.3%
5.1%
4.4%
2.0%
3.2%


AIR VISITORS
30.8%
34.8%
30.5%
13.2%
10.2%
8.9%
6.6%
6.4%
5.1%
4.5%
1.7%
3.1%


AUTO VISITORS
36.9%
30.6%
22.8%
9.6%
11.6%
9.4%
6.5%
5.6%
5.3%
4.8%
2.4%
3.1%


*Travel Industry Association, TravelScope Data as cited in Florida Visitors Study. 2000.


ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN FLORIDA




35741-UF Historic Report.qxd 8/15/03 3:19 PM Page 15


door. That's why the preservation
ordinance was passed a few years
ago by 80 percent. The downtown
village is our main draw. You've got
to keep your character. If we lose it,
it's over," Willis said.


YBOR CITY
In Tampa, a resurgent Ybor City
Historic District is drawing a new
breed of heritage tourists. The com




1. VISIT FLORIDA, FLORIDA VISITOR STUDY/1997,
9, 20 (1998).
2. Interview with David D. Birchim, Senior
Planner, City of St. Augustine, Florida
(Mar. 28, 2002).
3. "Historic St. Augustine," St. Augustine &
St. Johns County Chamber of Commerce
Visitor Information, available at http://www.
stau ustinechamber.com/visitor/
visitor8.html. (last visited Mar. 29, 2002).
4. Birchim interview, supra note 2.
5. "Tourism Industry Profile..." Economic
Development of St. Augustine & St. Johns
County Chamber of Commerce, available at
http://www.staugustinechamber.com/
edc/communitv/tourism.html. (last visited
Mar. 29, 2002).


munity is a mix of thirty percent com
mercial buildings and seventy percent
residential property9 It is now a fash
ionable entertainment district, redis
covering its potential as a tourist
attraction in the wake of massive
destruction after the promises of
urban renewal. The City of Tampa is
investing in the former immigrant
community that is emerging as a lure
for Florida's international visitors.10



6. "Key West Facts," available at htto://www.
keywestcity.com/city/welcome/cityhistory/cit
historv.html (last visited Jan.15, 2002).
7. For more information on Mount Dora and
other picturesque Florida small cities, see, e.g.,
BRUCE HUNT, VISITING SMALL-TOWN FLORIDA,
(Sarasota: Pineapple Press, Inc.,1997).
8. Interview with Craig Willis, Executive Director,
Mount Dora Area Chamber of Commerce
(Feb. 15, 2002).
9. Interview with Marcela Medrano de Fakhr,
Urban Planner, Ybor City Development
Corporation (Feb. 20, 2002).
10. Interview with Del Acosta, Administrator,
Historic Preservation, City of Tampa
(Feb. 20, 2002).


Florida Jobs Generated
by Heritage Tourism

Construction
S Agnc, Forest, Fish, Mining
Goernmn / Manufacturing
Transport
n"'i ,lesale







Fin .
Insurance
Real Estate Retail



] Retail 51,794
SServices 30,068
Finance, Insur. & Real Estate 9,903
Manufacturing 7,365
] Transport 3,445
Wholesale 3,221
] Agric., Forest, Fish & Mining 764
] Construction 558
Government 490


Heritage Tourism Study: St. Johns Count


ii;,. ;-:,i he St. Johns County Tourist Development Council (TDC) commissioned the University of Florida's
Center for Tourism Research and Development within the Department of Recreation, Parks and
iiiiiiiiiiiTourism in 2001 to conduct a study of the impact of tourism on St. Johns County and St. Augustine,
Ponte Vedra and The Beaches. The study, coordinated by Drs. John Confer, Lori Pennington-Gray, Brijesh Thapa
and Stephen Holland, was supported by the Florida Department of State, Division of Historical Resources; the
National Trust for Historic Preservation; and the City of St. Augustine.

Specifically, the study will seek to address the following areas:

1. The size, relative to all St. Johns County visitors, of the heritage traveler segment, including overnight and
excursionists.

2. Key factors in the heritage travelers' decision to visit St. Johns County, including the role of historic preservation
in selecting St. Johns County as a vacation destination.

3. Key activities that heritage travelers to St. Johns County participated in while visiting.

4. The economic impact generated by the heritage traveler segment on the St. Johns County economy, including
expenditure patterns while visiting, the average length of stay, and lodging, shopping, and dining choices.








ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN FLORIDA





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ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN FLORIDA




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amin Street iro ram


Downtown revitalization is an important economic component of

historic preservation, and Florida communities of ever size

have restored their main streets and rediscovered their sense

of place. Diverse investment programs, through leveraging of

public and private funds, are redesigning the wa Floriclians
p I _ Flrdin


thinL about and use their downto

lorida's Main Street
program, a technical
assistance program for
communities of 5,000
50,000 in population,
though the program may be tailored
to smaller communities and pocket
historic commercial areas of larger
cities, has invested $4 million in
state grant funds to eighty partici
pating communities, yielding a total
public/private investment of $486.5
million since the program began in
1985.1 The investment also resulted
in 1,816 new businesses and more
than 7,000 jobs.2

FINDINGS: Economic Impacts of
Florida Main Street Program
M Florida's Main Street program
represents a net investment of $64
million in construction plus retail
job benefits in FY2000-2001.
M Estimated average new full-time
jobs created by this investment is
850 in Florida in FY2000-2001.
M The overall economic impact in
Florida of the $64 million direct
investment is:
3,202 jobs
$81 million in income
$132 million in gross state product


ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN FLORIDA


* $31 million in taxes
(federal, state and local)
* $116 million in in-state wealth

] The largest number of in-state
Florida jobs fostered by Main Street
investment is in the retail sector.
M Other large sectors of Florida jobs
benefitting from Main Street invest
ment are construction, services, and
manufacturing.

KISSIMMEE
Local officials in
Kissimmee are working to
restore a community histo
ry steeped in Florida's
ranching and cowboy her- M ai
itage. Kissimmee joined m .SH
Florida Main Street in
1997 in an effort at downtown revital
ization, and completed a $2.3 million
streetscape project that contributed to
the beautification of downtown.3 City
officials are using a Community
Develop Block Grant program
to extend the renovation to
building facades. They have designed
the city's entry gate and logo to reflect
the cowboy heritage. The city has just
hired its first historic preservation
official in an effort to continue the
restoration efforts.


AUBURNDALE
Auburndale became a Main
Street community in 1992 and
merged its Main Street efforts with
the Auburndale Chamber of
Commerce in 1997, becoming the
first such merger in Florida.4
Downtown Auburndale received
another boost through a grant from
the Florida Department of State to
reconstruct the old train station,
which was dedicated in 2002 and
serves as a museum and tennis cen
ter for the city.

DELAND
Established in 1985 as one of
Florida's first Main Street programs,
DeLand's initiative remains alive
today. The Main Street program in
DeLand has generated $55


1 Street
,'Ir.I'r a


million in public construct
tion and is credited with
increasing occupancy rates
from forty to ninety-eight
percent. Other benefits the
city has seen as a result
of being a Florida Main
Street community include


increased sales tax revenue
from new businesses; increased inter
est in historic preservation; and store
front renovations aided by local
matching grants.6

PANAMA CITY
Panama City Main Street is a
program of the Panama City
Downtown Improvement Board,
Community Redevelopment Agency.
In the past year, more than $12.4
million has been invested in the




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Delray Beach

community, and more than eighty
three new jobs have been created.
The occupancy rate for commercial
space along the main business corri
dor has risen from 82% to 95% with
34 businesses starting or relocating
into the District. With the assistance
of Florida Main Street, district mer
chants have received retail consult
tion and promotions have begun
such as the "Celebrate Downtown
Festival of Nations" and the "We're


Diggin' Downtown" streetscape
public relations campaign.'


HAMILTON COUNTY
The state's only countywide
Main Street program, in Hamilton
County, serves the communities of
Jennings, Jasper, and White Springs.
Main Street is assisting local officials
and businesses in promoting eco
tourism of the region.8


HOMESTEAD
Homestead showcases its Main
Street achievements the first Friday of
each month with an evening known
as "Friday Fest". Sightseers can take
in live music as they stroll around
restored historic buildings such as the
Old Town Hall, which was construct
ed in 1917. Rehabilitation on the
7,000 square foot building began


Florida Main Street Communities Since, 95
Arcadia Hamilton County Pahoke
Auburndale Homestead Palatka
Avon Park Immokalee Palm H<
Bartow Indialantic Panama
Blountstown Key West Perry
Bonita Springs Kissimmee Plantati
Chipley Lake City Plant Ci
Clermont Lake Park Quincy
Clearwater Lake Wales Riviera
Clewiston Lake Worth St. Clou
Cocoa Largo St. Pete
Crestview Leesburg Granc
Dade City Marathon St. Pete
Dania Beach Marianna 22nd
Davie Miami Beach Sanford
Daytona Beach Miami Downtown Sarasot
DeLand Miami Overton Sebring
Delray Beach Miami Shores Stuart
Dunnellon Milton Tarpon
Eustis Monticello Titusvill
Ft. Lauderdale/ Naples Venice
Sistrunk Blvd. New Port Richey Vero Be
Ft. Myers Beach New Smyrna Beach Wauchu
Ft. Myers Oakland Park Winter
Ft. Pierce Ocala Winter
Ft. Walton Beach Okeechobee Ybor Ci
Goldenrod Orlando Zephyrt
Haines City Ormond Beach


e

arbor
City

on
ty

Beach
id
rsburg/
SCentral
rsburg/
Street South

a/Newtown


Springs
e

ach
Ila
Garden
Haven
ty
hills


prior to Hurricane Andrew; not sur
prisingly, the storm necessitated fur
their work on the structure.
Replacement trusses were crafted
from trees felled by the hurricane.
Begun in 1993, Homestead's
Main Street program relies largely on
the local spirit of volunteerism.
Recently the program's lead organize
tion has hired an outside consultant
to assess the current market situation
and identify areas in which improve
ments could be made. Homestead's
downtown has witnessed an influx of
more than $300,000 toward efforts to
beautify and rebuild the area.
Homestead Main Street's Design
Committee is currently working on a
historic district designation report
requested by the City of Homestead.
The report will consist largely of a
series of maps depicting structures
over fifty years old, architecturally
significant structures, proposed
improvements, and sites of historic or
cultural significance.9


FORT PIERCE
Main Street Fort Pierce was
established in 1988 and is supported
in part through paid memberships
with support levels from $15 to
$1,000. The winner of several
awards (such as "Outstanding
Florida Main Street Image
Campaign" in 2000), the program
sponsors dozens of local events
annually, including "Coffee with the
Mayor". This monthly opportunity
runs September through May and
allows organizations and businesses
to present themselves to others in
the community August brings the
Reverse Raffle and Silent Auction, a
themed event held the third
Saturday of the month. And the first
Sunday in December is "Sights and
Sounds on Second", a festival that
culminates in the lighting of the
city's Christmas tree.


ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN FLORIDA




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YLor City


Main Street Fort Pierce
bought and is in the process of
restoring the historic Sunrise
Theater with more than $5 mil-
lion raised from private dona
tions and state grants. Fifteen
facade projects also benefitted
from state grants, as did the ren
ovation of the Historic City Hall,
a landmark constructed in 1925
that was once slated for demoli
tion. In 1995, the program spon
scored a charette to generate a
master plan for the historic
downtown area. Results of this
master plan include a new $2.5
million library. Main Street Fort
Pierce also has supported the
works of the St. Lucie Mural
Society in bringing four murals
to downtown depicting images
of local significance.10


1. "Florida Main Street Communities Quarterly Report Data Base," Information supplied by Thadra
Stanton, Florida Mainstreet Program Assistant, Florida Department of State (Mar. 7, 2002).
Main Street initially was developed by the National Trust for Historic Preservation. Since 1980,
Mainstreet has contributed some $16.1 billion in public and private investment in forty states and
over 1,600 American cities. Further information about this nationwide program is available at
http://www.mainstreet.ora/.
2. As of August, 2002, Florida's Main Street Program has yielded a total public/private investment of
more than $855.2 million resulting in the creation of more than 2,300 new businesses, and more
than 8,900jobs. "Florida Main Street Quarterly Report Data Base" (Aug. 14, 2002)
3. Katherine Harris, Making It Count: How the Arts and Historic Preservation Can
Make a Difference in Your County, FLORIDA COUNTIES (Nov./Dec. 2000).
4. "Auburndale Chamber Mainstreet," Information published by the Auburndale, Florida,
Chamber of Commerce, 2001/2002.
5. Interview with Doug Taylor, Building and Zoning Director, and Cindy Hummel, Director, Parks &
Recreation, City of Auburndale. (Feb. 5, 2002).
6. E-mail from Taver Cornet, DeLand Main Street Program Manager (April, 2002). Further information is
available at http://wwwl.flausa.com/interests/mainstreet/ce.php.
7. E-mail from Laura Lee Corbett, Florida Main Street Program Coordinator, Florida Dept. of State (Aug. 2002)
8. Harris, supra note 3.
9. E-mail from Dale Cunningham, Homestead Main Street Program Manager (April, 2002). Further
information is available at htto://wwwl.flausa.com/interests/mainstreet/se.oho and
http://www.homesteadmainstreet.com.
10. Information about these local Main Street Programs is available at http://www.
mainstreetfortiDerce.ora and httD://www.visitstluclefla.com/historv.html.


ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN FLORIDA 19














I'I
35741-UF Historic Report. qxd 8/15/03 3:20 PM Page 20 __ _








































































Bonnett House Museum an Gardenis, Fort Lauderdale H

20




^


ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN FLORIDA




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Historical Museums,


Sites


Archaeologists estimate that humans have inhabited Florida

for more than ten thousand years. Monuments and sites com-

memorating that long history lure the adventurous and the just

lain curious to the state. These rich diverse historical

resources include Native American sites, museums,

battlegrounds, parks, courthouses, downtown, hotels, motels,

beaches, historic markers and heritage trails.


W while Florida's
tourism of 2002
might be better
known for the
Central Florida
theme parks, which pump millions
of dollars into the state's economy
annually, tourism steeped in yes
teryear continues as a growing seg
ment of the tourist economy as
well. Visitors to the state frequent
ly combine both theme parks and
historic sites on their itineraries.
A recently released survey by
Visit Florida, found that six in ten
respondents (61%) among
Floridians who took a vacation in
Florida last year participated in a
history-based activity. These activi
ties included visiting historical
museums or memorials, old homes,
historic villages, Native American
sites, military sites, parks or other
historic sites.4 These findings are
comparable to similar surveys of all
Florida visitors in 1998 and 1999. In


ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN FLORIDA


1998, 52.9% of all vacationers and
57.5% of Floridians who vacationed
in Florida said they visited historic
sites during their trip. The figures
were similar for 1999, when 54.3%
of all vacationers and 55.5% of
Floridians said they visited historic
sites while a tourist in Florida.5 With
Visit Florida reporting 58.8 million
tourists in 1999,6 the number of vis
itors interested in historic sites and
activities is quite significant.
These "heritage tourists" can
visit a wide variety of sites in the
state. Florida has more than 1,400
listings on the National Register of
Historic Places.' Of the state's 356
museums, some 183 are consid
ered historic, representing 1,610
employees, welcoming some 9.7
million visitors last year and hav
ing operating budgets totalling
$67.8 million.8
The Florida Department of
State's Division of Historical
Resources awards grant funds to


MaIjore Kinnan awlings Hose, Cross Greek
non-profit Florida history muse
ums for operating budgets and to
museums for exhibits regarding
the history of Florida. Since 1997,
the Division has awarded 338
grants, totaling more than $8.4
million.9

FINDINGS: Economic Impacts
of the Operations of Florida
Historical Museums
B Historical museums represent
more than one-half of all the muse
ums in Florida.
B Historical museums in Florida
had an operating budget of $68
million for 2001.
B Of the $86 million of Florida
gross state product generated by
historical museums, $29 million
benefits the services sector, and
$23 million benefits the finance,
insurance, and real estate sectors.
B The total economic impact of
Florida historical museums net


Pa rks


&r




35741-UF Historic Report.qxd 8/15/03 3:20 PM Page 22


Henry B Plat lMuseun, Universiy of Tampa


spending is 1,989 jobs, represent
ing an income of $54 million and
$19 million in total federal, state,
and local taxes.


FLORIDA STATE &
NATIONAL PARKS
Florida's historic diversity
might best be reflected in the state
park system, which stretches from
the Alabama line to the Florida
Keys. From the creation of a monu
ment at Olustee Battlefield in Baker
County in 1899, the Florida State
Park system has celebrated the sig
nificant events and locations in state
history10 The Civilian Conservation
Corps, created in 1933, assisted in
the development of the state park
system. By 1938 the Florida State
Park System consisted of nine parks:
Highlands Hammock in Hardee


County, Hillsborough River in
Hillsborough County, O'Leno in
Alachua and Columbia counties,
Myakka River in Manatee and
Sarasota counties, Fort Clinch in
Nassau County, Suwanee River in
Hamilton, Madison, and Suwanee
counties, Gold Head Branch in Clay
County, Torreya in Liberty County
and Florida Caverns in Jackson
County."
Today, Florida's network of state
parks cris-crosses the state, reporting
18.1 million visitors in 2000-2001.12
Of the 156 Florida state parks, 46
include sites in the National Register.
Among those visitors, more than 46.2
percent traveled to a state park that is
historic or includes some historic or
archeological site within its borders."
Visitors to these parks take advantage
of both the traditional recreational
facilities of state parks and the history
ically significant sites.
Florida's national parks also
include historic sites. Visitors to
national parks located within
Florida's borders, including the
Castillo de San Marcos National
Monument in St. Johns County and
Dry Tortugas National Park in
Monroe County, accounted for more
than 5.2 million of the 8.7 million vis
itors to national parks during 1999.14


Cape Florida Liht House


ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN FLORIDA




35741-UF Historic Report.qxd 8/15/03 3:20 PM Page 23












National Register of Historic Places:
Florida Listings


Alachua

Baker

Bay


Bradford 3

Brevard 42


45 Lake

3 Lee

4 Leon


Levy 3

Liberty 4


Broward 23 Madison


Calhoun 2

Charlotte 16


Citrus

Clay

Collier


Columbia 10

Dade 164

DeSoto 1

Dixie 2

Duval 78


Manatee 24

Marion 29


8 Martin 5

22 Monroe 38

19 Nassau 12


Okaloosa 7

Okeechobee 2

Orange 36

Osceola 7

Palm Beach 67


Escambia 33 Pasco


Flagler


4 Pinellas 54


Franklin 10 Polk


Gadsden 14

Gilchrist 0

Glades 2

Gulf 3

Hamilton 4


Putnam 15

St. Johns 32

St. Lucie 16

Santa Rosa 17

Sarasota 78


1. CHARLTON W. TEBEAU, A HISTORY OF FLORIDA 8-18 (7th prtg. 1980). See also FLORIDA DEPT. OF ENVIRON.
PROTECTION, OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000, FLORIDA'S STATEWIDE COMPREHENSIVE OUTDOOR
RECREATION PLAN (2000) available at http://www.dep.state.fl.us/parks/planning/pdf/scorp-2000.pdf
(last visited May 30, 2002).

2. For more information about Florida's historic courthouses, see HAMPTON DUNN, HISTORIC
FLORIDA COURTHOUSES (Gloucester Point, Va.: Hallmark Pub. Co., 1998).

3. For more information about Florida's historic sites, see ELIOT KLEINBERG, HISTORICAL TRAVELER'S GUIDE TO
FLORIDA (Sarasota: Pineapple Press, Inc.,1997).

4. Cultural, Heritage, and Naturism in Florida, Memorandum from Vicki Verhine, Sr. Market Research Analyst,
Visit Florida (Mar. 27, 2002).

5. "History-Based Activities and the Florida Tourist" (Visit Florida Research Dept., 2000).

6. VISIT FLORIDA, FLORIDA VISITOR STUDY 2000 (2000).

7. General information about the National Register of Historic Places is available from the National Park
Service online at http://www.crnps.gov/places.htm. For more information about Florida listings on the
National Register, see MORTON D. WINSBERG, FLORIDA'S HISTORY THROUGH ITS PLACES: PROPERTIES IN THE
NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES (Gainesville: Univ. Press of Fla., 1995), updated online at htt://www.
freac.fsu.edu/HistoricPlaces/Atlas.html (last visited August 16, 2002).

8. E-mail from Malinda Horton, Executive Director, Florida Association of Museums, to JoAnn Klein,
University of Florida College of Law (Jan.14, 2002). Further information about the Florida Association of
Museums is available at http://www.flamuseums.org.

9. Information supplied by the Division of Historical Resources, Museum Grants Program.

10. Florida Dept. of Environ. Protection, History of the Florida State Park System, available at
http://www.dep.state.fl.us/parks/information/history.htm (last visited May 30, 2002).
11. Id.

12. State Parks and Areas: Attendance at Parks by Dept. of Environ. Prot. Districts in the State and Specified
Counties of Florida, Fiscal Years 1998-1999 & 1999-2000, in FLORIDA STATISTICAL ABSTRACT 2000, 546-47
(Univ. of Fla. Bureau of Econ. & Bus. Research, 2000).

13. Id.

14. Id.


2 Seminole 12

10 Sumter 2


Hernando 5 Suwannee


Highlands 13

Hillsborough 77


Holmes


Indian River 23

Jackson 9


Taylor 2

Union 2


1 Volusia


Wakulla 7

Walton 5


Jefferson 19 Washington 3

Lafayette 0 TOTAL 1429


*Florida Master Site File and the Bureau of Historic
Preservation, Survey & Registration Section. August 15,
2002. The National Register is the official Federal list of
properties throughout the country that reflects the
prehistoric occupation and historic development of our
nation, states, and local communities.


ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN FLORIDA 23


Hardee

Hendry


' I ..11 .. s Lodge





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low


Lake Wor.t


ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN FLORIDA




35741-UF Historic Report.qxd 8/15/03 3:21PM Page 25


Historical Resources



Grants-In-Aid Program and Rehabilitation Tx Incentives
0


More than 1,400 historic properties in all 67 Florida counties have

been restored or rehabilitated since 1985 through the Historical

Resources Grants-In-Aid Program of the Bureau of Historic

Preservation, Division of Historical Resources in the Florida

Department of State. This program has awarded more than $212.1

million in grants to 2,751 projects, which has been matched b1y $360

million in local fund, and the Florida Department of State reports that

this represents a 200 percent return on the public dollars invested.2


Y ormer Florida Secretary
of State Katherine Harris
has noted that approxi
mately $10-15 million
annually in matching
grant funds are available to "assist
a wide variety of historic preserve
tion projects, including cultural
resource surveys, preservation
education and planning, archaeo
logical excavations, and the
restoration and rehabilitation of
historic buildings."3 The photo
graphs included in this book illus
trate many of the historic sites in
cities throughout Florida which
have benefitted in some way from
these state grant funds, and their
successful combination of public
and private investment.
State officials estimate that
sixty to seventy percent of the cost
of the typical historic rehabilitation
project in Florida is expended
on labor, and that usually benefits
local workers.4


ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN FLORIDA


FINDINGS: Economic impacts of
the Historical Resources
Grants-In-Aid Program
M For the purposes of this study the
analysis was conducted on the grants
which are used largely for capital
improvement purposes, including the
historic preservation grants and spe
cial category grants. Florida offers one
of the nations most successful pro
grams to foster historic rehabilitation
through these grants programs.
M The Florida Historical Resources
Grants-In-Aid Program has economy
ic effects from both the one-time
historic rehabilitation (construc
tion) it engenders and from the on
going historic tourism it supports
through renovation of Floridas his
toric resources, thus resulting in vis
station to historic sites.

M From FY1996 through FY2001,
the Florida Historical Resources
Grants-In-Aid Program resulted in
$333 million in historic rehabilita
tion through capital improvements.


SotiL Beach, Miai Beach


M Within Florida, the $333 million
resulted in total cumulative
economic impacts for FY1996
2001 of:
* 10,452 jobs
* $317 million in income
* $495 million in gross state product
* $111 million in total taxes
* $434 million in in-state wealth
M Of the $495 million in gross state
product, the following sectors of the
Florida economy were most greatly
impacted:


Construction
Services
Manufacturing


$111 million
$86 million
$85 million


PENSACOLA
Pensacola dates back more
than 450 years and has one of the
oldest and most active historic
preservation programs in the state.




35741-UF Historic Report.qxd 8/15/03 3:21PM Page 26


Historic eeld imitation anc Iax lneentives


since 1976, the Federal
Historic Preservation Tax
Incentives Program has
been instrumental in preserving
the historic places that give Florida
cities, towns and rural areas their
special character. Administered in
Florida by the Department of
State's Division of Historical
Resources, this federal program
provides an investment tax credit
(a dollar-for-dollar reduction of tax
liability) equal to 20% of planning
and construction related costs for
substantial rehabilitation of prop
erties listed in the National
Register of Historic Places, if after
rehabilitation they are used for
income-producing purposes." The
tax credit is available for owners
and long-term lessees of historic
properties. Projects must be car
ried out in conformance with the
Secretary of the Interior's Standards
for Rehabilitation. Over 500
buildings across the state have
been rehabilitated with benefit
from this program, representing
private investment of more than
$367 million.12

MIAMI BEACH
In the 1970s, a push to save
the unique Art Deco architecture
of Miami Beach began after local
residents became concerned that
the brightly colored buildings of
the 1930's and 1940's were serious
ly endangered by decay and neg
lect.13 Activist Barbara Capitman
began a drive to save the buildings,
and today the city boasts the first
and largest historic district of Art
Deco architecture in the world.14
The Miami Beach Architectural
District (the Art Deco Historic
Architectural District), one of six


historic areas in Miami Beach,
hosts an estimated seven million
tourists annually, making the area
the number one tourist attraction
in South Florida and the number
two tourist destination in Florida,
after the Disney attractions.5 City
officials estimate that the influx of
tourists to South Beach con
tributes more than $11 billion
annually to the area."1 The city
benefits from a combination of
rehabilitated historic hotels and
apartments, new hotels, a thriving
beachfront, and a vibrant commu
nity, all of which emerged with the
city's renaissance.
Miami Beach has been one of
the largest beneficiaries of the fed
eral tax incentives program. Since
the last major change to the pro
gram occurred in 1986, rehabilita
tion projects qualifying for the fed
eral tax credit in the Art Deco
Historic Architectural District have
accounted for more than $40.7
million in private investment
with the historic properties being
reused as hotels, offices, retail
space and apartments.
Several other cities, including
Lakeland and West Palm Beach,
have seen significant improve
ments in their downtown
commercial areas as a result of
this program.
In addition to the federal
incentives program, two types of
local option ad valorem tax exemp
tion programs and a broad range of
discretionary local incentives
also encourage preservation of
historic properties in Florida
communities. These incentives are
often enacted through the efforts
of the community's Certified Local
Government program.


Much of the preservation effort in the
downtown area has focused on the
Historic Pensacola Village, composed
of twenty properties constructed
between 1800 and 1900. Ten of these
properties have been transformed into
a museum complex depicting the his
tory of the city.5
In 2000-2001, three Historic
Pensacola Village buildings received a
$250,000 grant from the state for
restoration and continued museum
use. The grant applicant, Historic
Pensacola, Inc., estimated that, once
restored, these buildings would host more
than 500,000 visitors annually6
Another $250,000 grant was award
ed to Pensacola in 1999-2000 for rehabil
station work on the Old Pensacola City
Hall, which now houses the T.T.
Wentworth, Jr., Florida State Museum,
with an estimated annual visitation of
40,000.7
These and other historic projects in
Pensacola and Escambia County have
received more than $6.6 million in state
grant awards since 1983.

KEY WEST
Key West's historic treasures differ
from those of many other Florida cities
because most of the structures of historic
cal significance in this southernmost city
are homes and cottages, representative of
the late 1800's.8 The charm of Key West,
recreated from its cultural and island get
away reputation, lures tourists by car, by
air, and even by cruise ship in the hun
dreds of thousands annually The contain
ued restoration and rehabilitation invest
ment in Key West has been encouraged by
a mixture of the state grants and federal
tax credits programs.
During the decade of the 1990's, the
Key West Custom House, an 1891 public
building that has served many govern
ment uses, underwent a major restoration
for use as a museum today Abandoned in
1974, the large structure received a variety
of state grants from 1992 to 2000, totaling


ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN FLORIDA




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Total Grant Projects, 1983-2002


Old Christ Churc,k Persacola


$1.25 million in public funds.9 The
Custom House is now open as a his
toric museum and is estimated to
attract 150,000 tourists annually10
Key West also has received grant
funds for other properties such as the
Audubon House, Bahama Village
Preservation, the Old Firehouse, Fort
Zachary Taylor, Key West Cemetery
Key West Lighthouse, Old City Hall,
the Oldest House, Truman Little
White House, and archaeological
programs.


SPECIAL CATEGORY GRANTS
While the three cities cited
above are well-known for their


historic projects, the special catego
ry grants program also made awards
to a variety of other types of proj
ects. Recent examples include:

* Governor Stone Schooner,
Apalachicola Maritime
Museum, Inc., $99,015

* Gulfview Hotel,
Fort Walton Beach, $174,500

* Key West Naval Storehouse,
$359,000

* Stetson University Historic District,
$350,000

* Wakulla Springs Lodge, $97,875

* White Hall, Bethune-Cookman
College, $400,000


1. FLORIDA DEPT. OF STATE, D. OF HISTORICAL RESOURCES, FISCAL YEAR 2001-2002, RESTORATION OF HIST. PROPERTIES, SPECIAL
CATEGORY PROJECTS, APPROVED & RANKED BY THE FLA. HIST. PRESERVATION ADVISORY COUNCIL Vii (2000).
2. Katherine Harris, Making it Count: How the Arts and Historic Preservation Can Make a Difference in Your County,
FLORIDA COUNTIES (Nov/Dec. 2000).
3. Id. Further information about the Historical Resources Grants-In-Aid Programs, including examples of recent
grants and application information, is available from the Division of Historical Resources at
http://dhr.dos.state.fl.us/bhp/grants (last visited Mar 10, 2002).
4. Harris, supra note 2.
5. City of Pensacola, Architectural Review Board, Planning and Neighborhood Development, available at
www.ci.pensacola.fl.us.
6. FLORIDA DEPT. OF STATE, Div. OF HISTORICAL RESOURCES, FISCAL YEAR 2000-2001, RESTORATION OF HIST. PROPERTIES,
SPECIAL CATEGORY PROJECTS, APPROVED & RANKED BY THE FLA. HIST. PRESERVATION ADVISORY COUNCIL 22 (2000).
7. FLORIDA DEPT. OF STATE, DIV OF HISTORICAL RESOURCES, 1999-2000 BUDGET REQUEST, RESTORATION OF HISTORIC PROPERTIES,
SPECIAL CATEGORY PROJECTS 35 (1999).
8. City of Key West, "Key West Facts," available at htto://www.keywestcity.com
9. "Histonc Preservation Grants Awarded," Information supplied by Florida Dept. of State, Div. of Histoncal
Resources, May, 2001.
10. See 1999-2000 Budget Request, supra note 7, at 21.
11. I.R.C., 26 U.S.C. 47 (2002).
12. "Florida Projects Qualifying for Federal Rehabilitation Tax Credit, 1/1/1987-3/7/2002," information supplied by
Flonda Dept. of State, Div. of Historical Resources.
13. For more information about Miami Beach's Art Deco distinct, see FROM WILDERNESS TO METROPOLIS: THE HISTORY AND
ARCHITECTURE OF DADE COUNTY (1825-1940), 153 (Metropolitan Dade Co., Office of Community Dev., Hist. Pres. Div,
2d ed.1992).
14. Further information about this important restoration is available from The Miami Design Preservation League,
at www.mdpl.orq.
15. City of Miami Beach, "Tounsm Overview," available at htto://www.ci.miami-beach.fl.us.
16. Id.


COUNTY
Alachua
Baker
Bay
Bradford
Brevard
Broward
Calhoun
Charlotte
Citrus
Clay
Collier
Columbia
Dade
DeSota
Dixie
Duval
Escambia
Flagler
Franklin
Gadsen
Gilchrist
Glades
Gulf
Hamilton
Hardee
Hendry
Hernando
Highlands
Hillsborough
Holmes
Indian River
Jackson
Jefferson
Lafayette
Lake
Lee
Leon
Levy
Liberty
Madison
Manatee
Marion
Martin
Monroe
Multi-County
Nassau
Okaloosa
Okeechobee
Orange
Osceola
Palm Beach
Pasco
Pinellas
Polk
Putnam
Santa Rosa
Sarasota
Seminole
St. Johns
St. Lucie
Statewide
Sumter
Suwannee
Taylor
Union
Volusia
Wakulla
Walton
Washington
Total


NO. VALUE
64 $3,715,724
12 876,388
13 615,075
2 125,615
49 2,577,887
83 6,289,838
12 1,395,647
13 274,274
28 2,059,967
23 1,194,577
15 836,927
11 738,860
237 18,712,701

3 275,000
9 83,715
111 11,672,080
69 6,652,967
12 998,167
29 1,937,755
23 2,374,170
2 50,000
5 300,510
9 658,728
13 393,917
8 660,145
13 977,994
3 108,632
25 1,576,874
128 12,425,146
1 20,500
18 1,078,430
13 929,225
37 3,729,073
2 466,977
51 2,679,060
55 3,543,064
96 11,976,800
14 532,802
3 112,317
11 1,738,940
33 1,759,618
49 1,489,183
23 2,471,720
110 8,384,800
28 341,092
37 2,960,373
18 982,868
4 798,625
73 6,551,380
13 760,625
140 9,429,150
44 2,975,385
106 7,462,969
103 10,454,884
28 1,403,673
37 1,292,377
77 8,164,860
21 1,048,207
123 11,793,983
27 1,978,992
104 3,607,287
6 842,674
11 1,696,965
12 334,585
3 868,750
162 12,577,525
12 953,938
14 694,669
8 697,350
2751 $212,144,448


ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN FLORIDA 27





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West Palm Beacla


ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN FLORIDA




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SFropert


Values


Historic preservation is dependent upon local ordinances and

programs. These ordinances are usually part of zoning

ordinances and administered through zoning mechanisms. These

ordinances typically create a board to designate historic districts

or landmarks, together with criteria for designation.


he ordinances then set
forth a process under
which designated prop
erties must seek review
for certain external alter
nations, demolitions or other con
struction.' A review of assessed val
ues of historic properties in Florida
has shown that historic preserve
tion helps to maintain property val
ues. The results are similar to stud
ies in other states and show that
historic property often appreciates
at higher rates than similar non
historic property.2
Project staff collected property
appraiser information for more than
20,000 parcels in eight Florida cities
for the years 1992, 1997 and 2001.3
They then reviewed changes in
assessed property values in eighteen
historic districts and twenty-five
comparison neighborhoods. The
review compared property of a simi
lar description (e.g., Single Family
Residential), measuring percentage
changes from 1992-1997, 1997
2001 and 1992-2001. Assessed
property values over the ten-year
period from 1992-2001 were
reviewed for the following cities:



ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN FLORIDA


* Jacksonville: 1 historic district
(both National Register & local),
2 comparison neighborhoods
* Gainesville: 2 historic districts
(both National Register & local),
2 comparison neighborhoods
* Ocala: 2 historic districts
(both National Register & local),
3 comparison neighborhoods
* Tampa: 2 historic districts
(both National Register & local),
2 comparison neighborhoods
* St. Petersburg: 4 historic districts
(local), 6 comparison neighborhoods
* Lakeland: 4 historic districts
(3 National Register & local, 1 local),
5 comparison neighborhoods
* West Palm Beach: 2 historic districts
(1 National Register & local, 1 local),
2 comparison neighborhoods
* Lake Worth: 1 historic district (local),
1 comparison neighborhood
Although the property values
review was not a comprehensive
survey of all Florida property, its
conclusions are based on a fairly
representative sample of mainly
residential historic districts in eight
large and medium-sized Florida
cities.


FINDINGS: Comparative
Property Values Analysis
M Historic preservation helps to
maintain property values in Florida.
M In at least fifteen of the eighteen
cases studied, property in the his
toric district appreciated greater
than in the non-historic comparison
neighborhoods
M No instance was found where his
toric designation depressed property
values.

FLORIDA COMMUNITIES
In a desire to live near their
downtown offices or in communities
reminiscent of their grandparents'
homes, young professionals have
joined long-time local residents trying
to improve declining urban neighbor
hoods, and are creating a market
throughout Florida for homes located
in historic districts. As demand
increases, value of these properties
increases, according to city staff in a
sampling of Florida communities.

ORLANDO
The City of Orlando conducted
an informal analysis of sale prices in
two historic districts during the
1990's. They found a pattern of
increased sale price per square foot,
using information from neighbor
hood association newsletters and
from the local property appraiser.
Their analysis of selected properties
indicated that: (a) in the Lake
Lawsona historic district, which was
designated in 1994, the sale price per
square foot increased from $55.12 in




35741-UF Historic Report.qxd 8/15/03 3:22 PM Page 30


Tap a
1992 to $129.11 in 2001; and (b) in
the Lake Eola Heights historic dis
trict, which was designated in 1989,
the sale price per square foot
increased from $45.55 in 1990 to
$117.55 in 2002.4


TAMPA
In the past twenty-three years,
the Hyde Park Historic District of
Tampa transformed from a depressed
area with rooming houses and board
ing houses to a premier neighborhood
with homes now selling for $1 mil
lion.5 According to a Tampa real estate
consultant, Hyde Park is experiencing
a 10 percent appreciation per year and
houses can be sold in as quickly as a
matter of hours.6
Tampa Heights is being trans
formed through home ownership
investment and city investment in
infrastructure.' Throughout the dis
trict, neighborhood redevelopment is
apparent.

OCALA
The Ocala Historic District, cen
tered on Fort King Street, has been
brought back to life from a declined
neighborhood in the 1980s to a high
ly desirable residential area today.'The
district began with a group that want
ed to save the homes in the area, and
worked to achieve an ordinance
through the city.


WEST PALM BEACH
The combination of living in a
historic district, and proximity to a
booming historic downtown corri
dor along Clematis Street and a new
large-scale mixed-use development,
have contributed to increased prop
erty values during the past two or
three years in the West Palm Beach
districts of Grandview Heights and
Flamingo Park.9

LAKELAND
The City of Lakeland, which
encourages historic districts with
city-supported infrastructure such
as historic light fixtures, brick street
repair and tree replanting, has four
residential and one commercial his
toric districts. The oldest district is
South Lake Morton which has
emerged from divided houses used
as apartments fifteen years ago to
single family home ownership today.
City staff estimate that five years
ago a property in South Lake
Morton, where many properties are
bungalows, could be acquired for
rehabilitation for $45,000-$50,000.
Today, they estimate, it will cost
closer to $100,000.10

ST. AUGUSTINE
Lincolnville, the last remaining
historic neighborhood in St.
Augustine, which is undergoing


rehabilitation, has experienced an
increase in buying/selling in the
past five years. City staff estimate
that five years ago, a house in disre
pair could be purchased for
$10,000 and resold. The cost of
such a house in disrepair has
climbed to in excess of $65,000,
and today small vacant lots are sell
ing for that amount."

GAINESVILLE
Property values in two
Gainesville residential historic dis
tricts were evaluated over the period
1992-2001.12 The Northeast Historic
District has about 160 acres of
homes dating from 1875 through
the 1920's, including Epworth Hall,
part of the old East Florida
Seminary, which later became the
University of Florida. Listed on the
National Register since 1980, the
area saw much rehabilitation work
in the 1990's. The Northeast Historic
District was compared with the
Golfview neighborhood, a resident
tial area in southwest Gainesville
near the present UF campus. Over
the ten-year period from 1992-2001,
average single family residential
property values rose by more than
67% in the Northeast Historic
District, compared with 52.5%
for Golfview.
Pleasant Street Historic
District, Gainesville's oldest
African-American neighborhood,
was listed on the National Register
in 1989, and contains more than
270 homes built between 1870 and
the 1930's. This neighborhood was
compared with the mixed use area
immediately west known as the
Fifth Avenue neighborhood. Single
family property in Pleasant Street
increased by some 48% from 1992
2001, compared with 41% for the
Fifth Avenue neighborhood.
(See charts on following page.)


ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN FLORIDA




35741-UF Historic Report.qxd 8/15/03 3:22 PM Page 31


1 1 -.1 11- 1. 1 .
Per-.enatilg Change in Assessed Properly Value
19922001 aI lEv W.i


II II "


Tampa Single Family Residential
Assessed Values













Ij


92-97


1. 1. I I.. II- .. I -11 1. 1 i 11. III.
: Change in Assessed Properly Value 1992.2001
*s.sC- ->

..., ar. I
t : a.1.. A i Flo,.

..... ..... e ...... ,. e Z h










the Bureau of Hist. Preservation).
2. For more Information on affects of historic preservation on property values in other states, see, e.g., JONI
LEITHE & PATRICIA TIGUE, PROFITING FROM THE PAST: THE ECON. IMPACT OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN GEORGIA
8-9 (1999); CENTER FOR URBAN POLICY RESEARCH RUTGERS UNIV., PARTNERS IN PROSPERITY: THE ECON. BENEFITS OF
HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN NEW JERSEY 16-18 (1998); DONOVAN D. RYPKEMA, THE VALUE OF HISTORIC
PRESERVATION IN MARYLAND 3-4 (1999).
3. For comparison, Florida had more than 9.6 million parcels statewide with a value of $1 trillion in 2000.
General Information on Florida property valuation is available from the Florida Department of Revenue,
at http://sun6.dms.state.fl.us/dor/property/.
4. Interview with Jod Rubin Historic Preservation Officer, Planning & Development Dept., City of Orlando
(April 10, 2002).
5. Interview with Del Acosta, Administrator Historic Preservation, City of Tampa (Feb. 20, 2002).
6. Interview with John Jones real estate consultant, Tampa, Florida (Feb. 20, 2002).
7. Interview with Linda Saul-Sena, City Council, City of Tampa (Feb. 20, 2002).
8. Interview with Holly Lang and David K. Herllhy, Planning Dept., City of Ocala (Feb.15, 2002).
9. Interview with Emily Stillngs, Senior Historic Preservation Planner, West Palm Beach (Feb. 4, 2002).
10. Interviews with Randy Mathews, Community Development Dept. Planner; Ken Hancock, Community
Development Intern; and David Pipkin, Realtor, Picard & Picard Realtors, Lakeland (Feb. 5, 2002).
11. Interview with David D. Birchim, Senior Planner, City of St. Augustine (Mar. 29, 2002).
12. For further information about Gainesville historic districts, see Ben Pickard, Historic Alachua County and
Old Gainesville: A TOUR GUIDE TO THE PAST 10-61 (2001); Morton D. Winsberg, FLORIDA'S HISTORY
THROUGH ITS PLACES 2-4 (Gainesville, Univ. Press of Fla., 1995).


ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN FLORIDA


97-01


92-01


Hyde Park Historic District
Davis Island








Gainesville Single Family
Residential Assessed Values


92-97 97-01 92-01


SPleasant Street Historic District
NE Historic District
S5th Avenue
] Golfiew





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Fort Pierce


ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN FLORIDA




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Aeknowledgements

b


Federal Disclaimer
This project (or publication) has
been financed in part with historic
preservation grant assistance
provided by the National Park
Service, U.S. Department of the
Interior, administered through the
Bureau of Historic Preservation,
Division of Historical Resources,
Florida Department of State, assist
ed by the Florida Historical
Commission. However, the
contents and opinions do not nec
essarily reflect the views and opin
ions of the Department of the
Interior or the Florida Department
of State, nor does the mention
of trade names or commercial
products constitute endorsement
or recommendation by the
Department of the Interior or the
Florida Department of State. This
program receives Federal financial
assistance for identification and
protection of historic properties.
Under Title VI of the Civil Rights
Act of 1964, Section 504 of the
Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and the
Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as
amended, the U.S. Department of
the Interior prohibits discrimina
tion on the basis of race, color,
national origin, disability, or age in
its federally assisted programs. If
you believe you have been discrim
inated against in any program,
activity, or facility as described
above, or if you desire further
information, please write to: Office
of Equal Opportunity, National
Park Service, 1849 C Street, NW,
Washington, DC 20240.

Research for the report was
conducted by:
At the Center for Governmental
Responsibility, University of
Florida Levin College of Law:
Timothy E. McLendon and JoAnn
Klein of the Center for Governmental
Responsibility, Levin College of Law
University of Florida, with assistance
from Stephanie Mickle, Coordinator;
Kelly Samek & Michael Moyer, Legal
Research Assistants; Laura Coates,
Office Manager; Lenny Kennedy,
Senior Secretary; Barbara Seiger,
Secretary; Linda Baldwin,


Coordinator; Alexandra Amador,
Justin Barbour, and Jenny
VanDerVliet, Student Assistants

At the Center for Urban Policy
Research, Rutgers State
University: David Listokin and
Michael Lahr of the Center for Urban
Policy Research, Rutgers State
University, with assistance from
Sachiyo Takata, Leena Basynet,
Uzoma Anukwe, and Shannon
Darroch.

Heather Mitchell, Executive Director,
and Caroline Tharpe, Membership &
Events Coordinator, Florida Trust for
Historic Preservation, Inc.

Paul Zwick, Professor and Chair,
Department of Urban and Regional
Planning, and Director, Geo-Facilities
Planning and Information Research
Center (GeoPlan), College of Design,
Construction and Planning,
University of Florida

Stanley Latimer, Research Scientist,
Geoplan, Department of Urban and
Regional Planning, College of Design,
Construction and Planning,
University of Florida

James C. Nicholas, Professor of
Urban and Regional Planning,
College of Design, Construction and
Planning, and Affiliate Professor of
Law, Levin College of Law, University
of Florida

Julian C. Juergensmeyer, Ben E
Johnson Chair in Law College of
Law, Georgia State University and
Emeritus Professor, Levin College of
Law, University of Florida

All photos are courtesy of: JoAnn
Klein; Timothy E. McLendon; Florida
Trust for Historic Preservation, Inc.;
Bureau of Historic Preservation,
Division of Historical Resources,
Florida Department of State; Florida
Main Street; Key West Historical
Society; and Michael Zimny.

Project staff thank the many state and
local government officials, business
owners, and community leaders who
provided assistance and research for
this report, including:


Florida Department of State
Division of Historical Resources
Janet Snyder Matthews
Director and State Historic
Preservation Officer

Florida Department of State
Office of General Counsel
Gerard T. York
Assistant General Counsel

Florida Department of State
Bureau of Historic Preservation
Frederick P Gaske
Chief Deputy and State Historic
Preservation Officer
Laura Lee Corbett
David Ferro
Walter S. Marder
Barbara Mattick
Mary Rowley
Thadra Stanton
Robert C. Taylor

Florida Department of State
Bureau of Historical Museums
Diane Alfred
Lea Ellen Thornton

Florida Association of Museums
Malinda Horton

Florida Park Service,
Florida Department of
Environmental Protection
Carlene Barrett

Visit Florida
Cliff Nilson
Clarissa Otoro
Robin Phillips
Vicky Verhine

University of Florida
Levin College of Law
E.L. Roy Hunt
Professor Emeritus

University of Florida, Bureau of
Economic and Business Research
Chris McCarty

Center for Tourism Research and
Development, Department of
Recreation, Parks and Tourism,
University of Florida
John Confer
Steve Holland
Lori Pennington-Gray
Brijesh Thapa


ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN FLORIDA


Dci- Idai


P !L r


ii... ii................... ......... ............................... ii




35741-UF Historic Report.qxd 8/15/03 3:23 PM Page 34


Alachua County
Ed Crapo
Property Appraiser

City of Auburndale
Cindy Hummel
Doug Taylor

City of Coral Gables
Donna Lubin

DeLand Main Street
Taver Cornett

City of Delray Beach, formerly State
Division of Historical Resources,
Bureau of Historic Preservation
Wendy Shay

Formerly of City of Delray Beach
Ellen Uguccioni

Fernandina Beach
David Caples
Innkeeper

City of Gainesville
Maki Brown
Dee Hendricks
Douglas R. Murdock

Highlands County
Helen McKinney
Duane Neiderman

Hillsborough County
Marilyn Hett

Homestead Main Street
Dale Cunningham


City of Jacksonville
Carole A. Burchette
Joel MacEachin
James Reed
James Schock
Lisa Sheppard

Town of Jupiter
Cindy Gartman

City of Key West
Carolyn Walker

City of Kissimmee
Amy Carbajal
Gail Hamilton

City of Lakeland
Ken Hancock
Randy Mathews
Connie Rossman

David Pipkin
Realtor

City of Lake Worth
Ron Gaff
Frederike H. Mittner

Loretta Sharp
Realtor

City of Miami Beach
Thomas R. Mooney

Town of Micanopy
Karen Strobles

City of Mount Dora
Gus Gianikas
Sherry McKittrick


Mount Dora Area
Chamber of Commerce
Craig Willis

City of Ocala
David K. Herlihy
Holly Lang

City of Orlando
Jodi M. Rubin

City of Pensacola
Mary Ann Peterson
Carla Schneider

City of Saint Augustine
David D. Birchim
Mark Knight

City of Saint Petersburg
Rick Smith

Karl J. Nurse
Businessman

Jeffery M. Wolf
Developer

Sarasota County
Richard Hurter

Sarasota County
Historical Commission
Lorrie Muldowney

City of Tallahassee
Laura Williams

Tallahassee Trust for
Historic Preservation
Beth LaCivita
Alyssa McManus

City of Tampa
Del Acosta
Nick D'Andrea

Linda Saul-Sena
Tampa City Council Member

John Jones
Real Estate Consultant

City of West Palm Beach
Richard Jones
Nestor Novaro
Sherry Piland
Emily Stallings

Town of Windermere
Sherry Music

Ybor City
Development Corporation
Maricela Medrano de Fakhri


ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN FLORIDA




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+^




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