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 Main
 Introduction
 Survey methodology
 Physical description of the survey...
 Historical analysis and statement...
 Architectural analysis
 Evolution of the campus plan
 Summary and conclusions
 List of Florida master site files...
 Bibliography
 Endnotes






Title: Survey report 2004 : University of Florida : 1940-1956 : World War II and the post-war historic campus
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Title: Survey report 2004 : University of Florida : 1940-1956 : World War II and the post-war historic campus
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Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
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Table of Contents
    Main
        Page 1
    Introduction
        Page 2
    Survey methodology
        Page 3
    Physical description of the survey area
        Page 4
    Historical analysis and statement of significance
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Architectural analysis
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Evolution of the campus plan
        Page 12
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 13
        Page 14
    List of Florida master site files added by this survey
        Page 15
    Bibliography
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Endnotes
        Page 19
Full Text








SURVEY REPORT 2004
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1940-1956: WORLD WAR II AND THE POST-WAR HISTORIC CAMPUS
Professor Susan Tate, AIA



CONTENTS

I. INTRODUCTION
STUDY OBJECTIVES
SCOPE AND CRITERIA OF THE SURVEY AREA
CRITERIA OF THE NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES
STATE HISTORIC PRESERVATION OFFICE (SHPO)
PURPOSE AND RESULTS OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION

II. SURVEY METHOLOGY

III. PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE SURVEY AREA

IV. HISTORICAL ANALYSIS AND STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE

V. ARCHITECTURAL ANALYSIS

VI. EVOLUTION OF THE CAMPUS PLAN

VII. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

VIII. LIST OF FLORIDA MASTER SITE FILES ADDED BY THIS SURVEY

BIBLIOGRAPHY
















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SURVEY REPORT 2004
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1940-1956: WORLD WAR II AND THE POST-WAR HISTORIC CAMPUS



I. INTRODUCTION

STUDY OBJECTIVES
In 2003, the University of Florida was awarded a Historical Resources Grant-in Aid from
the Florida Division of Historical Resources, and matched by the University of Florida, to
develop a preservation plan for the University and to survey the buildings that have
reached the 50 year benchmark since the listing of the Campus Historic District on the
National Register of Historic Places.

Following the survey, the grant team would analyze the buildings and sites in terms of
architectural and historical significance. The goal would be to identify buildings of such
significance as to support their designation. While the preliminary analysis projected
development of a Multiple Resource District, consideration would be given to a second
district nomination, an expansion of the 1989 National Register District, or proposal of a
National Landmark District based on architectural significance.

SCOPE AND CRITERIA OF THE SURVEY AREA
The historic sites survey, which may be either thematic or geographic in scope, is a
systematic and detailed recording of historic and architectural resources. The survey
scope of the University of Florida is defined to be "thematic," and defined to include the
significant development of the Post-World War II decade.

The survey area is contiguous and immediately south of the existing National Register
District. The period of significance is 1940-1954, the period of World War II and the
early Post-War period of major growth on the University of Florida campus.

CRITERIA OF THE NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES
Criteria of the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, U.S.
Department of the Interior:
A. a property which is associated with events which have made a significant contribution
to the broad patterns of history; or
B. a property associated with the lives of persons significant in the past; or
C. a property which is significant in that it embodies the distinctive characteristics of a
type, period, or method of construction, ... or an entity whose components may lack
individual distinction, such as a district; or
D. a property which yields, or may be likely to yield information important to prehistory
or history.



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STATE HISTORIC PRESERVATION OFFICE (SHPO)
Florida Division of Historical Resources, Florida Department of State

In addition to management of Florida nominations to the National Register of Historic
Places, the Division maintains the Florida Master Site File. The National Historic
Preservation Act of 1966, Public Law 89-665 charged each state to survey its historic
resources and maintain an inventory. Listing on the Master Site File does not infer
significance and does not afford protection or other benefits; rather, this inventory serves
as a data bank for preservation planning within the state. Historic resources are defined
by Chapter 267 of the Florida Statutes.

PURPOSE AND RESULTS OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION
Preservation of significant elements of the built environment opens a visual book of
history, as well as affording a quality and complexity of context. Historic preservation
does not seek to impede growth or change, but to depict the continuum of the human
experience. Preservation is a grass roots or local effort that is a pipeline for global
communication and understanding.

National Register or Landmark listing of properties provides recognition and
opportunities for funding and protection from federal projects, but does prevent
intervention by private owners. Public opinion and pride of communities provide the
most effective interaction with historic properties.

II. SURVEY METHODOLOGY
The Period of Significance is defined as the World War II and Early Post-War Period or
1940-1956. This corresponds to the major influence of Guy Chandler Fulton and
University Architect to the State Board of Control and to the greatest period of physical
growth of the University of Florida.

The first phase of the survey was historical research in the University Archives Library,
the Architecture and Fine Arts Library, the Map and Imaging Library, and the Physical
Plant Division and Housing Division collections of original architectural drawings and
specifications.

The Field Work began with a windshield/walking survey of the parts of the campus
developed during the Post-World War II period. Photography was conducted and
information was collected for Master Site File Forms. There were no previous recordings
of properties in the survey area.

Buildings within the Period of Significance were analyzed according to historical and
architectural contexts. Criteria of the National Register of Historic Places and the
Secretary of the Interior's Standards were applied. Buildings of significance were further
researched in the archives identified during the first phase. Architectural significance
was based primarily on the application of architectural creativity, expression of ideals of
the period of construction, appropriateness to site and climate, quality of design and
construction, and compatibility with the historic campus.

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This survey was focused on evaluation of historical structures rather than archaeological
resources. The University of Florida has identified archeological sites and zones of
sensitivity as mapped in the September 2003 Programmatic Memorandum of Agreement.
According to this Agreement, the University shall seek to preserve any significant
archeological resources, but when this is not possible, shall undertake appropriate
archeological salvage excavation prior to authorizing the initiation of construction or
other ground disturbing activities. All such salvage excavation work shall be directed by
a qualified professional archeologist and shall comply with DHR's archaeological
excavation and reporting standards. The University shall develop a program of
archaeological monitoring for ground disturbing activities in previously unsurveyed
portions of Type II Zones. If, in the judgment of the monitoring archeologist, potentially
significant archaeological material is encountered, all ground disturbing activities in the
immediate area (within a 10 ft. radius) of the find shall cease until the significance of the
find has been evaluated. If the material is found to be significant: (i) construction shall
be modified to preserve significant archeological resources in place, or (ii) if the
preservation is not feasible and prudent, associated construction shall cease and the
University, in consultation with DHR, shall develop and implement an archaeological
data recovery plan. Any archeological material encountered that includes human remains
shall be managed consistent with Title XLVI, Chapter 872.05, Florida Statutes. The
University of Florida Design and Construction Standards, Section 02200, 1.2 (D), place
the responsibility on the Architecture/Engineering firm to ensure that construction
documents address the possibility of encountering archaeologically significant items and
instruct the Constructor in the appropriate procedure to follow should the need arise. The
Standards, further instruct that all work shall be stopped and the University project
manager contacted when archaeologically sensitive items are encountered during
construction work.

III. PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE SURVEY AREA

The survey area is immediately south of the University of Florida Campus Historic
District. At that border, the terrain begins to descend slightly, descending distinctly
beyond the south border of the survey area at Museum Road. The medical complex
beyond this border lies partly on one of the many of Florida's sink holes.

The survey area is bounded to the east by US 441 (SW 13th Street or Dr. Martin Luther
King, Jr. Boulevard. The south border includes both sides of Museum Road. The west
border includes both sides of North-South Drive proceeding west of Florida Field to
encompass the President's Home on West University Avenue. This area of the campus
was the site of the Post-World War II construction to provide urgently needed student and
administrative services, dormitories for men and for women in the newly coeducational
institution, and classroom buildings.

The University of Florida is located within the City of Gainesville in Alachua County.
The local population in 2003 was 117,182 for the city and 221,221 for the county. The
University population is approximately 70,000 students, faculty, and support personnel
occupying over 900 buildings and 2,000 acres of land. The climate is humid and

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subtropical; the soil conditions are impacted by veins of clay up to approximately 100
feet above sea level.

In order to attract the University to Gainesville in 1905, the city offered 500 acres of open
pine scrub land west of the city center and free water. The larger impact area today is
defined approximately by University Avenue to the north, SW 13th Street/Dr. Martin
Luther King, Jr. Boulevard (US 441) to the east, Archer Road to the south, and SW 34
Street (CR 222) to the west. When the first construction began in the northeast sector of
this area, much of the property was used as farm as a part of the land grant institution
commitment to agriculture.

IV. HISTORICAL ANALYSIS AND STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE

The University of Florida World War II and Post-War Campus (1940-1956) under
National Register Criterion A (associated with events which have made a significant
contribution to the broad patterns of history) is significant as a visual record of the new
attitudes of national and international post-war society and of the emerging diversity of
the public university. Further, the campus reflects the development of the Preservation
Movement in the United States and exemplifies unique efforts to insure preservation of
the character defining features of the campus.

The campus architecture of this period is significant under National Register Criterion C
(embodies the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction).
The important buildings of this period are noteworthy for achieving compatibility while
also reflecting new architectural and social directions. The cohesiveness and compatible
evolution of the architectural context of the University of Florida stands as a unique
example among large public institutions.

The 1989 National Register nomination states, "The harmonious unity of design of the
campus plan has fulfilled the original intent to create a scholarly atmosphere and a sense
of permanence," It is remarkable that this statement has remained appropriate through
financial constraints, rampant growth, urban renewal, and the constant pressure for
facilities to provide the leading edge in university education.

The University of Florida belongs to a tradition of great universities. It is one of the
nation's largest public, land-grant research institutions and one of the most
comprehensive universities in the United States, encompassing virtually all recognized
academic and professional disciplines. In dramatic contrast to its opening in 1906 with
two unfinished buildings and 102 students, the University of Florida entered the 21st
century with a population of almost 70,000 students, faculty, and support personnel
occupying over 900 buildings and 2,000 acres of land. Tracing its roots to a parent
institution founded in 1853, the University of Florida marks 2003 as its sesquicentennial
and 2006 as the Centennial of the Historic Campus.

The University of Florida Historic Campus belongs not only to its own population and
alumni, but to the universal heritage of institutions of higher learning. The first one

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hundred entering students in 1906 presented a dramatic contrast to entering students
today. The male Caucasians in military uniform have been replaced by a global
representation of students from diverse backgrounds, abilities, and developing
viewpoints. Yet all who matriculate or pass through these halls as visitors may see the
campus as a part of the visible record of human achievement in our built environment. It
is a record that recognizes our cultural and regional differences but celebrates our
common values and human needs that make us more alike than different. The University
of Florida, in preserving its historic campus and planning for its future, opens a door of
communication from the local to the global level.

After World War II, the University of Florida witnessed unprecedented growth as
veterans flooded the campus supported by the G.I. Bill and as the all male institution
became coeducational in 1947. Student enrollment that had dropped to 600 men during
the war exploded to 10,000 in 1948. Guy Chandler Fulton, Architect to the University
and the State Board of Control 1944-1956, directed this period of dramatic development.

The monumental building program of the University of Florida campus would reflect the
economic, sociological, and architectural changes that were emerging across the nation
and the world. Remarkably, Fulton inaugurated an era of campus architecture that was
compatible yet transitional to the new modern ideals. The foundation was established for
the cohesiveness that characterizes the campus today. Nevertheless, the next decades
would present challenges that would require strong activism to preserve the campus
integrity.

The decade following the post war boom would be marked across the nation by rampant
urban renewal and condemnation of old buildings as blighted rather than historic. This
was reflected at the University of Florida where the four original buildings of the
quadrangle at the core of the university were scheduled to be replaced by mega-
structures. By 1966, the National Historic Preservation Act was in place. Concerned
university faculty engineered the listing of eleven individual campus buildings on the
National Register. Nevertheless, the four buildings remained on the university
demolition list, protected only by the economic recession of the early 1970s.

During this decade, the University of Florida became one of the first in the nation to offer
graduate studies in architectural preservation. As preservation awareness grew, the
University created a Committee for the Preservation of Historic Buildings and Sites. The
administration then agreed to remove the four quadrangle buildings from the list for
eminent demolition and they remained intact but in disuse. In 1989, the National
Register listed the Campus Historic District and the State Historic Preservation Office
negotiated a Memorandum of Agreement with the University, based on agreements with
federal agencies implemented under Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation
Act of 1966 to provide guidance and a means for resolving disputes. During the 1980s
and 1990s major donations matched by the State of Florida provided for the restoration
and rehabilitation of the formerly doomed quadrangle buildings. In 2003, support was
secured to develop a Preservation Plan to protect the campus heritage for future
generations.

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The University Record of 1906 had predicted, "It may take a hundred years for the
completion of these plans, but as the State grows..., the University will finally grow into
a splendid and harmonious whole...." It is through this "harmonious whole" that the
University of Florida campus stands significant among large public universities.

V. ARCHITECTURAL ANALYSIS

The 1989 National Register nomination summarizes the architectural character of the
early campus. "The historic campus of the University of Florida, established in 1905,
comprises an important collection of Collegiate Gothic academic buildings and
dormitories. The contributing buildings are of red brick embellished with cast stone of
fine workmanship, two-and-a-half and three-and-a-half stories high with steeply pitched
red clay tile roofs. The original site of undeveloped land with scattered pine trees has
evolved into a heavily landscaped campus with a variety of mature trees, mostly
indigenous to the area.... The harmony and dignity of the 19 Collegiate Gothic buildings
built between 1906 and 1939 blend well with the 12 newer red brick buildings within the
historic district, located in the extreme northeast corner of the main campus of the state's
largest University....

The workmanship is of high quality; particularly of the stone trim of water tables,
window and door surrounds, gable ends, and quoins. Superior craftsmanship is shown in
intricate gothic tracery, gargoyles and medallions, fan-vaulted ceilings in archways, bay
and oriole windows, and the laying of the English cross bond brickwork. What appears to
be cut stone is in reality a compound of Portland cement and crushed stone cast in molds
with the surface then carefully hand tooled and textured to simulate cut stone.1
Noncontributing buildings constructed after 1940 are also of red brick with concrete trim,
and they often have modern variations of Collegiate Gothic styling; thus continuing the
traditional fabric and creating an architectural dialogue between past and present."

When Gainesville succeeded in its campaign to become the home of the new University
of Florida, the Board of Control for the state universities selected the architect from two
semi-finalists. Henry John Klutho, acclaimed for his work in Jacksonville after the 1901
fire, submitted a Beaux Arts campus plan. William Augustus Edwards presented a
Collegiate Gothic image for the new University of Florida. The young state of Florida
was seeking an architectural image for its flagship university that would compare
favorably with respected institutions; the Edwards proposal fulfilled that association.

Following the selection of the architect, the Board ordered that comparative bids for the
first university buildings; the lowest bid was more than the Board had money to invest.
Architect Edwards was instructed to cut down the size of the buildings or to make other
changes that would not affect "the usefulness or the architectural features of the buildings
but that might reduce the cost of construction." New bids were submitted and, after the
contract was awarded, the Board authorized an additional sum for Ludiwici tile in order
"that the roof be built in accordance with original specifications." The red tile was not
only appropriate to the climate, but also would become one of the cohesive links of the

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campus image. During his tenure as University Architect, Edwards would design
principal buildings of the early campus, as well as central campus buildings of FSU and
FAMU in Tallahassee and the Florida School for the Deaf in St. Augustine.

In 1925 the University named Rudolph Weaver head of the new School of Architecture
and the second University Architect. Weaver's understanding of the importance of the
continuity of the campus image may be seen in his inscription on the back of a
photograph of his addition to the Library, "This indicates my effort to carry out and
maintain the character of another architect's work." Also in 1925, Frederick Law
Olmstead, Jr. prepared a landscape plan for the Plaza of the Americas and surrounding
buildings that would link the widely spaced campus with indigenous vegetation.
Construction was constrained by the collapse of the Florida Boom and the market crash
of 1929, but funding through government programs promoted an increase in
craftsmanship and art in architecture. Then war loomed across the globe and construction
ground to a halt.

World War II and the Post-War Campus

The significant buildings that arose during this period clearly reflect the expanding
organism of a rapidly growing campus, as well as the larger patterns of a nation and a
world ready for new directions. Notably, the campus also acknowledged its inheritance.
The buildings of this period exhibit larger massing and angular relationships of building
to site. These buildings are the product of new architectural directions, rapid and
economical construction, research in campus design, and sensitivity to climatic
conditions.

The resulting campus is a monument to Guy Chandler Fulton, University Architect for
the State Board of Control from 1944-1956, who set and maintained architectural
standards. Working with him were Jeffrey Hamilton, University Consulting Architect,
and architects selected to work on the campus, notably Russell T. Pancoast and
Associates of Miami and Kemp, Bunch and Jackson Architects of Jacksonville. Further,
the influence of University Architect Rudolph Weaver, with whom Fulton worked before
Weaver's death is reflected in the standards set by Fulton during his tenure. Completion
of his projects included Weil Engineering and Industries Building and the new
Gymnasium, both at the edge of the athletic fields of the campus.

The Later Weaver Period
Completed in 1949 (the first phase in 1947), Weil Hall has served as the University's
main Engineering and Industries Building. Since Weil is located just across Stadium
road, early engineering students could get a great view of Gator football games right from
their classroom windows. Weil Hall continues the Collegiate Gothic campus features of
red brick laid in English cross bond, clay tile gable roof with intersecting gables, and cast
trim details in the increased scale of the mid-century campus buildings. The strong east-
west axis, emphasized by water table and parapet coping, is punctuated with projecting
bays and cast quoin corners. The hallways are wide and in the administration area,
located in the east end, tile wainscot has been placed from the floor up the wall to

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approximately 48 inches, creating a datum, broken by doors. The building name is
incised in the arched limestone entrance.

After completion of the Florida Gymnasium or "Alligator Alley" in 1949, the historic
Gymnasium became the Women's Gym to house women's athletic programs for the
newly coeducational university. Athletic and military drill fields were considered from
the earliest plan for the land grant university. The original athletic field was Fleming
Field, just north of the present stadium. The Florida Pool was completed in 1929 and
construction began on Florida Field. The stadium was built into a natural bowl and the
upper seats were at ground level. The track field, Percy Beard Field, was on the south
end of the stadium. Florida Gym was located directly east of Florida Field. The
simplified Collegiate Gothic facade was the gateway for sports events, rock concerts, and
graduations until completion of the O'Connell Center "O'Dome." The Florida
Gymnasium and Florida Pool are within the National Register District.

When the Dairy Science Building (Building 120) was designed by Rudolph Weaver in
1937, it was distanced from its contemporaries of Dauer, Leigh, and the Infirmary by
green and planted space. The small Collegiate Gothic structure housed classrooms,
laboratories, offices and a cold storage room. Most research that took place there was
dedicated to the surplus of milk produced in Florida during that time. Today, the
building houses laboratories, classrooms and offices for the computing division of IFAS.
The exterior retains some of its Collegiate Gothic features, although some of the original
stone detail of the entry pavilion has been removed. This building is within the National
Register District.

After World War II, the University of Florida witnessed unprecedented growth as
veterans flooded the campus and as the all male institution became coeducational in
1947. Student enrollment that had dropped to 600 men during the war exploded to
10,000 in 1948 and the need for an Administration Building was urgent. Completed in
1951, Tigert Hall launched a new era in campus architecture that was both progressive
and compatible with its Collegiate Gothic context. An administrative tower and wings
had been a part of the original design of the University Auditorium, but financial
constraints set that project aside. As early as 1938, WPA funds were designated for an
administration building as a make work project.2 The first design by Rudolph Weaver
exceeded the budget and World War II halted the project.

The project resumed in 1946 when Guy Fulton redesigned the project, on which he had
worked with Weaver. The Jacksonville firm of Kemp, Bunch, and Jackson was selected
to complete the project in association with Fulton and his assistant Jeffrey M. Hamilton.
The reinterpreted Collegiate Gothic integrated traditional brick and tile with simplified
cast trim in the comparatively massive reinforced concrete structure. The University Seal
in the bold grid tower entrance and the plaques representing the University's colleges
identify Tigert Hall as the seat of the University Administration. Planned under the
administration of University President John Tigert, the building commemorates him it its
name. Tigert Hall is within the National Register district.


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Tracing its roots to a parent institution founded in 1853, the University of Florida marked
its centennial in 1953 by dedicating the Century Tower to alumni lost in World Wars I
and II. From the Tower, the sound of the quarter hour tolls and the music of the 61
bronze bell carillons project across the campus. The tower of 11 stories with 3 entrances
provides access to the tower for music students and concert performers. The top of the
tower is ornamented with cast details linking arches and corer spires. Tigert Hall and
the Century Tower completed a goal of the first University Architect William Edwards to
provide a landmark tower and an administration building, originally planned as a part of
the University Auditorium. The Century Tower is within the National Register district.

Due to the GI bill, soldiers returning from World War II were attending the University in
record numbers and bringing their wives and children. The three Flavet villages were
little more than a collection of wartime barracks moved to campus to house the vast
number of new students and their families, but their impact as a community helped to
shape the diverse student body of the University today. Recycled barracks also filled the
void of space for academic programs; some of the "temporary" buildings that dotted the
campus persisted for nearly four decades. While these are no longer a part of the campus,
they remain an important element in University of Florida history and are marked in
memory by Flavet Field.

The first permanent women dormitories were completed in 1950 to accommodate the
newly coeducational university. The dorms were named for Angela Mallory, Nancy Y.
Yulee, and Mary Margaret Reid, wives of notable government figures of Florida. The
Board of Control in 1947 had assigned the Assistant Business Manager to tour
progressive university and develop recommendations for the dormitories. Female
students attending the University at that time could enjoy the amenities of Mallory,
Yulee, and Reid Halls, which included sewing rooms and hairdressing rooms and
separate dining facilities from the men on campus. The three units were combined to
allow common facilities such as kitchen and offices. In order to save time and money, C
and R Construction used tilt-up poured concrete walls.

Beyond the early campus, the brick walls and clay tile hip roofs establish continuity,
while providing features suitable to the Florida climate and the latest standards of
university housing. Concrete overhangs above the windows serve as permanent awnings.
A wide fascia below the eaves and modified classical west portico deliver a prelude to
post-modern detailing. The dormitories of this period were the design of Guy Fulton. He
worked to maintain quality in the face of time pressures, and compatibility with the
campus through detailed specification of the brick and roofing tile "to match the roofs of
existing buildings." 3

Across a green, Broward Hall opened in 1954 to house the rapidly increasing numbers of
women students. Broward Hall was named for Annie Douglass Broward, wife of
governor Napoleon Bonaparte Broward. This complex reflects the angular footprint,
breezeways, and corrugated glass block stairwell of the first women's dormitories. The
detail language of this building, however, is more restrained.


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The women's dormitories were sited a studied distance from the men's dormitories; this
did not deter a 1952 panty raid that caught national attention. Tolbert Hall, along with
Riker, North, and Weaver Halls, form the Tolbert Area men's dormitories. Tolbert
features an outdoor, concrete, spiral staircase with steel railing that leads from the main
entry porch to the second floor. The entries employ the use of a modified portico with
the building name above the glazed entry door, similar to the early women's dormitories.

The HUB Student Services Center was designed by the Russell T. Pancoast and
Associates of Miami and dedicated on November 3, 1950. The project architect was
Andrew Ferendino (later a principal of the important firm of Spillis and Candela).
Jefferson M. Hamilton was consulting architect for the University with Guy C. Fulton as
Architect for the State Board of Control. The Student Services Center was renamed the
Hub by students after a campus-wide contest on the occasion of its opening.

The Hub, built in 1949-50, reflects the influence of international modern architecture
significant to the post-World War II era. This new building at the outer edge of the
historic center made a gesture to the future while remaining in harmony with the scale
and materials of the campus, as directed by University Architect Guy Fulton. The
horizontality of the generous fenestration emphasizes the architectural form and connects
the interior to the campus. A sweeping curved covered walkway links the geometric
composition of central block, rectangular ell, and circular east end. The grand scale of
the original interior spaces, views, and the visual relation of interior to exterior are
significant features. Inside the main lobby entrance, the original pink marble stairs form a
focal point. At the head of the main lobby stair is the original ballroom with its wood
dance floor. To the left of the main lobby, is the circular space of the former post office.
To the right, the curving geometry theme is reflected in ceiling molding and unique
terrazzo floor details in the former dining space and the corrugated glass feature of the
bookstore. Expansive windows and an upstairs deck relate to the green leading to the
Reitz Union beyond.

Matherly Hall housed the College of Business Administration when it opened in 1953.
The building was named for Walter Jeffries Matherly, the dean of business administration
from 1926-1954. The structure is representative of the post-World War II modified
collegiate gothic with clay tile gabled roof, brick veneer, and crenulated parapet with cast
concrete details. The expansive window fenestration and linear cast concrete detail
surrounding the windows express the new direction of more massive campus buildings.
Matherly Hall is within the National Register district.

Limited funds in the early years of the University, the collapse of the Florida Boom, and
the Great Depression had thwarted an official President's Home. Ironically, it was a
budget surplus from the World War II barracks recycled as Flavet housing that funded
construction of the "Official Residence and Reception Center." Local materials included
the heart cypress used for the columns of the neoclassical portico. Under the supervision
of University Architect Guy Fulton and Jeffrey Hamilton, the house was completed in
March of 1953. One week later, President and Mrs. Hillis Miller had hosted more than
2,000 guests for the university's centennial celebration.

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Carlton Auditorium was designed by Guy Fulton in 1954 to accommodate the fast
growing student population. It is named for William G. Carleton, a respected history
professor from 1926-1962. The auditorium is located just south of Walker Hall and
shares a breezeway with the 1927 building. Carleton reflects the international modem
influences of the period, but the use of brick and concrete details, along with the low
profile of its siting, allow it to remain in harmony with the surroundings. The continuous
breezeway opens to a large auditorium that provides lecture space for a wide variety of
University courses. Carlton Auditorium is within the National Register district.

McCarty Hall consists of a series of four structures designed for the College of
Agriculture in 1956 by University architect Guy Fulton. This building complex built
upon the foundation of the land-grant university in agricultural studies and services to the
state. These buildings served the dramatic growth of that tradition after the founding of
the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences in 1964. This complex has contributed to
numerous IFAS research projects, ranging from Gatorade to the "low-carb" potato. The
four red brick and concrete structures are connected by a series of exterior walkways on
the upper floors, reflective of the Fulton dormitories; however, instead of the cantilevered
concrete window eyebrows, shading is achieved by a series of rectangular concrete
panels suspended in front of the brick structure. The facility provides a wide variety of
interior spaces such as classrooms, labs, offices and lecture halls. The complex was
named for governor Dan McCarty who was a successful citrus grower in addition to his
political achievements.


VI. EVOLUTION OF THE CAMPUS PLAN

The first campus plan was submitted in 1905 by William Augustus Edwards, University
Architect to the Board of Control 1905-1925. The plan was dominated by two arc roads
and three zones with buildings sited at right angles. Principal academic buildings face a
main central green with an administration building in the middle of the area. A major
change in the 1920 plan was the removal of the administration building plan from the
center of the green and addition of formal geometries on the green. An auditorium and
administrative building were shown south of the green. During the Weaver era in the
1930s, the arcs began to be displaced by increasing density of building in the inner
campus and by the presence of automobiles.

The 1948 master plan by University Architect Guy Fulton reflected a number of
significant changes. In this plan, the main open space of the green, by then named the
Plaza of the Americas, was extended to the east and south. The University Auditorium
was the focal point at the intersection of the three open spaces. The new spatial
configuration suggested in the 1948 plan became the major feature of the 1957 plan. The
open space branched out even further and created a new open space corridor to the south.
Another significant difference is related to building orientations; most of the newer
buildings are not at right angles and a large number of the suggested buildings face the
new open space corridors.

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VII. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Survey the study area and evaluating the buildings revealed the following: 1. The period
produced buildings of high significance to the history of the University and to the broad
history of architecture for large public institutions; 2. The study decade produced twice as
many structures as the entire prior history of the campus; 3. The architectural and
historical significance of the buildings was concentrated in the early part of the decade; 4.
The period included fraternity and sorority houses, outside the survey area, that remain
partly in private ownership and a number of utilitarian agriculture structures; 5. Outside
the survey area are several significant buildings in the 1989 National Register District
that were not listed as contributory in the original nomination because they were not yet
50 years old. Because these are significant and eligible for designation and have now
reached the 50 year benchmark, they have been included in this survey.

The multiple properties of the World War II and Post-War Campus are noteworthy for
achieving compatibility while also reflecting new architectural and social directions. The
cohesiveness and compatible evolution of the architectural context of the University of
Florida stands as a unique example among large public institutions.

The compatibility of the buildings of the new era is evident in continuity in scale, height,
and materials. Architectural forms and detail draw inspiration from the campus, from the
geography and climate, as well as from the attitudes of the post-war period. New
relationships of building to site responded to demands of climate and new thinking about
campus facilities. New methods of construction were demanded to respond to the needs
of the exploding population of the university. The significant campus buildings of this
new era made a statement of their time while "honoring the past and shaping the future."

SUMMARY
RECOMMENDATIONS AND DEVELOPMENT

As the University of Florida updates its campus Comprehensive Master Plan in 2005, the
findings of this report shall be incorporated including recognition of the Post World-War
II buildings, compatible building design and placement, and reinforcement of open space
patterns that have evolved on the campus. New building locations within the registered
historic district and context area will be identified with sensitivity to the findings of this
report. Such sensitivity will include reinforcement of historical build-to lines along
roadways.

Building orientation to reinforce the historic right-angle grid patterns will be emphasized
along with orientations that frame the sweeping exterior spaces of the 1948 Plan and
subsequent campus plans. Views of historical features, such as the Dauer Hall stained
glass windows and restored entryway, will be preserved and showcased in recommended
refurbished streetscapes. Exterior landscape/streetscape projects will be suggested to
reinvigorate historic courtyards and open spaces expanding from the recently completed
Yardley Courtyards Phase I.


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Map studies depict current important views, vistas and pedestrian corridors that reflect
the open spaces first established in these historical campus plans. Context sensitive
architectural designs, modeled after the success of the recent Gerson Hall, will be
required. Character-defining features of campus historic architecture will be used to
develop campus design guidelines for new buildings and compatible materials. All new
development will be accommodated in such a way as to enhance, rather than detract from
significant buildings in the historic context area.

Attention to building density, height and bulk will be compatible with existing
architecture. New campus areas will be developed as concentrated activity hubs to house
larger buildings in new complexes that are incompatible with the registered historic
district and context area.

As a next step in the leading edge of campus preservation, this Plan sets forth
designations, not only of sites over 50 years old but also of examples of compatibility in
recent construction with the historic context. These designation categories are proposed
to include: Landmark; Architecturally and Historically Significant; Appropriate to
Visual Context, Including New Construction; Not Significant Architecturally or
Historically; Detrimental to Context, Including New Construction.

During 2004-2006, a grant from the Getty Campus Heritage Initiative will also enable
development of refined policies with regard to compatible design. The Getty Grant,
along with a joint project with the Florida Division of Natural Resources, will support
proposal of a computerized cyclical maintenance plan and documentation of best
practices for renovation/maintenance procedures.

The visual unity of the University of Florida campus is noteworthy among large public
universities. The campus buildings and campus plans have expressed national and
international developments of each era, while preserving compatibility and harmony.
This consistency is not only in individual buildings, but in visual linkages of built and
natural environment. The campus is significant also for its role in the application of
preservation in academic degree programs, in supervision of work on the campus, and in
the commitment of the administration and the state to preservation.

To coincide with the 100 year anniversary of the opening of the campus, the Preservation
Plan and Guidelines to be finalized in 2006 will build upon this document to feature the
following: an accessible web based format; coordination with the Campus Master Plan;
and integration of the goals of progress, sustainability, and historic preservation.










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VIII. LIST OF FLORIDA MASTER SITE FILES ADDED BY THIS SURVEY

Florida Gymnasium

Weil Hall Engineering Industries

Dairy Science

Tigert Hall Administration Building

The Hub Student Services Building

Century Tower

Matherly Hall College of Business Administration

Mallory, Yulee, Reid Women's Dormitory Area

Broward Hall Dormitory

Riker, Tolbert, North, Weaver Dormitory Area

Rawlings Dormitory

Carleton Auditorium

McCarty Area IFAS





















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BIBLIOGRAPHY


Arnett, William Tobias. "A Study of the Campus Planning Problems at the University of
Florida." M.A. thesis, University of Florida, 1932.

Barnett, Albert Edward. Andrew Sledd 1870-1939: His Life and His Work, 1956, Manuscript in
the University of Florida Archives Library.

Board of Control of the State of Florida University System. Minutes. University of Florida
Archives Library.

Broward, Robert C. The Architecture of Henry John Klutho : the Prairie School in
Jacksonville. Jacksonville: University of North Florida Press, 1983.

Bryan, John Morrill. An Architectural History of the South Carolina College, 1801-1855.
Columbia, S.C. : University of South Carolina Press, 1976.

Building Program of the University of Florida. Manuscript in the University of Florida
Archives Library.

Catinna, Anne. Years of Transition: Architecture on the University of Florida Campus, 1944-
56. Thesis, M.S. in Architectural Studies, University of Florida, 1993.

Dober, Richard P. Campus Architecture: Building in the Groves of Academe. New York
McGraw-Hill, 1996.

Edwards, William Augustus, Architect to the Board of Control of the State of Florida
1905-1925. Papers in the collection of the University of Florida Archives
Library; architectural drawing in the collection of the Physical Plant Division,
University of Florida.

Fulton, Guy Chandler (1892-1974), Architect to the Board of Control of the State of
Florida 1944-56. Papers in the collection of the University of Florida Archives
Library; architectural drawing in the collection of the Physical Plant Division,
University of Florida.

Gaines, Thomas A.The Campus as a Work of Art. New York: Praeger, 1991.

Gannon, Michael. Florida: A Short History. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1993.

Hildreth, Charles H. and Merlin G. Cox. History of Gainesville, Florida: 1854-1979.
Gainesville, FL: Alachua County Historical Society, 1979.

Johnson, Sid. "The First Fifty Years: Construction and Architecture at the University of
Florida." Unpublished manuscript, Architecture and Fine Arts Library, University
of Florida, 1984.

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Kerber, Stephen. "William Edwards and the Historic University of Florida Campus: A
Photographic Essay." Florida Historical Society 57: 327-336.

Klauder, Charles Z. and Herbert C. Wise. College Architecture in American and its Part in the
Development of the Campus. New York and London: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1929.

Laurie, Murray D. Guide to Florida State University and Tallahassee. Pineapple Press,
Sarasota, 1999.

Laurie, Murray D. and Kevin McCarthy. Guide to the University of Florida and Gainesville.
Sarasota: Pineapple Press, 1997.

Lyon, Elizabeth. Campus Heritage Preservation: Traditions, Prospects & Challenges.
Eugene, Oregon: University of Oregon School of Architecture & Allied Arts,
2003.

McCarthy, Kevin M. and Carl van Ness. Honoring the Past, Shaping the Future.
University of Florida Images for the Sesquecentennial. Gainesville, 2003.

McVoy, Arthur D. "The Building Program of the University of Florida." Manuscript in
the collection of the University of Florida Archives, 1947.

Miller, J. Hillis. Papers, 1947-1953. University of Florida Archives Library.

Olmsted Brothers, Inc. Landscape architecture plans in the collection of the Physical
Plant Division, University of Florida, 1927.

Proctor, Samuel and Wright Langley; foreword by Stephen C. O'Connell. Gator History : A
Pictorial History of the University of Florida. Gainesville: South Star Pub. Co., 1986.

Proctor, Samuel. "The University of Florida: Its Early Years." Ph.D. dissertation,
University of Florida, 1958.

Reeves, F. Blair. "Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on the Preservation of Significant
Buildings and On-Campus Sites." Manuscript in collection of University of
Florida Archives, 1977.

Sanborn Map Company. Gainesville maps, 1909, 1913, 1922, 1928.

Sellers, Robin Jeanne. Femina Perfecta: The Genesis of Florida State University.Tallahassee:
The Florida State University Foundation, nd.

Tigert, John James. Papers 1929-1947. University of Florida Archives Library.



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Thomas, George E. and David Bruce Brownlee. Building America's First University: An
Historical and Architectural Guide to the University of Pennsylvania. April 2000.

Turner, Paul Venable. Campus: An American Planning Tradition. New York : Architectural
History Foundation; Cambridge, Mass. :MIT Press, 1984.

Weaver, Rudolph. Papers in the collection of the University of Florida Archives Library;
architectural drawing in the collection of the Physical Plant Division, University
of Florida.

Wells, John E. and Robert E. Dalton. The South Carolina Architects 1885-1935: A
Biographical Dictionary. Richmond: New South Architectural Press, 1992.

Wills, Martee, and Joan Perry Morris. Seminole History. Jacksonville, FL: South Star
Publishing Co., 1987.

Withey, Henry F. Biographical Dictionary of American Architects (Deceased), William
Edwards 190-191 and William J. Sayward, 537-8

WWW Links

University of Florida Archives, Smathers Library East
http://web.uflib.ufl.edu/spec/archome/univarch.html
UF Architecture and Fine Arts Library
UF Builds: http://web.uflib.ufl.edu/ufarch/default.htm
(created by Architecture and Fine Arts Librarian Edward Teague in 1999 and updated by Librarian
Ann Liddell, this web page contains links to sites including a campus map, historic sites,
construction to 1999) Site includes:
Historic Sites Guide: http://web.uflib.ufl.edu/ufarch/historic.htm
UF Buildings and Sites: http://web.uflib.ufl.edu/ufarch/bldgdata.htm
(lists approximately 400 structures to 1999)
Gallery: http://web.uflib.ufl.edu/ufarch/gallery.htm
(photographs of nearly 250 buildings and links to campus map)
Timetable: http://web.uflib.ufl.edu/ufarch/historv.htm
(Lists 920 existing buildings in 1999 and link to Timeline of UF events)
Resources: http://web.uflib.ufl.edu/ufarch/resources.htm
(Includes links to bibliographies and web sites)
AFA preservation holdings: http://web.uflib.ufl.edu/afa/publications/presdox-index.html
(index of preservation resources in AFA library)

UF Preservation of Historic Buildings and Sites Committee:
Ihup i \ .facilities.ufl.edu/cp/hpp.htm
UF Interdisciplinary Graduate Concentration in Historic Preservation:
huilp \ \\ .dcp.ufl.edu/hp/index.php
2003 Sesquicentennial Site:
hilp "\ "\ .ufl.edu/150/
(includes UF Timeline and Sesquicentennial Events)





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ENDNOTES


2 President John James Tigert Building Files 1929-1947, Sub-series P7d, Box 1, University of Florida
Archives Library.
3 Guy Fulton Specifications for Mallory and Yulee, Physical Plant, University of Florida.
"The brick be laid in American bond with alternate headers and stretchers They are to be modular size sie
cut solid brick wit a full range of fire-flashed color and are to be cross-stacked in the kiln to vary color of
each brick....The roofing tile to contain fifteen distinct shades of natural burned colors to match the roofs
of existing buildings. The composition is to be 50% light tile from light buff to medium red, 50% dark tile
of which 30% should be of burned dark red and 20% greenish. No chocolate brown or light cream is to be
used."

















































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